Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 1108 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (794 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (131 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (32 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

Showing 1 - 58 of 58 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat and Muscle Biology     Open Access  
Media Peternakan     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
University of Sindh Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Animal Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.848
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0021-8812 - ISSN (Online) 1525-3163
Published by American Society of Animal Science Homepage  [1 journal]
  • 178 Relationships Between Sow Blood Glucose Levels on Day of Farrowing and
           Sow and Litter Parameters
    • Authors: Yeich B; Rivas R, Willard N, et al.
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Low blood glucose levels at the start of farrowing have been associated with increased farrowing duration and stillbirth rate. This study evaluated changes in sow blood glucose (BG) on the day of farrowing and investigated relationships between sow and litter parameters and BG. The study was carried out over 12 h from 0600h (time of last feeding) on the day sows were induced to farrow (d 115 of gestation) as a cross-sectional survey using 42 sows/gilts of which 32 farrowed. Blood samples (1.2 μL) were collected from an ear vein of each sow every 2 h from 0600 h; glucose was measured using a glucometer (Accuchek Aviva; Roche Diabetes Care, Inc., Indianapolis, IN). Sow parameters recorded included parity, body condition score (BCS: 1 = extremely thin to 5 = extremely fat), number of piglets born, total litter birth weight, and farrowing duration. Linear relationships between sow parameters and BG were developed using PROC REG of SAS. Sows that farrowed had similar (P > 0.05) BG to those that did not (84.4 vs. 86.8 mg/dL; SEM 1.76). Regression relationships between sow parameters and BG were generally weak (adjusted R2 ≤ 0.20). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of time after feeding, time after start of farrowing, or time interval between piglet births on BG. Average BG levels increased linearly (P < 0.05) with sow BCS (7.6 mg/dL/BCS; SE 2.63) but decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with sow parity (-2.5 mg/dL/litter; SE 0.96), litter size (-0.8 mg/dL/piglet; SE 0.28), litter weight (-0.06 mg/dL/kg; SE 0.26), and farrowing duration (-1.8 mg/dL/h; SE 0.82). In contrast to previous research, changes in BG from last feed to start of farrowing (which ranged from 0 to 9 h) and relationship with other sow and litter parameters were relatively limited.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.001
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 177 Quantifying Cortisol in Hair as a Chronic Stress Biomarker in
           Group-housed and Stall-housed Sows During Gestation
    • Authors: Everding T; Levesque C, Seddon Y, et al.
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to determine hair cortisol concentrations in sows in two different housing systems. Sows (n = 66, parity 0–6) were housed at the SDSU sow facility and assigned to one of two housing systems, stalls (STL) or group pens (PEN). The STL sows (n = 34) were housed in gestation stalls from breeding until d111 ± 1.1 of gestation; PEN sows (n = 32) were moved to 3 pens approximately 24 h after breeding in a dynamic group sow housing system. All females were housed in stalls at least 5d prior to breeding. All sows were moved to farrowing crates at approximately d111 of gestation. Hair was shaved from the right hip within 5d of breeding (defined as d0). At d37, d74, and d111 of gestation the same area was shaved and hair collected; samples from d37 and d111 were analyzed for cortisol. In the statistical model, main effects of housing system, time, and their interactions were tested with parity as random effect. Sows were later assigned a parity group [0–1 (n = 23), 2–3 (n = 17), and 4–6 (n = 26)] to assess the interactions between parity and treatment. There was a treatment by parity interaction (P < 0.05) where parity 0–1 STL group had higher cortisol (75.6 pg/mg) than parity 0–1 PEN group (24.2 pg/mg) and no effect of housing on parity 2–3 and 4–6 groups. Across parity, STL sows had greater (P < 0.05) overall hair cortisol than PEN sows (49.4 vs 19.8 ± 8.0 pg/mg hair). Hair cortisol concentration tended to be lower (P = 0.06) at d37 than d111 (29.4 vs 39.8 ± 8.0 pg/mg) and no time by treatment interaction was observed. These results suggest that young sows experience greater stress in individual stall housing than in group housing and that cortisol increases with progressing gestation regardless of housing system.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.000
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 181 Utilization of the Nutrack Livestock Monitoring System to Identify
           Changes in General and Spatial Behaviors of Newly Weaned Nursery Exposed
           to an Endotoxin Challenge
    • Authors: Holliday A; Mote B, Psota E, et al.
      Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: Incorporation of precision livestock technology has the potential to provide swine producers with the means to rapidly and accurately identify immune-compromised pigs, allowing for accurate and timely interventions. The objective of this study was to utilize the NUtrack System (NUtrack) to identify changes in general (lying, standing and sitting) and spatial behaviors (at the feeder and meters/day) of newly weaned pigs exposed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. To achieve this objective, 12 nursery pens with 192 weaned pigs (16 pigs/pen) were randomly assigned to three treatments (4 pens/treatment): Control (saline injection), Mixed (8 pigs/pen received an LPS challenge and 8 pigs received saline injection) and 100% (all pigs received LPS). The LPS challenge consisted of a bolus subcutaneous injection at 300 µg/kg BW (E. coli O111:B4). Prior to placement, NUtrack was installed above the 12 nursery pens and initiated continuous data capture for the duration of the nursery phase (43 days). Ten days after placement in the nursery pens pigs received the assigned challenge (LPS or sham). Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS specific for repeated measures (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). Regardless of treatment group, general special behaviors were similar (P = >0.28) prior to the LPS challenge (days 1–9). Following LPS challenge (day 10), spatial behaviors decreased (P = <0.01) and time associated with general behaviors increased (P = <0.01) for LPS challenged pigs when compared to pigs not challenged (Control and 50% non-challenged). This change in both general and spatial behaviors remained until day 12. In addition, general and spatial behaviors of the 50% treatment (challenged and non-challenged) were different (P = < 0.03), when compared to Controls. Results suggest precision livestock technology, like the NUtrack System, has the potential to monitor changes in behaviors following an endotoxin challenge.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.002
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 179 A Comparison of Local Anesthetic Effectiveness in Reducing Pain
           Associated with Dehorning in Dairy Calves
    • Authors: Martin M; Kleinhenz M, Viscardi A, et al.
      Pages: 2 - 3
      Abstract: Dehorning is performed on a high percentage of dairies in the United States. Concern for animal welfare has led to investigating pain mitigation during dehorning. The objective was to compare the effectiveness of bupivacaine liposome suspension, lidocaine, or lidocaine + meloxicam administered at dehorning. Fifty male Holstein calves, 10–14 weeks of age were enrolled and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: 1) bupivacaine liposome suspension block, oral placebo, cautery dehorn (BUP); 2) lidocaine block, oral placebo, cautery dehorn (LID); 3) lidocaine block, oral meloxicam, cautery dehorn (LID + MEL); 4) saline block, oral placebo, cautery dehorn (CON); and 5) saline block, oral placebo, sham dehorn (SHAM). Biomarkers were collected from 0 to 120 hours post-dehorning and included infrared thermography (IRT), mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), and pressure mat gait analysis. Biomarkers were statistically analyzed using repeat measures with the calf being the repeated measure. There were no significant treatment differences for IRT measures. A treatment effect was observed for the mean difference of the right horn bud minus a control point which were -1.21 kgF, -1.41 kgF, -1.56 kgF, -1.65 kgF, and -1.68 kgF for the SHAM, CON, BUP, LID + MEL, and LID groups, respectively (P = 0.004). The BUP group did not differ from CON (P = 0.78) or SHAM (P = 0.07). A treatment effect was observed for gait distance means which were 182.05 cm, 189.69 cm, 195.77 cm, 199.54 cm, and 200.59 cm for the SHAM, BUP, LID + MEL, LID and CON groups, respectively (P = 0.04). The CON group did not differ from BUP, LID, or LID + MEL (P > 0.05) but did differ from SHAM (P = 0.02). These data show that administration of bupivacaine liposome suspension at the time of dehorning was not different than lidocaine or lidocaine + meloxicam.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.003
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 90 Comparing Methods of Raising Twin Beef Calves
    • Authors: Bortoluzzi E; Aubuchon K, Robben N, et al.
      Pages: 3 - 4
      Abstract: Twinning has shown promise as a means of increasing reproductive efficiency in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of 1) twin calves raised by their dam (twin born-twin raised; TT); 2) twin calves where one calf was grafted to another cow that lost her calf and one calf was left with their dam (twin born-single raised; TS); and 3) single born calves that were raised by their dams (single born-single raised; S). To achieve twinning, sixty-three Angus-cross cows were estrus synchronized and artificially inseminated. Seven days later, an embryo was placed into the uterine horn contralateral to the corpus luteum. Fourteen twin pairs and 11 singleton calves were produced from the described technique. Three natural twin pairs were added to the study. Birth order was recorded for twin calves (1=first calf; 2=second calf). Birth weights (BW) and blood samples for measuring serum total protein, IgG1, and IgM were collected 24 h post-calving. Calves were weighed at approximately six months of age, and a 200-d adjusted weight was calculated using the following equation: [(ADG x 200 d) + BW=A200dW]. Calf behavior data collected included interval to standing and first nursing, duration of dam nursing, and duration of non-dam nursing. Single calves had greater (P < 0.001) BW compared to TT and TS. Adjusted 200-d weights were greater (P < 0.05) for S compared to TS. There was a positive correlation between BW and A200dW (r=.32; P < 0.05). Behavior data did not differ among raising methods. Twin-single calves had lower (P < 0.05) serum IgG1 concentrations compared to S calves. Twin-Twin calves had a combined A200dW of 185 kg more than single born-single raised calves.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.005
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 180 Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Flunixin Meglumine and Meloxicam in
           Tilapia (Oreochromis Spp.)
    • Authors: Martin M; Smith S, Kleinhenz M, et al.
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Aquaculture is one of the largest growing sectors of the world food supply. There is evidence of pain perception in fish, but analgesic use in aquaculture is limited, as little information is available on the properties of analgesic drugs in fish. The objective was to investigate the comparative pharmacokinetics of flunixin administered intramuscularly and meloxicam administered intramuscularly or orally in tilapia. Two hundred-seventy fish were enrolled and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups 1) flunixin meglumine administered intramuscularly at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg; 2) meloxicam administered intramuscularly at a dose of 1 mg/kg; or 3) meloxicam administered orally at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from 6 fish per treatment group at 14 timepoints out to 10 days post-drug administration. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. The mean and standard error of the plasma concentration were calculated for each treatment at each timepoint. The plasma concentration versus time data were analyzed with a non-compartmental approach using a commercially available software (Phoenix®, Version 8.3, Certara, Inc., Princeton, NJ, USA). Flunixin reached a mean maximum concentration (Cmax) of 4826.7 ng/mL at 0.5 h, had a terminal half-life (T1/2) of 0.5h, and an area under the concentration time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUCINF_obs) of 25,261.62 h*ng/mL. Intramuscular meloxicam had a T1/2 of 9.4 h after reaching a Cmax of 11.3 ng/mL at 2 h, with an AUCINF_obs of 150.31 h*ng/mL. Oral meloxicam has a T1/2 of 1.9 h after reaching a Cmax of 72.2 ng/mL at 2 h, with an AUCINF_obs of 400.83 h*ng/mL. In conclusion, flunixin, when administered intramuscularly, reaches sufficient plasma concentrations to potentially have an effect, while meloxicam when administered intramuscularly or orally at the given dosage likely does not due to the relatively low plasma concentration.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.004
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 89 Effects of a Novel Heat Lamp Compared to Conventional Heat Lamps on
           Litter Performance
    • Authors: Harper H; Silva G, Peterson B, et al.
      Pages: 4 - 5
      Abstract: The objectives were to evaluate differences in productivity (mortality, number of pigs weaned and litter weights) and electricity usage between farrowing crates equipped with the HAVEN device or standard heat lamps. The HAVEN is a heat element designed to create a microclimate for newborn pigs. A total of 314 sows (Camborough; PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were initially allotted to the study in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) based on parity (P1, P2, P3+). Treatments consisted of control group (standard heat lamps) and treatment group (HAVEN device). Around d112 of gestation the sows were moved to the farrowing house and randomly allotted to the treatment. After farrow, litters were cross-fostered within treatment until 24-h after farrowing to equalize litter number to teat count. Litter size and weight were collected at the time of cross-fostering and at weaning. Sows had an ad libitum access to feed and water during lactation. Data were analyzed as an RCBD using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with litter as the experimental unit and block as a random effect. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between treatments on litter growth performance. However, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the Control and Haven groups on piglets mortality and removals (%). The Control group had a higher incidence of mortality when compared to the Haven group (11.42% vs. 9.06%, respectively). In addition, the Control group had a higher (P < 0.05) percentage of pigs removed compared to the Haven group (18.41% vs. 15.55%, respectively). Regarding electricity usage, on average the HAVEN device consumed 1.55 Wh/day compared to 2.41 Wh/day from the heat lamp. In conclusion, under the conditions of this trial the HAVEN provided production benefits reducing mortality and removals (%), and also potential savings in electricity.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.006
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 86 Effect of Post-metaphylactic Interval on Health and Performance of
           Steers Administered Tildipirosin for the Control of Bovine Respiratory
           Disease
    • Authors: Streeter M; Szasz J, Bryant T.
      Pages: 5 - 5
      Abstract: Crossbred beef steers (n = 8160; 294 + 10.4 kg) were used in a randomized complete block designed study to determine the effects of post-metaphylactic interval (PMI) on health, live and carcass performance. Steers were administered tildipirosin for the control of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) before being randomly allocated to PMI treatments (4-, 7-, 10-, or 13-day PMI). Treatments were replicated in forty - 204 head pens with each treatment represented within 10 arrival blocks. Blocks ranged from 4 to 15 unique sources of cattle representing five states (AR, FL, GA, LA, TX). Steers were observed daily (217 + 14 d) by trained pen riders with steers suffering from BRD receiving a common antibiotic therapy across PMI treatment. Data were evaluated using linear, quadratic and cubic contrasts. First pull BRD morbidity decreased linearly (P < 0.01) and tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.08) as PMI increased with the greatest BRD morbidity at 7 days (12.9%) and the least at 13 days (9.5%). First pull BRD relapses tended to decrease linearly (P = 0.10) with increasing PMI. Total first pull morbidity, for all causes, decreased quadratically (P = 0.02) as PMI increased with the greatest morbidly occurring with a 7-day PMI (15.8%) and the least with a 13-day PMI (11.5%). Mortality caused by BRD (0.73%; P > 0.70) and all causes (1.41%; P > 0.20) or chronicity (1.60%; P > 0.15), resulting from failure to respond to therapy, were not affected by PMI. Final body weight, ADG, DMI, Gain:Feed, and HCW were not affected (P > 0.20) by PMI. Total and BRD morbidity can be reduced by increasing PMI up to 13 days in cattle at moderate risk of developing BRD (15% morbidity, 1% mortality, 1% chronicity) without adversely affecting mortality, chronicity or live and carcass performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.007
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 91 Maternal Programming of the Piglet Microbiome from Birth to Weaning
    • Authors: Law K; Lozinski B, Torres I, et al.
      Pages: 5 - 6
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate seeding of the piglet microbiome, in the context of maternal programming in pre/perinatal environments. Maternal programming refers to maternal factors that predetermine offspring development and health. We hypothesized that increased sanitation level in maternal environments affects development of piglet fecal and nasal microbiomes, and physiological performance. Six sows were allocated randomly to two treatment groups: farrowing stalls cleaned with (D; n = 3) or without (ND; n = 3) disinfectant. Swabs were collected from stall floors, drinkers and feeders, and from sows’ vaginal, rectal, oral and udder surfaces at d109 of gestation and the day before farrowing. Fecal and nasal swabs were collected from piglets at days: 0 (within 24h of birth), 7, 14, and 21 postpartum. Nine piglets were selected randomly from each sow (n = 27/treatment) for microbiome analyses. DNA was extracted from swabs and the V4 variable region of the 16srRNA bacterial gene was sequenced on the MiSeq platform. Sequence data were analyzed using DADA2 and various packages within the R statistical software. Although environmental microbiomes were different between D and ND stalls (PERMANOVA, R2=0.474, P = 0.031) after cleaning, no compositional differences were detected among any D or ND sow samples. However, at d0, ND compared with D piglets exhibited higher gut (Shannon’s H, P = 9.131e-08) and nasal (P = 6.164e-08) alpha diversity. ND piglets also displayed greater nasal bacterial diversity at d21 (P = 0.036), and different gut (R2=0.06–0.129, P = 0.001) and nasal (R2=0.136–0.196, P = 0.001) microbiome compositions across all timepoints. However, D piglets exhibited higher average birth (P = 3.773e-05) and weaning weights (P = 5.803e-06) compared to ND piglets. These results indicate that sanitation level during farrowing persistently alters swine microbiomes and growth performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.008
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 88 Foundational Investigations of Tissue Dimensions and Their Relation to
           Captive Bolt application Sites on Cadaver Heads from Mature Swine–A
           Preliminary Report
    • Authors: Anderson K; Baysinger A, Benjamin M, et al.
