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AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS (116 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 113 of 113 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Computed Tomography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Image and Video Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Robotics & Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Robotic Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Augmented Human Research     Hybrid Journal  
Automated Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Automatic Control and Information Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Automation and Remote Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Autonomous Robots     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomimetic Intelligence and Robotics     Open Access  
Cognitive Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Computer-Aided Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Robotics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cybernetics & Human Knowing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cybernetics and Systems Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Design Automation for Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Digital Zone : Jurnal Teknologi Informasi Dan Komunikasi     Open Access  
Drone Systems and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrical Engineering and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Automatic Control and Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foundations and Trends® in Robotics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Neurorobotics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Robotics and AI     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
GIScience & Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
IEEE Transactions on Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IET Cyber-systems and Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IET Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Robot An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Service Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive, Resilient and Autonomic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agent Technologies and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Evolutionary Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Artificial Life Research     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Automation and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Automation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Automation and Smart Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Humanoid Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Imaging & Robotics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Intelligent Machines and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Intelligent Mechatronics and Robotics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Intelligent Robotics and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems Design and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Machine Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Machine Learning and Networked Collaborative Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Mechanisms and Robotic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mechatronics and Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Robotics and Automation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Robotics and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Robotics Applications and Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Robotics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Space-Based and Situated Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Synthetic Emotions     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Tomography & Simulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Automation and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Control & Instrumentation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Agents     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Robotic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Otomasi Kontrol dan Instrumentasi     Open Access  
Machine Translation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Results in Control and Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI     Open Access  
ROBOMECH Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Robotic Surgery : Research and Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Robotica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Robotics and Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Robotics and Biomimetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science Robotics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Soft Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Universal Journal of Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Wearable Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Wearable Technologies
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2631-7176 - ISSN (Online) 2631-7176
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [352 journals]
  • Development and testing of the aerial porter exoskeleton

    • Authors: Martin; W. Brandon, Boehler, Alexander, Hollander, Kevin W., Kinney, Darren, Hitt, Joseph K., Kudva, Jay, Sugar, Thomas G.
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Back pain is one of the largest drivers of workplace injury and lost productivity in industries around the world. Back injuries were one of the leading reasons in resulting in days away from work at 38.5% across all occupations, increasing for manual laborers to 43%. While the cause of the back pain can vary across occupations, for materiel movers it is often caused from repetitive poor lifting. To reduce the issues, the Aerial Porter Exoskeleton (APEx) was created. The APEx uses a hip-mounted, powered exoskeleton attached to an adjustable vest. An onboard computer calculates the configuration of the user to determine when to activate. Lift form is assisted by using a novel lumbar brace mounted on the sides of the hips. Properly worn, the APEx holds the user upright while providing additional hip torque through a lift. This was tested by having participants complete a lifting test with the exoskeleton worn in the “on” configuration compared with the exoskeleton not worn. The APEx has been shown to deliver 30 Nm of torque in lab testing. The activity recognition algorithm has also been shown to be accurate in 95% of tested conditions. When worn by subjects, testing has shown average peak reductions of 14.9% BPM, 8% in VO2 consumption, and an 8% change in perceived effort favoring the APEx.
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2021.18
  • Collectively playable wearable music: Practice-situated approaches to
           participatory relational inquiry

    • Authors: Thorn; Seth D., Willcox, Halley L.
      First page: 2
      Abstract: We present two practice-situated participatory investigations using networked wearable sensors to develop movement-responsive collectively playable musical instruments: a series of four collocated workshops for expert dancers and a distance learning course in which students use wearable technology to enhance embodied learning and feelings of connectedness telematically. We reflect on our exploration of techniques for structuring ensemble improvisations augmented with bespoke digital musical instruments using aggregate statistical measures, such as variance of participants’ physical orientation as an index of group intention. Participatory design exchanges top-down design methodologies with bottom-up approaches consulting actors’ interests. We follow this approach by evolving our instruments through abductive experiments and trial-and-error tinkering, without strong theories, methods, or models, using elementary signal processing techniques that are meaningfully understood and modified by participants. Our experiences suggest useful scaffolding techniques for educational transdisciplinary research-creation communities seeking to explore relational ensemble dynamics in telematic and/or physically collocated settings using accessible wearable technologies. Through creative inquiry and participation, technical objects can become bearers of sense and meaning rather than instating mystifying or alienating relations for the participants.
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2021.19
  • DeviceD: Audience–dancer interaction via social media posts and
           wearable for haptic feedback

