Programming and Computer Software
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.224 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1 Number of Followers: 16 Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 16083261  ISSN (Online) 03617688 Published by SpringerVerlag [2468 journals] 
 Metaclasses in UML and in Programming Languages

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Abstract: Design and programming are important stages of the development process of objectoriented information systems. At the design stage, a problem domain model is built, usually in the form of a UML class diagram. Sometimes it is convenient for a designer to apply the concept of metaclass to model the problem domain. However, UML does not directly support metaclasses. It is described how in some cases it is possible to move from models with metaclasses to models with standard classes. Examples are given showing the capabilities of Python, Scala, and ObjectiveC for implementing such models. In addition, an analysis of differences in the interpretation of the concept of metaclass in these languages is carried out.
PubDate: 20231001

 Searching for Laurent Solutions of Systems of Linear Differential
Equations with Truncated Power Series in the Role of Coefficients
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Abstract: Systems of linear ordinary differential equations with the coefficients in the form of infinite formal power series are considered. The series are represented in a truncated form, with the truncation degree being different for different coefficients. Induced recurrent systems and literal designations for unspecified coefficients of the series are used as a tool for studying such systems. An algorithm for constructing Laurent solutions of the system is proposed for the case where the determinant of the leading matrix of the induced system is not zero and does not contain literals. The series included in the solutions are still truncated. The algorithm finds the maximum possible number of terms of the series that are invariant with respect to any prolongations of the truncated coefficients of the original system. The implementation of the algorithm as a Maple procedure and examples of its usage are presented.
PubDate: 20231001

 AutomataBased Software Engineering with EventB

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Abstract: A new automatabased programming language built by extending the EventB specification language is proposed. When developing models in EventB, it becomes possible to use automatabased methods in addition to the popular refinement method. The automatabased software engineering based on EventB is demonstrated by the example of traffic control on a bridge from the EventB system manual. A simpler solution with verification in the Rodin tool is proposed. The effectiveness of EventB verification methods is confirmed by finding three nontrivial bugs in our solution.
PubDate: 20231001

 On Implementation of Numerical Methods for Solving Ordinary Differential
Equations in Computer Algebra Systems
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Abstract: This paper presents an original package for investigating numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations, which is built in the Sage computer algebra system. This project is focused on a closer integration of numerical and symbolic methods while primarily aiming to create a convenient tool for working with numerical solutions in Sage. The package defines two new classes: initial problems and approximate solutions. The first class defines tools for symbolic computations related to initial problems, while the second class defines tools for interpolating values of symbolic expressions on an approximate solution and estimating the error with the use of the Richardson method. An implementation of the Runge–Kutta method is briefly described, with its main feature being the possibility of working with arbitrary Butcher tableaux and arbitrary numeric fields.
PubDate: 20231001

 Effective Lower Bounds on the Matrix Rank and Their Applications

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Abstract: We propose an efficiently verifiable lower bound on the rank of a sparse fully indecomposable square matrix that contains two nonzero entries in each row and each column. The rank of this matrix is equal to its order or differs from it by one. Bases of a special type are constructed in the spaces of quadratic forms in a fixed number of variables. The existence of these bases allows us to substantiate a heuristic algorithm for recognizing whether a given affine subspace passes through a vertex of a multidimensional unit cube. In the worst case, the algorithm may output a computation denial warning; however, for the general subspace of sufficiently small dimension, it correctly rejects the input. The algorithm is implemented in Python. The running time of its implementation is estimated in the process of testing.
PubDate: 20231001

 Twenty Similarity Functions for Two Finite Sequences

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Abstract: This paper considers various numerical functions that determine the degree of similarity between two finite sequences. These similarity measures are based on the concept of embedding for sequences, which we define here. A special case of this embedding is a subsequence. Other cases additionally require equal distances between adjacent symbols of a subsequence in both sequences. This is a generalization of the concept of the substring with unit distances. Moreover, equality of distances from the beginning of the sequences to the first embedded symbol or from the last embedded symbol to the end of the sequences may be required. In addition to the last two cases, an embedding can occur in the sequence more than once. In the literature, functions such as the number of common embeddings or the number of pairs of occurrences of embeddings in a sequence are used. We introduce three additional functions: the sum of lengths of common embeddings, the sum of the minimum numbers of occurrences of a common embedding in both sequences, and the similarity function based on the longest common embedding. In total, we consider 20 numerical functions; for 17 of these functions, algorithms (including new ones) of polynomial complexity are proposed; for two functions, algorithms of exponential complexity with a reduced exponent are proposed. In Conclusions, we briefly compare these embeddings and functions.
PubDate: 20231001

 Complementarity in Finite Quantum Mechanics and ComputerAided
Computations of Complementary Observables
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Abstract: Mathematical formulation of Bohr’s complementarity principle leads to the concepts of mutually unbiased bases in Hilbert spaces and complementary quantum observables. In this paper, we consider algebraic structures associated with these concepts and their applications to constructive quantum mechanics. We also briefly discuss some computeralgebraic approaches to the problems under consideration and propose an algorithm for solving one of them.
PubDate: 20231001

 Resonances and Periodic Motions of Atwood’s Machine with Two
Oscillating Weights
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Abstract: The problem of constructing periodic solutions to the equations of motion of Atwood’s machine in which both weights have the same mass and can oscillate in the vertical plane is discussed. Differential equations governing the motion of this system are derived, and an algorithm for calculating their solutions that determine periodic oscillations of the weights under the condition that the oscillation frequencies are in resonance \(n{{\omega }_{1}} = m{{\omega }_{2}}\) , where n and m are natural numbers, is proposed. These solutions are obtained in the form of series in a small parameter. The comparison of the results with numerical solutions of the equations of motion confirm the validity of the obtained solutions. All computations are performed using the computer algebra system Wolfram Mathematica.
PubDate: 20231001

 Automated Verification of MultiParty Agreements and Scheduling of Sending
Messages in Distributed Ledger Systems
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Abstract: Multiparty agreements are used in distributed ledger systems and blockchain networks to reach an agreement on changes in the system. When one of the network participants proposes a transaction to be recorded, it should be first confirmed by certain network participants. A multiparty agreement or consensus determines who exactly these participants are. Based on the historical data set, one can calculate the transaction confirmation probability for each of the participants. In this work, a method of statistical model checking is proposed to determine the probability that the consensus is reached. Sending confirmation requests may require extra costs. In addition to the stated probability, the mathematical expectation of the number of messages received before reaching a consensus is calculated. A consensus model or several consensus models are given in the form of a Markov chain with various message sending strategies. Based on the construction algorithms for the model and specification, a tool that analyzes consensus and sends confirmation messages is developed.
PubDate: 20231001

 Application of Computer Simulation to the Anonymization of Personal Data:
SynthesisBased Anonymization Model and Algorithm
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Abstract: This paper describes the second part of our study devoted to automated anonymization of personal data. The overview and analysis of research prospects is supplemented with a practical result. An anonymization model is proposed, which reduces anonymization of personal data to manipulation of samples of random elements of different types. The key idea of our approach to anonymization of personal data with preservation of their usefulness is the use of the synthesis method, i.e., the complete replacement of all nonanonymized data with synthetic values. In the proposed model, a set of element types is selected, for which corresponding synthesys templates are proposed. The set of templates constitutes a synthesisbased anonymization algorithm. Technically, each template is based on a wellknown statistical tool: frequency estimates of probabilities, Parzen–Rosenblatt kernel density estimates, statistical means, and covariances. The proposed approach is illustrated by a simple example from civil aviation.
PubDate: 20231001

 Database Migration from ORACLE to PostgreSQL

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Abstract: Methods of data transfer from the Oracle environment to the PostgreSQL environment with stagebystage organization of actions and determination of the sequence of migration are considered. The main directions for the transformation of the structure of databases, data formats and executed objects are identified. Methods for converting stored procedures and triggers written in procedural languages (PL/SQL and PL/pgSQL) are specified. Software change on nodes directly connected (associated) with the database server and minimization of downtimes during migration are considered, which allows the transfer to be performed for geographically distributed and roundtheclock functioning objects. Examples of changing the speed of query execution before and after migration are given for systems of various types.
PubDate: 20231001

 Thematic Search Algorithms in Scientometric Systems

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Abstract: This paper considers methods developed by the author for thematic search of scientific and technical journals and conferences, using software tools that implement fulltext search and expert search algorithms. First, a brief review of the existing systems of thematic search for scientometric data is given with an indication of their main shortcomings. Algorithms developed by the author, their software implementation, and testing on big data of the scientometric system are described. To execute queries, the algorithms developed by the author use fulltext descriptions of objects in scientometric systems and graphs of mutual relations between objects, filter data by narrowly focused thematic queries, and rank search results by authority.
PubDate: 20230801
DOI: 10.1134/S0361768823040096

 Configurable Test System for RTOS

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Abstract: The article describes a test system designed for verification of the realtime operating system (RTOS) for embedded systems, which was developed and used at the Scientific Research Institute for System Analysis of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SRISA RAS). This Unixlike operating system is based on the POSIX and ARINC653 programming standards. Of course, there exists specialized software for automation of testing of Unixlike systems: Avocado, LAVA, Linux Test Project, Linux Distribution Checker, Open POSIX Test Suite, UnixBench, etc. But the use of such readymade software systems is not always convenient, because they either contain only highly specialized test suites, or support only certain hardware, or do not contain a flexible configuration system. Therefore, the researchers at the SRISA RAS developed their own original test system. The task was to create a convenient testing tool for both software testers and programmers. Many years of experience in using the test system has shown the effectiveness of its use to improve the quality of software products, reduction of time spent on testing and analysis of results, maximally automate software testing process, speed up the process of developing new software versions, and simplify the process of debugging, finding and fixing errors by software developers.
PubDate: 20230801
DOI: 10.1134/S0361768823040059

 CrossLingual Plagiarism Detection: Two Are Better Than One

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Abstract: The widespread availability of scientific documents in multiple languages, coupled with the development of automatic translation and editing tools, has created a demand for efficient methods that can detect plagiarism across different languages. In this paper, we present a novel crosslingual plagiarism detection approach. The algorithm is based on the merger of two existing approaches that in turn achieve stateoftheart (SOTA) or comparable to SOTA results on different benchmarks. The detailed analysis stages of existing approaches were sequentially merged levelling out the disadvantages of the approaches. The obtained algorithm significantly outperforms the ones it was merged of surpassing them by from 23 to 33% Plagdet Score, depending on different language pairs. The comparison between observed approaches was evaluated on a newly generated multilingual (English, Russian, Spanish, Armenian) test collection, where each suspicious document could contain plagiarised fragments from several languages. The merged method is applicable to various underresourced languages which is shown on the example of the Armenian language.
PubDate: 20230801
DOI: 10.1134/S0361768823040138

 Computer Algebra Tools for Geometrization of Maxwell’s Equations

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Abstract: Calculations of optical devices in the geometrized Maxwell’s theory use wellknown formalisms of general theory of relativity and differential geometry. In particular, for such calculations it is required to know the analytical form of the geodesic equations, which leads to the need to calculate a large number of monotonous mathematical expressions. One of the purposes of computer algebra is to facilitate the researcher’s work by automating cumbersome symbolic computations. Thus, the use of computer algebra systems seems to be quite an obvious way. Several free implementations of symbolic computations for the apparatus of general relativity are considered. A practical example of symbolic computations for the geometrized Maxwell’s theory is given.
PubDate: 20230801
DOI: 10.1134/S0361768823020111

 Parallel Approximation of Multidimensional Tensors Using GPUs

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Abstract: When solving many applied research problems, it is necessary to work with multidimensional arrays (tensors). In practice, an efficient and compact representation of these objects in the form of socalled tensor trains is used. The paper considers a parallel implementation of the TTcross algorithm, which allows one to obtain a decomposition of a multidimensional array into a tensor train, using a CUDA GPU. The main aspects and features of the parallel implementation of the algorithm are presented. The resulting parallel version of the algorithm was tested on a representative number of examples. A significant reduction in computational time is demonstrated compared to a similar sequential implementation of the algorithm, which indicates the efficiency of the proposed approaches to parallelization.
PubDate: 20230801
DOI: 10.1134/S0361768823040060

 Hardware Implementation of Code Converters Designed to Reduce the Length
of Binary Encoded Words
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Abstract: The problems of synthesis of combinational circuits of code converters designed to reduce the length of words from a given set of encoded binary words is considered. The encoding assumes that different binary words will be encoded by different binary codes of shorter length. Code converters of this type are designed to reduce the length of binary words transmitted in digital systems over data buses when the bit depth of the transmitted words exceeds the bit depth of the data bus. For example, 18bit or 17bit words need to be transmitted over a 16bit data bus. Each such word can be transmitted in two cycles of operation of a digital system; however, this approach reduces the overall performance of the system. One of the approaches to solve such problems is the development of combinational circuits that convert long binary encoded words into shorter ones. The proposed methods for solving the problem of synthesizing circuits of code converters are based on the compilation and logical minimization of such forms of systems of incompletely specified Boolean functions as disjunctive normal forms (DNFs) and binary decision diagrams called BDD representations. Using BDDs to minimize representations of kvalued functions that depend on Boolean variables is also proposed. Technologyindependent logical minimization of functional descriptions of the designed code converters is proposed to be performed by programs for minimizing the systems of Boolean functions in the DNF class and programs for joint minimization of BDD representations of systems of completely specified Boolean functions. Minimization of functional descriptions is aimed at reducing the hardware complexity of combinational circuits in the basis of library elements or FPGA elements implementing code converters of the class in question.
PubDate: 20230801
DOI: 10.1134/S0361768823040023

 Investigation of the Influence of Constant Torque on Equilibrium
Orientations of a Satellite Moving in a Circular Orbit with the Use of
Computer Algebra Methods
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Abstract: Methods of computer algebra are used to investigate equilibrium orientations of a satellite moving along a circular orbit under the action of gravitational and constant torques. The main focus is placed on the investigation of equilibrium orientations in the cases where the constant torque vector is parallel to the planes formed by the principal central axes of inertia of the satellite. Using methods for Gröbner basis construction, the system of six algebraic equations that determine the equilibrium orientations of the satellite is reduced to one sixthorder algebraic equation in one unknown. Domains with equal numbers of equilibrium solutions are classified using algebraic methods for constructing discriminant hypersurfaces. Bifurcation curves in the space of problem parameters, which define the boundaries of the domains with equal numbers of equilibrium solutions, are constructed. A comparative analysis of the influence of the order of variables in the process of Gröbner basis construction is carried out. Using the proposed approach, it is shown that, under the action of the constant torque, the satellite with unequal principal central moments of inertia has no more than 24 equilibrium orientations in a circular orbit.
PubDate: 20230801
DOI: 10.1134/S0361768823020093

 Using Dynamic Memory Reallocation in GInv

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Abstract: A new version of GInv (Gröbner Involutive) for computing involutive Gröbner bases is presented as a library in C++11. GInv uses objectoriented memory reallocation for dynamic data structures, such as lists, redblack trees, binary trees, and GMP libraries for arbitraryprecision integer calculations. The interface of the package is designed as a Python3 module.
PubDate: 20230801
DOI: 10.1134/S0361768823020056

 Admissible Ordering on Monomials is WellFounded: A Constructive Proof

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Abstract: In this paper, we consider a constructive proof of the termination of the normal form (NF) algorithm for multivariate polynomials, as well as the related concept of admissible ordering < \(_{e}\) on monomials. In classical mathematics, the wellquasiorder property of relation < \(_{e}\) is derived from Dickson’s lemma, and this is sufficient to justify the termination of the NF algorithm. In provable programming based on constructive type theory (Coq and Agda), a somewhat stronger condition (in constructive mathematics) of the wellfoundedness of the ordering (in its constructive version) is required. We propose a constructive proof of this theorem (T) for < \(_{e}\) , which is based on a known method that we refer to here as the “pattern method.” This theorem on the wellfoundedness of an arbitrary admissible ordering is also important in itself, independently of the NF algorithm. We are not aware of any other works on constructive proof of this theorem. However, it turns out that it follows, not very difficultly, from the results achieved by other researchers in 2003. We program this proof in the Agda language in the form of our library AdmissiblePPOwellFounded of provable computational algebra programs. This development also uses the theorem to prove termination of the NF algorithm for polynomials. Thus, the library also contains a set of provable programs for polynomial algebra, which is significantly larger than that needed to prove Theorem T.
PubDate: 20230801
DOI: 10.1134/S0361768823040102