      Pages: 6 - 7
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to contrast the soft tissue thickness, cranial thickness, total tissue thickness, and cross-sectional brain area from the common frontal captive bolt placement for the captive bolt euthanasia of swine with the alternative temporal and caudal to pinna placements. One hundred and fifty-seven cadaver heads from sows and boars with estimated body weights greater than 200 kg were collected from a regional slaughter establishment following electrical stunning and assigned to the FRONTAL, TEMPORAL, or CAUDAL to pinna captive bolt placement treatments after cooling at 2–4°C for approximately 64 h. In sows, soft tissue thickness was different (P ˂ 0.0001) between the three placements (FRONTAL: 13.9±1.1 mm, TEMPORAL: 45.93±1.1 mm, CAUDAL TO PINNA: 53.8±1.1 mm), cranial thickness was different (P ˂ 0.0001) between the three placements (FRONTAL: 47.1±1.4 mm, TEMPORAL: 17.6±1.4 mm, CAUDAL TO PINNA: 30.2±1.4 mm), total tissue thickness was different (P < 0.0001) between the three placements (FRONTAL: 61.03±1.4 mm, TEMPORAL: 63.49±1.4 mm, CAUDAL TO PINNA: 84.05±1.4 mm), and cross-sectional brain area was different (P < 0.0001) between the three placements (FRONTAL: 4509.0±238.0 mm2, TEMPORAL: 1964.4±238.0 mm2, CAUDAL TO PINNA: 2767.5±238.0 mm2). In boars, soft tissue thickness was different (P < 0.0001) between the three placements (FRONTAL: 12.9±1.7mm, TEMPORAL: 45.3±1.7 mm, CAUDAL TO PINNA: 54.7±1.7 mm), cranial thickness was different (P = 0.0193) between the FRONTAL and TEMPORAL treatments (FRONTAL: 34.8±3.2mm, TEMPORAL: 22.1±3.2 mm, CAUDAL TO PINNA: 31.7±3.2 mm), total tissue thickness was different (P < 0.0001) between the three placements (FRONTAL: 47.7±3.2 mm, TEMPORAL: 67.4±3.2 mm, CAUDAL TO PINNA: 86.4±3.2mm), and cross-sectional brain area was different (P < 0.0001) between the three placements (FRONTAL: 4031.9±153.2mm2, TEMPORAL: 1241.8±153.2 mm2, CAUDAL TO PINNA: 2467.5±153.2 mm2). Overall, the preliminary data indicated that the FRONTAL placement appears to have the greatest likelihood for successful euthanasia and may present less risk than the alternative TEMPORAL or CAUDAL TO PINNA placements.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.009
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 87 Effect of Number of Source Litters Used to Create Cross-fostered
           Litters on Piglet Pre-weaning Mortality and Weaning Weight
    • Authors: Vande Pol K; Rivas R, Espinal A, et al.
      Pages: 7 - 8
      Abstract: Sow litter sizes have increased over recent decades, increasing the need for cross-fostering. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the number of source litters used to create cross-fostered litters on piglet pre-weaning mortality (PWM) and weaning weight. A RCBD was used with 26 blocks of 5 litters (total 130 litters/1820 piglets), all litters consisted of 14 piglets. Blocking factors were farrowing day, sow parity, body condition score, and functional teat number, and the average and CV of piglet birth weight. Five cross-fostering treatments were compared: 0%, 1 source (all piglets remaining on the birth sow); 100%, 1 source (all piglets moved from birth to a different sow); 100%, 6+ sources (piglets from ≥ 6 birth sows used to form a litter on a different sow); 50%, 2 sources (7 piglets remaining with birth sow, 7 from one other sow); 50%, 4+ sources (7 piglets remaining with the birth sow, 7 from ≥ 3 other sows). The single-source litters were selected from those with > 14 piglets at birth, with excess piglets removed. For other treatments, piglets were selected to meet blocking factors. Piglets were weighed 24 h after birth and at weaning (19.5 ± 0.50 d); all PWM was recorded. Weight data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS; PWM data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS. Models included Treatment and sow within block. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of treatment on weaning weights. Pre-weaning mortality was greater (P < 0.05) for the 0%, 1 source compared to the 50%, 2 source treatment, with the others being intermediate and generally not statistically different (Table 1). In conclusion, cross-fostering and/or mixing litters had no effect on weaning weights, but pre-weaning mortality was highest for the non-fostered treatment.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.011
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 92 Effect of Rearing Cross-fostered Piglets in Litters of Differing
           Within-litter Birth Weight Variation on Pre-weaning Growth and Mortality
    • Authors: Vande Pol K; Rivas R, Harper H, et al.
      Pages: 7 - 7
      Abstract: Cross-fostering of piglets is a common commercial practice, however, there is limited information on optimum methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of within-litter birth weight variation after cross-fostering on piglet pre-weaning mortality (PWM) and growth. A RCBD was used with 47 blocks of 6 litters (total 282 litters/3,948 piglets); blocking factors were farrowing day, sow parity, body condition score, and functional teat number. Piglets were allotted at 24 h after birth according to Birth Weight Category (BWC) [L (< 1.0 kg), M (1.0 to 1.5 kg), or H (1.5 to 2.0 kg)] to 6 Litter Composition (LC) treatments with 14 piglets/litter: Uniform (14 L, M or H); Mixed L+M (7 L, 7 M); Mixed M+H (7 M, 7 H); Mixed L+M+H (3 L, 6 M, 5 H). Piglets were weaned at 18.7 ± 0.64 d and PWM was recorded. Piglet birth and weaning weights were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS; PWM were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS; models included BWC, LC, the interaction, and sow within block. There were LC by BWC interactions (P < 0.05) for PWM and weaning weights. For L piglets, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of LC on PWM (22.8, 26.7, and 28.4% for Uniform, Mixed L+M, and Mixed L+M+H treatments, respectively). For H piglets, PWM was lower (P < 0.05) in Mixed L+M+H compared to Uniform or Mixed M+H litters (1.7, 9.6, and 5.8%, respectively). For M piglets, PWM was lower (P < 0.05) in Mixed L+M than Uniform or Mixed M+H litters (7.1, 12.2, and 14.6%, respectively); Mixed L+M+H were intermediate (10.0%; P > 0.05). Weaning weights generally followed a similar but opposite pattern for all BWC. In conclusion, increasing the average weight of littermates generally decreased weaning weights and increased PWM within each BWC.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.010
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 85 Vaccination Mitigates Performance Losses During a Lawsonia
           Intracellularis Experimental Challenge
    • Authors: Helm E; Burrough E, Leite F, et al.
      Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: Lawsonia intracellularis is endemic to swine herds worldwide. Currently, vaccination is one of the few strategies available to mitigate L. intracellularis. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the impact of vaccination on growth performance and disease severity during experimental challenge. Thirty-six L. intracellularis negative barrows were assigned to treatment groups as follows (n = 12/trt): 1) nonvaccinated, L. intracellularis negative (NC); 2) nonvaccinated, L intracellularis challenged (PC); and 3) L. intracellularis challenged, vaccinated (Enterisol® Ileitis, Boehringer Ingelheim) at 1 week postweaning (VAC). On days post inoculation (dpi) 0 (7 weeks post-weaned) PC and VAC pigs were inoculated with L. intracellularis. Individual feed disappearance and BW were recorded weekly and all pigs were euthanized at dpi 21. Post-inoculation, ADG was reduced in PC (P < 0.001) and VAC (P = 0.001) pigs compared with NC pigs. Average daily gain was additionally reduced in PC pigs compared with VAC pigs (P < 0.001). Similarly, ADFI was reduced in PC (P < 0.001) and VAC (P = 0.029) pigs compared with NC pigs, and further reduced in PC pigs compared with VAC pigs (P = 0.032). Overall G:F was reduced in PC pigs compared with NC (P < 0.001) and VAC (P = 0.015) pigs, which did not differ. For antibody response and fecal shedding, NC pigs remained negative. Antibody responses and fecal shedding were lower in VAC pigs compared with PC pigs (P < 0.05). Ileal gross lesion severity was greater in PC pigs compared with VAC (P = 0.018) and NC (P = 0.003) pigs, which did not differ. Similarly, ileal lesion length was greater in PC pigs compared with NC (P = 0.007) and VAC (P = 0.045) pigs. Microscopic lesion severity was greater in PC pigs compared with both PC and VAC pigs (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data characterize the impact L. intracellularis has on growth performance of pigs and highlight the importance of vaccination to prevent disease associated performance losses.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.012
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 284 Prop 12 and Its Implications for Future On-farm Animal Welfare in the
           United States
    • Authors: Horback K.
      Pages: 8 - 9
      Abstract: California’s Proposition 12, also known as the Farm Animal Confinement Initiative, will go into full effect starting in January 2022. This measure changes the minimum space requirement for egg-laying hens, calves raised for veal, and breeding sows within the state of California. These changes include housing that provides 1 to 1.5 square feet of floor space per hen within a cage-free system, 43 square feet of floor space per veal calf, and 24 square feet of floor space per sow. In addition, Proposition 12 would require producers to move the sows from gestation pens into farrowing crates for a maximum of 5 days before they are due to farrow. This measure also prohibits producers outside of California from importing their eggs, veal, or pork into the state unless they meet these minimum housing requirements. The goal of these requirements is to ensure that they animal can lie down, stand up, turn around, and fully extend their limbs without touching the sides of their stalls or another animal. While the intent of this new housing requirement may allow for a greater freedom of movement, animal welfare concerns are still prominent for group housing. For breeding sow, such concerns include injuries caused by social aggression, and, abnormal or harmful behaviors related to feed restriction. These welfare concerns can be addressed when considerations are given to the group composition (e.g., age and size of sows), pen mixing practices (e.g., pre or post breeding), feeding schedule [e.g., collective (trough, floor fed) or individual (electronic sow feeding, free access stalls)], and, pen structural quality (e.g., flooring, enrichment). Given that California represents approximately 15 percent of the American pork market, this measure will have considerable economic and ethical implications related to barn renovations, animal care staff training, and husbandry practices for the entire U.S. pork industry.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.013
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 286 Where Is On-farm Animal Welfare in the United States Headed' A
           Canadian Perspective
    • Authors: Brown J.
      Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Both the United States and Canada are major exporters of pork, with market forces and consumer demand playing a more important role than legislation in defining production standards. Canadian welfare standards can be seen as intermediate between those in America and Europe, with the province of Quebec leading the way in Canada’s production of “high welfare” pork. In many other respects- such as farm size, diets, genetics and management, pig farms in Canada and the United States are very similar. What can U.S. producers learn from Canada’s experience in implementation of new welfare standards' This talk discusses Canada’s 2014 implementation of the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs. The Code included multiple new requirements, including the transition to group housing for gestating sows, use of analgesics at castration and tail docking, space allowances and the provision of enrichment. Code development is overseen by the National Farm Animal Care Council (NFACC) in cooperation with the Canadian Pork Council (CPC) and with participation of government, industry and public partners. In 2020, the Pig Code underwent a 5-year review, which resulted in eight major recommendations. Five of those recommendations will require amendments to the code and are yet to be approved. Each change illustrates a balance between economics and welfare in a highly competitive and changing industry. For example, the 2014 Code promoted adoption of group housing for sows by July 1, 2024. While integrated production systems committed to, and invested heavily in, implementation of group gestation, the cost of barn conversion and poor pork returns have been major deterrents on many farms. The CPC estimates that in 2021, 44% of Canada’s sow herd will be managed in groups. The Code review recognized that not all producers will be able to transition by 2024, and that forcing producers to convert on a strict timeline would result in a worsening of the animal’s welfare. The review recommended changing the date for implementation of group housing from 2024 to 2029. This more gradual transition will allow renovations to be part of a scheduled rebuild of an existing facility or new construction, with better long-term outcomes for producers and sow wellbeing.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.014
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 285 Panel: Recent Practical Advancements Related to On-farm Animal Welfare
           in the United States
    • Authors: Baysinger A; Ayers P, Wisdom S, et al.
      Pages: 9 - 10
      Abstract: The purpose of this panel session is to highlight recent practical solutions and advancements to farm animal welfare challenges in the United States. Through a moderated discussion with session attendees, professionals and experts representing a variety of livestock industry and academic sectors will be given the opportunity to share their professional experiences in working to improve animal welfare by highlighting examples of practical solutions they have undertaken. Additionally, a discussion will be held on the future direction of farm animal welfare needs and barriers to implementation of animal welfare-related strategies.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.015
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 232 Effect of Beef-dairy Cross Breed Description on the Sale Price of Lots
           of Steer Calves Sold Through Superior Livestock Auction in 2020 Summer
           Video Sales
    • Authors: McCabe E; King M, Fike K, et al.
      Pages: 10 - 11
      Abstract: The objective was to determine the effect of beef-dairy cross breed description as compared to Holstein and beef breed descriptions on the sale price of steer calf lots sold through Superior Livestock Auction in 2020 summer video sales. Data were available on 589 lots of weaned steer calves sold via six video auctions during the summer of 2020. Steer lots from the Rocky Mountain/North Central and South Central regions were included in the analysis. All lot characteristics that could be accurately quantified or categorized were used to develop a multiple regression model that evaluated effects of independent factors on sale price using backwards selection. A value of P < 0.05 was used to maintain a factor in the final model. Based upon reported breed descriptions, lots were subsequently categorized into one of five breed groups: 1) English-English cross, 2) English-Continental cross, 3) Brahman influenced, 4) Holstein, and 5) Beef-dairy cross. The mean weight of weaned steer calves was 277.5 ± 60.1 kg. Among weaned steer calf lots, Holstein lots sold for the lowest (P < 0.05) sale price ($113.21/45.36 kg of BW;Table1). Beef-dairy cross lots sold for the second lowest (P < 0.05) sale price ($153.07/45.36 kg of BW), but were only $15.21/45.36 kg of BW below English-English cross. Brahman-influenced lots sold for the third lowest (P < 0.05) sale price ($160.30/45.36 kg of BW). English-Continental cross lots sold for the second greatest (P < 0.05) sale price at $164.01/45.36 kg of BW. English-English cross lots sold for the greatest (P < 0.05) sale price ($168.38/45.36 kg of BW) compared with all other breed descriptions. Beef-dairy cross steer calves were closer in value to beef combinations than to Holstein steer calves.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.017
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 283 Timely Euthanasia on Farm; Dairy Cattle and Swine
    • Authors: Pairis-Garcia M; Robles I.
      Pages: 10 - 10
      Abstract: Euthanasia of mature swine and cattle can be challenging. On-farm euthanasia should be used as a tool to eliminate pain and suffering. However, clear guidelines regarding making euthanasia decisions and alternative euthanasia techniques available for use is limited in the United States (US). In order to prevent prolonged suffering and pain in compromised animals, science-based recommendations are needed to ensure timely and humane euthanasia can be performed when needed on-farm. This presentation will focus on two euthanasia challenges currently faced in swine and dairy cattle systems in the US today: 1) Swine: Validating alternative euthanasia techniques for use in mature breeding stock and 2) Dairy Cattle: Identifying producer barriers preventing timely euthanasia decision-making using surveys and focus groups. The swine study evaluated the effectiveness of two penetrating captive bolt gun styles (cylinder or pistol) using a frontal, temporal and behind-the-ear placement. Four treatments were 100% effective in achieving cardiac arrest and death. The cylinder style captive bolt gun resulted in greater brain trauma and death compared to a pistol style gun and behind-the-ear and temporal placement showed promise as an alternative placement site for euthanizing mature pigs. In the dairy cattle study, dairy producers were recruited to participate in a survey and focus group. Survey results indicated that farm owners were most commonly responsible for on-farm euthanasia and most respondents would treat and monitor compromised cattle for a majority of health conditions, regardless of condition severity. Participants in focus groups focused primarily on animal welfare as the most important factor influencing the decision to euthanize and the desire to eliminate animal suffering by using euthanasia as a tool. This work highlights the complicated challenges that arise when euthanizing livestock and the importance of not only identifying appropriate techniques to humanely euthanize livestock but address the emotional and animal welfare factors that influence these decisions.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.016
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 234 Effects of Housing Cow-calf Pairs on Drylots vs Pasture on Calf
           Performance and Behavior During the Receiving Phase
    • Authors: Myerscough M; Chapple W, Meteer W, et al.
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: The objectives were to analyze the effects of housing cow-calf pairs in drylots or pasture on calf performance and behavior through the receiving phase. Simmental × Angus (2 yr; 108/yr; 81 ± 15.3 d postpartum) spring-calving cows were stratified by age, BW, BCS, and calf sex and allotted to six groups/yr. Groups were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: drylot (DL) or pasture (PAST). After weaning, calves were shipped 262 km to a feedlot for a 42 d receiving period. All calves were fed a diet consisting of corn silage, wet distillers grains, corn, and grass hay during the receiving phase. Behavior was evaluated on d 1 and d 2 after arrival. Calf BW was measured on d 0, 21, and 42. Average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), and feed efficiency were also determined. The data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. On day 1, there was a treatment by time interaction for lying (P = 0.04). At h 2, 4, and 11 more PAST calves were lying. There was a tendency (P = 0.08) for PAST calves to spend more time eating. More DL calves vocalized (P = 0.03). On day 2, there were treatment by time interactions (P ≤ 0.02) for lying and walking. More PAST calves were lying at h 1, 2, 8, 9, and 12. More DL calves were walking at h 2, 11, and 12. Pasture calves had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F than DL calves. However, the DL calves had greater (P ≤ 0.02) BW at d 0, 21, and 42. In conclusion, calf behavior at receiving was influenced by preweaning housing. Additionally, pasture calves had improved receiving phase ADG and feed efficiency but were still lighter than drylot calves after 42 d receiving phase.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.018
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 233 Effects of Harvest Maturity And/or Kernel Processing on Corn Silage
           Processing Score and Particle Size of Corn Silage
    • Authors: Hamilton T; Walker J, Rusche W, et al.
      Pages: 11 - 12
      Abstract: A single corn hybrid was used to evaluate harvest maturity (Mat) and/or kernel processing (KP) effects on corn silage processing score (CSPS) and particle size (PS). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial of 1) Mat (early and late) and 2) KP (no or yes). A single corn field was planted on April 27, 2020. There were 12 loads (experimental unit) per simple effect treatment mean. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design. Early harvest occurred on August 28, 2020 [yield (as is) = 39.1 Mg/hectare; DM = 43.1%; CP, NDF, and starch = 6.5, 46.0, and 32.9%, respectively (DM basis)]. Late harvest occurred on September 9, 2020 [yield = 37.8 Mg/hectare (as is); DM = 49.2%; CP, NDF, and starch = 6.6, 49.8, and 37.5%, respectively (DM basis)]. The same equipment was used for both Mat with KP achieved by narrowing processing rollers. The CSPS was determined as the proportion of starch retained below a 4.75-mm sieve. Grain content (DM basis) of the corn silage was calculated from starch/0.72. Particle size was assessed using the Penn State Particle Separator. A Mat × KP interaction (P = 0.05) was detected for CSPS. Early/no and late/no had decreased (P ≤ 0.05) CSPS compared to early/yes and late/yes had the greatest CSPS (P ≤ 0.05) compared to others. Grain content was 13.9% greater in late compared to early (P = 0.01). A Mat × KP interaction (P = 0.03) was detected for PS. Early/no had the greatest (P ≤ 0.05) PS, early/yes and late/no were intermediate, and late/yes had decreased PS compared to others (P ≤ 0.05). These data indicate that Mat and KP influence CSPS synergistically. Producers should consider KP when corn silage is harvested at a later maturity to enhance CSPS.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.019
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 235 Resource Use for Beef Cattle in the North Central Great Plains
    • Authors: Lakamp A; Aherin D, Spencer D, et al.