    • Authors: Moriaty; Manoli, Sykes, Lucie
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The performative installation DeviceD utilizes a network of systems toward facilitating interaction between dancer, digital media, and audience. Central to the work is a wearable haptic feedback system able to wirelessly deliver vibrotactile stimuli, with the latter initiated by the audience through posting on Twitter social media platform; the system in use searches for specific mentions, hashtags, and keywords, with positive results causing the system to trigger patterns of haptic biofeedback across the wearable’s four actuator motors. The system acts as the intermediator between the audience’s online actions and the dancer receiving physical stimuli; the dancer interprets these biofeedback signals according to Laban’s Effort movement qualities, with the interpretation informing different states of habitual and conscious choreographic performance. In this article, the authors reflect on their collaborative process while developing DeviceD alongside a multidisciplinary team of technologists, detailing their experience of refining the technology and methodology behind the work while presenting it in three different settings. A literature review is used to situate the work among contemporary research on interaction over internet and haptics in performance practice; haptic feedback devices have been widely used within artistic work for the past 25 years, with more recent practice and research outputs suggesting an increased interest for haptics in the field of dance research. The authors detail both technological and performative elements making up the work, and provide a transparent evaluation of the system, as means of providing a foundation for further research on wearable haptic devices.
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2021.20
  • Evaluation of the power deficit of elderly people during stair
           negotiation: Which joints should be assisted at least by an exoskeleton
           and with what amount'

    • Authors: Böhme; Max, Weiske, Felix, Jäkel, Jens, Zentner, Johannes, Witt, Maren
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Climbing stairs can become a daily obstacle for elderly people, and an exoskeleton can assist here. However, the exoskeletons that are designed to assist stair climbing are actuated in different ways. To find a minimal actuation configuration, we identify the assist phases by evaluating the power deficit of 11 healthy but weak elderly people (72.4 ± 2.1 years; 69–76 years; 1.67 ± 0.10 m; 74.88 ± 14.54 kg) compared to 13 younger people (24.0 ± 1.8 years; 22–28 years; 1.74 ± 0.10 m; 70.85 ± 11.91 kg) in a biomechanical study and discuss moment characteristics. Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected, and kinematics, kinetics, and power characteristics of each subject for ascent and descent were calculated using inverse dynamics. Significant differences for power between both groups were assessed with statistical parametric mapping method using dynamic time warping. During ascent, the largest significant power deficit of the elderly subjects occurs in the single stance phase (SSP) during pull-up in the knee joint. During descent, significant mean power deficits of 0.2 and 0.8 W/kg for the highest deficit occur in the ankle joint in the beginning of the SSP and also in the knee joint in the same phase. Therefore, an exoskeleton should address the power deficit for knee extension (ascent: 1.0 ± 0.9 W/kg; descent: 0.3 ± 0.2 W/kg) and could assist the ankle during ascent and descent by an additional plantar flexion moment of 0.2 Nm/kg each.
      PubDate: 2022-03-25
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.1
  • Capture and express, question and understand: Gloves in gestural
           electronic music performance

    • Authors: Schacher; Jan
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Gesture-based musical performance with on-body sensing represents a particular case of wearable connection. Gloves and hand-sensing interfaces connected to real-time digital sound production and transformation processes enable empty-handed, expressive musical performance styles. In this article, the origins and developments of this practice as well as a specific use case are investigated. By taking the technical, cognitive, and cultural dimensions of this media performance as foundation, a reflection on the value, limitations, and opportunities of computational approaches to movement translation and analysis is carried out. The insights uncover how the multilayered, complex artistic situations produced by these performances are rich in intersections and represent potent amplifiers for investigating corporeal presence and affective engagement. This allows to identify problems and opportunities of existing research approaches and core issues to be solved in the domain of movement, music, interaction technology, and performance research.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.3
  • Origami-inspired systems that improve adult diaper performance to enhance
           user dignity

    • Authors: Brown; Nathan C., Pruett, Hunter T., Bolanos, Diana S., Jackson, Corinne, Beatson, Bridget, Magleby, Spencer P., Howell, Larry L.
      First page: 6
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel origami-inspired adult diaper design that improves discretion by reducing sag and increasing wicking across the entire diaper pad. While other diapers rely on supporting elastics to reduce the sag of the diaper as a whole, this paper proposes an absorbent core that uses liquid activated shaping to take a specified shape. Origami-based folds are also incorporated into the diaper design to increase wicking performance. The paper introduces a disposable compliant mechanism waistband used to deploy the diaper, making it easier to put onto one’s body.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2021.17
  • Self-offloading therapeutic footwear using compliant snap-through arches

    • Authors: Maharana; Priyabrata, Sonawane, Jyoti, Belehalli, Pavan, Ananthasuresh, Gondi Kondaiah
      First page: 7
      Abstract: In diabetic peripheral neuropathy, offloading high-plantar-pressure areas using statically offloaded customized insoles or expensive sensors and actuators are commonly-followed treatment procedures. In this article, we propose the concept of dynamically self-offloading therapeutic footwear that operates mechanically without using sensors and actuators. We achieve this by using an array of snapping arches. When a load higher than a bespoke value is applied, these arches enter negative-stiffness regime and offload the high-pressure region by snapping to a different shape. They again return to their initial shape when the load disappears. Thus, they serve as both sensors and actuators that get actuated by person’s body weight. We present an analytical method to compute the switching load and the switchback time of such arches and use them to customize the footwear according to the person’s body weight, gait speed, and foot size. We identify the high-pressure regions from the clinical data and place the arches such that these high-pressure regions get dynamically offloaded, and the pressure gets redistributed to other regions. We considered 200 kPa as a limiting pressure to prevent the prolonged effects of high plantar pressure. To check the efficacy of the concept, a complete 3D-printed prototype made of thermoplastic polyurethane was tested and compared with barefoot and in-shoe plantar pressure for subjects recruited at a clinical facility. We notice that the self-offloading insole shows the plantar pressure reduction at all the foot regions, and significant offloading of 57% is observed at the forefoot region.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.2
  • Validity of estimating center of pressure during walking and running with
           plantar load from a three-sensor wireless insole

    • Authors: Brindle; Richard A., Bleakley, Chris M., Taylor, Jeffrey B., Queen, Robin M., Ford, Kevin R.
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if estimated center of pressure (COP) from plantar force data collected using three-sensor loadsol insoles was comparable to the COP from plantar pressure data collected using pedar insoles during walking and running. Ten healthy adults walked and ran at self-selected speeds on a treadmill while wearing both a loadsol and pedar insole in their right shoe. Plantar force recorded from the loadsol was used to estimate COP along mediolateral (COPx) and anteroposterior (COPy) axes. The estimated COPx and COPy were compared with the COPx and COPy from pedar using limits of agreement and Spearman’s rank correlation. There were significant relationships and agreement within 5 mm in COPx and 20 mm in COPy between loadsol and pedar at 20–40% of stance during walking and running. However, loadsol demonstrated biases of 7 mm in COPx and 10 mm in COPy compared to pedar near initial contact and toe-off.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.5
  • Estimating balance, cognitive function, and falls risk using wearable
           sensors and the sit-to-stand test

    • Authors: Greene; Barry R., Doheny, Emer P., McManus, Killian, Caulfield, Brian
      First page: 9
      Abstract: The five times sit-to-stand test (FTSS) is an established functional test, used clinically as a measure of lower-limb strength, endurance and falls risk. We report a novel method to estimate and classify cognitive function, balance impairment and falls risk using the FTSS and body-worn inertial sensors. 168 community dwelling older adults received a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment which included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Each participant performed an FTSS, with inertial sensors on the thigh and torso, either at home or in the clinical environment. Adaptive peak detection was used to identify phases of each FTSS from torso or thigh-mounted inertial sensors. Features were then extracted from each sensor to quantify the timing, postural sway and variability of each FTSS. The relationship between each feature and MMSE and BBS was examined using Spearman’s correlation. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to examine the intra-session reliability of each feature. A Poisson regression model with an elastic net model selection procedure was used to estimate MMSE and BBS scores, while logistic regression and sequential forward feature selection was used to classify participants according to falls risk, cognitive decline and balance impairment. BBS and MMSE were estimated using cross-validation with low root mean squared errors of 2.91 and 1.50, respectively, while the cross-validated classification accuracies for balance impairment, cognitive decline, and falls risk were 81.96, 72.71, and 68.74%, respectively. The novel methods reported provide surrogate measures which may have utility in remote assessment of physical and cognitive function.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.6
  • Wearables in sociodrama: An embodied mixed-methods study of expressiveness
           in social interactions

    • Authors: El-Raheb; Katerina, Kalabratsidou, Vilelmini, Issari, Philia, Georgaca, Eugenie, Koliouli, Flora, Karydi, Evangelia, Skali, Theodora (Dora), Diamantides, Pandelis, Ioannidis, Yannis
      First page: 10
      Abstract: This mixed-methods study investigates the use of wearable technology in embodied psychology research and explores the potential of incorporating bio-signals to focus on the bodily impact of the social experience. The study relies on scientifically established psychological methods of studying social issues, collective relationships and emotional overloads, such as sociodrama, in combination with participant observation to qualitatively detect and observe verbal and nonverbal aspects of social behavior. We evaluate the proposed method through a pilot sociodrama session and reflect on the outcomes. By utilizing an experimental setting that combines video cameras, microphones, and wearable sensors measuring physiological signals, specifically, heart rate, we explore how the synchronization and analysis of the different signals and annotations enables a mixed-method that combines qualitative and quantitative instruments in studying embodied expressiveness and social interaction.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.7
  • Adaptive estimation of continuous gait phase based on capacitive sensors

    • Authors: Xu; Dongfang, Zhang, Zhitong, Crea, Simona, Vitiello, Nicola, Wang, Qining
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Continuous gait phase plays an important role in robotic prosthesis control. In this paper, we have conducted the offline adaptive estimation (at different speeds and on different ramps) of continuous gait phase of robotic transtibial prosthesis based on the adaptive oscillators. We have used the capacitive sensing method to record the deformation of the muscles. Two transtibial amputees joined in this study. Based on the strain signals of the prosthetic foot and the capacitive signals of the residual limb, the maximum and minimum of estimation errors are 0.80 rad and 0.054 rad, respectively, and their corresponding ratios in one gait cycle are 1.27% and 0.86%, respectively. This paper proposes an effective method to estimate the continuous gait phase based on the capacitive signals of the residual muscles, which provides a basis for the continuous control of robotic transtibial prosthesis.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.4
  • Intelligent wearable system with accurate detection of abnormal gait and
           timely cueing for mobility enhancement of people with Parkinson’s

    • Authors: Yang; Bao, Li, Ying, Wang, Fei, Auyeung, Stephanie, Leung, Manyui, Mak, Margaret, Tao, Xiaoming
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Previously reported wearable systems for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been focused on the detection of abnormal gait. They suffered from limited accuracy, large latency, poor durability, comfort, and convenience for daily use. Herewith we report an intelligent wearable system (IWS) that can accurately detect abnormal gait in real-time and provide timely cueing for PD patients. The system features novel sensitive, comfortable and durable plantar pressure sensing insoles with a highly compressed data set, an accurate and fast gait algorithm, and wirelessly controlled timely sensory cueing devices. A total of 29 PD patients participated in the first phase without cueing for developing processes of the algorithm, which achieved an accuracy of over 97% for off-line detection of freezing of gait (FoG). In the second phase with cueing, the evaluation of the whole system was conducted with 16 PD subjects via trial and a questionnaire survey. This system demonstrated an accuracy of 94% for real-time detection of FoG and a mean latency of 0.37 s between the onset of FoG and cueing activation. In questionnaire survey, 88% of the PD participants confirmed that this wearable system could effectively enhance walking, 81% thought that the system was comfortable and convenient, and 70% overcame the FoG. Therefore, the IWS makes it an effective, powerful, and convenient tool for enhancing the mobility of people with PD.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.9
  • Feasibility evaluation of a dual-mode ankle exoskeleton to assist and
           restore community ambulation in older adults

    • Authors: Fang; Ying, Harshe, Karl, Franz, Jason R., Lerner, Zachary F.
      First page: 13
      Abstract: BackgroundAge-related deficits in plantar flexor muscle function during the push-off phase of walking likely contribute to the decline in mobility that affects many older adults. New mobility aids and/or functional training interventions may help slow or prevent ambulatory decline in the elderly.ObjectiveThe overarching objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using an untethered, dual-mode ankle exoskeleton as a mobility aid to reduce energy consumption, and as a resistive gait training tool to facilitate functional recruitment of the plantar flexor muscles.MethodsWe recruited six older adults (68–83 years old) to evaluate acute metabolic and neuromuscular adaption to ankle exoskeleton assistance and to evaluate the potential for ankle resistance with biofeedback to facilitate utilization of the ankle plantar flexors. We also conducted a 12-session ankle resistance training protocol with one pilot participant.ResultsParticipants reached the lowest net metabolic power and soleus integrated electromyography (iEMG) at 6.6 ± 1.6 and 5.8 ± 4.9 min, respectively, during the 30-min exoskeleton assistance adaptation trial. Four of five participants exhibited a reduction (up to 19%) in metabolic power during walking with assistance. Resistance increased stance-phase soleus iEMG by 18–186% and stance-phase average positive ankle power by 9–88%. Following ankle resistance gait training, the participant exhibited increased walking speed, endurance, and strength.ConclusionsOur results suggest that dual-mode ankle exoskeletons appear highly applicable to treating plantar flexor dysfunction in the elderly, with assistance holding potential as a mobility aid and resistance holding potential as a functional gait training tool.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.12
  • Effort inference and prediction by acoustic and movement descriptors in
           interactions with imaginary objects during Dhrupad vocal improvisation

    • Authors: Paschalidou; Stella
      First page: 14
      Abstract: In electronic musical instruments (EMIs), the concept of “sound sculpting” was proposed by Mulder, in which imaginary objects are manually sculpted to produce sounds, although promising has had some limitations: driven by pure intuition, only the objects’ geometrical properties were mapped to sound, while effort—which is often regarded as a key factor of expressivity in music performance—was neglected. The aim of this paper is to enhance such digital interactions by accounting for the perceptual measure of effort that is conveyed through well-established gesture-sound links in the ecologically valid conditions of non-digital music performances. Thus, it reports on the systematic exploration of effort in Dhrupad vocal improvisation, in which singers are often observed to engage with melodic ideas by manipulating intangible, imaginary objects with their hands. The focus is devising formalized descriptions to infer the amount of effort that such interactions are perceived to require and classify gestures as interactions with elastic versus rigid objects, based on original multimodal data collected in India for the specific study. Results suggest that a good part of variance for both effort levels and gesture classes can be explained through a small set of statistically significant acoustic and movement features extracted from the raw data and lead to rejecting the null hypothesis that effort is unrelated to the musical context. This may have implications on how EMIs could benefit from effort as an intermediate mapping layer and naturally opens discussions on whether physiological data may offer a more intuitive measure of effort in wearable technologies.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.8
  • Current developments of robotic hip exoskeleton toward sensing, decision,
           and actuation: A review

    • Authors: Yang; Canjun, Yu, Linfan, Xu, Linghui, Yan, Zehao, Hu, Dongming, Zhang, Sheng, Yang, Wei
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The aging population is now a global challenge, and impaired walking ability is a common feature in the elderly. In addition, some occupations such as military and relief workers require extra physical help to perform tasks efficiently. Robotic hip exoskeletons can support ambulatory functions in the elderly and augment human performance in healthy people during normal walking and loaded walking by providing assistive torque. In this review, the current development of robotic hip exoskeletons is presented. In addition, the framework of actuation joints and the high-level control strategy (including the sensors and data collection, the way to recognize gait phase, the algorithms to generate the assist torque) are described. The exoskeleton prototypes proposed by researchers in recent years are organized to benefit the related fields realizing the limitations of the available robotic hip exoskeletons, therefore, this work tends to be an influential factor with a better understanding of the development and state-of-the-art technology.
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.11
  • Toward a wearable monitor of local muscle fatigue during electrical muscle
           stimulation using tissue Doppler imaging

    • Authors: Majdi; Joseph A., Acuña, Samuel A., Chitnis, Parag V., Sikdar, Siddhartha
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) is widely used in rehabilitation and athletic training to generate involuntary muscle contractions. However, EMS leads to rapid muscle fatigue, limiting the force a muscle can produce during prolonged use. Currently available methods to monitor localized muscle fatigue and recovery are generally not compatible with EMS. The purpose of this study was to examine whether Doppler ultrasound imaging can assess changes in stimulated muscle twitches that are related to muscle fatigue from electrical stimulation. We stimulated five isometric muscle twitches in the medial and lateral gastrocnemius of 13 healthy subjects before and after a fatiguing EMS protocol. Tissue Doppler imaging of the medial gastrocnemius recorded muscle tissue velocities during each twitch. Features of the average muscle tissue velocity waveforms changed immediately after the fatiguing stimulation protocol (peak velocity: -38%, p = .022; time-to-zero velocity: +8%, p = .050). As the fatigued muscle recovered, the features of the average tissue velocity waveforms showed a return towards their baseline values similar to that of the normalized ankle torque. We also found that features of the average tissue velocity waveform could significantly predict the ankle twitch torque for each participant (R2 = 0.255–0.849, p < .001). Our results provide evidence that Doppler ultrasound imaging can detect changes in muscle tissue during isometric muscle twitch that are related to muscle fatigue, fatigue recovery, and the generated joint torque. Tissue Doppler imaging may be a feasible method to monitor localized muscle fatigue during EMS in a wearable device.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.10
  • Influence of exoskeleton use on welding quality during a simulated welding

    • Authors: Schalk; Marco, Schalk, Ines, Bauernhansl, Thomas, Siegert, Jörg, Esin, Alexander, Schneider, Urs
      First page: 17
      Abstract: PurposeThe aim of this study is to investigate the effects of wearing exoskeletons during welding on the quality of the weld seam.Material and methodsA total of n = 15 young healthy subjects with welding experience took part in the study. The study design defines a 1-hr workflow that abstracts welding and grinding tasks. The sequence is based on standard DIN EN ISO 9606-1 and reproduces authentic work sequences in the constrained body positions PF-workpiece in front of the body and PE-workpiece overhead. Each subject completed the entire workflow once with and once without passive shoulder exoskeleton in a randomized order.ResultsThe evaluation shows that the use of passive shoulder exoskeletons has a significant influence (p = .006 for Position PF; p = .029 for Position PE) on the welding parameter travel speed which significantly influences the quality of the weld seam. The quality scale (by the used augmented reality (AR) welding simulator) of the travel speed, which significantly determines the permissibility of the weld, increases by 5.80% in the constrained body position PF and by 28.87% in the constrained body position PE when using an exoskeleton.Discussion and conclusionThe score of the welding parameter travel speed, which is essential for the permissibility of the seam, shows a statistically significant increase when an assistance system is used. Further research during real welding with exoskeletons could be based on the setup and workflow of this study.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.13
  • Multi-degrees-of-freedom soft robotic ankle-foot orthosis for gait
           assistance and variable ankle support

    • Authors: Thalman; Carly M., Hertzell, Tiffany, Debeurre, Marielle, Lee, Hyunglae
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This paper presents the design, modeling, analysis, fabrication, and experimental characterization of the soft robotic ankle-foot orthosis (SR-AFO), which is a wearable soft robot designed for ankle assistance, and a pilot human study of its use. Using two novel pneumatically powered soft actuators, the SR-AFO is designed to assist the ankle in multiple degrees-of-freedom during standing and walking tasks. The flat fabric pneumatic artificial muscle (ff-PAM) contracts upon pressurization and assists ankle plantarflexion in the sagittal plane. The multi-material actuator for variable stiffness (MAVS) aids in supporting ankle inversion/eversion in the frontal plane. Analytical models of the ff-PAM and MAVS were created to understand how the changing of the design parameters affects tensile force generation and stiffness support, respectively. The models were validated by both finite element analysis and experimental characterization using a universal testing machine. A set of human experiments was performed with able-bodied participants to evaluate: (a) lateral ankle support during quiet standing, (b) lateral ankle support during walking over compliant surfaces, and (c) plantarflexion assistance during push-off in treadmill walking. Group results revealed increased lateral ankle stiffness during quiet standing with the MAVS active, reduced lateral ankle deflection while walking over compliant surfaces with the MAVS active, and reduced muscle effort in ankle platarflexors during 40–60% of the gait cycle with the dual ff-PAM active. The SR-AFO shows promising results in providing lateral ankle support and plantarflexion assistance with able-bodied participants, which suggests a potential to help restore the gait of impaired users in future trials.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.14
  • Designing felt experiences with movement-based, wearable musical
           instruments: From inclusive practices toward participatory design

    • Authors: Cavdir; Doga, Wang, Ge
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Inclusive musical instruments benefit from incorporating wearable interfaces into digital musical instrument design, creating opportunities for bodily felt experiences and movement-based interactions. In this article, we discuss the evolution of our inclusive design approach behind the design and performance practices of three wearable musical instruments. By focusing on the embodied, somatic, and tacit dimensions of movement-based musical interaction, we evaluate these case studies, combining the third and first-person perspectives. The design and implementation of the wearable sensing, utilizing the additive manufacturing techniques, are discussed for each instrument and its performer in specific cases of musical expression. This article further discusses how our approach integrates music performance as a crucial step into design and evaluation, utilizing these performance practices and such collaborative settings for improved diversity and inclusion. Finally, we examine how our design approach evolves from user-centered design to more participatory practices, offering people with diverse abilities a shared music performance space.
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.15
  • A deep learning method to predict ankle joint moment during walking at
           different speeds with ultrasound imaging: A framework for assistive
           devices control

    • Authors: Zhang; Qiang, Fragnito, Natalie, Bao, Xuefeng, Sharma, Nitin
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Robotic assistive or rehabilitative devices are promising aids for people with neurological disorders as they help regain normative functions for both upper and lower limbs. However, it remains challenging to accurately estimate human intent or residual efforts non-invasively when using these robotic devices. In this article, we propose a deep learning approach that uses a brightness mode, that is, B-mode, of ultrasound (US) imaging from skeletal muscles to predict the ankle joint net plantarflexion moment while walking. The designed structure of customized deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) guarantees the convergence and robustness of the deep learning approach. We investigated the influence of the US imaging’s region of interest (ROI) on the net plantarflexion moment prediction performance. We also compared the CNN-based moment prediction performance utilizing B-mode US and sEMG spectrum imaging with the same ROI size. Experimental results from eight young participants walking on a treadmill at multiple speeds verified an improved accuracy by using the proposed US imaging + deep learning approach for net joint moment prediction. With the same CNN structure, compared to the prediction performance by using sEMG spectrum imaging, US imaging significantly reduced the normalized prediction root mean square error by 37.55% ( 
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.18
  • Toward interpretable digital biomarkers of walking and reaching in
           Parkinson’s disease

    • Authors: Ryu; Jihye, Torres, Elizabeth
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Multimodal digital data registered with wearable biosensors have emerged as highly complementary of clinical pencil-and-paper criteria, offering new insights in ways to detect and diagnose various aspects of Parkinson’s disease (PD). A pressing question is how to combine both the clinical knowledge of PD and the new technology to create interpretable digital biomarkers easily obtainable with off-the-shelf technology. Several challenges concerning disparity in biophysical units, anatomical differences across participants, sensor positioning, and sampling resolution are addressed in this work, along with identification of optimal parameters to automatically differentiate patients with PD from controls. We combine data from a multitude of biosensors registering signals from the central (electroencephalography) and peripheral (magnetometry, kinematics) nervous systems, inclusive of the autonomic nervous system (electrocardiogram), as the participants perform natural tasks requiring different levels of intentional planning and automatic control. We find that magnetometer data during walking, across a variety of amplitude and timing signals, provide optimal separation of PD from neurotypical controls. We conclude that using multimodal signals within the context of actions that bear different levels of intent, can be revealing of features of PD that would scape the naked eye. Further, we add that clinical criteria combined with such optimal digital parameter spaces offer a far more complete picture of PD than using either one of these pieces of data alone.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.16
  • Exoworkathlon: A prospective study approach for the evaluation of
           industrial exoskeletons

    • Authors: Kopp; Verena, Holl, Mirjam, Schalk, Marco, Daub, Urban, Bances, Enrique, García, Braulio, Schalk, Ines, Siegert, Jörg, Schneider, Urs
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Industrial exoskeletons have recently gained importance as ergonomic interventions for physically demanding work activities. The growing demand for exoskeletons is leading to a need for new knowledge on the effectiveness of these systems. The Exoworkathlon, as a prospective study approach, aims to assess exoskeletons in realistic use cases and to evaluate them neutrally in their entirety. For this purpose, a first set of four realistic Parcours was developed with experts from relevant industries, the German Social Accident Insurance, and the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In addition, a set of ratings was defined to assess subjective user feedback, work quality, and objective physiological parameters. Exoworkathlon aims to bring together developers, researchers, and end-users, strengthen collaborative exchanges, and promote a platform for the prospective holistic data collection for exoskeleton evaluation. In this article, the focus is on the background and methodology of Exoworkathlon.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.17
  • Electromyography-based fatigue assessment of an upper body exoskeleton
           during automotive assembly

    • Authors: Gillette; Jason C., Saadat, Shekoofe, Butler, Terry
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess an upper body exoskeleton during automotive assembly processes that involve elevated arm postures. Sixteen team members at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada were fitted with a Levitate Airframe, and each team member performed between one and three processes with and without the exoskeleton. A total of 16 assembly processes were studied. Electromyography (EMG) data were collected on the anterior deltoid, biceps brachii, upper trapezius, and erector spinae. Team members also completed a usability survey. The exoskeleton significantly reduced anterior deltoid mean active EMG amplitude (p = .01, Δ = −3.2 %MVC, d = 0.56 medium effect) and fatigue risk value (p 
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.20
  • Seamless and intuitive control of a powered prosthetic leg using deep
           neural network for transfemoral amputees

    • Authors: Kim; Minjae, Simon, Ann M., Hargrove, Levi J.
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Powered prosthetic legs are becoming a promising option for amputee patients. However, developing safe, robust, and intuitive control strategies for powered legs remains one of the greatest challenges. Although a variety of control strategies have been proposed, creating and fine-tuning the system parameters is time-intensive and complicated when more activities need to be restored. In this study, we developed a deep neural network (DNN) model that facilitates seamless and intuitive gait generation and transitions across five ambulation modes: level-ground walking, ascending/descending ramps, and ascending/descending stairs. The combination of latent and time sequence features generated the desired impedance parameters within the ambulation modes and allowed seamless transitions between ambulation modes. The model was applied to the open-source bionic leg and tested on unilateral transfemoral users. It achieved the overall coefficient of determination of 0.72 with the state machine-based impedance parameters in the offline testing session. In addition, users were able to perform in-laboratory ambulation modes with an overall success rate of 96% during the online testing session. The results indicate that the DNN model is a promising candidate for subject-independent and tuning-free prosthetic leg control for transfemoral amputees.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.19
  • The effect of a movable headrest in shoulder assist device for overhead

    • Authors: Ishii; Chiharu, Hirasawa, Kanta
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Recently, many kinds of shoulder-support exoskeletons have been developed and some of them are commercially available. However, to the best of our knowledge, shoulder-support exoskeletons that have neck-support mechanism have not been found. During the overhead work, physical strain is added to not only upper limb and shoulder but also neck of workers since the workers work keeping their face raised. Therefore, in this study, to reduce the physical strain on the neck during the overhead work, a movable headrest that can be attached to the shoulder assist device was developed, which has reclining and slide functions of a head. The main purpose of this article was to evaluate usefulness of the proposed movable headrest. To this end, measurements of electromyogram were carried out under simulating an overhead work activity, and the reduction effect for physical strain of the neck was compared among three types of headrests: (a) slide-type headrest which can slide the head backward and forward, (b) reclining-type headrest which can recline the head, and (c) reclining and slide-type headrest which can recline and slide the head. In addition, usefulness of the shoulder assist device with the proposed headrest was evaluated for a realistic overhead work activity through measurements of muscular stiffness of neck and shoulder. The experimental results showed that the existence of the headrest in the shoulder assist device is effective to reduce the physical strain to the workers, and that (c) reclining and slide-type headrest is the most effective among these three types of headrests.
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.22
  • Head-mounted digital metamorphopsia suppression as a countermeasure for
           macular-related visual distortions for prolonged spaceflight missions and
           terrestrial health

    • Authors: Ong; Joshua, Zaman, Nasif, Waisberg, Ethan, Kamran, Sharif Amit, Lee, Andrew G., Tavakkoli, Alireza
      First page: 26
      Abstract: During long-duration spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to various risks including spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome, which serves as a risk to astronaut vision and a potential physiological barrier to future spaceflight. When considering exploration missions that may expose astronauts to longer periods of microgravity, radiation exposure, and natural aging processes during spaceflight, more severe changes to functional vision may occur. The macula plays a critical role in central vision and disruptions to this key area in the eye may compromise functional vision and mission performance. In this article, we describe the development of a countermeasure technique to digitally suppress monocular central visual distortion with head-mounted display technology. We report early validation studies with this noninvasive countermeasure in individuals with simulated metamorphopsia. When worn by these individuals, this emerging wearable countermeasure technology has demonstrated a suppression of monocular visual distortion. We describe the considerations and further directions of this head-mounted technology for both astronauts and aging individuals on Earth.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.21
  • Wearables in sociodrama: An embodied mixed-methods study of expressiveness
           in social interactions—CORRIGENDUM

    • Authors: El-Raheb; Katerina, Kalampratsidou, Vilelmini, Issari, Philia, Georgaca, Eugenie, Koliouli, Flora, Karydi, Evangelia, Skali, Theodora (Dora), Diamantides, Pandelis, Ioannidis, Yannis
      First page: 27
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.24
  • Gait monitoring for older adults during guided walking: An integrated
           assistive robot and wearable sensor approach

    • Authors: Zhao; Qingya, Chen, Zhuo, Landis, Corey D., Lytle, Ashley, Rao, Ashwini K., Zanotto, Damiano, Guo, Yi
      First page: 28
      Abstract: An active lifestyle can mitigate physical decline and cognitive impairment in older adults. Regular walking exercises for older individuals result in enhanced balance and reduced risk of falling. In this article, we present a study on gait monitoring for older adults during walking using an integrated system encompassing an assistive robot and wearable sensors. The system fuses data from the robot onboard Red Green Blue plus Depth (RGB-D) sensor with inertial and pressure sensors embedded in shoe insoles, and estimates spatiotemporal gait parameters and dynamic margin of stability in real-time. Data collected with 24 participants at a community center reveal associations between gait parameters, physical performance (evaluated with the Short Physical Performance Battery), and cognitive ability (measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment). The results validate the feasibility of using such a portable system in out-of-the-lab conditions and will be helpful for designing future technology-enhanced exercise interventions to improve balance, mobility, and strength and potentially reduce falls in older adults.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.23
  • Automated assessment of infant motor development to predict infant age:
           The determination of objective metrics of spontaneous kicking

    • Authors: Fry-Hilderbrand; Katelyn, Chen, Yu-Ping, Howard, Ayanna
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Though early intervention can improve outcomes for children with motor disabilities, delays in diagnosis can impact the success of intervention programs. Prior work indicates that spontaneous kicking patterns can be used to model typical infant motor development to assist in the early detection of motor delays. However, abnormalities in spontaneous movements are not well defined or readily observable through traditional functional assessments. In this research, a method is introduced for the early detection of delays through the assessment of spontaneous kicking data gathered using a wearable sensing suit. We present formulations of kinematic features identified in the clinical space, identify which features are significant predictors of infant age, and establish normative values. Finally, we offer an analysis of preterm (PT) infant data compared to normative values derived from term infants. Term and PT infants ranging in age from 1 to 10 months were studied. We found that frequency, duration, acceleration, inter-joint coordination, and maximum joint excursion metrics had a significant correlation with age. From these features, models of typical kicking development were created using data from term, typically developing infants. When compared to normative trends, PT infants display differing developmental trends.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.1017/wtc.2022.25
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