Subjects -> COMPUTER SCIENCE (Total: 2313 journals)
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AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS (116 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 113 of 113 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Computed Tomography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Image and Video Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Robotics & Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Robotic Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Augmented Human Research     Hybrid Journal  
Automated Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Automatic Control and Information Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Automation and Remote Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Autonomous Robots     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomimetic Intelligence and Robotics     Open Access  
Cognitive Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Computer-Aided Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Robotics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cybernetics & Human Knowing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cybernetics and Systems Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Design Automation for Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Digital Zone : Jurnal Teknologi Informasi Dan Komunikasi     Open Access  
Drone Systems and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrical Engineering and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Automatic Control and Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foundations and Trends® in Robotics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Neurorobotics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Robotics and AI     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
GIScience & Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
IEEE Transactions on Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IET Cyber-systems and Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IET Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Robot An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Service Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive, Resilient and Autonomic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agent Technologies and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Evolutionary Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Artificial Life Research     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Automation and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Automation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Automation and Smart Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Humanoid Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Imaging & Robotics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Intelligent Machines and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Intelligent Mechatronics and Robotics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Intelligent Robotics and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems Design and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Machine Consciousness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Machine Learning and Networked Collaborative Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Mechanisms and Robotic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mechatronics and Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Robotics and Automation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Robotics and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Robotics Applications and Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Robotics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Space-Based and Situated Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Synthetic Emotions     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Tomography & Simulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Automation and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Control & Instrumentation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Agents     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Robotic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Otomasi Kontrol dan Instrumentasi     Open Access  
Machine Translation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Results in Control and Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI     Open Access  
ROBOMECH Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Robotic Surgery : Research and Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Robotica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Robotics and Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Robotics and Biomimetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science Robotics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Soft Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Universal Journal of Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Wearable Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2576-3202
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics Publication Information

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: C2 - C2
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:15:22 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics Society Information

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      Pages: C3 - C3
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:15:22 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics Information for Authors

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      Pages: C4 - C4
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:15:22 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Guest Editorial Sensors for Physical Interaction and Perception in
           Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery

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      Authors: Giovanni Gerardo Muscolo;Paolo Fiorini;
      Pages: 456 - 457
      Abstract: The Ieee Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics (T-MRB) is an initiative shared by the two IEEE Societies of Robotics and Automation – RAS – and Engineering in Medicine and Biology – EMBS.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:15:22 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Force–Torque Sensors for Minimally Invasive Surgery Robotic Tools:
           An Overview

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      Authors: Giovanni Gerardo Muscolo;Paolo Fiorini;
      Pages: 458 - 471
      Abstract: Robot-assisted surgery is a multidisciplinary research field, which includes many subjects (e.g., medicine and surgery, engineering, mechanics, electronics, computer science, physics, chemical, material science, robotics and many others). Sensors for physical interaction, during robot-assisted surgery, integrate some of these disciplines and are an open challenge. In this survey, we analyse some of the main design solutions of force-torque sensors for surgical instruments with a critical approach, including design and application constraints: robotic surgery environment, surgeon perception, general design architectures of force-torque sensors and force-torque sensors used in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The crucial aspects are analysed in detail, defining technological limitations and future perspectives of sensing instruments in surgical applications.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Robust Graph-Based Framework for 3-D Shape Reconstruction of Flexible
           Medical Instruments Using Multi-Core FBGs

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      Authors: Yiang Lu;Wei Chen;Bin Li;Bo Lu;Jianshu Zhou;Zhi Chen;Yun-Hui Liu;
      Pages: 472 - 485
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel graph-based framework for 3-D shape sensing of flexible medical instruments using multi-core fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Due to noisy signals, deformability of instruments, and environmental disturbances, conventional shape sensing methods using direct FBG measurements are far from accurate and stable, especially for long devices. The localization errors will substantially accumulate with the increase of sensing lengths. To tackle this challenge, we propose a generic 3-D shape graph to optimize the entire shape of flexible instruments globally and account for the accumulative errors in both spatial and temporal domains. By leveraging the geometry configurations of FBG cores as the measurement model, a robust dynamic filtering approach is introduced for iterative curvature and twist estimation, which guarantees edge constraints of the graph-based shape optimization. Dedicated experiments are processed to validate our sensing approach in both structured and unstructured environments, where a robotic-assisted colonoscope system embedded with a multi-core FBG fiber is manipulated for the evaluations of bending as well as paths following in 3-D space. The results demonstrate the superiority of our framework as a promising solution for 3-D shape reconstruction of flexible instruments and continuum robots in terms of accuracy, robustness, and fast response compared to state-of-the-art works.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Safe Manipulation in Robotic Surgery Using Compliant Constant-Force
           Mechanism