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: The sustainability of the beef industry has become a point of national interest, particularly the investment of land and water resources. Our objective was to estimate how much land and irrigation water are required to maintain a simulated Angus cow-calf operation in the North Central Great Plains (NCGP) for an average year. A stochastic model was used, which enabled consideration of biological variation. The model computed 100 iterations of a 24-year timeframe (1995–2018). The simulated herd had 100 breeding females with replacement heifers being retained annually. The nutrients required to maintain a body condition score 5 for each individual animal, adjusting for temperature and physiological state, were calculated. A stocking rate of 3.3 hectares (ha) per cow-calf pair and mature cow weight of 600 kg was set, which is representative of the NCGP. Replacement heifers were assumed to be 65% of mature cow weight and allotted 1.22 ha. Bred heifers were assumed to be 85% of mature cow weight and allotted 1.81 ha. The herd was assumed to be grazing from May 1 to October 31. A supplemented ration of 60% alfalfa and 40% corn was provided if an individual’s nutritional needs were not met. Animals were assumed to be delivered a base ration from November 1 to April 30, which consisted of 73% alfalfa, 19% wheat straw, and 8% corn. The amount of irrigation necessary to grow feed was determined by estimating evapotranspiration of each crop then subtracting the amount of precipitation during the growing season. Average crop yield was determined using county level data from the UDSA NASS to estimate how much land would be needed for feed production. Sustaining a 100 head cow-calf herd in the NCGP for an average year requires 103.5 million liters for irrigation, 1288.5 ha for crop production, 357 ha grazing land.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.020
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 9 What Would Be the Next Feed Amino Acid Based on a Microbial Point of
           View'
    • Authors: Kim S.
      Pages: 12 - 13
      Abstract: Global Amino acids market is estimated as $15billion in 2020 and 60% of those volume is used for feed additives. Amino acids are converted to protein efficiently and have a benefit of lowering feeding cost and reducing the nitrogen content of the waste output compared to intact protein diet. Most amino acids are produced using microbial fermentation. Traditionally, amino acids used for feed additives are Lysine, threonine, tryptophan and methionine. Among them methionine was produced only by chemical process, but now methionine can also be produced by microbial fermentation, which can enlarge the choice of methionine from DL-form to L-form. Use of L-form methionine as feed additives reveals new nutritional value of L-methionine compared to DL-methionine. Recently, valine, arginine, isoleucine, and histidine are also included in feeds as functional nutrients thanks to their commercial availability and lower price. Technical progress in microbiology and bioengineering has been made more diverse amino acid to be used as feed additives. Then what would be the next amino acid as feed additivities based on microbial point of view' Leucine, glutamine, tyrosine and phenylalanine could be next possible amino acids based on metabolic pathways of microorganism. These amino acids share the pathways with former feed amino acids such as valine or tryptophan, which means that these can be produced with way that is more economical. In addition, these amino acids could be produced as mixed forms like glutamic acid/glutamine mixture, Tryptophan/tyrosine/phenylalanine mixture, or BCAA forms with cheaper price. Dried fermentation product such as lysine sulfate made by drying of microbial culture broth, could be one of the option for the combination of several new amino acids. Crude protein reduction in feed is one of the big nutritional trend to reach the ideal protein diet and environmental clean situation. Considering the use of new synthetic amino acids in feeds would be a potential way to realize the ideal protein diet.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.021
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 10 Mechanisms by Which Amino Acids May Enhance Mineral Absorption in
           Animals
    • Authors: Goff J.
      Pages: 13 - 14
      Abstract: Both macro- and trace minerals of the diet face similar barriers to their absorption. Minerals residing in the lumen of the GI tract, whether it be the rumen, stomach, small or large intestine of an animal, have to cross the apical and basolateral membranes of enterocytes or perhaps the tight junctions between cells of the epithelium layer to enter the interstitial space below the epithelium. Once there they can diffuse into the venous blood of the GI tract in order to reach the cells of the body requiring the minerals for various functions. Considerable evidence suggests that amino acids can enhance the absorption of minerals, particularly the trace minerals. However, the exact mechanisms by which amino acids enhance mineral absorption remain elusive. In this presentation, the role dietary amino acids may play in forming ionic and hydrogen bonds with trace minerals to enhance their solubility over the absorptive epithelium is discussed. In addition, minerals covalently bonded to amino acids have been utilized as a means of enhancing trace mineral absorption, particularly for Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn. These forms of trace minerals can be more effectively absorbed than traditional sulfate forms of these minerals. It has been suggested the amino acid bonding to the trace mineral works by preventing formation of insoluble mineral complexes with dietary chelators within the lumen of the GI tract. It has also been suggested that the amino acid -mineral complex can utilize the more efficient amino acid transporters to cross the apical membrane of the enterocytes instead of the usual mineral transport mechanisms for each mineral. The evidence for each of these mechanisms will be discussed along with the possible repercussions these mechanisms might have on mineral requirements of the animal.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.023
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 8 Functional Role of Histidine in Diets of Young Pigs
    • Authors: van Milgen J; Le Floc’h N.
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: Histidine is a constituent amino acid of body proteins and, once incorporated in protein, histidine can be methylated post-translationally to methyl-histidine. Histidine is also a precursor of histamine, a neurotransmitter and involved in the immune response. Histidine and histamine are constituents of a number of dipeptides, which act as pH buffers, metal chelating agents, and anti-oxidants, especially in skeletal muscles and in the brain. A considerable fraction of whole-body histidine is present as carnosine, the dipeptide of histidine and β-alanine. In the longissimus muscle, about 40% of the total histidine content is present as carnosine. The histidine in carnosine can be methylated to anserine or balenine, and the pig is among the few species that synthesize both forms. Hydrolysis of body protein and of histidine-containing dipeptides results in the release of the constituent amino acids. However, only the histidine of protein and carnosine can be reused for protein synthesis. Methyl-histidine is either excreted in the urine or remains bound in the dipeptides and accumulates in the body. Because carnosine represents such a large histidine reservoir, a dietary histidine deficiency may not directly lead to a reduction in growth, especially if growth is given a higher priority for histidine utilization than maintaining or depleting the histidine-containing dipeptide reserves. Few histidine dose-response studies have been done in piglets and differences in the estimated requirements may be due to differences in diluting or depleting the dipeptide reserves. However, at low histidine intakes, both feed intake and growth are reduced and a reduction of the histidine-to-lysine supply by 1 percentage point results in a growth reduction of 4%. Histidine dose-response studies need to consider the role of histidine as a constituent amino acid of body protein as well as its role in dipeptides.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.022
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 11 Metal Amino Acid Chelates/complexes with Emphasis on Molecule
           Absorption and Efficacy Differences in Swine
    • Authors: Wedekind K.
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: The objective of this presentation will be to discuss differences in the molecular structures between various organic trace minerals (OTM) and inorganic trace minerals (ITM) and discuss how these properties impact stability, absorption, bioavailability and retention. The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) lists several different categories of OTM including chelates, complexes and proteinates. Typical ligands include organic acids, amino acids, peptides and polysaccharides. It is widely known that bioavailability of ITM is low, primarily due to the presence of antagonisms such as phytate and/or fiber or excesses of other minerals. For this reason, inclusions of trace minerals (e.g. Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) are often added in commercial livestock diets at 2–3-fold higher concentrations than recommended by NRC. Feeding highly bioavailable trace minerals is important. These minerals are required components of thousands of the proteins, enzymes and transcription factors that support a wide variety of biochemical processes in the cells and tissues of animals. These functions include gene regulation, cell growth and division, immune development and function, tissue development and integrity, reproduction and oxidative stress management. Low bioavailability of these trace minerals can reduce animal performance, immune function, reproductive performance and increase lameness. Numerous in vitro and in vivo methodologies have been used to compare bioavailability and demonstrate higher stability, tissue retention and digestibility of OTM vs ITM. Sow longevity is a key factor in commercial swine herd profitability. Reproductive problems and lameness are the most common reasons for premature sow culling from breeding herds. Compared to ITM, OTM reduced gilt and sow mortality 9–17% (P < 0.10), culling rate 20–35% (P < 0.01) and increased sow retention (through parity 3) 5–10%; (P < 0.01). Greater bioavailability translates to biological benefits to the producer, however, our findings demonstrate that not all OTM perform better than ITM.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.024
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 7 Digestive Physiology of Pigs Lecture: Past, Present and Future
    • Authors: Burkey T; Lindemann M.
      Pages: 14 - 15
      Abstract: Digestive Physiology of Pigs (DPP) was organized in 1979 to promote exchange of information among scientists working in swine digestive physiology and nutrition. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the past, present, and future of the most important global scientific event in the fields of pig gut physiology and nutrition. To date, fourteen symposia have been conducted including the 12th International Symposium, which was held in Keystone, Colorado (DPP-2012). In order to facilitate the activities of DPP-2012, DPP-North America was established as a non-profit entity with a mission to collaborate internationally to “establish triennial venues that present the most current research and discovery information relative to digestive physiology of pigs.” Regarding DPP-2012, 403 attendees from 28 countries were in attendance, and 250 abstracts were accepted for presentation. The attendees represented academia, industry, and major swine production entities. Today, in addition to digestive physiology and nutrition, the global DPP community has evolved to include topics such as immunology, microbiology, and the use of pigs as a model for human health. As part of the global DPP community, DPP-North America continues to work with the global DPP community to establish global networks, to learn about the latest scientific discoveries, to promote academia-industry partnerships, to involve and train the next generation of scientists, and to contribute to sustainable pork systems. Since its establishment, DPP-North America has sponsored digestive physiology lectures at the annual ASAS Midwest meetings and has provided travel scholarships for North American graduate students to attend and present research at international DPP meetings.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.025
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 3 Nursery Pig Research Under Dr. Gary Allee
    • Authors: Touchette K.
      Pages: 15 - 15
      Abstract: Dr. Gary Allee focused on many different topics in nursery pig nutrition over his years at Kansas State University and University of Missouri. This talk will discuss four main areas of research. The first area of research was evaluating soybean meal and soy products and hypersensitivity in early weaned pigs. They demonstrated that allergens present in soybean meal caused a hypersensitivity in weaned pigs which reduced feed intake and growth in the early nursery period, but the pigs recovered to be of similar weight at the end of the nursery. They also demonstrated that high protein soy products do not cause this same reaction. The second area was evaluating new sources of sugars/lactose for nursery diets. When dried whey permeate was first produced and considered to be a novel ingredient, they demonstrated that it could replace the lactose from whey and skim milk in weaned pig diets. Further research showed that up to 50% of the lactose requirement could be met by other simple sugars provided by sugar food by-products. The third area was understanding of the mode of action in which spray-dried plasma works in weaned pig diets. They demonstrated that while being fed plasma, there was a reduction in immune stimulation to the pig, which resulted in an improved feed intake and growth after weaning. The fourth area was evaluating fish meal and fish oil. They demonstrated that both fish oil and fish meal alter the immune system, but fish meal was the best at improving performance under challenging conditions. These trials were both relevant at the time they were run to influence practical nursery diet formulation, but also helped set the background for future trials.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.026
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 1 Introduction: Review of the Career: Gary L. Allee
    • Authors: Newcomb M.
      Pages: 15 - 16
      Abstract: Gary Allee’s professional career as a swine nutritionist spans from 1972 to 2020 in the peer-reviewed publication record. An evaluation of the major themes presented in his publications show a connectivity of work done at a “basic” science level leading to work on the application of this basic knowledge to meet pig production needs. It is interesting to explore the themes of Dr. Allee’s work and connect that to how pigs are fed on a practical basis today. Regarding sow nutrition work, Dr. Allee used his early work on lipogenesis to expand on the topic to understand how energy sources are able to cross the placental barrier and ultimately impact neonatal energy reserves. Further, Dr. Allee responded to availability changes in synthetic amino acids to the industry to explore opportunities to leverage these AA’s into sow diet formulations. In the area of nursery pig nutrition, his record explores the theme of lipid metabolism from lipogenesis, to ketogenesis to fat source and fatty acid profile implication to diet value. However, Dr. Allee picked up the themes of protein and lactose sources and implications on hypersensitivity and value of proteins and sugars targeted to the young pig all influencing practical diet formulations globally in young pig nutrition. In the area of the grow-finish pig, Gary’s work explored topics of dietary fat use, practical aspects of amino acid inclusion and the interaction of repartitioning approaches to lean deposition with nutrient requirements. This symposium is designed to highlight several key principals for success as a scientist that are evident in Dr. Allee’s career: a) importance of being a systems thinker in ability to take basic information and evolve it into practical implications; b) importance of being a global citizen in scientific professional development; and c) the impact that one has on people endures.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.027
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 4 Protein and Amino Acid Concepts and Use in Swine Nutrition: Gary
           Allee’s Contributions to the Swine Industry
    • Authors: Goodband R.
      Pages: 16 - 16
      Abstract: I was very fortunate to meet Gary Allee in 1984 when I began my M.S. degree at Kansas State University. I’ll remember Gary most in that he cared about people and truly wanted to serve humanity and make the world a better place through animal agriculture. He helped develop scholars, both nationally and internationally, that would be the future of our industry. Gary was proficient in seeking a solution to a problem and finding the experimental resources to explain it. Very early in his career, he helped verify the concept of a lysine:calorie ratio as a means of explaining the previously varied and inconsistent response to added fat in swine diets. Early research outlined the order of limiting amino acids in various feed ingredients. Gary’s research also focused on determining the nutritional value of protein sources for weanling pigs, such as dried whey, fish meal and dried skim milk that ultimately led to phase feeding strategies for early weaned pigs that are the backbone of our industry. Gary and his students determined lysine and other amino acid requirements for growing pigs and sows under field conditions. He helped elucidate the effects of low-protein, amino acid fortified diets under heat stress environments. As market weights increased, his research was instrumental in determining how to feed heavy weight pigs as well as those fed ractopamine. Gary grasped concepts and applied them into practical solutions in swine nutrition. He was a strong believer and leader in cooperative research among universities but also, at that time, a novel concept of university-industry partnerships. Those of us that can say they knew Gary Allee, are very fortunate and better because of it.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.028
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 2 A Metabolic Understanding of Nutrition
    • Authors: Kerr B.
      Pages: 16 - 17
      Abstract: Optimal nutrition is essential to support growth and development of farm animals, and in combination with costs, is essential in maintaining economical animal production. Simplistically nutrition involves physiological and biochemical processes whereupon feedstuffs are consumed for energy and nutrient purposes, and through the myriad of digestive and metabolic mechanisms, provides the energy and nutrients to be used and/or deposited for productive purposes (e.g., bone, lean, and fat). While the individual parts of metabolism, and therefore nutrition, must add up to the animal as a whole, in the long-term energy and nutrients cannot be evaluated strictly on a reductionist basis. Thus, while research is conducted using methods to control outside and confounding effects, it is these influences and interactions that must be researched and understood in order to support optimal animal production in an economical and environmentally sustainable manner. Therefore, understanding basic mechanisms is critical in providing a scientific basis as to why a nutrient, feed additive, or feedstuff may ‘work’, but it does not guarantee such. As exhibited in Dr. Allee’s publications, development of students, and outreach activities, he often conducted basic research from which to use this knowledge in relationship to the whole animal on an applied basis. Portions of this presentation will discuss some specific areas (e.g., lipids and amino acids) of Dr. Allee’s career whereupon research was conducted to scientifically understand how and why energy and nutrients (feedstuffs) may improve animal productivity and efficiency on a real-world basis.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.029
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 130 Utilization of Nutrack to Assess Variance Components and Heritability
           of Activity Traits
    • Authors: Ostrand L; Trenhaile-Grannemann M, See G, et al.
      Pages: 17 - 17
      Abstract: Overall activity and behavior are integral components of sows remaining productive in the herd. This investigation studied overall activity of group housed replacement gilts and the heritability of various activity traits. Beginning around 20 wk of age, video recorded data of approximately 75 gilts/group for a total of 2,378 gilts over 32 groups was collected for 7 consecutive d using the NUtrack System, which tracks distance travelled (m), avg speed (m/s), angle rotated (degrees), and time standing (s), sitting (s), eating (s), and laying (s). The recorded phenotypes were standardized to the distribution observed within a pen for each group. The final values used for analysis were the average daily standardized values. Data were analyzed using mixed models (RStudio V 1.2.5033) including effects of sire, dam, dam’s sire and dam, dam’s grandsire and granddam, farrowing group, barn, pen, and on-test date. Sire had an effect on every activity trait P < 0.001), and dam had an effect on average speed (P < 0.001). The dam’s sire had an effect on all activity traits (P < 0.001) and the dam’s grandsire had an effect on average speed (P < 0.001). Heritabilities and variance components of activity traits were estimated in ASReml 4 using an animal model with a two-generation pedigree. Genetic variances are 0.17 +/- 0.029, 0.19 +/- 0.034, and 0.11 +/- 0.024, residual variances are 0.37 +/- 0.023, 0.41 +/- 0.027, and 0.41 +/- 0.022, phenotypic variances are 0.54 +/- 0.018, 0.60 +/- 0.020, and 0.52 +/- 0.016, and heritabilities are 0.32 +/- 0.048, 0.32 +/- 0.049, and 0.21 +/- 0.044 for average speed, distance, and lie respectively. NUtrack offers potential to aid in selection decisions. Given the results presented herein, continued investigation into these activity traits and their association with sow longevity is warranted.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.030
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 131 Zilpaterol Hydrochloride and Heat Stress Each Alter the Cattle Adipose
           Transcriptome and Predicted to Alter Molecular Pathways After 21 Days
    • Authors: Reith R; Sieck R, Grijalva P, et al.
      Pages: 17 - 18
      Abstract: Heat stress reduces livestock performance while supplementation of beta-adrenergic agonists (βAA) such as zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) improve production efficiency; both stimulate lipolysis. The objective of this study was to understand the effects (independent, interacting) of heat stress and ZH on the subcutaneous adipose transcriptome in fed steers. 24 Red Angus steers were assigned to thermoneutral (TN; THI=68) or heat stress (HS; THI=83) conditions and fed no supplement (NS) or ZH (8.33 mg/kg/day) for 21d in a 2x2 factorial. TN steers were pair-fed the HS daily average. Subcutaneous adipose samples were collected at day -3, 3, 10, and 21. RNA was isolated and sequenced using 3’ Tag-Seq reads to a depth of 3.6 million reads/sample. Transcripts were mapped to ARS-UCD1.2 and quantified. After quality control, differential expression (DE) analyses were performed in DESeq2 with a significance threshold (FRD) of 0.05. Pathway analysis was used to explore pathways affected by HS, ZH, and their interaction using DE loci (P < 0.05). The acute phase response signaling pathway was predicted to be activated at 3d, but inhibited at 10d and 21d by the combination of HS and ZH. At multiple time points, inflammatory pathways including those for interferon and IL-8 were predicted to be activated by HS. Mitochondrial function pathways including oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and TCA cycle II were altered by ZH. Adipose centric pathways for phospholipase-C and protein kinase-A signaling were altered by HS/ZH interaction while glycolysis was altered solely by HS. These data support the hypothesis that exposing cattle to HS conditions and ZH supplementation alters the subcutaneous adipose transcriptome, but not necessarily in an additive fashion. These data provide information regarding the supplementation of βAA in heat stress environments, especially if it mediates the effects of HS.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.031
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 129 Genomic Relationship Between PRRSV Wild-type Infection and PRRSV
           Vaccination for Antibody Response and Reproductive Performance
    • Authors: Sanglard L; Hickmann F, Huang Y, et al.
      Pages: 18 - 18
      Abstract: Immunoglobulin G antibody response, measured as sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio, to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been proposed as an indicator trait for improved reproductive performance in PRRSV-infected purebred sows and PRRSV-vaccinated crossbred gilts. In this study, we investigated the genetic correlations (rg) of S/P ratio following a PRRSV outbreak and PRRSV-vaccination with performance in non-exposed and PRRSV-exposed sows. PRRSV outbreak phase was defined based on previously described methodologies after the detection of typical clinical signs of PRRSV infection. 541 Landrace sows had S/P ratio measured at ~54 days after the beginning of the PRRSV outbreak (S/Poutbreak), and 906 Landrace x Large White naïve F1 gilts had S/P ratio measured at ~50 days after vaccination with a commercial modified live PRRSV vaccine (S/PVx). 711 and 428 Landrace sows had reproductive performance recorded before and during the PRRSV outbreak, respectively. 811 vaccinated F1 animals had farrowing performance for up to 3 parities. All animals were genotyped for ~28K SNPs. The estimate of rg of S/Poutbreakwith S/PVx was high (rg±SE = 0.72±0.18). Estimates of rg of S/Poutbreak with reproductive performance in F1 sows were low to moderate, ranging from 0.05±0.23 (number stillborn) to 0.30±0.20 (total number born). Estimates of rg of S/PVxwith reproductive performance in non-infected purebred sows were moderate and favorable with number born alive (0.50±0.23), but low (0 to -0.11±0.23) with litter mortality traits. Estimates of rg of S/PVx were moderate and negative (-0.47±0.18) with the number of mummies in PRRSV-infected purebred sows and low with other traits (-0.29±0.18 for total number born to 0.05±0.18 for number stillborn). These results indicate that selection for antibody response following a PRRSV outbreak collected in purebred sows and to PRRSV vaccination collected in commercial crossbred gilts may increase litter size of non-infected and PRRSV-exposed purebred and commercial crossbred sows.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.032
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 128 Differences in PRRSV Resilience for Reproductive Performance Between
           Landrace and Duroc Sows
    • Authors: Hickmann F; Neto J, Kramer L, et al.
      Pages: 18 - 19
      Abstract: Studies on differences in resilience to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) between breeds are scarce in the literature. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess PRRSV resilience in PRRSV wild-type infected sows from two breeds. Farrowing data included 2546 and 2522 litters from 894 Duroc and 813 Landrace sows, respectively, which were housed together and experienced the same PRRSV outbreak. Traits used for this study were number of piglets born alive (NBA), number born dead (NBD), total number born (TNB), and number weaned (NW). The impact of PRRSV infection was evaluated by comparing the reproductive performance of breeds between PRRS phases (pre-PRRS, PRRS, and post-PRRS). PRRS phases were defined based on the reproductive performance data. NBA, NBD, and NW were analyzed as a proportion of TNB using a Poisson mixed model. Pre-defined contrasts were used to evaluate the effect of breed on PRRSV resilience and on return to PRRSV-free performance, representing the differences between breeds for the difference between pre-PRRS and PRRS phases, and pre-PRRS and post-PRRS phases, respectively. There was a significant (P ≤ 0.003) interaction between PRRS phase and breed for all traits, as shown in Table 1. In general, reproductive performance reduced from pre-PRRS to PRRS, and then increased from PRRS to post-PRRS, as expected. The resilience contrast was significant for all traits (P ≤ 0.003). In all cases, the drop in percent reproductive performance from pre-PRRS to PRRS was lower for Duroc than for Landrace, indicating that Duroc sows have greater PRRSV resilience than Landrace sows. The return to PRRSV-free performance contrast had a trending effect for NBD (P = 0.055), and it was not significant for the other traits (P ≥ 0.515). These results indicate that Duroc sows have overall greater phenotypic PRRSV resilience for reproductive performance than Landrace sows.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.033
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 127 Antibody Response as an Indicator Trait for Improved Reproductive
           Performance During a PRRSV Outbreak: Genetic Correlations of S/P Ratio
           with Reproductive Traits in Landrace and Duroc Sows
    • Authors: Hickmann F; Neto J, Kramer L, et al.
      Pages: 19 - 20
      Abstract: Previous studies proposed the use of antibody response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV), measured as sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio, as a potential indicator trait to improve the reproductive performance of PRRSV-infected Landrace sows. However, this indicator trait has not yet been validated in Landrace sows or evaluated in a terminal sire line, such as Duroc. The main objective of this work was to perform host-genetic analyses of S/P ratio and reproductive traits during a PRRSV outbreak in maternal and terminal breeds. The data consisted of 690 Duroc and 541 Landrace multiparous sows (1.9±1.2 and 2.3±1.5, respectively) with S/P ratio collected at approximately 54 days after the predicted beginning of the outbreak. Of these, 644 Duroc and 528 Landrace sows also had reproductive data recorded during the PRRSV outbreak comprising number of piglets born alive (NBA), stillborn piglets (NSB), mummified piglets (NBM), number born dead (NBD; sum of NSB and NBM), total number born (TNB; sum of NBA and NBD), and number weaned (NW). All animals had genotype data on ~30K SNPs common across both breeds. Heritability estimates (± standard error) of S/P ratio during the PRRSV outbreak were moderate, with 0.33±0.06 for Duroc and 0.28±0.07 for Landrace. Reproductive traits during the PRRSV outbreak had overall low heritability estimates (≤0.18). Favorable genetic correlations of S/P ratio with NBA (0.65±0.33), in accordance with previous studies, and NBD (-0.33±0.28) were observed for Landrace sows only. Estimates of genetic correlation with other traits were -0.21±0.30 (NBM), -0.12±0.29 (NSB), 0.10±0.38 (NW), and 0.54±1.29 (TNB) for Landrace. For Duroc, these estimates were weaker: -0.33±0.40 (NBA), 0.26±0.27 (NBA), and 0.28±0.30 (NW), with convergence issues for mortality traits. These results further support the use of S/P ratio as an indicator trait for improved reproductive performance during a PRRSV outbreak in Landrace sows.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.034
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 281 Can We Developmentally Program the Epigenome to Improve Traits
           Relevant to Production in Cattle'
    • Authors: Cushman R; Snider A, Crouse M.
      Pages: 20 - 20
      Abstract: While sequence variation can be informative to associate regions of the genome with specific traits and improve genetic selection, the epigenome may provide a more powerful tool to manage cattle. Identifying practices that are producer friendly and effectively control epigenetic function within animals is crucial to translating developmental programming to a production setting. Initial studies of developmental programming investigated how environmental or nutritional stresses during fetal and peri-natal development impacted performance of animals later in life. These studies demonstrated changes in methylation, alterations in transcript abundance, and negative impacts on physiology, but they also suggested that we may be able to beneficially impact the epigenome and developmentally program animals to excel in their niche in the production system. Maternal nutritional status during the third trimester influenced date of conception of female progeny in several studies but failed to do so in other studies. Transcriptomic analyses provided evidence that nutritional treatments alter mRNA abundance in brain, liver, muscle, and ovary, but does not conclusively demonstrate that this is due to functional changes in the epigenome. If developmental programming is to be applied in production systems, responses must be consistent and beneficial. Reducing nutrient intake in heifers during peri-pubertal development increased number of primordial follicles in the ovaries and reproductive longevity. While nutritional programming of the ovarian reserve in peri-pubertal heifers appears to occur consistently across locations and studies, it does not ensure that subsequent environmental stressors will not induce changes in the ovarian reserve that will negate beneficial effects. These studies demonstrate that it is possible to developmentally program the epigenome in cattle in ways that will improve production traits; however, there remains a need for studies to improve the consistency of response and to determine best practices that fit into production systems. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.035
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 282 Multi-omics Approaches to Improve Animal Production
    • Authors: Da Silva Diniz W; Ward A.
      Pages: 20 - 21
      Abstract: The livestock sector faces an immense challenge to meet the increased demand for animal products. There is a need to increase animal performance, improve animal health and well-being, and reduce the environmental footprint. To meet these challenges, omics technologies have provided opportunities to understand animal biology and the genetic architecture underlying important economic traits. Despite the increased number of quantitative trait loci identified, the reported number of causal genes and mutations driving phenotypic changes is still limited. Likewise, transcriptomics has been routinely explored to identify genes underlying complex traits such as feed efficiency and meat quality. Furthermore, other omics approaches, such as epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, are now extensively used. However, most of the studies have focused on single-data-type designs without considering the intricated relationship among these regulatory layers. Additionally, it has been shown that the relationship between the host genome and its gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in shaping animal performance. Despite the improved genetic gain provided by genomic selection approaches, the genetic basis of complex traits remains unclear. As the cross-talk between regulatory layers modulates complex traits, integrative network modeling has been adopted to untangle the biological mechanisms driving genotype-phenotype association. For example, by combining multi-tissue transcriptomic profiles, we were able to identify putative mechanisms driving the differential tissue regulation in nutrient restricted bovine fetuses. Despite the advances in network modeling, the genome to phenome connection still requires a better functionally annotated genome. Furthermore, analytical methods to fully integrate omics data into breeding equations are still under development. However, initiatives, such as FAANG, seek to address some of the aforementioned limitations. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying complex traits and the development of statistical models that includes omics data will increase the prediction accuracy of important economic traits. Altogether, it will allow improving production efficiency to meet society’s demand.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.036
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 280 Harnessing Proteome and Transcriptome Expression and
           Network/interactome Analysis to Better Understand How Nutrition Regulates
           Sexual Development in Prepubertal Cattle
    • Authors: Kenny D.
      Pages: 21 - 21
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.037
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 30 The Effect of Creep Feed Composition and Form on Pre- and Post-weaning
           Growth Performance of Pigs and the Utilization of Low-quality Nursery
           Diets
    • Authors: Christensen B; Huber L.
      Pages: 21 - 22
      Abstract: Fifty-six litters standardized to 12 piglets from first-parity sows were used to determine the effects of creep and nursery diet compositions on pre- and post-weaning pig growth performance. At three days of age, litters (initial BW 2.31±0.61kg) were assigned to one of four creep feeding regimens (n=14): [1] commercial creep feed (COM), [2] liquid milk replacer (LMR), [3] pelleted milk replacer (PMR), or [4] no creep feed (NO); creep feeds contained 1.0% brilliant blue as a fecal marker. Fecal swabs were collected every 3±1 days to identify piglets that regularly consumed creep feed. At weaning (18±1 days of age), six pigs per litter that consumed creep feed were placed on either a HIGH- (contained highly digestible animal proteins) or LOW- (contained corn and soybean meal as the main protein sources) quality nursery diet (n = 7) in a three-phase feeding program over 38 days.The LMR disappeared at the greatest rate (37.7 g/pig/d; DM-basis) versus COM and PMR (10.8±1.5 g/pig/d; P < 0.001). Litters that received LMR had the greatest proportion of pigs with blue fecal swabs between study days 4 and 15 (85.0 vs 59.0±0.4%; P < 0.05) and LMR piglets had greater BW at weaning versus all other treatments (6.32, 6.02, 5.92, 5.67±0.14 kg, for LMR, COM, NO, and PMR, respectively; P < 0.001). Over the entire nursery period, pigs that received LOW diets had reduced ADG (399 vs 485±42 g; P < 0.001), ADFI (520 vs 595±37 g; P< 0.001), G:F (0.77 vs 0.82±0.03; P < 0.01), and BW at the end of the nursery period (21.2 vs 24.4±1.6 kg; P < 0.001), with no carryover effects of creep feeding regimen. Providing supplemental nutrition during the suckling period via LMR improved pig body weight at weaning, but did not improve post-weaning growth performance, regardless of nursery diet quality.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.038
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 20 Effect of Adding Bioactive Peptide in Combination of Pharmaceutical
           Zinc Oxide or Organic Acids on Growth Performance, Hematology Profile, and
           Nutrient Digestibility in Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Mudarra R; Tsai T, Bottoms K, et al.
      Pages: 22 - 23
      Abstract: To evaluate the effect of bioactive peptide (P) in combination with high level of zinc (HZ) or acidifiers on growth performance, complete blood cell counts (CBC) and nutrient digestibility in nursery pigs, a total of 288 weaned pigs (PIC1050xDNA600) were stratified by initial BW within gender and allotted to 1of 7 treatments. Treatments for phase 1&2 were: 1) nutrient adequate positive control with HZ (PC), 2) nutrient deficient negative control with HZ (NC, -0.13% SID Lysine by reducing fish meal), 3) NC+0.25% peptide (0.25PZ), 4) NC+0.5% peptide (0.5PZ), 5) NC+0.25% peptide with standard zinc (0.25P), 6) NC+0.5% peptide with standard zinc (0.5P), 7) as 5 + 0.1% sodium butyrate and 0.5% benzoic acid (PSB). All pigs were fed a common low Zn diet (197 ppm) during phase 3. The whole blood was obtained from a close-to-average pen-BW pig repeatedly at weaning, and at the end of phase 2 and 3 to determine CBC. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to determine nutrient digestibility. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS as a RCBD with treatment as fixed effect, and BW block as random effect. In overall phase 1&2, pigs fed PSB had similar ADG and BW when compared to pigs fed 0.25PZ and both were greater than NC pigs (Table 1). With the same inclusion rate of peptide, pigs fed a high zinc diet had greater BW and ADG than pigs fed a standard zinc diet. PSB pigs had the greatest G:F ratio and nitrogen digestibility among treatments. Increasing peptide in high zinc diets gradually decreased Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. This study indicates that the improvement in growth performance from pigs fed peptide is pharmaceutical zinc dependent and acidifiers can be an alternative to replace ZnO without affecting growth performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.039
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 24 Effects of Spring versus Fall Calving on Fetal Growth, Vigor at Birth,
           and Neonatal Circulating Metabolites in Beef Calves
    • Authors: Wichman L; Redifer C, Meyer A.
      Pages: 23 - 24
      Abstract: To determine the effect of season on perinatal nutrient availability, assessed through fetal growth, calf vigor, and neonatal circulating metabolites, multiparous and primiparous dams (age: 4.7 ± 2.4 yr; BCS: 5.3 ± 0.6) from 4 spring (2014–2017; n = 202) and 4 fall (2015, 2017–2019; n = 177) calving experiments were observed during parturition. Time to stand (spring: 67; fall: 104) was determined as minutes from birth to standing for 5 sec. After birth, calf BW and size (spring: 99; fall: 169; length, heart girth, abdominal girth, and cannon circumference) were recorded. Jugular blood samples were obtained from 63 spring and 89 fall calves at 0 (pre-suckling), 6, 12, 24, and 48 h postnatally. Data were analyzed either with the fixed effect of season (single point) or the fixed effects of season, hour, and their interaction with hour as a repeated effect (over time); calf sex was included when P < 0.25. Experiment was a random effect. Fall-born calves tended to have lighter (P = 0.09) BW and faster (P = 0.05) time to stand than spring-born calves. Season did not affect (P ≥ 0.18) other calf size measures. The season x hour interaction (P ≤ 0.07) affected circulating glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides, urea nitrogen, globulin, and total protein. Spring-born calves had greater (P ≤ 0.009) 0 h glucose, 0 and 6 h NEFA, and 0, 6, 12, and 48 h triglycerides than fall-born calves. Fall-born calves had greater (P = 0.03) total protein at 24 h and tended to have greater (P ≤ 0.10) total protein and urea nitrogen at 48 h and globulin at 24 h. Season affected albumin, which was greater (P = 0.003) in fall-born calves. These data suggest that calving season influences perinatal nutrient availability, which may impact the transition to postnatal life.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.041
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 23 Effects of Rubber Matting on Cattle Locomotion Scores in Slatted
           Facilities
    • Authors: Dawson C; Henley P, Schroeder A, et al.
      Pages: 23 - 23
      Abstract: The objective was to determine effects of interlocking rubber floor matting in slatted indoor cattle feeding facilities on cattle locomotion. In experiment 1, Fall-born Angus × Simmental steers (N = 206; BW = 228 ± 34 kg) were blocked by weight and assigned to 32 pens. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: new Max Grip Animat matting (MG), new Animat Pebble matting (PEB), old Animat Pebble matting (OLD), and no matting/concrete slating (CONC). Steers were fed a common diet for 209 d with an average stocking density of 3.70 m2 per steer. Locomotion scores were assigned by two trained staff using a 0–3 scale of the Step-Up® Locomotion Scoring System (Zinpro, Eden Prairie, MN) throughout both experiments. There was no treatment by day interaction (P = 0.88) observed. Treatment affected (P < 0.01) locomotion scores with CONC being the greatest and MG, PEB, and OLD being lesser and not different from each other. Locomotion scores also increased (P < 0.01) over time. In experiment 2, Fall-born Angus × Simmental steers (n = 189; BW = 352 ± 43 kg) were blocked by weight and assigned to 21 pens. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: new Animat Pebble matting (PEB2), old Animat Pebble matting (OLD2), or no matting/concrete slating (CONC2). Steers were fed a common diet for 152 d with an average stocking density of 2.64 m2 per steer. There was no treatment by day interaction (P = 0.42) observed. However, both treatment and day affected (P ≤ 0.02) locomotion scores. Steers on CONC2 had the greatest locomotion score, while PEB2 and OLD2 were not different from each other. Locomotion scores were the greatest on d 152. Overall, results suggest new and old rubber floor matting improved locomotion scores of feedlot steers in slatted indoor cattle feeding facilities.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.040
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 27 Greenhouse Gas Emissions and a Partial Life Cycle Assessment When
           Growing Pigs Are Fed High Wheat Millrun Diets
    • Authors: Kpogo A; Jose J, Panisson J, et al.
      Pages: 24 - 25
      Abstract: The impact of feeding growing pigs with high wheat millrun diets on the global warming potential (GWP) of pork production was investigated. In study 1, a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of wheat millrun (0 or 30%) and multi-carbohydrase enzyme (0 or 1 mg kg-1) as main effects was utilized. For each of 16 reps, 6 pigs (60.2±2.2 kg BW) were housed in environmental chambers for 14d. Air samples were collected and analyzed for carbon dioxide (CO2); nitrous oxide (N2O); and methane (CH4). In study 2, data from study 1 and performance data obtained from a previous feeding trial were utilized in a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework that included feed production. The Holos farm model (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge. AB) was used to estimate emissions from feed production. In study 1, total manure output from pigs fed 30% wheat millrun diets was 30% greater than pigs on the 0% wheat millrun diets (P < 0.05), however, Feeding diets with 30% millrun did not affect greenhouse gas (GHG) output (CH4, 4.7, 4.9; N2O, 0.45, 0.42; CO2, 1610, 1711; mg s-1 without or with millrun inclusion, respectively; P > 0.78). Enzyme supplementation had no effect on GHG production (CH4, 4.5, 5.1; N2O, 0.46, 0.42; CO2, 1808, 1513; mg s-1 without or with enzymes, respectively; P > 0.51). In study 2, the LCA indicated that the inclusion of 30% wheat millrun in diets for growing pigs resulted in approximately a 25% reduction in GWP when compared to the no wheat millrun diets. Our results demonstrate that 30% wheat millrun did not increase GHG output from the pigs, and thus the inclusion of wheat millrun in diets of growing pigs can reduce the GWP of pork production.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.043
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 22 Effects of Housing Cow-calf Pairs on Drylots vs Pasture on Calf
           Performance and Behavior Through Weaning
    • Authors: Myerscough M; Chapple W, Meteer W, et al.
      Pages: 24 - 24
      Abstract: The objectives were to analyze the effects of housing cow-calf pairs in drylots or pasture on calf performance and behavior through weaning. Simmental × Angus (2 yr; 108/yr; 81 ± 15.3 d postpartum) spring-calving cows were stratified by age, BW, BCS, and calf sex and allotted to six groups/yr. Groups were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: drylot (DL) or pasture (PAST). Calves in the drylot had ad libitum access to a diet consisting of corn silage, dried distillers grain, corn stalks, dry rolled corn, and soybean hulls. Calves on PAST received creep feed three weeks prior to weaning. Calf BW was measured on d 0, 55, and 110. Calves were fence-line weaned on d 110. Behavior was observed for two days after weaning. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Drylot calves had greater (P < 0.01) BW at d 55 and 110. There was treatment by time interactions (P < 0.01) for lying and eating on d 111. More PAST calves were lying at h 2 and 3 and eating at h 11 and 12. More DL calves were lying at h 9, 10, 11, and 12. More DL calves were eating at h 2 and tended to at h 3. There was also a treatment by time interaction (P < 0.01) for vocalizations on d 111. More PAST calves vocalized at h 1, however, DL calves vocalized more at h 4 and tended to at h 5. There was treatment by time interactions (P < 0.01) for eating and walking on d 112. More DL calves were eating at h 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9. More PAST calves were walking at h 1 and 2. There was also a treatment by time interaction (P < 0.01) for vocalizations on d 112. More PAST calves vocalized at h 1 and 10. In conclusion, housing cow-calf pairs in drylots improved preweaning performance and altered postweaning behavior.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.042
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 21 Effect of Corn Silage Inclusion Rate on Live Growth Performance,
           Carcass Characteristics, Net Energy Utilization and Beef Production Per
           Hectare in Feedlot Finishing Steers
    • Authors: Buckhaus E; Smith Z.
      Pages: 25 - 26
      Abstract: Maine-Anjou × Angus beef steers (n = 156; initial BW 366 ± 37.2 kg) were used in a finishing experiment at the Ruminant Nutrition Center in Brookings, SD. Steers were weighed on 2 consecutive days and assigned into 5 weight blocks (replicate pens). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial, 2 types of implants and 2 dietary treatments. Dietary treatments consisted (DM basis) of 1) 15% (CS15) or 2) 30% corn silage (CS30). Other ingredients consisted of DRC, HMC, liquid supplement and a dry supplement. The NEm, NEg and CP of CS15 was 94.8 Mcal/45.4 kg, 64.0 Mcal/45.4 kg and 12.7% and 91.2 Mcal/45.4 kg, 61.1 Mcal/45.4 kg, and 12.5% respectively (DM basis) for CS30. Bunks were managed using a slick bunk approach and all diets contained (DM basis) 33 mg/kg monensin sodium. Corn silage yield was assumed to be 45.7 Mg/ha and corn grain yield was calculated to be 10.2 Mg/ha. Beef production per hectare was calculated as (carcass adjusted final BW – initial BW)/hectare. No interaction between diet and implant (P ≥ 0.16) was detected for any variables. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were increased (P ≤ 0.02) by 2.2%, 6.5% and 7.2% respectively for CS15. Observed NE and the ratio of observed-to-expected NE for maintenance and gain was not influenced (P ≥ 0.15) by treatment. Dressing percent (64.52 vs. 63.47 ± 0.250; P = 0.01) and HCW (379 vs. 371 ± 13.1 kg; P = 0.02) were greater in CS15. Beef production per hectare was not impacted (P = 0.76) by feeding greater levels of corn silage. Feeding CS15 resulted in greater carcass-adjusted growth performance and HCW. No differences in beef produced per hectare of crop land means producers can feed greater inclusions of corn silage to finishing cattle without impacting carcass quality or beef production.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.045
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 25 Estimating Fetal Age Using Transabdominal Ultrasonic Measurements in
           Sheep Early in Gestation
    • Authors: Navarrete J; Kibler M, Earing J, et al.
      Pages: 25 - 25
      Abstract: An increasingly common method to detect pregnancy in sheep is transabdominal ultrasonography. Research has shown that transabdominal ultrasonography can be accurately measured between days 33–60 of gestation. Additionally, few studies have investigated the use of ultrasonic measurements as predictors of fetal age via transabdominal ultrasound. A pilot study found that pregnancy detection can be performed as early as 31 days with an accuracy of 100% and reported that embryonic vesicle depth (EVD) could be utilized to estimate fetal age. The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the ability of transabdominal ultrasonography measurements to predict fetal age. Estrus was synchronized in fifteen crossbred ewes, followed by natural mating over a 24h period. From weeks 3 to 9 of gestation, transabdominal ultrasonography (at 3.5 MHz) was performed twice weekly. During on farm ultrasonography, pregnancy diagnosis and fetal count were recorded, and ultrasonic images were recorded for subsequent measurement of EVD and embryonic vesicle length. Eleven out of 15 ewes were confirmed pregnant from our sample. Using the surveyreg procedure in SAS we predict day of gestation through the independent variables: average embryo vesicle depth (aveEVD), aveEVD2, average embryo vesicle length (aveEVL), and the number of fetuses. The model predicts 82% of the variation in gestational age can be explained by the independent variables. Parameter estimates for aveEVD (P < 0.0001) and aveEVL (P < 0.0286) are positive, indicating that every 1 cm increase in these measurements results in 8.9 and 1.3 day increases in gestational age, respectively. Holding other factors constant, we find embryonic vesicle depth increases at a decreasing rate (aveEVD2, P < 0.001). These results indicate gestational age can be predicted through two embryonic vesicle measurements using transabdominal ultrasonography.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.044
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 28 In-feed or In-water Antibiotic Administration Did Not Influence the
           Fecal Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Salmonella
           in Piglets
    • Authors: Ishengoma V; Amachawadi R, Shi X, et al.
      Pages: 26 - 27
      Abstract: A total of 1,296 weaned piglets were used in a 35-d study to assess the impact of in-feed vs in-water administrations of chlortetracycline (CTC) and or tiamulin on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of Salmonella enterica. Piglets were allocated to 48 pens (27 pigs per pen) and pens were assigned randomly to six treatment groups: control (no antibiotic), in-feed CTC, in-water CTC, in-feed tiamulin, in-water tiamulin, and in feed CTC and tiamulin. Fresh fecal samples were collected randomly from 5 of 27 piglets from each pen on days -7, 0 (pre-treatment), 7, 14 (treatment), 21, and 28 (post-treatment). Salmonella isolation and identification were done by enrichment, plating on selective medium, and species confirmation of putative colonies by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of the isolates were determined using premade antibiotic panel (SensititreTM CMV3AGNF and BOPO7F) and results were interpreted based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. All Salmonella isolates were identified as serotype Typhimurium. The overall prevalence of Salmonella was 3.0% (43/1,440) with no treatment effect (P > 0.05). All isolates were resistant (100%) to tetracycline and tiamulin. Additionally, the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (100%), streptomycin (100%), sulfisoxazole (100), ciprofloxacin (95.4%) and nalidixic acid (74.4%). Only a few isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (4.7%), ceftriaxone (7.0%), and ceftiofur (7.0%). PCR assays indicated the presence of tetB gene in all isolates, while 11 (25.6%) and 4 (9.3%) isolates were positive for tetD and tetA genes, respectively. Neither in-feed nor in-water administration of CTC or tiamulin impacted the fecal prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella in nursery piglets.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.046
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 17 A De novo Recessive Mutation Causative of Mandibulofacial Dysostosis in
           Hereford Cattle
    • Authors: Sieck R; Fuller A, Bedwell P, et al.
      Pages: 27 - 27
      Abstract: In spring 2020, six Hereford calves presented with congenital craniofacial abnormalities attributed to a condition we termed mandibulofacial dysostosis (MD). Pedigree analysis revealed a single common ancestor shared by the sire and dam of each affected calf. We hypothesized that MD in Hereford cattle is attributed to a de novo mutation with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. To avoid production of affected calves, the objective of this study was to identify the cause of MD. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 20 animals (3 affected, 7 obligate carriers, 10 related) yielded 143 variants matching the hypothesized mode of inheritance. Genotyping of 2 additional affected calves, 760 Herefords, and evaluation of WGS data from over 2,500 other individuals led to the discovery of a missense mutation (Chr26 g. 14404993 T >C) in CYP26C1 associated with MD. The amino acid change due to the CYP26C1 variant (p. L188P) is located in an α helix of the protein; modeling suggests the substitution breaks the helix. The mutation is predicted to be deleterious (SIFT = 0) and is otherwise conserved across species. In our data, all heterozygotes had at least one pedigree tie to the suspect founder. CYP26C1 plays a vital role in tissue-specific regulation of retinoic acid (RA) during embryonic development. Dysregulation of RA can result in teratogenesis by altering the endothelin-1 signaling pathway affecting the expression of Dlx genes, critical to mandibulofacial development. Further, multiple human conditions with similar pathologic characteristics are attributed to dysfunction of this gene and/or retinoic acid signaling. We conclude that this recessive missense mutation in CYP26C1 impacts the catalytic activity of the encoded enzyme, leading to excess RA and resulting in the MD phenotype. Breeders can now genotype their animals to identify carriers. These data also contribute to expanding the understanding of craniofacial development across species.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.047
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 31 Using Caloric Efficiency to Estimate the Energy Value of Expelled,
           Extruded Soybean Meal Relative to Dehulled, Solvent-extracted Soybean Meal
           and Its Effects on Growth Performance of Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Blomme A; Wecker H, Stark C, et al.
      Pages: 27 - 28
      Abstract: This study aimed to estimate the net energy value of expelled, extruded soybean meal (MSBM) relative to dehulled, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) and determine its effects on growth performance of late nursery pigs. Analyzed values for CP, EE, CF, and lysine for the SBM were 47.28%, 0.47%, 3.80%, and 3.00% while the MSBM contained 47.41%, 6.88%, 5.32%, 2.99% respectively. A total of 297 pigs (DNA 200 x 400) were placed into 60 pens (2 rooms of 30 pens) with 5 pigs per pen balanced by gender and weaning weight. Pigs were fed common diets for 21 days. Then, pens of pigs (BW 9.3 kg) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments to provide 12 replications per treatment. Treatments consisted of increasing amounts of MSBM replacing SBM in the diet (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%). All diets were fed for 28 days and were formulated to 1.30% standardized ileal digestible lysine and met or exceeded NRC (2012) recommendations for lysine:amino acids, calcium, and phosphorus. The SBM diet was formulated to 2421 kcal/kg and net energy (NE) was not balanced between diets. Data were analyzed using Proc GLIMMIX (SAS 9.4; Cary, NC) with pen as the experimental unit and room as the blocking factor. There was no evidence of differences in ADG and ADFI in pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of MSBM. Pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of MSBM had improved (linear, P < 0.001) G:F and caloric efficiency on an NE basis. In conclusion, using caloric efficiency to estimate NE of the MSBM relative to SBM, MSBM was estimated to have a value of 123% of SBM NE or 2566 kcal/kg. This increase in NE resulted in improved feed efficiency of nursery pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.048
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 29 Live Yeast and Yeast Extracts with and Without Pharmacological Levels
           of Zinc on Nursery Pig Growth Performance and Fecal Escherichia coli
           Antimicrobial Resistance
    • Authors: Chance J; DeRouchey J, Gebhardt J, et al.
      Pages: 28 - 29
      Abstract: A total of 360 barrows (DNA 200×400; initially 5.6 kg) were used to evaluate yeast-based probiotics (Phileo by Lesaffre, Milwaukee, WI) in diets with or without pharmacological levels of Zn on growth and fecal Escherichia coli antimicrobial resistance (AMR). There were 5 pigs/pen and 18 pens/treatment. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial with main effects of yeast pre- and probiotics (0 vs. 0.10% Actisaf Sc 47 HR+, 0.05% SafMannan, and 0.05% Nucleosaf in phase 1 then concentrations were lowered by 50% in phase 2) and pharmacological levels of Zn (110 vs. 3,000 mg/kg in phase 1 and 2,000 mg/kg in phase 2 provided by zinc oxide). Treatments were fed in two phases from d 0 to 7 and 7 to 21 with a common diet fed from d 21 to 42 post-weaning. There were no probiotics×Zn interactions. From d 0 to 21, pigs fed pharmacological Zn had increased (P < 0.001) ADG and ADFI; however, there were no effects of added pre- and probiotics. Fecal samples were collected on d 4, 21, and 42 from the same three pigs/pen for AMR profiles and fecal dry matter (DM). On d 4, pigs fed pharmacological Zn had greater fecal DM (P = 0.043); however, no differences were observed on d 21 or 42. E. coli was isolated from fecal samples and species confirmation was accomplished by PCR detection of uidA and clpB genes. Microbroth dilution method using SensititreTM CMV3AGNF panel was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli isolates to 14 different antimicrobials. There was no evidence for differences in AMR of fecal E. coli isolates to antibiotics by added pre- and probiotics or Zn. Results suggest that pharmacological levels of Zn stimulate intake and growth and improve fecal consistency in the nursery with no statistical response from added pre- and probiotics.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.049
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 26 Extending the Shelf-life of Beef Bone-in Short Rib Steaks Using Acerola
           Cherry Powder and Rosemary Extract
    • Authors: Van Buren J; Buseman B, Weber T, et al.
      Pages: 29 - 30
      Abstract: Improving the shelf-life of beef bone-in short rib steaks, which are commonly exported, will increase beef export demand and subsequently producer profits. The objective was to determine the effect of the topical application of acerola cherry powder and rosemary extract from various suppliers on beef bone-in short rib shelf-life. Beef bone-in short ribs (IMPS 123A) (n = 18) from USDA Choice carcasses were aged for 28 days post-fabrication at 0°C. Steaks 1.02 cm-thick were systematically assigned based on location to treatments including: untreated control (C), topically sprayed (~2ml) with an acerola cherry powder solution (0.05%) from one of three suppliers (C1, C2, C3), or topically sprayed (~2ml) with a rosemary extract solution (0.10%) from one of three suppliers (R1, R2, R3). Steaks were assigned to day 0 lipid oxidation or 4 days of retail display followed by day 4 lipid oxidation. Steaks were weighed on day 0 and 4 to determine fluid loss. Throughout retail display, objective and subjective color were measured twice daily on the lean and bone marrow portions of the steaks. Data were analyzed using the Mixed Model procedure of the Statistical Analysis System. Lipid oxidation (P = 0.323) did not differ between treatments. However, treatments differed in fluid loss (P = 0.024), where steaks treated with C1, C2, C3, R2, and R3 had less fluid lost than control steaks. Subjective color evaluation of lean color (P < 0.0001) and uniformity (P < 0.001) differed between treatments. Steaks treated with C1, C2, C3, and R3 were a brighter red than control steaks. Treatments differed when measuring bone marrow L* (P < 0.001), a* (P < 0.001), and b* (P = 0.004), where R3 treated marrow was the darkest, reddest, and yellowest. Natural antioxidants, specifically acerola cherry powder and rosemary extract, improved steak color and water holding capacity of beef bone-in short ribs aged for an extended period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.051
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 19 Dietary Supplementation of Botanicals Enhanced Growth Performance and
           Disease Resistance of Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with a
           Pathogenic E. coli
    • Authors: Wong B; He Y, Kim K, et al.
      Pages: 29 - 29
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary botanical supplementation on growth performance and frequency of diarrhea of weaned piglets experimentally infected with a pathogenic F18 Escherichia coli (E. coli). Sixty weaned piglets (around 21 days old; 7.15 ± 0.97 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to one of five dietary treatments (n = 12): negative control (NC), positive control (PC), high dose of botanicals blend 1 (BB1, 100 ppm), low dose of botanicals blend 2 (BB2, 50 ppm), and high dose of botanicals blend 2 (BB2, 100 ppm). The experiment lasted 28 days: from day -7 to +21 relative to E. coli inoculation. All piglets except the pigs in the NC group were orally inoculated with F18 E. coli (1010 cfu per dose, 3 doses) for 3 consecutive days. Growth performance was recorded throughout the experiment and diarrhea scores were recorded daily. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using PROC MIXED of SAS with a randomized complete block design. E. coli challenge reduced (P < 0.05) pig body weight and growth rate throughout the experiment. Pigs supplemented with high dose BB1 or BB2 tended (P < 0.10) to have greater body weight (19.52 and 19.10 vs. 18.00 kg) on d 21 PI and greater average daily gain from d 0 to 21 PI (554 and 557 vs. 515 g/d) than PC. No differences were observed in pig performance between high dose BB1 or BB2 in comparison with NC. Supplementation of high dose BB1 or BB2 also reduced (P < 0.05) frequency and severity of diarrhea of challenged pigs during the entire experimental period. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of botanicals reduced diarrhea and tended to improve growth performance of weaned pigs infected with E. coli.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.050
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 34 Effect of Feeding Vitamin D Supplementation on Calcium and Phosphorus
           Metabolism When Piglets Are Fed a DON Contaminated Diet
    • Authors: Sauvé B; Létourneau-Montminy M, Guay F.
      Pages: 30 - 31
      Abstract: DON has been shown to induce anorexia, oxidative stress, and more recently, alterations in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism. It was thus hypothesized that vitamin D3 or 25-OH-D3 can counteract the effects of DON in piglets. The objectives were to confirm the DON effect and to evaluate the impact of a vitamin D supplementation on growth performance and Ca and P metabolism on piglets receiving a DON contaminated feed. A total of 66 piglets received one of the 6 treatments in 2 x 3 factorial design: control treatments (CON) or DON unsupplemented or supplemented with VitD3 or 25-OH-D3. After 21 days, piglets were weighted and feed intake was measured. Bone mineral content of each piglet was measured with dual-intensity X-ray absorptiometry at 21 days. Blood samples were taken to assess concentrations for VitD, P and Ca. Results showed that, DON reduced average daily feed intake and average daily gain (P < 0.001). DON increased BMC per kg live body weight (P < 0.001). Piglets fed DON diet had lower plasma concentrations of 25-OH-D3, 1,25-(OH)2-D3 and phosphate (P < 0.001). The sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 1 (SLC20A2; P < 0.050), sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (SLC8A1; P < 0.032) and Klotho (P < 0.014) gene expression was downregulated by DON contamination in intestinal mucosae. The calbindin d28K (CALB-1) (P < 0.042), SLC8A1 (P < 0.026), TRPV5 (P < 0.041), calbindin d9K (S100G) (P < 0.029) and Klotho (P < 0.013) gene expression was downregulated by DON contamination in the kidney. The 1α-hydroxylase gene expression tended to be downregulated by DON contamination in the kidney as well. The VitD3 and 25-OH-D3 supplementation upregulated vitamin D receptor (VDR, DON x VitD, P < 0.014), SLC8A1 (DON x VitD, P < 0.036) and Klotho (DON x VitD, P < 0.025) in intestinal mucosae, although those gene expressions were downregulated by DON contamination. Thus, DON induced an alteration of vitamin D-calcium-phosphorus metabolism by modifying Ca utilization from mechanisms still under investigation.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.053
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 32 Assessment of Dry-Aged Beef from Commercial Aging Locations Across the
           United States
    • Authors: Lancaster J; Smart J, Buseman B, et al.
      Pages: 30 - 30
      Abstract: Dry-aging is a practice that involves storing meat at refrigerated temperatures without protective packaging. Despite the increase in dry-aged beef popularity, relatively little is known about commercial dry-aging parameters. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine dry-aging parameters of commercial aging facilities and their influence on eating quality (acceptability, flavor, tenderness, and juiciness) of dry-aged beef from locations across the United States. Sixty-six Certified Angus Beef® brand bone-in beef strip loins (IMPS #175) were randomly assigned to ten commercial dry-aging facilities across the United States. An additional six strip loins were wet-aged for 45-days as a negative control. Strip loins were shipped overnight to aging locations where a 45-day dry aging period transpired before being returned for subsequent analysis, upon completion of aging. Objective color, pH, and water activity were measured post aging, at the time of processing. Strip loins were then fabricated, and steaks were vacuum packaged and frozen until further analysis. Intrinsic quality parameters objective color (L*, a*, b*), pH, and water activity were not different (P > 0.05) between strip loins aged 45 days by location. Cooler conditions including temperature, percent relative humidity, and air speed were different (P < 0.01) across aging locations. Pacific Northwest consumer panelists indicated a difference in overall acceptability (P < 0.01), tenderness (P = 0.01), and flavor (P < 0.01) based on aging location. Additionally, consumers detected (P < 0.01) unique dry-aging flavors for individual aging locations including cheesy and nutty attributes. Research indicates individual dry-aging facility conditions aid in producing unique dry-aged beef products according to U.S. consumers from the Pacific Northwest Region.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.052
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 39 Muddy Environmental Conditions Cause Conceptus Free Live Weight Loss
           but Not a Decrease in Calf Birth Weight When Compared with Cows Housed on
           Wood Chips
    • Authors: Nickles K; Relling A, Garcia-Guerra A, et al.
      Pages: 31 - 31
      Abstract: Future climate projections for the Midwest U.S.A. predict increased winter rainfall. The increase in winter rainfall will consequently increase soil moisture and allow for muddy conditions in paddocks. Muddy conditions can directly affect cows during late gestation by compromising insulative properties of the hair coat. It is likely that cold climatic conditions and mud increase a cow’s maintenance requirement during gestation and may affect growth of the fetus. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of muddy conditions on cow body weight (BW) and fetal growth during late gestation. Sixteen multiparous Angus cows (n = 8/treatment) were paired based on initial BW. One cow from each pair was randomly allocated to either the mud (MUD) or control (CON) treatment. Pens in the CON group were bedded with wood chips, while pens in the MUD group were designed to create a muddy lot (average depth of 23.6 ± 5.8 cm). Cows were housed individually and fed the same diet. Each pair was fed based on the NRC recommendations for maintenance and gestation. From day 213 to 269 of gestation, cows were weighed weekly. Conceptus free live weight (CFLW) was then calculated by subtracting the estimated weight of the gravid uterus from the cow’s weekly BW. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with repeated measurements (SAS 9.4). At time of study initiation, cows were of a similar BW (P > 0.05). By day 269 of gestation, the CFLW of the cows in the MUD group weighed 37.4 kg less compared with the CON group (P < 0.01), though calf birth weight was not different (P = 0.72). Cows in the CON group maintained CFLW throughout the treatment period, however, cows in the MUD group did not maintain CFLW during the treatment period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.054
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 40 Novel Genomic Regions Associated with Igg Antibody Response to PRRSV
           Vaccination Revealed by Haplotype-based GWAS
    • Authors: Sanglard L; Huang Y, Gray K, et al.
      Pages: 31 - 32
      Abstract: Previous studies on genomics of antibody response, measured as sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio, to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) have reported a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 7, explaining ~25% of the genetic variance of this trait. S/P ratio following modified live PRRSV vaccination in crossbred commercial gilts has been proposed as genetic indicator for reproductive performance in non-infected purebred sows and PRRSV-vaccinated crossbred sows. This motivated further genomic study for this trait by performing haplotype-based genome-wide association study (GWAS). 906 naïve F1 (Landrace x Large White) had blood samples taken at ~50d after vaccination for measuring PRRSV ELISA S/P ratio and genotyping. Haplotype-based GWAS identified 8 genomic regions on chromosomes 4 (108 Mb), 7 (15, 21, and 24–27 Mb), and 9 (33 Mb) that were associated (q-value < 0.07) with S/P ratio. From those, only the MHC region (chromosome 7; 24 – 26 Mb) had been identified in the SNP based GWAS. The main SNP identified in the SNP based GWAS (H3GA0020505) was not in LD with the haplotype; thus, we added this SNP to the haplotype model. We observed that the haplotype explained more of the genetic variance compared to the H3GA0020505 SNP, indicating that the MHC haplotype is in stronger LD with the QTL than the H3GA0020505 SNP. All the significant regions associated with S/P ratio included immune-related candidate genes, such as SLA-DOB, TAP2, TAPBP, TMIGD3, and ADORA. This study validated the QTL identified on the MHC region, narrowing the search for causal genes in this region, and identified new genomic regions, along with candidate genes associated with S/P ratio. Identifying novel genomic regions provides more resources for marker-assisted selection and genomic prediction of S/P ratio in purebred and commercial pig populations.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.055
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 36 Evaluation of Compensatory Growth of 90-kg Finishing Pigs Previously
           Fed a Low Lysine Diet
    • Authors: Rao Z; Tokach M, Gebhardt J, et al.
      Pages: 32 - 33
      Abstract: A total of 346 pigs (241×600, DNA, Columbus, NE; initially 88.6 kg) were used in a 44-day trial to evaluate compensatory growth of pigs previously fed very low lysine diets. Two diets [control and corn (98% corn and 2% vitamins and minerals)] were arranged into 4 nutritional strategies. One group of pigs (control) was fed the control diet from d 0 to 44. The other three groups of pigs were fed the corn diet for 14, 21, or 28-d and then fed the control diet until day 44. The control and corn diets contained 0.70 and 0.18% standardized ileal digestible Lys, respectively. Pens were assigned to nutritional strategies in a randomized complete block design based on initial BW with 9 pens per treatment. On average, pigs fed the corn diet grew 49% slower than the control. Pigs previously fed the corn diet had 28% increased (P < 0.05) ADG during the first week of switching to the control diet and 12% faster (P < 0.05) ADG than the control for the rest of the trial. Despite this increase in ADG, final BW on d 44 was lower (P < 0.05) compared to the control for pigs fed the corn diet for 21 or 28-d. From d 0 to 44, control pigs and pigs fed the corn diet for only 14-d had increased (P < 0.05) ADG compared to pigs fed the corn diet for 21 and 28-d. Feed efficiency was decreased (P < 0.05) when the corn diet was fed and increased (P < 0.05) during the period of compensatory growth; however, overall G:F decreased (P < 0.05) as pigs were fed the corn diet longer. The data suggest that compensatory growth was observed when pigs fed the corn diet for 21 or 28-d followed by the control diet within a 6-week-period, but overall growth performance was still reduced compared to the control.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.057
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 38 Evaluation of Sorghum Phenolic Compounds for Their Antimicrobial
           Activities Against Liver Abscess Causing Pathogens in Feedlot Cattle
    • Authors: Salih H; Amachawadi R, Roubicek C, et al.
      Pages: 32 - 32
      Abstract: Liver abscesses occur in finishing cattle fed high-grain, low-roughage diets. Cattle with abscessed livers seldom show any clinical signs and are detected only at the time of slaughter. Liver abscesses are of significant economic concern to the feedlot industry. Liver abscesses comprise, on average, 67% of all liver abnormalities in cattle slaughtered in the United States with a prevalence of 10–20% and may reduce the value of the beef carcass up to $38 per animal with the most severe abscesses. There are four causative agents of the disease including the two subspecies of Fusobacterium necrophorum, ssp. necrophorum and ssp. funduliforme, Trueperella pyogenes, and Salmonella enterica. Tylosin, supplemented in the feed, is the most commonly used antibiotic in the feedlot industry to prevent liver abscesses. Because of the concerns about antimicrobial resistance, there is a need to find an effective alternative to this antibiotic, and sorghum grain extracts, which are high in phenolic compounds, may have the potential to be used as natural antibiotic alternatives. Our objectives were to investigate the efficacy of phenolic extracts from black, sumac, brown, and burgundy sorghums on liver abscess pathogens. The sorghum phenolics were extracted using 75% aqueous acetone and total phenolic content was determined by spectrophotometrically. Bacterial strains were cultured in Mueller-Hinton broth (Salmonella and Trueperella pyogenes) or anaerobic brain-heart infusion broth (Fusobacterium) with and without sorghum extracts (1 mg/ml) at 12, 24, and 48 hours and bacterial concentrations were determined. If the compound was inhibitory, a micro-broth dilution method was used to quantify the inhibitory activity. Both black and sumac sorghum phenolics inhibited growth of all four bacterial species. Further studies are ongoing to investigate different concentrations and phenolic compounds from varieties of sorghum grains on the liver abscess pathogens.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.056
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 41 Effect of Biochar Supplementation in Beef Cattle Finishing Diets on
           Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Carcass Performance
    • Authors: Sperber J; Troyer B, Norman M, et al.
      Pages: 33 - 34
      Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding biochar in a finishing diet on cattle performance, carcass quality, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Biochar was sourced from ponderosa pine wood waste (High Plains Biochar, Laramie, WY) and was 83% C with 426 m2/g surface area. Crossbred steers (n = 128; initial BW = 480 kg ± 82 kg) were utilized in a randomized block design (blocked by BW), steers assigned randomly to pen (n = 16), and pen was assigned randomly to treatment. Two treatments were evaluated, a finisher control (CON) without biochar and the same finisher with biochar included at 1.0% of diet dry matter replacing corn (CHAR). Four pen replications per treatment were paired within BW block and rotated randomly through an emissions barn with two chambers (each treatment evaluated simultaneously) to capture average weekly emissions of CH4 and CO2. Pen was experimental unit and chamber was included as a fixed effect for emissions data. Dry matter intake (DMI; P < 0.01) and average daily gain (ADG; P = 0.02) were 2.4 and 5.9% lower for CHAR steers, respectively. Feed efficiency (P = 0.22) and production of CO2 and CH4 (P ≥ 0.60) did not differ between treatments. Methane production was numerically lower for CHAR steers when reported as g per day (1.8% lower) or g per kg of DMI (4.8% lower). Hot carcass weight tended to be lighter (P = 0.10) and calculated USDA yield grade was decreased (P = 0.02) for CHAR steers. There was no difference between treatments for LM area, USDA quality grade, or 12th rib fat (P ≥ 0.12). In conclusion, biochar supplementation at 1.0% of diet DM reduced DMI and ADG and had no effect on CH4 and CO2 emissions in finishing steers.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.058
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 35 Effect of Late Gestational Heat Stress on Placental Characteristics in
           Dairy Cattle
    • Authors: Potadle G; Dahl G, Fabris T, et al.
      Pages: 34 - 34
      Abstract: To determine the effects of late gestation heat stress on placental development, dairy cows were exposed to heat stress (HT, shade) or cooled (CL, shade, fans and soakers) during the final 46 d pre-calving on the University of Florida dairy facility (temperature-humidity index; THI >68). We hypothesize heat stress (or lack of heat abatement) will reduce placental efficiency and in turn increase placental weight, surface area, and volume. At expulsion all placentae were collected and total placental weight was determined as well as individual cotyledonary weights, surface areas, and volume. In addition, the total number of total cotyledons was recorded and cotyledonary color and placental growth abnormalities (i.e. teratomas) were recorded and photographed. All data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS. In addition, associations between parameters were determined by calculating Pearson Correlation Coefficients using SAS. Placentae from HT cows had a higher total placental weight, higher non-vascular membrane weight, higher total cotyledonary weight, higher total cotyledonary volume, and a higher incidence of teratomas than those from CL cows (P < 0.05). HT cows also had placentae with a significantly greater average cotyledonary weight and volume (P < 0.05). HT cows tended to have a greater incidence of color abnormalities in the placenta (P < 0.075). In addition, HT cows had significantly lighter calves at birth (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that heat stress (or lack of heat abatement) impacts placental growth during the final stages of gestation, resulting in heavier placentae, an increase in cotyledonary weight and volume, but not an increase in the total number of cotyledons or total cotyledonary surface area. These placental alterations ultimately resulted in lighter calves at birth.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.059
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 33 Comparison of Monensin Sodium Sources for Finishing Beef Cattle
    • Authors: Husz T; Smith W, Lockard C, et al.
      Pages: 34 - 35
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the digestive characteristics of ruminally cannulated beef steers consuming a steam-flaked corn (SFC) or dry-rolled corn (DRC) based diet containing either Rumensin 90 (R) or Monovet 90 (MV). Six ruminally fistulated steers (657.7 kg ± 72.6) housed individually were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a factorial treatment arrangement. Each of the 6 periods were 15 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 1 d of rumen fluid collections. Six 15-d periods consisted of 14 d diet adaptation prior to rumen fluid collections. Dietary treatments were DRC without monensin sodium (DRC-C), SFC without monensin sodium (SFC-C), DRC with Rumensin 90 (DRC-R), DRC with Monovet 90 (DRC-MV), SFC with Rumensin 90 (SFC-R), and SFC with Monovet 90 (SFC-MV). Rumen contents and fluid were collected through the fistula of each animal at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h on d 15 of each period. Rumen fluid was collected 6 h postfeeding each period for in vitro analyses. Steer was the experimental unit and the model included fixed effects of grain processing, additive, and grain processing × additive. Total gas produced was composited from each in vitro bottle into a gas collection bag for the 48-h determination of methane concentration. No differences were detected for DMI (P = 0.81). Ruminal pH did not differ for the control or additive treatments (P = 0.33). However, ruminal pH was lower (P < 0.01) with SFC relative to DRC There was a significant difference in acetate to propionate ratio for both additive (P = 0.04) and grain type (P ≤ 0.01). Additive inclusion reduced methane proportion of total gas relative to control treatments (P ≤ 0.01). Monensin sodium reduced methane concentration though source had no effect on DMI or ruminal pH.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.060
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 37 Evaluation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Production in Growing and
           Finishing Cattle Raised in Conventional or Confinement-based Herds
    • Authors: McPhillips L; Erickson G, MacDonald J, et al.
      Pages: 35 - 35
      Abstract: Cattle originating from 2 different herds were used during growing and finishing programs to evaluate differences in CH4 and CO2 production. The conventional (CONV) herd used spring calving, summer grass grazing, and winter corn residue grazing. An alternate (ALT) herd housed cows in confinement pens during summer, calved in summer, grazed cover crops in fall and grazed corn residue before returning to confinement pens in spring. Each herd had 4 groups of 20 cows. For 2 years calves from each herd were weaned at the same age and then fed ad libitum for a 120-d growing (GR) period and fed a forage-based diet (NEg 1.23 Mcal/kg). Cattle were then adapted to a grain-based finishing (FIN) diet (NEg 1.51 Mcal/kg) and fed until reaching 1.27 cm backfat. Both CH4 and CO2 were collected in two pen-scale chambers by collecting air samples continuously from each pen ambient air. Each group was evaluated in the pen-scale chambers for 5 days during both the GR and FIN phases. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with day in barn as a repeated measure. Whether cattle originated from CONV or ALT had no impact (P > 0.25) on CH4 or CO2 production. Feeding GR resulted in greater (P < 0.03) CH4 than FIN in grams per day (125.4 vs 117.5), grams per kg of intake (16.1 vs 11.5), or g per kg of body weight (0.50 vs 0.24). Greater CO2 production was observed for FIN as compared to GR which is due to greater size and energy intake. Diet impacts CH4 more so than cow-calf production system cattle originate from.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.061
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 119 Lysine Requirement of Market Gilts Immunized Against
           Gonadotropin-releasing Factor on Performance and Carcass Composition
    • Authors: Vonnahme K; Amodie D, Patience J, et al.
      Pages: 35 - 36
      Abstract: The objectives were to determine if the augmented growth performance of gilts administered anti-gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) would require additional lysine and if anti-GnRF-treated gilts would require additional lysine to enhance carcass characteristics. The study treatments were arranged as a 2×3 factorial: control vs anti-GnRF (day 7 and 84; day 0 = 11 wk of age) and lysine at 100, 110, or 120% of requirement of the control gilts. Pen (n = 60) was the experimental unit (10 pens per treatment with 18 or 19 pigs per pen). There was no lysine × anti-GnRF interactions (P ≥ 0.2). Immunized gilts grew 3.7% faster and consumed 3.9% more feed with similar gain:feed from day 0 to market with increases occurring after the administration of the 2nd anti-GnRF dose. Immunized gilts weighed 3.4-kg more at marketing. The timing of marketing (4- or 6-week post 2nd dose) influenced the effects of anti-GnRF. Hot carcass weight, loin depth, and belly weight and thickness in anti-GnRF treated gilts were similar to control gilts at 4-weeks post 2nd dose but were greater in anti-GnRF vs. control (P ≤ 0.05) when harvested 6-weeks post 2nd dose. Backfat was greater, and lean was less, in immunized gilts vs. controls regardless of time to harvest. In conclusion, gilts immunized against GnRF had heavier carcass weights and required no additional lysine compared to controls.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.062
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 117 Improved Growth Performance in the F1 Heterozygous Generation of an
           SSTR2 Knockout Model in Swine
    • Authors: Schultz R; Adur M, Li Y, et al.
      Pages: 36 - 36
      Abstract: Targeted genetic alteration provides opportunities for rapid genetic improvement in resilience, welfare and production traits. Somatostatin (SST) acts via negative feedback to regulate growth hormone (GH) activity by antagonizing GH releasing hormone via SST receptors (SSTR) located in the anterior pituitary. Our objective was to reduce the negative effect of SST in the anterior pituitary on protein accretion by reducing the number of functional copies of SSTR2 using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We hypothesized that a reduction or elimination of SSTR2 would lead to improved growth performance. To test this hypothesis, three commercial gilts were bred with semen from a founder boar in a compound heterozygous state at the SSTR2 locus with a 1bp deletion in one allele resulting in a premature stop codon and a 3bp deletion in the other allele resulting in the loss of a single amino acid predicted to remain functional after translation. Three litters of F1 offspring were produced (n = 46) and all piglets were confirmed to be heterozygous at the SSTR2 locus with one wild type allele and the other possessing either the 1bp deletion (n = 22) or the 3bp (n = 2 4) deletion. No differences (P > 0.43; n=46) in body weight (1.27±0.03 kg) across comparisons were observed at birth. At weaning (n = 36), males (6.19±0.20 kg) were heavier (P = 0.007) than females (5.41±0.19 kg), and piglets possessing a 1bp deletion (6.00±0.20 kg) were numerically heavier (P = 0.14) than 3bp deletion pigs (5.59±0.18 kg). This observation was more pronounced in males at weaning, where the males with the 1bp deletion were 13% heavier (P = 0.058) than those with the 3bp deletion. These data suggest that altering SSTR2 may be a viable genetic advancement strategy to improve growth performance in pigs. This project was supported by the Lloyd L. Anderson Professorship in Physiology at Iowa State University.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.063
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 116 Effect of Coated and Non-coated Steroidal Implants on Growth
           Performance, Dietary Net Energy Utilization and Carcass Traits of Feedlot
           Finishing Steers
    • Authors: Buckhaus E; Smith Z.
      Pages: 36 - 37
      Abstract: Maine-Anjou x Angus steers (n = 156, initial BW 366 ± 37.2 kg) were used in a 132-d finishing experiment at the Ruminant Nutrition Center in Brookings, SD. Steers were weighed on two consecutive days and assigned into 5 weight blocks. Within each weight block steers were randomly assigned to two implant types (equal steroidal hormone dose; both from Zoetis, Parsippany, NJ) and two dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Implant treatments consisted of 1) Coated implant, 200 mg trenbolone acetate (TBA), 28 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) (Synovex ONE Feedlot, ONE) or 2) Non-coated implant, 200 mg TBA, 28 mg EB (Synovex PLUS; PLUS), placed in the left ear. Dietary treatments were 1) 15% or 2) 30% corn silage (DM basis). No interaction between implant and corn silage inclusion was observed for carcass-adjusted (hot carcass weight / 0.63) growth performance, dietary net energy (NE) utilization or carcass traits (P ≥ 0.16). Bunks were managed using a slick bunk approach and all diets contained (DM basis) 33 mg/kg monensin sodium. Implant status was checked on d 28 by a single trained evaluator; steers with missing implants were immediately re-implanted. There was no difference in carcass-adjusted growth performance between implants (P ≥ 0.85). There were no differences in observed NE or the observed-to-expected ratio of NE for either growth or maintenance (P ≥ 0.90). No differences were observed for dressing percent, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, or rib fat (P ≥ 0.22). Marbling differed between implant treatments (433 to 466 ± 8.7; P = 0.01) for PLUS and ONE respectively. Implanting cattle with a coated implant had no detrimental effect on growth performance or carcass traits, but it did increase marbling scores.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.064
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 118 Increased Growth and Carcass Attributes in Improvest®-treated Gilts
           Do Not Require Additional Dietary Lysine
    • Authors: Vonnahme K; Van De Weyer L, Amodie D, et al.
      Pages: 37 - 38
      Abstract: Numerous studies have shown that gilts treated with Improvest® have greater carcass weights and increased ADG compared with untreated gilts. To develop the optimum nutritional program for Improvest-treated gilts, a randomized 5×2 factorial design of dietary lysine levels (90, 100, 110, 120, and 130% of NRC recommendations) with or without Improvest was performed. Gilts were housed in 120 pens (4 pigs/pen) at 8 weeks of age (day 0). Gilts and feed were weighed immediately prior to each dietary phase change (days 0, 21, 42, 70, 91, and 105). Improvest was administered at 9 and 19 weeks of age (4 weeks pre-harvest). There was no diet × treatment × day (P > 0.78) nor diet × treatment (P > 0.11) interactions for any variables. Gilts had similar BWT, ADG, and ADFI until after the 2nd dose of Improvest, when Improvest-treated gilts were heavier (123.62 vs. 121.59 ± 0.68 and 138.16 vs. 133.97 ± 0.71 kg, days 91 and 105; P < 0.01), had increased ADG (1.19 vs. 1.09 ± 0.01 and 1.03 vs. 0.88 ± 0.02 kg/day days 91 and 105; P < 0.01) and consumed more feed (2.99 vs. 2.84 ± 0.03 and 3.19 vs. 2.68 ± 0.04 kg/pig/day; days 91 and 105; P < 0.01) compared with untreated gilts. Carcass evaluation was conducted on 120 pigs (2 pigs/60 pens). No significant structures were present on ovaries of Improvest-treated gilts. Improvest-treated gilts were heavier (market and HCW; P ≤ 0.02) than controls. Improvest-treated gilts tended (P ≤ 0.08) to have heavier bone-in butt and bone-in ham weights. Belly weights were heavier (kg and %HCW; P ≤ 0.05) in Improvest-treated vs control gilts and were thicker (P = 0.01) but were similar (P > 0.3) in length and width. While IV was similar (P > 0.2) in belly fat, loin intramuscular fat was increased (P < 0.01) from Improvest-treated gilts. Without additional dietary amino acids, Improvest-treated gilts delivered greater gain after the 2nd dose, yielding significantly heavier carcasses and primal cuts, including bellies which were larger as a percentage of HCW, and increased loin intramuscular fat.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.065
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 219 Managing Beef Cattle Growth Amidst a Global Pandemic: Lessons Learned
           from 2020 and Strategies for the Future
    • Authors: Johnson B; Smith Z.
      Pages: 38 - 38
      Abstract: The coronavirus disease-19 related events of 2020 had severe detrimental effects on meat animal production in the United State. Due to harvest facility slowdowns and shutdowns, many market animals, including beef cattle, were on feed greater than 60 d past their optimal endpoint. These dramatic changes caused many changes in feeding and growth technologies management. The two major growth enhancing compounds used in feedlot cattle production are steroidal implants (IMP) and β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA). Implementation of β-AA during the pandemic was extremely difficult due to the lack of knowledge on exact shipping dates. The β-AA are fed the last 28 to 42 d on feed. Ractopamine was approved for cattle with essential a 12-h withdrawal. Many questions arose about the maximum length of withdrawal on ractopamine before losing any of the added growth response in both the live animal and carcass. Many feedlot operators relied on IMP administration to achieve added growth response in cattle held for longer days on feed. With zero-day withdrawal on implants, it was a cost-effective means to hold cattle in an efficient manner. Many producers simply could not manage β-AA feeding during the pandemic period and used other management technologies to enhance growth and efficiency during the end of the feeding period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.066
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 114 What Is the Impact of Dairy Influence Cattle on the Traditional Beef
           Industry Structure'
    • Authors: Johnson B; Fuerniss L.
      Pages: 38 - 39
      Abstract: The U.S. cow inventory includes approximately 31 million beef cows and 9 million dairy cows, so flow of cattle from dairies into beef production influences the traditional beef industry structure. Dairy-influenced cattle have historically entered the beef supply chain as cull cows and calf-fed Holstein steers. Culled dairy cows account for approximately half of the cows harvested in the United States annually. Fed steers and heifers of dairy influence are estimated to account for 15% of annual steer and heifer slaughter. Advancements in data availability, genomics, and reproductive technologies have enabled more precise selection of dairy replacement heifers and more pregnancies to be allocated to a terminal sire. Recently, the use of beef semen to breed dairy cows that are not desirable for producing replacement heifers has become more widespread. Beef-on-dairy calves are often moved to calf ranches shortly after birth where they are weaned and grown before transitioning to traditional grow yards or feedlots. In comparison to traditional range beef production, calves of dairy origin are weaned at a younger age, have more restricted mobility early in life, and are fed a delivered ration for a greater number of days. While carcasses of dairy-originated fed cattle excel in subcutaneous leanness and marbling, calves originating from dairies typically experience greater morbidity, poorer feed conversion, and poorer dressed yields compared to native fed cattle. Future opportunities to optimize beef production from the dairy herd include refining sire selection to consistently produce high quality calves, reducing variation in calfhood management, and identifying optimal nutrition and growth technology programs for calves from dairies.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.067
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 112 How Will the Purebred Association Adapt to a Changing Beef
           Industry'
    • Authors: McCully M.
      Pages: 39 - 39
      Abstract: The role of the breed association has historically been to keep a registry of a pure breed, aggregate the performance data surrounding that one breed, develop breeding and selection tools, and conduct breed promotion. Larger associations have been able to augment that with operating magazines and other media, running branded beef programs, feeder calf marketing programs, and genetic evaluation for other breeds. The relevance of breed associations is being and will continue to be challenged as genomics and large commercial databases develop and allow for breeding and selection tools to be developed independently by large breeders or private entities. Gene editing and other such technology will also challenge the traditional seedstock models and opens the door for proprietary genetic lines. Breed associations may need to modify their traditional policies to incorporate these innovations. Supply chains will continue to become far more sophisticated and will incorporate more genetic information to guide management decisions and potentially validate brand promises around sustainability. To stay relevant, breed associations of the future will need to do the following:Balance the needs of diverse membership (show, hobby, lifestyle, etc.) with commercial industry value and significance. Have access to large amounts of data and be leaders in adopting the most current technologies. Deliver tools for breeders that enhance the profitability of commercial producers – identify optimum production levels vs maximum outputs. Work collaboratively with multiple supply chains providing the needed genetic information. Be a significant educational resource to breeders and commercial producers. Be a leader in research on breed improvement and genetic advancement. Have value-added programs that create real and sustained pull-through demand for the end product.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.068
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 110 The Importance of Recognizing Economic Factors Influencing the Beef
           Industry
    • Authors: Rishel B.
      Pages: 39 - 40
      Abstract: The speed of development and adaptation of genomics in our industry as a tool for genetic improvement has been unprecedented. While its greatest contribution has been the enhancement of the predictive accuracy of performance traits, even greater opportunities may exist for the application of genomics in the arena of animal health. Interactions between immune system function and the microbiome is mission critical for an industry that may face increased pressure to find new animal health protocols for animal care. Better understanding of the incorporation of dry matter intake and residual average daily gain EPD’s into decision making will provide greater incentives to improve efficiency. Understanding the economic impact of incremental change in a EPD will aid decision making. A predictive blueprint of genomic characteristics of feeder cattle will allow producers and feed yards to merchandise feeder and fed cattle to specific markets. Greater connection of the beef industry across multiple segments will result in better understanding of the whole beef system. Increasing value within one segment can ultimately result in greater value across multiple segments and true price discovery. Understanding the important relationship of cattle to the environment and society will become increasingly important to maintain sustainable beef production. The natural and unique ability the beef cow possesses to utilize grass resources on lands not fit for cultivation and upcycle those resources to a nutrient dense food for human nutrition is unequaled in nature. This process is sustainable, totally regenerative and beneficial to the environment and society. Beef production is a valuable asset to both public and private grasslands and sustainability of our natural resources. Maintaining grazing on federal lands is good resource management for a viable beef industry. Opportunities exist for greater collaborations between producers, academia, breed associations and national organizations to solve problems and provide better educational opportunities.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.069
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 113 Genetics Industry Infrastructure: How Are Artificial Insemination
           Organizations Adapting to Changes in the Beef Industry'
    • Authors: Harstine B; Marshall L, DeJarnette M.
      Pages: 40 - 41
      Abstract: Cattle artificial insemination (AI) organizations are adapting quickly to changes within the beef industry domestically and abroad. Specifically, the increasing utilization of beef bulls, predominately Angus, in dairy herds to create terminal crossbred calves for beef underlies the majority of the changes and challenges. The procurement, management, and collection of beef sires on a commercial scale has become commonplace for AI organizations, and the subsequent optimization of beef sire housing, nutritional requirements, behavior surrounding semen collection, semen production ability, semen quality, and fertility is being examined. At one large AI organization, Angus sires are proving capable of producing as much semen as their dairy counterparts while being collected year-round to meet market demand. However, the percentage of collections that qualify for sale is ≤80% in beef bulls compared to >90% in Holstein bulls based on acceptable semen quality as determined by post-thaw computer-assisted motility analyses, flow cytometric viability assays, and visual sperm morphological assessment (Select Sires, Inc., unpublished). Large numbers of inseminations using beef sires, combined with reliable data recording on dairies, is allowing for precision management tools and sire fertility estimates to be generated. For example, the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding (CDCB) recently applied the Sire Conception Rate (SCR) evaluation’s statistical model to Angus bulls used to inseminate Holstein cows and reported similar conception rates to Holstein sires used to inseminate Holstein cows (33.8% versus 34.3%, respectively). AI organizations have also begun to implement research, create products, and establish new supply chains to proactively account for dairy farms supplying crossbred or purebred (via embryo transfer) beef animals to calf ranches, feed yards, and packer networks. Examples include purebred commercial beef embryo sales, research on rearing crossbred beef calves, generating novel value-based (grid pricing) markets for crossbred calves, and facilitating traceability programs for packers.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.071
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 115 The Beef Industry in a Post-Pandemic World
    • Authors: Peel D.
      Pages: 40 - 40
      Abstract: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 caused unprecedented shocks and disruptions in the cattle and beef industry. The shutdown of food service in March 2020 caused an unparalleled stacking of food demand on the retail grocery sector. The rigidity and specialized nature of food service and retail grocery supply chains, compounded by a surge in consumer demand at retail grocery, resulted in temporary shortages of meat in other consumer products in supermarkets. The food service sector recovered somewhat over many weeks but remained diminished through the balance of 2020 and beyond. In April 2020, COVID-19 infections affected the labor forces of many meat packing and processing facilities and resulted in significant reductions in beef packing and further processing for eight to twelve weeks. This caused additional product shortages in retail grocery and food service sectors. These impacts have raised many questions about how the beef industry might adapt to be more resilient in the face of such profound disruptions. Possible changes include more use of multi-purpose facilities (less specialized for food service or retail grocery supply chains); design changes in new plants and retrofitting existing facilities to reduce human health impacts; changes in labor management; changes in inventory management; and changes in business supply chain management and risk assessment practices.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.070
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 66 Strategies to Improve Phosphorus Utilization in Growing Pigs:
           Depletion-repletion Protocols
    • Authors: Lautrou M; Pomar C, Schmidely P, et al.
      Pages: 41 - 42
      Abstract: To optimize the use of dietary P by pigs, 5 feeding strategies were studied in a 3-phase feeding trial on 240 pigs (initial bodyweight (BW) of 31 kg): 1) C-C-C providing 100% of digestible phosphorus (Pdig, 4.3 g/kg STTD) and calcium (Ca, 9.7 g/kg) requirement to maximize bone mineralization, 2) L-L-L 60% of the Pdig and Ca requirements of C-C-C, 3) Phyt-Phyt-Phyt (phosphate-free, with phytase, 750, 686, 390 FTU/kg), providing 60% of Pdig and Ca requirements in phase 1, then 100%, 4) and 5) C in phases 1 and 3, and 60% of the need for Pdig in phase 2, associated with 65% of the requirements for Ca (N) or 80% (H), namely C-N-C and C-H-C. The BW and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured at the beginning and end of each phase. The BMC gain (gBMC), average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were calculated by phase. In phase 1, ADG was lower in the Phyt group than the C group (1.05 vs 1.10 kg/d, P < 0.01) and the BMC of group C and gBMC were higher than those of the Phyt and B groups (P < 0.05). In phase 2, C-C and Phyt-Phyt groups had similar BMC due to higher gBMC in the Phyt-Phyt (27.1 vs 18.4 g/d, P < 0.01). At the end of phases 2 and 3, C-C-C, C-N-C and C-H-C groups had similar BMC. The Phyt and B groups showed an increased phosphorus-use efficiency during phases 1 and 2 (+20% vs C). Phosphorus retention was also higher in the C-N-C and C-H-C groups, during the depletion in phase 2 (+24% vs C, P< 0.05). These results showed the potential of a depletion-repletion strategy including free phosphate diet to reduce phosphorus intake and excretion without affecting final growth performance and bone mineralization because of increased minerals utilization efficacies.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.073
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 65 Evaluation of Calcium to Phosphorus Ratio in Spot Urine Samples as a
           Practical Method to Monitor Phosphorus Intake Adequacy in Sows
    • Authors: Capdeville M; Crenshaw T.
      Pages: 41 - 41
      Abstract: The reliability of spot urinary Ca to P ratio (uCa:P) to assess P intake adequacy in sows was evaluated. Thirty-six multiparous sows were fed one of six concentrations of dietary total P (0.40, 0.48, 0.56, 0.64, 0.72, and 0.80%), with a constant Ca to total P ratio (1.25:1), from day 7.5+1 after breeding until the end of lactation (day 26.6+1). Total 24-hour urine samples were collected in mid (day 77.1+2) and late gestation (day 112.4+1), and early (day 4.5+1 and late (day 18.2+1) lactation. In parallel to 24-hour collections, spot urine samples were collected at three times (early morning, late morning, and late afternoon) in late gestation and late lactation. Urine Ca and P concentrations were measured and uCa:P was calculated. Sows were classified as P-adequate or P-deficient according to dietary P intake. Sows fed P-deficient diets had greater uCa:P than sows fed P-adequate diets (P < 0.001). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine cut-off values for uCa:P to predict P intake adequacy. The area under the ROC for uCa:P was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81–0.95). Best cut-off value of uCa:P was 1.5 (sensitivity 94% and specificity 68%) to identify sows fed P-deficient diets, and 0.5 for P-excessive diets (sensitivity 82% and specificity 82%). A strong relationship between uCa:P in 24-hour and spot urine samples was determined (r = 0.93, P < 0.01), independent of physiological state and collection time of spot samples (adjusted-R2 = 0.86, P < 0.01). The degree of agreement between spot and 24-hour urine for P intake adequacy, assessed by Cohen’s weighted kappa analysis, was substantial (0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88). Measurements of uCa:P in spot urine samples provide a reliable prediction of the adequacy of P intake in reproducing sows. Values of uCa:P > 1.5 were associated with P-deficient diets, whereas uCa:P < 0.5 reflected excessive P intake.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.072
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 62 Growth Performance and Mineral Status of 6 Kg Piglets Fed Reduced
           Levels of Dietary Calcium
    • Authors: Merriman L; Wyatt C, Létourneau-Montminy M, et al.
      Pages: 42 - 42
      Abstract: Imbalances between calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) impair growth performance and bone mineralization. However, reducing dietary limestone may change the buffering capacity of feed in early nursery piglets, which may help prevent post-weaning diarrhea. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of reducing Ca post weaning compared to recommendations outlined by NRC (2012) or a low P diet. Dietary treatments consisted of 1) Low Ca (LCa; Phase 1, 0.51% Ca and 0.47% STTD P), 2) NRC recommendations (NRC; Phase 1, 0.85% Ca and 0.42% STTD P), and 3) a recommendation lower in phosphorus (LP; Phase 1, 0.65% Ca and 0.36% STTD P). Each diet was fed over 4 phases. Piglets (n = 953; 276/275 Fast X PIC 800 genetics) were blocked by room, sex, and initial BW (6 kg). Feed intake and pig weights were recorded weekly. At 12 d and 41 d, blood was collected and Dual-X ray (DXA) measurements were taken using 8 piglets per treatment. Fecal scores were evaluated during wk 4 and 5. Data were analyzed using MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). There were no differences observed in mortality, overall growth performance, plasma Ca and P, and scour scores at either time point. At 12 d, the bone mineral content was reduced (P = 0.001) in LP pigs compared to LCa and NRC. At 41 d, bone mineral content was reduced in NRC in comparison to LCa while LP was intermediate (P = 0.001). Plasma parameters showed an increased magnesium (Mg) and Ca:Mg in LCa (P < 0.01) that can be related to bone resorption to face Ca hypocalcemia. Pigs were healthy with no enteric challenges, limiting the ability to observe a benefit in fecal scores. In conclusion, piglets can maintain growth and bone mineralization through a short-term limestone removal program.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.074
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 63 Effect of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-phytase Variant on Mineral
           Digestibility and Bone Ash in Young Growing Pigs Fed Diets with Low and
           High Soluble Limestone
    • Authors: Velayudhan D; Kumar A, Dersjant-Li Y.
      Pages: 42 - 43
      Abstract: The effect of a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase variant (PhyG) on total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals and bone ash was evaluated in piglets fed diets with low and high soluble limestone (LSLM and HSLM, 69 and 92% solubility at 5 min). For each limestone, 8 diets were formulated: an inorganic phosphate-free negative control (NC) diet based on wheat, corn, soybean-meal, canola-meal and rice-barn [0.18% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P and 0.58% Ca], NC supplemented with 250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 FTU/kg of PhyG, or with monocalcium phosphate (MCP) to formulate 3 positive controls with 0.21, 0.27, 0.33% STTD P, and 0.64, 0.70 and 0.75% Ca, respectively. In total 128 pigs (12.8 ± 1.33 kg, n=8) were adapted for 14 d followed by 4 d of fecal collection. Femurs were collected on the last day. Data were analyzed as one-way ANOVA and means separated by Tukey test. In addition, a 2 × 4 factorial analysis was performed to test the effect of limestone solubility at different MCP levels in control diets, a 2 × 5 factorial analysis was performed to determine the effect of limestone solubility at different phytase levels. Phytase dose-response was analyzed by orthogonal polynomial. Across phytase diets, HSLM reduced (P < 0.05) ATTD Ca and P compared with LSLM. A consistent negative effect on ATTD P was also observed with HSLM in control diets. Across limestones, increasing phytase increased (P < 0.05) ATTD Ca and P in a linear or exponential manner. Limestone solubility had no impact (P = 0.69) on bone ash. PhyG linearly increased (P < 0.05) bone ash and 250 FTU/kg of PhyG maintained bone ash compared to PC. In conclusion, limestone solubility showed a negative impact on ATTD P and Ca, the novel consensus phytase improved ATTD P and Ca regardless of limestone.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.075
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 64 Total Replacement of Inorganic Phosphorus by a Novel Consensus
           Bacterial 6-phytase Variant in Grower Pigs Fed Corn-soybean Meal-based
           Diets
    • Authors: Velayudhan D; Gracia M, Marchal L, et al.
      Pages: 43 - 44
      Abstract: The efficacy of a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase variant (PhyG) to totally replace dietary inorganic phosphorus (Pi) was evaluated in grower pigs fed diets with reduced net energy (NE) and digestible amino acids (AA), using growth performance and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients as outcome measures. A total of 352 growing pigs (23.4 ± 1.3 kg) were randomized to 4 dietary treatments with 8 pigs/pen and 11 pens/treatment. Diets were corn, soybean meal, distiller’s dried grains with solubles and wheat middlings based, formulated by phase (Grower 1, 25 to 50 kg and Grower 2, 50 to 75 kg). The positive control (PC) diet provided adequate energy and nutrients. A negative control diet was formulated without Pi (0.12% STTD P) and reduced Ca (-0.12 to -0.13 percentage points), NE (-32 kcal/kg) and essential AA (-0.15 to 0.3 percentage points) vs. PC. The NC was supplemented with 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg of PhyG. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and orthogonal polynomial were used for linear response to increasing PhyG. Nutrient reductions in the NC reduced (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) during both phases and overall, increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and tended to reduce (P < 0.1) feed intake during Grower 1 and overall, vs. PC. Supplementation of PhyG showed linear improvement (P < 0.05) in FCR during Grower 1 and ADG during Grower 2 and PhyG at 1,000 FTU/kg maintained a similar growth performance compared to PC. Addition of PhyG improved (P < 0.001) ATTD P and tended to improve ATTD of DE (P < 0.1) in linear manner. In conclusion, the novel consensus phytase can replace Pi and compensate for the reduction of Ca, NE and digestible AA in grower pig diets with equal performance compared to the nutrients adequate positive control.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.076
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 61 Effects of Reducing the Concentration of Ca and P and Increasing
           Microbial Phytase on Gastric Ph, Fecal Score, Growth Performance, and Bone
           Ash of Weanling Pigs
    • Authors: Lagos V; Bedford M, Stein H.
      Pages: 44 - 45
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that lowering dietary Ca and P reduces gastric pH and diarrhea of weanling pigs, but microbial phytase overcomes negative effects of low Ca and P on growth performance and bone ash. A total of 320 weanling pigs (6.35 ± 0.87 kg) were allotted to 8 corn-soybean meal-based diets in a randomized complete block design with 5 pigs/pen. Two phase 1 (d 1 to 14) control diets contained 100 or 50% of total Ca and digestible P relative to the requirement, and 6 diets in which 500, 2,000, or 16,000 units/kg of phytase was added to each control diet were formulated. Common diets were fed in phases 2 (d 15 to 27) and 3 (d 28 to 42). Fecal scores were recorded in phase 1 and growth performance data were recorded within each phase. Gastric pH was measured in 1 pig/pen on d 14; on d 14 and 42, the right femur of 1 pig/pen was collected. Data were analyzed using contrast statements in SAS. Results indicated that during phase 1, lowering Ca and P did not reduce gastric pH or fecal score, but the 50%-diets reduced (P < 0.05) average daily gain and average daily feed intake of pigs compared with the 100%-diets (Table 1). Phytase above 500 units/kg increased (P < 0.05) gain:feed ratio and tended (P < 0.10) to decrease gastric pH. Pigs fed the 50%-diets had reduced (P < 0.05) bone ash at d 14 and 42 compared with pigs fed the 100%-diets regardless of phytase inclusion level. In conclusion, reducing Ca and P in diets for weanling pigs does not decrease gastric pH or fecal score, but compromises growth performance and bone mineralization. However, super-dosing of phytase increases G:F of pigs regardless of dietary Ca and P concentration.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.077
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 58 The Effect of Altering Dietary Manganese and Selenium Levels on the
           Growth Performance and Blood Manganese-superoxide Dismutase Activity in
           Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Edmunds C; Seidel D, Welch C, et al.
      Pages: 45 - 45
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of altering dietary levels of manganese and selenium on growth performance and MnSOD specific activity. Weaned piglets were blocked by weight (n = 216; 5.21 ± 1.17 kg; 21 ± 3 d) and sex (2 barrows and 2 gilts/pen). Pens within a block were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a factorial design with main effects of Se (0.1 and 0.3 ppm) and Mn (0, 12, and 24 ppm). Diets (n = 9 pens/treatment) were fed in three phases (P1 = d 1–7, P2 = d 7–21, P3 = d 21–35). Pigs and orts were weighed weekly and pigs were bled on d 0, 7, 21, and 35 for analysis of specific activity of red blood cell MnSOD. Data were analyzed as 2x3 factorial design via SAS PROC GLM. There were no Se effects or Mn x Se interactions observed. There was a linear increase (P < 0.05) in overall ADG (397, 424, and 438 g day-1pig-1 for 0, 12, 24 ppm Mn, respectively). There was a linear trend (P < 0.1) in overall ADFI (557, 560, 592 g day-1pig-1 for 0, 12, 24 ppm Mn, respectively). Feed efficiency (d 0–35) across increasing Mn levels were 0.71, 0.76, 0.74 (P > 0.1). MnSOD activity in RBC increased from d 0–7, peaked on d 7 and decreased to d 35. On d 7, diets with 12 and 0 ppm Mn had significantly increased (P < 0.05) MnSOD activity (0.91 and 0.87 IU mg-1 protein, respectively) compared to diets with 24 ppm Mn (0.67 IU mg-1 protein). The dietary treatment that best maintained MnSOD activity was 0.3 ppm Se and 12 ppm Mn supplemented, while ADG was maximized in the diet with 0.3 ppm Se and 24 ppm Mn supplementation.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.078
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 60 Effect of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-phytase Variant on Mineral
           Digestibility and Bone Ash in Young Growing Pigs Fed Diets with Different
           Concentrations of Phytate
    • Authors: Espinosa C; Velayudhan D, Dersjant-Li Y, et al.
      Pages: 45 - 46
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing levels of phytase increases mineral digestibility and bone ash by pigs fed diets containing 0.23%, 0.29%, or 0.35% phytate-P. Within each level of phytate, 5 diets were formulated based on corn, soybean meal, and canola meal to contain 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase variant (PhyG). In addition, 3 reference diets were formulated by adding a commercial Buttiauxella phytase (PhyB) at 1,000 FTU/kg to the 3 diets containing no PhyG. A randomized complete block design with 144 pigs (12.70 ± 4.01 kg), 18 diets, and 8 replicate pigs per diet was used. Pigs adapted to diets for 15 d followed by 4 d of fecal collection. Femurs were collected on the last day. Data were analyzed as a 3 × 5 factorial with 3 levels of phytate-P and 5 levels of phytase, and contrast statements were used to compare 1,000 FTU of PhyG with PhyB. Pig was the experimental unit. Diets containing 0.35% phytate-P had reduced (P < 0.01) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca, P, Mg, and K compared with diets containing 0.23% or 0.29% phytate-P, but inclusion of phytase increased (P < 0.01) ATTD of Ca, Na, and K (Table 1). Phytase increased ATTD of P and Mg, but to a greater extent in diets with 0.23 or 0.29% phytate-P than in diets with 0.35% phytate-P (interaction, P < 0.05). Phytase increased bone ash, but to a greater extent if there was 0.35 rather than 0.23 or 0.29% phytate-P in the diets (interaction, P < 0.05). PhyG increased ATTD of P more (P < 0.05) than PhyB. In conclusion, the novel consensus phytase is effective in increasing bone ash and ATTD of Ca, P, Na, Mg and K.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.079
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 59 The Ash in Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tibia Is Better Correlated
           with Total Body Bone Ash Than the Ash in Other Bones of Growing Pigs
    • Authors: Lee S; Bedford M, Stein H.
      Pages: 46 - 47
      Abstract: The objective was to determine correlations between individual and total body bone ash to identify the bone that is most representative of total body bone ash. Ten gilts and 10 barrows (BW: 40.8 kg) were allotted to 2 diets. The 2 diets were formulated to contain 60% or 100% of the requirement for standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P and STTD Ca with a STTD Ca:STTD P of 1.90:1, which is believed to maximize bone ash. Body weight and the amount of feed consumed by pigs were recorded on d 14 and 28 and carcass characteristics of all pigs were determined on d 28. Metacarpals, metatarsals, femur, tibia, fibula, ribs, and all other bones from the carcass were collected separately, defatted, and ashed. The statistical model included diet as fixed effect and sex and BW within sex as random effects. Correlation coefficients between total and individual bones were determined. Overall, pigs fed the diet formulated to meet 100% of the requirement for Ca and P had greater (P < 0.05) average daily gain and gain:feed compared with pigs fed the diet with 60% Ca and P, but there was no difference in average daily feed intake (Table 1). There was no effect of dietary Ca and P on carcass characteristics of pigs. