Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3492 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (267 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (143 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1675 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (50 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (271 journals)
    - BOTANY (254 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (76 journals)
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    - MICROBIOLOGY (292 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (12 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (29 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (147 journals)

BIOLOGY (1675 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biosystems     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de Biología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Archives of Virology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.973
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-8798 - ISSN (Online) 0304-8608
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • The complete genome sequence of Escherichia phage SRT7, a novel T7-like
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we isolated a novel virulent Escherichia phage, SRT7. Its genome is a double-stranded linear DNA molecule containing 39,883 bp. Direct terminal repeats with a length of 175 bp, are present at both ends of the genome. The G+C content is 50.54%. Forty-seven putative protein coding genes were identified. No tRNA or rRNA genes were identified. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that phage SRT7 is a novel member of the T7-like phage cluster, but it forms a singleton subcluster.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Molecular characteristics of a novel recombinant of porcine epidemic
           diarrhea virus
    • Abstract: Abstract Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a contagious viral disease in pigs, caused by the coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). PEDV infection results in significant mortality in piglets in unvaccinated herds. Like many others RNA viruses, PEDV has high evolutionary rate and is prone to genetic mutations. In this study, we analyzed the complete genome sequence of the recently sequenced isolate PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008. A recombination event in S gene of PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 was detected. Pairwise identity analysis of the whole genome sequences revealed that PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 is an intermediate between PEDV and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) strains. These results can be used for further analysis of the evolutionary variability, prevalence, and epidemiology of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Re-emergence of a coxsackievirus A24 variant causing acute hemorrhagic
           conjunctivitis in Brazil from 2017 to 2018
    • Abstract: Abstract A large outbreak (over 200,000 cases) of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) took place in Brazil during the summer of 2017/2018, seven years after a nationwide epidemic, which occurred in 2011. To identify the etiological agent, 80 conjunctival swabs from patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of AHC were analyzed at the national enterovirus laboratory. Real-time RT-PCR for human enteroviruses was performed, and enterovirus RNA was detected in 91.25% (73/80) of the specimens. Twenty-nine swab fluids were used to inoculate cell cultures (RD and Hep2C), and 72.4% (21/29) yielded a cytopathic effect. Genotype IV coxsackievirus A24v (CV-A24v) was identified as the causative agent of the outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP1 gene revealed that Brazilian isolates were genetically related to strains that caused an outbreak in French Guiana in 2017. Our results show the re-emergence of CV-A24v causing AHC outbreaks in Brazil between the end of 2017 and the beginning of 2018.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Complete nucleotide sequence of a novel mycovirus from Trichoderma
           harzianum in China
    • Abstract: Abstract A new mycovirus was identified in Trichoderma harzianum strain 137 isolated in Xinjiang province, China. The whole genome sequence of the mycovirus was determined by metagenomic sequencing, RT-PCR, and RACE cloning. The mycovirus contained two genomic segments. The first segment was 2088 bp long and contained a single ORF (ORF1) encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) (72.26 kDa). The second segment was 1634 bp long and also contained a single ORF (ORF2) encoding a hypothetical protein of 37.472 kDa. We named this novel mycovirus “Trichoderma harzianum bipartite mycovirus 1” (ThBMV1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that ThBMV1 clusters with other unclassified dsRNA mycoviruses.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Complete genome sequence of maize sterile stunt virus
    • Abstract: Abstract Based on serology, cytopathology, cereal host range and leafhopper vector, maize sterile stunt virus (MSSV) has been regarded as a strain of the cytorhabdovirus barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV). Here, we report the first-ever sequence of MSSV, comprising the complete genome of 12,561 nucleotides. Detailed analysis of genome organization, coding and non-coding sequences, and phylogeny confirms the close relationship to BYSMV and supports classification of this virus a strain of BYSMV.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Genetic characterization of a novel G9P[23] rotavirus A strain identified
           in southwestern China with evidence of a reassortment event between human
           and porcine strains
    • Abstract: Abstract Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are important zoonotic pathogens that cause intestinal disease in humans and other mammals. In this study, the novel strain RVA/Pig/China/SC11/2017/G9P[23](SC11) was isolated from fecal samples from a pig farm in Sichuan province, southwestern China. The complete genome was found to be 18,347 bp in length with 11 segments. The genotype constellation of strain SC11 was G9-P[23]-I12-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1, according to whole-genome sequencing analysis. The VP1, VP2, VP4, VP6, NSP1–NSP3, and NSP5 genes of RVA strain SC11 were found to be closely related to those of porcine and/or porcine-like human RVAs. Meanwhile, the VP7 and NSP4 genes of strain SC11 were closely related to genes of human RVAs. However, it was difficult to pinpoint the porcine or human origin of the VP3 gene of strain SC11 based on the available data. These results showed that SC11 originated from a natural reassortment event between human and pig RVA strains, and crossover points for recombination were identified at nucleotides (nt) 109-806 of NSP2. This is the first report of such a reassortant and recombinant RVA strain in the southwestern region of China.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Phylogenomic characterization of red seabream iridovirus from Florida
           pompano Trachinotus carolinus maricultured in the Caribbean Sea
    • Abstract: Abstract Between 2010 and 2016, six mortality events were observed in Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) maricultured in the Dominican Republic. Histopathological examination and conventional PCR confirmed a megalocytivirus (MCV) infection in each case. Subsequently, next-generation sequencing and phylogenomic analyses confirmed that MCV DNA was present in the infected pompano tissue samples from 2010, 2014, and 2016, and each was determined to be red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). Annotation of the RSIV genome sequences identified 121 open reading frames, and BLASTN analysis revealed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (> 99%) to a RSIV clade 1 MCV isolated from a moribund red seabream (Pagrus major) maricultured in Japan. These cases represent the first fully sequenced RSIV genomes detected outside of Asia and are the earliest reports of MCV infections in Florida pompano. This recent geographical expansion of RSIV warrants further attention to determine its potential economic and ecological impact.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Genome sequences of chikungunya virus isolates circulating in midwestern
    • Abstract: Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus of the family Togaviridae that causes CHIKV fever, a disease that can extend from weeks to years depending on whether clinical signs of arthralgia persist. CHIKV is mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and possibly reached the Americas in 2013, causing an outbreak in Brazil in 2015. So far, two evolutionary lineages of CHIKV have been reported in Brazil: the Asian and the East-Central-South African (ECSA) lineages. In this study, six CHIKV isolates circulating in midwestern Brazil (Mato Grosso state) were isolated from patient sera, and their complete genomes were sequenced using a high-throughput sequencing platform. All of these isolates shared high nucleotide sequence similarity with CHIKV isolates from northeastern Brazil and were found to belong to the ECSA lineage. These CHIKV isolates did not contain the A226V or L210Q mutations that are associated with increased transmissibility by A. albopictus, suggesting that the CHIKV isolates circulating in midwestern Brazil are predominantly transmitted by A. aegypti.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Complete genome sequence of a new botybirnavirus isolated from a
           phytopathogenic Alternaria alternata in China
    • Abstract: Abstract A new double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus named Alternaria alternata botybirnavirus 1 (AaBRV1) was isolated from Alternaria alternata strain SD-BZF-19, a phytopathogenic fungus infecting watermelon in China. The genome of AaBRV1 consists of two dsRNA segments (dsRNAs 1 and 2), 6,130 and 5,862 bp in size, respectively. The sequence contains two putative open reading frames (ORFs) which encode two polyproteins of 1,874 and 1,784 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that the two ORFs of AaBRV1 have the highest similarity 60.3% and 56.7%, respectively, with dsRNAs 1 and 2 of Botrytis porri RNA virus 1 (BpRV1). The two polyproteins encoded by dsRNA1 and dsRNA2 shared the highest amino acid identities with the cap-pol fusion protein (60.2%) and hypothetical protein (53.7%) of BpRV1, respectively. AaBRV1 is composed of isometric particles, approximately 35 nm in diameter. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain of the polyprotein revealed that AaBRV1 clusters together with members of the genus Botybirnavirus. These findings support the discovery of a new botybirnavirus in A. alternata.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Invasion of a murine in vitro blood-brain barrier co-culture model by
           dengue virus serotypes 1 to 4
    • Abstract: Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical barrier that restricts the passage of cells and molecules as well as pathogens into the central nervous system (CNS). Some viruses enter the CNS by disrupting the BBB, while others can reach the CNS without altering the integrity of the BBB. Even though dengue virus (DENV) is not a distinctive neurotropic virus, the virus is considered to be one of the leading causes of neurological manifestations. In this study, we found that DENV is able to compromise the integrity of a murine in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model, resulting in hyperpermeability, as shown by a significant increase in sucrose and albumin permeability. Infection of brain endothelial cells (ECs) was facilitated by the presence of glycans, in particular, mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine residues, on cell surfaces and viral envelope proteins, and the requirement for glycan moieties for cell infection was serotype-specific. Direct viral disruption of brain ECs was observed, leading to a significant decrease in tight-junction protein expression and peripheral localization, which contributed to the changes in BBB permeability. In conclusion, the hyperpermeability and breaching mechanism of BBB by DENV are primarily due to direct consequences of viral infection of ECs, as shown in this in vitro study.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Interaction of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the
           sesbania mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with the viral protein
    • Abstract: Abstract The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV) was previously shown to interact with the viral protein P10, which led to enhanced polymerase activity. In the present investigation, the equilibrium dissociation constant for the interaction between the two proteins was determined to be 0.09 µM using surface plasmon resonance, and the disordered C-terminal domain of RdRp was shown to be essential for binding to P10. The association with P10 brought about a change in the oligomeric state of RdRp, resulting in reduced aggregation and increased polymerase activity. Interestingly, unlike the wild-type RdRp, C-terminal deletion mutants (C del 43 and C del 72) were found to exist predominantly as monomers and were as active as the RdRp-P10 complex. Thus, either the deletion of the C-terminal disordered domain or its masking by binding to P10 results in the activation of polymerase activity. Further, deletion of the C-terminal 85 residues of RdRp resulted in complete loss of activity. Mutation of a conserved tyrosine (RdRp Y480) within motif E, located between 72 and 85 residues from the C-terminus of RdRp, rendered the protein inactive, demonstrating the importance of motif E in RNA synthesis in vitro.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Assessment of resistance to rice tungro disease in popular rice varieties
           in India by introgression of a transgene against Rice tungro bacilliform
    • Abstract: Abstract Rice crops in South and Southeast Asian countries suffer critical yield losses due to rice tungro disease caused by joint infection with rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). Previously, for generating RNA interference-based transgenic resistance against tungro viruses, RTBV ORF IV was used as a transgene to develop RTBV resistance in a popular high-yielding scented rice variety. The transgene from this line was then introgressed into five popular high-yielding but tungro-susceptible rice varieties by marker-assisted backcross breeding with a view to combine the resistant trait with the agronomic traits. The present work includes a resistance assay of the BC3F5 lines of these varieties under glasshouse conditions. Out of a total of 28 lines tested, each consisting of 12 individual plants, eight lines showed significant amelioration in height reduction and 100- to 1000-fold reduction in RTBV titers. The RNAi-mediated resistance was clearly manifested by the presence of virus-derived small RNA (vsRNA) specific for RTBV ORF IV in the transgenic backcrossed lines.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Prokaryotic expression, purification and evaluation of goatpox virus
           ORF117 protein as a diagnostic antigen in indirect ELISA to detect goatpox
    • Abstract: Abstract Goatpox is an economically significant transboundary viral disease of goats that is caused by goatpox virus (GTPV). This study describes the prokaryotic expression of the GTPV ORF117 protein, a homologue of vaccinia virus A27L, and evaluation of its diagnostic potential in ELISA. The GTPV ORF117 gene was cloned into the pET32a vector to express recombinant ORF117 protein (rA27L) in E. coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIPL. The bacterial expression of the protein was confirmed by western blot analysis using anti-GTPV polyclonal antibodies that detected rA27L, which is ~ 35 kDa in size. rA27L was affinity purified under native conditions and used to assess the antibody response in an optimized indirect ELISA. The purified antigen specifically reacted with anti-GTPV and anti-SPPV serum in ELISA. A preliminary screening of random and purposive serum samples (n = 520) from sheep and goats using this optimized ELISA gave a positivity rate of 19.4 % with a diagnostic specificity of 88.7% and diagnostic sensitivity of 98.5% when compared to the gold standard serum neutralization test. Our results suggest that the indirect ELISA based on the rA27L protein has potential for serosurveillance and seromonitoring of GTPV in goats.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Analysis of the efficacy of an adjuvant-based inactivated pandemic H5N1
           influenza virus vaccine
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper describes a preclinical study analyzing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Kazfluvac®, an adjuvant-based inactivated pandemic influenza A/H5N1 virus vaccine. In this study, laboratory animals (ferrets and mice) were vaccinated by the intramuscular or intraperitoneal route at an interval of 14 days with two doses of the vaccine containing different concentrations of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein. HA protein without adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide and Merthiolate) was used as a control. As a negative control, we utilized PBS. We assessed the protective efficacy of the candidate vaccine by analyzing the response to challenge with the influenza virus strain A/chicken/Astana/6/05 (H5N1). Our experimental results revealed substantially reduced clinical disease and an increased antibody response, as determined by hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test and microneutralization assay (MNA). This study showed that the candidate vaccine is safe and elicits an antigen-dose-dependent serum antibody response. In summary, we determined the optimum antigen dose in a Kazfluvac® adjuvant formulation required for induction of heightened immunogenicity and protective efficacy to mitigate H5N1 disease in experimental animals, suggesting its readiness for clinical studies in humans.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • BSE infectivity survives burial for five years with only limited spread
    • Abstract: Abstract The carcasses of animals infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie or chronic wasting disease (CWD) that remain in the environment (exposed or buried) may continue to act as reservoirs of infectivity. We conducted two experiments under near-field conditions to investigate the survival and dissemination of BSE infectivity after burial in a clay or sandy soil. BSE infectivity was either contained within a bovine skull or buried as an uncontained bolus of BSE-infected brain. Throughout the five-year period of the experiment, BSE infectivity was recovered in similar amounts from heads exhumed annually from both types of soil. Very low levels of infectivity were detected in the soil immediately surrounding the heads, but not in samples remote from them. Similarly, there was no evidence of significant lateral movement of infectivity from the buried bolus over 4 years although there was a little vertical movement in both directions. However, bioassay analysis of limited numbers of samples of rain water that had drained through the bolus clay lysimeter indicated that infectivity was present in filtrates. sPMCA analysis also detected low levels of PrPSc in the filtrates up to 25 months following burial, raising the concern that leakage of infectivity into ground water could occur. We conclude that transmissible spongiform encephalopathy infectivity is likely to survive burial for long periods of time, but not to migrate far from the site of burial unless a vector or rain water drainage transports it. Risk assessments of contaminated sites should take these findings into account.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • The coordinating role of the human norovirus minor capsid protein VP2 is
           essential to functional change and nuclear localization of the major
           capsid protein VP1
    • Abstract: Abstract Global outbreaks of norovirus (NOV) gastroenteritis are associated with the most prevalent genotype, GII.4. Mutations in the protruding domain 2 (P2 domain) of the norovirus major capsid protein (VP1) result in the emergence of various NOV variants, however, it is unclear whether the minor capsid protein (VP2) also affects the generation of VP1 variants. In this study, using a human 293T expression system, we investigated the interactions of VP1 and VP2 of three GII.4 strains, focusing on the changes in expression and cellular localization. We found that co-transfection with VP1 and VP2 leads to a significant increase in expression of both proteins compared to that in cells transfected with VP1 or VP2 alone. In contrast to VP1 expressed in the absence of VP2, which was dispersed throughout the cytosol, VP2 expressed in the absence of VP1 was found to be located in the nucleus. This could be attributed to a predicted specific nuclear localization signal found in this gene. When both proteins were expressed, VP1 was found together with VP2 in the nucleus. These results thus suggest that the VP2 of GII.4 NOVs affects the function and cellular location of VP1 and that, with the cooperation of VP2, VP1 could play a critical role in affecting cell functions by impairing the downstream transcriptional signaling and chromatin remodeling in the cell nuclei.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Molecular analysis of small-ruminant lentiviruses in Polish flocks reveals
           the existence of a novel subtype in sheep
    • Abstract: Abstract Small-ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections are widespread in Poland, and circulation of subtypes A1, A12, A13, A16, A17, B1 and B2 has been documented. The aim of this study was to characterize the SRLV strains circulating in sheep and goats in mixed flocks in the Malopolska region, where the highest seroprevalence has been detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the isolates from sheep belonged to subtype A13, suggesting that this subtype may be predominant in the Malopolska region. Furthermore, the existence of a new subtype, tentatively designated as A18, was described for the first time. This work extends the current knowledge on the distribution of SRLV subtypes in sheep and goats in Poland and provides further information on the genetic diversity of SRLV. The new data are important for both epidemiological studies and eradication programs and provide insight into the evolution of SRLV.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Identification and molecular characterization of Serratia marcescens
           phages vB_SmaA_2050H1 and vB_SmaM_2050HW
    • Abstract: Abstract Serratia marcescens is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium causing nosocomially acquired infections. Bacteriophages are natural opponents of their pathogenic bacterial hosts and could be an alternative to traditional antibiotic treatments. In this study, two S. marcescens-specific bacteriophages, vB_SmaA_2050H1 and vB_SmaM_2050HW, were isolated from two different waste samples in China. Phage plaque assays, transmission electron microscopy, host-range determination, and one-step growth curve analyses were performed for both phages. vB_SmaA_2050H1 was classified as belonging to the family Ackermannviridae, and vB_SmaM_2050HW was classified as belonging to the family Myoviridae. One-step growth curve analysis showed that the latent and rise period of vB_SmaA_2050H1 were 80 min and 50 min, respectively, with a burst size of approximately 103 phage particles per infected cell. For vB_SmaM_2050HW, latent and rise periods of 40 min and 60 min, respectively, were determined, with a burst size of approximately 110 phage particles per infected cell. vB_SmaA_2050H1 infected 10 of the 15 (66.67%) S. marcescens strains tested, while vB_SmaM_2050HW infected 12 (80%) of the strains. Whole-genome sequencing and annotation of each of the phage genomes revealed genome sizes of 159,631 bp and 276,025 bp for vB_SmaA_2050H1 and vB_SmaM_2050HW, respectively, with the respective genomes containing 213 and 363 putative open reading frames. Sequence analysis of the genomes revealed that vB_SmaA_2050H1 is a member of the ViI-like family, while vB_SmaM_2050HW is a novel virulent bacteriophage. These findings provide further insights into the genomic structures of S. marcescens bacteriophages.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Multiplex one-step real-time PCR assay for rapid simultaneous detection of
           velogenic and mesogenic Newcastle disease virus and H5-subtype avian
           influenza virus
    • Abstract: Abstract H5 avian influenza virus (AIV) and velogenic Newcastle disease virus (v-NDV) are pathogens listed in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are considered key pathogens to be eliminated in poultry production. Molecular techniques for rapid detection of H5 AIV and v-NDV are required to investigate their transmission characteristics and to guide prevention. Traditional virus isolation, using embryonated chicken eggs, is time-consuming and cannot be used as a rapid diagnostic technology. In this study, a multiplex real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) detection method for six H5 AIV clades, three v-NDV subtypes, and one mesogenic NDV subtype was successfully established. The detection limit of our multiplex NDV and H5 AIV RRT-PCR was five copies per reaction for each pathogen, with good linearity and efficiency (y = −3.194x + 38.427 for H5 AIV and y = −3.32x + 38.042 for NDV). Multiplex PCR showed good intra- and inter-assay reproducibility, with coefficient of variance (CV) less than 1%. Furthermore, using the RRT-PCR method, H5 AIV and NDV detection rates in clinical samples were higher overall than those obtained using the traditional virus isolation method. Therefore, our method provides a promising technique for surveillance of various H5 AIV clades and multiple velogenic and mesogenic NDV subtypes in live-poultry markets.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Expression profiling and regulatory network of cucumber microRNAs and
           their putative target genes in response to cucumber green mottle mosaic
           virus infection
    • Abstract: Abstract Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an important pathogen of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The molecular mechanisms mediating host-pathogen interactions are likely to be strongly influenced by microRNAs (miRNAs), which are known to regulate gene expression during the disease cycle. This study focused on 14 miRNAs (miR159, miR169, miR172, miR838, miR854, miR5658, csa-miRn1-3p, csa-miRn2-3p, csa-miRn3-3p, csa-miRn4-5p, csa-miRn5-5p, csa-miRn6-3p, csa-miRn7-5p and csa-miRn8-3p) and their target genes. The data collected was used to construct a regulatory network of miRNAs and target genes associated with cucumber-CGMMV interactions, which identified 608 potential target genes associated with all of the miRNAs except csa-miRn7-5p. Five of the miRNAs (miR159, miR838, miR854, miR5658 and csa-miRn6-3p) were found to be mutually linked by target genes, while another eight (miR169, miR172, csa-miRn1-3p, csa-miRn2-3p, csa-miRn3-3p, csa-miRn4-5p, csa-miRn5-5p and csa-miRn8-3p) formed subnetworks that did not display any connectivity with other miRNAs or their target genes. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to analyze the expression levels of the different miRNAs and their putative target genes in leaf, stem and root samples of cucumber over a 42-day period after inoculation with CGMMV. A positive correlation was found between some of the miRNAs and their respective target genes, although for most, the response varied greatly depending on the time point, indicating that additional factors are likely to be involved in the interaction between cucumber miRNAs and their target genes. Several miRNAs, including miR159 and csa-miRn6-3p, were linked to target genes that have been associated with plant responses to disease. A model linking miRNAs, their targets and downstream biological processes is proposed to indicate the roles of these miRNAs in the cucumber-CGMMV pathosystem.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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