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      Authors: Yilun Sun;Tim C. Lueth;
      Pages: 486 - 495
      Abstract: Safe manipulation of soft tissue in robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) is a challenging task for surgeons. The conventional solution is to introduce tactile sensors to measure the tool-tissue interaction force, and then transmit the signal back to the surgeon to enable manual force control. However, since the RMIS-forceps is very small, even the hand tremor of the surgeon could lead to unstable force applied to the tissue. To cope with this problem, we present a compliant constant-force mechanism (CFM) in this article to achieve stable force regulation of RMIS forceps. The proposed CFM is comprised of a pair of symmetrical compliant slider-crank mechanisms, whose mechanical behavior can be described by a pseudo-rigid-body (PRB) model. Cross-spring-based compliant joints are also introduced to improve the model accuracy, while the magnitude of the generated constant force can be adjusted by using detachable slider-crank mechanisms with different force configurations. In this work, the proposed CFM is selective-laser-sintered with polyamide (PA2200) and is actuated by a linear motor. Experiments were also conducted and successfully validated the constant-force performance of the proposed CFM. Furthermore, a grasping test of artificial artery was also performed, which demonstrated the application of the developed CFM system in RMIS.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Learning to Estimate Palpation Forces in Robotic Surgery From
           Visual-Inertial Data

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      Authors: Young-Eun Lee;Haliza Mat Husin;Maria-Paola Forte;Seong-Whan Lee;Katherine J. Kuchenbecker;
      Pages: 496 - 506
      Abstract: Surgeons cannot directly touch the patient’s tissue in robot-assisted minimally invasive procedures. Instead, they must palpate using instruments inserted into the body through trocars. This way of operating largely prevents surgeons from using haptic cues to localize visually undetectable structures such as tumors and blood vessels, motivating research on direct and indirect force sensing. We propose an indirect force-sensing method that combines monocular images of the operating field with measurements from IMUs attached externally to the instrument shafts. Our method is thus suitable for various robotic surgery systems as well as laparoscopic surgery. We collected a new dataset using a da Vinci Si robot, a force sensor, and four different phantom tissue samples. The dataset includes 230 one-minute-long recordings of repeated bimanual palpation tasks performed by four lay operators. We evaluated several network architectures and investigated the role of the network inputs. Using the DenseNet vision model and including inertial data best-predicted palpation forces (lowest average root-mean-square error and highest average coefficient of determination). Ablation studies revealed that video frames carry significantly more information than inertial signals. Finally, we demonstrated the model’s ability to generalize to unseen tissue and predict shear contact forces.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Computer-Assisted and Virtual Reality-Based Robotic Knee Arthroscopy: A
           Systematic Review

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      Authors: Thai Hua;Ramsey Kinney;Sang-Eun Song;
      Pages: 507 - 515
      Abstract: Knee arthroscopy (KA) is an outpatient procedure in high demand, with many finding it a potential beneficiary of robotic minimally invasive surgery. This literature study focuses on computer-assisted platforms used to aid KA, emphasizing intraoperative tools, computer navigation, and virtual simulations. A literature search on IEEE Xplore and PubMed was done. Findings indicate that semi-automatic KA uses various technologies to assist surgeons intraoperatively. Working tools can be patient-specific but need to be more ergonomic. Surgeons benefit from robust localization and path planning techniques of computer-assisted navigation intraoperatively. Virtual KA platforms somewhat mirror the actual procedure but need to integrate more surgical actions and procedures. Augmented virtuality enables anatomic 3D planning of the procedure, giving the surgical team adequate clarity and freedom. There is grand potential for robotic KA in the future, and future research should ensure its reliability and clinical adaptability.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Shoulder-Support Exoskeletons for Overhead Work: Current State, Challenges
           and Future Directions

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      Authors: Francisco Anaya Reyes;Ding Shuo;Haoyong Yu;
      Pages: 516 - 527
      Abstract: Working overhead for long periods of time is a difficult task that often places a high workload on the shoulder and leads to injury. Occupational exoskeletons are an emerging technology that is gaining momentum in the construction and manufacturing industries, as they can reduce workload and improve work efficiency. The purpose of this article is to provide an up-to-date overview of the various exoskeletons that have been developed to support “overhead” tasks that require prolonged or repetitive lifting of the arms. The article presents the current state of development of these technologies, focusing on the different types of actuators, mechanical structures, and sensing/control strategies. We assess their feasibility and highlight challenges that are considered barriers to large-scale adoption of industrial exoskeletons. Based on these results, we identify and analyze the design criteria and considerations in manufacturing exoskeletons for overhead work that can contribute to the further development of exoskeletons for shoulder support.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Continuous Prediction of Human Joint Mechanics Using EMG Signals: A Review
           of Model-Based and Model-Free Approaches

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      Authors: Soumitra P. Sitole;Frank C. Sup;
      Pages: 528 - 546
      Abstract: This paper reviews model-based and model-free approaches for continuous prediction of human joint motion using surface electromyography (EMG) signals. The review focuses on approaches that solve the regression problem of continuously decoding motion from EMG as opposed to classification or discrete gesture identification methods. Model-based approaches use physics-based models to capture the dynamics of the muscles; and musculoskeletal geometry to estimate muscle forces and joint torques. Model-free machine learning and deep learning architectures employ training to learn the statistical regularities in the data to make predictions. Model-free approaches work well for real-time applications with better scalability for multiple muscle inputs and lower computational costs while model-based approaches are insightful and capture the essence of underlying muscle activation and contraction dynamics. Integrating model-free techniques to complement parametric models is a good practice for improving generalization of EMG-based predictions. The strengths and limitations of the two paradigms are compared based on scalability, performance, computational efficiency, and robustness for applications in robotics and biomechanics. We expand on previous review works with recent studies to draw inferences about the knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research. We hope this review serves as a comprehensive guide for current and prospective researchers interested in joint mechanics prediction using EMG.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:25 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Electromyography-Based Control of Lower Limb Prostheses: A Systematic
           Review

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      Authors: Bahareh Ahkami;Kirstin Ahmed;Alexander Thesleff;Levi Hargrove;Max Ortiz-Catalan;
      Pages: 547 - 562
      Abstract: Most amputations occur in lower limbs and despite improvements in prosthetic technology, no commercially available prosthetic leg uses electromyography (EMG) information as an input for control. Efforts to integrate EMG signals as part of the control strategy have increased in the last decade. In this systematic review, we summarize the research in the field of lower limb prosthetic control using EMG. Four different online databases were searched until June 2022: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Science Direct. We included articles that reported systems for controlling a prosthetic leg (with an ankle and/or knee actuator) by decoding gait intent using EMG signals alone or in combination with other sensors. A total of 1,331 papers were initially assessed and 121 were finally included in this systematic review. The literature showed that despite the burgeoning interest in research, controlling a leg prosthesis using EMG signals remains challenging. Specifically, regarding EMG signal quality and stability, electrode placement, prosthetic hardware, and control algorithms, all of which need to be more robust for everyday use. In the studies that were investigated, large variations were found between the control methodologies, type of research participant, recording protocols, assessments, and prosthetic hardware.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Toward Human-in-the-Loop Shared Control for Upper-Limb Prostheses: A
           Systematic Analysis of State-of-the-Art Technologies

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      Authors: Weichao Guo;Wei Xu;Yanchao Zhao;Xu Shi;Xinjun Sheng;Xiangyang Zhu;
      Pages: 563 - 579
      Abstract: Dexterous prosthetic hand is an essential rehabilitation assistant device to improve the life quality of amputee patients. Despite the continuous emergence of commercial prostheses and laboratory prototypes, the rejection rate remains high caused by the poor neural interaction performance and excessive cognitive burden, especially for the usage of upper-arm prostheses controlled by above-the-elbow amputation stump. The progress in artificial perception, bidirectional neural interface and share control indicates a great potential to improve the manipulation efficiency of upper-limb prostheses. In this review, a comprehensive analysis of human-in-the-loop shared control studies is presented to provide researchers with a systematic technical route in upper-limb prostheses control. The latest avenues of research concerning myoelectric control, sensory feedback, perception, autonomous motion planning of multiple degree of freedom elbow-wrist, and share control are overviewed and discussed. The comprehensive assessments show that there remains inadequate technologies to achieve an anthropomorphic and efficient unified elbow-wrist-hand prostheses manipulation. By delineating the current shortcomings, the outcomes of this work highlight future investigation in the field of intuitive motion control, feedback of proprioception/touch and the natural interaction between human intent and machine autonomy.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • An Effective Endoscope Actuator Based on Electromagnetic Driving Principle

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      Authors: Liangmengcheng Zhu;Yingjie Xiang;Busheng Tong;Derun Kong;Qi Zhu;
      Pages: 580 - 589
      Abstract: In this paper, an electromagnetically endoscope driven actuator based on electromagnetic driving principle is proposed. The actuator is mainly composed of three solenoids and one control module. Driving actuation can be realized by controlling the currents in the solenoids. Firstly, depict the movement process and the force condition of a three-solenoid actuator is graphically illustrated. Secondly, the electro-magnetic force (EM force), friction and viscous force on the solenoids are analyzed. Thirdly, the appropriate range of the structure parameters of the solenoid is given. Then, a group of structural parameters is selected to design an electromagnetic actuator. Finally, a prototype actuator consisting of three solenoids has been fabricated. The size of each solenoid is $16.62 times 20.88$ mm. Finally, the validity of the actuator is verified by two groups of experiments on experimental plate and pig stomach tissue. The measured results are in good agreement with the calculated results, and the results verify the correctness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Handheld Hydraulic Soft Robotic Device With Bidirectional Bending
           End-Effector for Minimally Invasive Surgery

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      Authors: Chi Cong Nguyen;Timotius Teh;Mai Thanh Thai;Phuoc Thien Phan;Trung Thien Hoang;James Davies;Hoang-Phuong Phan;Chun H. Wang;Nigel H. Lovell;Thanh Nho Do;
      Pages: 590 - 601
      Abstract: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has evolved as an effective method for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Recently, soft robotic catheters using soft materials have attracted considerable attention thanks to their ability to navigate through intricate anatomical structures and perform precisely controlled movements. However, current systems are powered by rigid pull-wire mechanism, showing substantial nonlinear hysteresis and high force loss. Furthermore, they require several actuators to manipulate the bending tip for working in the intricate anatomical corners of the internal organs. For thrombus removal, the approach of stent retrieval via a catheter has various drawbacks including difficult manipulation, insufficient retrieval force, and complexity. Herein, new soft robotic catheters are introduced to address these challenges. The new catheters can achieve bidirectional bending motion and spiral shapes using a single soft actuation source. They are equipped with a portable and ergonomic control interface. Mathematical models for the bending effector are developed and experimentally validated. The new soft robotic catheters potentially allow for quicker and more accurate manipulation to reach any target inside the cardiac and GI regions, enabling faster and more targeted ablation and thrombus removal therapy to enhance patient outcomes.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Force Control With a Novel Robotic Catheterization System Based on Braided
           Sleeve Grippers

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      Authors: Omar Al-Ahmad;Mouloud Ourak;Johan Vlekken;Emmanuel Vander Poorten;
      Pages: 602 - 613
      Abstract: The complex, deformable, and dynamic cardiovascular system makes precise control of flexible medical instruments a challenging task. An innovative robot-assisted catheterization system (RACS) based on braided sleeves was thus developed to aid interventionalists during cardiovascular procedures. The RACS allows navigating instruments through the vasculature with continuous uninterrupted motion. The complete design and characterization of the developed RACS are presented and experimentally evaluated. The RACS’ capability to track dynamic motion is demonstrated. Hereto, heart motion is estimated and fed into a dedicated motion controller. It is further demonstrated that tissue tracking performance can be improved by compensating for hysteresis present along the instrument’s length and incorporating a rate-dependent Bouc-Wen model in the motion control strategy. Here, a practical method based on multi-core FBG-inscribed fiber technology is presented for continuous instrument pose tracking. A velocity controller is cascaded with a force control loop to enable instrument tip contact force tracking. An experimental comparison between three different force control strategies was carried out on a benchtop laboratory setup resembling a dynamically moving heart wall. Results confirmed the superior performance of the cascaded force-velocity controller with Bouc-Wen hysteresis compensation. Finally, the RACS system was validated through in-vivo experiments on a living swine which demonstrated its ability to successfully navigate instruments toward the heart.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • SimPS-Net: Simultaneous Pose and Segmentation Network of Surgical Tools

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      Authors: Spyridon Souipas;Anh Nguyen;Stephen G. Laws;Brian L. Davies;Ferdinando Rodriguez y Baena;
      Pages: 614 - 622
      Abstract: Localisation of surgical tools during operation is of paramount importance in the context of robotic assisted surgery. 3D pose estimation can be utilised to explore the interaction of tools with registered tissue and improve the motion planning of robotic platforms, thus avoiding potential collisions with external agents. With the problems of traditional tracking systems being cost and the need to redesign surgical tools to accommodate markers, there has been a shift towards image-based, markerless tracking techniques. This study introduces a network capable of detecting and localising tools in 3D using a monocular setup. For training and validation, a novel dataset, 3dStool, was produced, and the network was trained to obtain a mean Dice coefficient of 85.0% for detection, along with a mean position and orientation error of 5.5mm and 3.3° respectively. The presented method is significantly more versatile than various state of the art solutions, as it requires no prior knowledge regarding the 3D structure of the tracked tools. The results were compared to standard pose estimation networks using the same dataset and demonstrated lower errors along most metrics.In addition, the generalisation capabilities of the proposed network were explored by performing inference on a previously unseen pair of scissors.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • An Online Model-Free Adaptive Tracking Controller for Cable-Driven Medical
           Continuum Manipulators

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      Authors: Jianxiong Hao;Kai Zhang;Zhiqiang Zhang;Shuxin Wang;Chaoyang Shi;
      Pages: 623 - 635
      Abstract: Continuum manipulators have demonstrated promising potential for flexible access and complicated operation and thus have been emerging and introduced in robot-assisted flexible endoscopy. However, due to their inherent structural compliance and strong nonlinearities, developing an accurate and robust control framework remains challenging. This paper proposes a model-free control method based on the Model-Free Adaptive Control (MFAC) algorithm to accomplish the trajectory tracking for two kinds of continuum manipulators by solely utilizing the robotic system’s real-time input/output data. The presented controller discretizes and dynamically linearizes the motion process of the continuum actuator to obtain a dynamic linearization data (DLD) model. This DLD model can be derived from a pseudo-partial derivative (PPD) matrix updated based on the I/O measurement data for the iterative operation. The stability of the presented MFAC controller can be mathematically guaranteed in theory to provide generality, and the control framework demonstrates a low computational cost and real-time control capability. The superior performance of the presented controller is firstly validated in MATLAB simulations and then compared with the other two controllers. Through experimental validation on two kinds of continuum manipulators, the model-free control framework shows high tracking accuracy and good robustness against the system uncertainty and external disturbances, as well as high transferability.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Deployable Parallelogram Mechanism and Constrained Bendable Segment for
           Flexible Robot Toward Transoral Procedures

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      Authors: Changsheng Li;Xiaoyi Gu;Xiao Xiao;Chwee Ming Lim;Xiuli Zuo;Yanqing Li;Xingguang Duan;Hongliang Ren;
      Pages: 636 - 644
      Abstract: A deployable parallelogram mechanism and a constrained bendable segment are proposed for a flexible robot to address the transoral robotic procedure’s demands. The deployable mechanism based on a parallelogram mechanism increases the kinematic flexibility of manipulators. The bendable segment with a controllable constraint allows the robot to have a variable bending radius, expanded workspace, and increased distal dexterities. This paper presents the robotic system, including the manipulators, the bendable segment, the actuation parts, and the master device. The kinematic analysis and the workspace characterization of the manipulator and the bendable segment are conducted. The benchtop experiments, including deploying force, load capacity, and performance tests, have validated the deployable mechanism and the bendable segment.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Robotic Guidance of a Surgical Tool Under Constrained Motions

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      Authors: Bassem Dahroug;Brahim Tamadazte;Patrick Rougeot;Nicolas Andreff;
      Pages: 645 - 656
      Abstract: This letter formulates a generic representation of a path-following controller operating under contained motion, which was developed in the context of surgical robotics. It reports two types of constrained motion: i) Bilateral Constrained Motion, also called Remote Centre Motion (RCM), and ii) Unilaterally Constrained Motion (UCM). To deal with the constrained motion of a surgical tool when performing a path-following task inside a cavity, we investigated methods that combine the two tasks operating in a hierarchical manner. The proposed solutions were successfully evaluated, first on our simulator that mimics realistic conditions of middle ear surgery, then on an experimental platform. Different validation scenarios were carried out experimentally to assess quantitatively and qualitatively each developed approach. Although ultimate precision was not the goal of this letter, our concept is validated with enough accuracy $(leq 100 ~mu m)$ for the ear surgery.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Continuum Overtube With Improved Triangulation for Flexible
           Robotic Endoscopy

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      Authors: Dezhi Song;Shuxin Wang;Zhiqiang Zhang;Xiangyang Yu;Chaoyang Shi;
      Pages: 657 - 668
      Abstract: This work presents a novel continuum overtube that consists of a notched tendon-driven 2-DOF continuum joint and a distal deployable structure driven by a flexible screw rod. A smooth bending shape with constant curvature is achieved by adopting an overlapped area between notches to generate uniform stress distribution. The distal deployable structure provides an extensive triangulation for bimanual operations. The presented design achieves high flexibility, sufficient loading and anti-twisting capacity, and an improved layout of functional channels for flexible robotic endoscopy. Design optimization is performed to optimize structural parameters for performance investigation and improvement. The proposed continuum joint achieves an average distal positioning error of 1.48% and 1.20% within [−115°, 115°] in the two bending planes with minor hysteresis errors of less than 1.5%, indicating the outstanding constant bending curvature characteristics for kinematic modeling and control. The loading capacity achieves 4.27N and provides significant advantages in terms of sufficient rigidity over the commercial endoscope. The designed deployable structure has significantly improved operational triangulation, which can effectively support bimanual operations with two instruments for complex operations. Meanwhile, the torsional stiffness of the designed continuum joint reaches a considerable value of 8.73mNm/° and provides stable support for instruments during operations. Ex-vivo experiments of gastric tissue biopsy have been performed to verify the feasibility of the presented design in a practical scenario.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Real-Time 3-D Video Reconstruction for Guidance of Transventricular
           Neurosurgery

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      Authors: Prasad Vagdargi;Ali Uneri;Xiaoxuan Zhang;Craig K. Jones;Pengwei Wu;Runze Han;Alejandro Sisniega;Junghoon Lee;Patrick Helm;Mark Luciano;William S. Anderson;Gregory D. Hager;Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen;
      Pages: 669 - 682
      Abstract: Neuroendoscopic approach to deep-brain targets imparts deformation of the ventricles and adjacent parenchyma, limiting the accuracy of conventional neuronavigation. We report a method for 3D endoscopic reconstruction and registration via simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) for real-time guidance with or without robotic assistance. The aim is to permit augmented video overlay of structures registered from preoperative or intraoperative 3D images within and beyond the endoscopic field of view for more accurate targeting in the presence of deep-brain deformation. Phantom studies were performed to evaluate geometric accuracy and uncertainty in distinct scenarios of limited data (feature sparsity and scene occlusion), demonstrating performance over a broad range of challenges to endoscopic data. Reconstruction and registration accuracy were maintained even with up to 40% loss in feature density or 120° of the visual scene occluded. Overall, the method achieved a high degree of geometric accuracy, with target registration error of 1.02 mm and runtime supporting real-time guidance (3.45 Hz, representing $text{a}16times $ speedup with SLAM approach compared to previous work). The studies establish essential quantitative performance characteristics and validation that are essential to future translation to clinical studies.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Development of a Textile Integrated, Two-State Controlled Tremor
           Suppression Orthosis for the Wrist

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      Authors: Nicolas P. Fromme;Adrian Esser;Martin Camenzind;Veit Mylius;Christian Baumann;Fabian Büchele;Robert Riener;Peter Wolf;René M. Rossi;
      Pages: 683 - 703
      Abstract: Tremor is one of the most common movement disorders with the highest prevalence in the upper limb. Apart from medication or surgery, the mechanical suppression of the involuntary movement with an orthosis can be used as alternative treatment. Here we propose a controlled energy dissipating suppression orthosis using a mechanical brake. For this approach, we focused on improved wearability with voluntary movement preservation and ergonomics while providing tremor suppression. The novelty of this orthosis is the decentralization of the tremor suppression mechanism and the integration of textiles in the orthosis structure. We performed computational and test bench simulations of a controlled two-state brake with a 1D human model to optimize the brake duration and timing. The objective was to optimize the trade-off between tremor suppression and voluntary movement suppression. The textile-integrated prototype, with the optimized parameter, was validated in a proof-of-concept case study with a tremor-affected person performing activities of daily living. With the optimized parameters, we achieved a tremor suppression of 78.8%, 66.5%, and 40.8% for the simulation, test bench, and case study, respectively as measured by the change in power spectral density (PSD) at the tremor frequency peak. While minimizing the voluntary movement suppression in the simulation and test bench by introducing the trajectory distance as new validation method (23.7% and 31.2%), no voluntary movements suppression was measured in the case study using PSD analysis. Our new orthosis has the potential to become a daily wearable device that can improve the quality of life for tremor-affected people.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Deep Brain Stimulation on Ca2+ Signalling and Neuro-Glial Network:
           A Digital Implementation

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      Authors: Mahsasadat Seyedbarhagh;Arash Ahmadi;Majid Ahmadi;
      Pages: 704 - 716
      Abstract: the anomalously accumulation of Amyloid beta ( $text{A}beta$ ) peptides within neuroglial network can originate the dyshomeostasis of intracellular calcium waves (ICWs) and result the evolution of neuropsychiatric disorders. The hardware implementation of the biologically plausible neuron and glial cell models may assist to reveal accurately to the diagnostic and treatment approaches of the neurological disorders. Thus, this paper presents a low-cost hardware approach according to coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) method for a deep brain stimulator to investigate the therapeutic conditions for neuropathological states of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As a proof of concept, a FPGA implementation is performed on the modified biologically plausible components of the proposed stimulator. The results of physical implementation and the numerical analysis illustrate that, the proposed bio-inspired brain stimulator design can assist the transition of the aberrant ICW patterns into the normal biochemical circumstances. As a result, the proposed deep brain stimulation strategy based on the modified models can be a good candidate for the further development of bio-robotics systems and rehabilitation therapy of AD at early stages.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Lower-Limb Exoskeleton With Compliant Actuators: Human Cooperative Control

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      Authors: Lukas Bergmann;Daniel Voss;Steffen Leonhardt;Chuong Ngo;
      Pages: 717 - 729
      Abstract: Active exoskeletons for the lower extremities are increasingly being used in rehabilitation therapy. One of the key areas of research in developing these assistive devices is ensuring safe human-machine interaction, which requires both a safe mechanical system and an effective assistive control framework. Therefore, we present a novel human cooperative control framework for exoskeletons with variable stiffness actuators to assist users during both the swing and stance phases of walking and other motion sequences such as sit-to-stand. The control framework estimates the user’s joint torques during the swing and stance phases using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and inverse kinematics, respectively. Using the Lower-Limb Exoskeleton with Serial Elastic Actuators (L2Exo-SE) as an example, the control approach was validated for its applicability to exoskeletons with compliant actuators. The validation results reveal a reduction of the average user’s joint torque during gait by 63.6%-78.4% for the hip and 40.8%-50.2% for the knee compared to non-assisted walking. Furthermore, we introduce an automatic stiffness selection for the serial elasticity of the variable stiffness actuator (VSA) based on the gait phases and the active human joint torque. The stiffness variation increases the physical human-robot interaction during the swing phase while maintaining a high control bandwidth during the stance phase.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:25 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Design and Evaluation of a Bidirectional Soft Glove for Hand
           Rehabilitation-Assistance Tasks

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      Authors: Jianwei Lai;Aiguo Song;Ke Shi;Qinjie Ji;Ye Lu;Huijun Li;
      Pages: 730 - 740
      Abstract: Soft pneumatic gloves are a promising tool for assisting stroke patients with hand dysfunction in their rehabilitation and daily activities. However, current gloves have limited extension force output. This article presents a hybrid actuator that combines a silicone flexion actuator with an extension actuator made from shape memory alloy (SMA) springs. The Critical parameters and material of the soft actuator were optimized using a finite element model. Additionally, the SMA spring actuator was equipped with a water-cooling structure to reduce temperature and increase response speed by 55.8%. The hybrid actuator generated an obstructed tip force of 16.02 N at 200 kPa pressure and an extension force of 8.675 N. The hybrid actuator was integrated with the water-cooling structure into a soft glove and evaluated in trials involving eight stroke patients. With the assistance of the glove, the bending angles of the stroke patients’ index fingers, including the PIP and MCP joints, significantly improved, increasing from 6.8 ± 2.8° and 11.3 ± 4.6° to 68.3 ± 5.3° and 68.1 ± 5.5°, respectively. Furthermore, the glove also increased the maximum friction with a 50-mm cylinder from 8.4 ± 3.5 N to 21.34 ± 5.8 N.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Design, Control, and Evaluation of a Robotic Ankle-Foot Prosthesis
           Emulator

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      Authors: Anthony J. Anderson;Yuri F. Hudak;Brittney C. Muir;Patrick M. Aubin;
      Pages: 741 - 752
      Abstract: People with transtibial limb loss experience reduced mobility. Intelligent ankle-foot prostheses have the potential to improve quality of life in people with limb loss, but there are scientific, clinical, and commercial barriers that prevent widespread impact. Further research tools and experiments are needed to expand our understanding of how to design and control intelligent prosthetic limbs. We designed and built a robotic ankle-foot prosthesis with off-board actuation and control to serve as a platform for biomechanical lower limb loss research. Our prosthesis fits inside of a shoe during walking and attaches to standard clinical prosthesis componentry, including carbon fiber prosthetic footplates and pyramid adapters. Our novel mechanical architecture implements a custom torsion spring in parallel with the ankle joint to allow for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion torque control with a single off-board actuator. Benchtop tests show that our prosthesis has peak plantarflexion torques greater than 175 Nm and a torque control bandwidth of 6.1 Hz. Walking experiments with two participants with lower limb loss indicate that the prosthesis can achieve low torque tracking errors and push-off power greater than the biological ankle during walking. This device will enable future experiments on amputee gait biomechanics, human-robot interaction, and prosthesis control.
      PubDate: FRI, 11 AUG 2023 14:16:24 -04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2023)
       
 
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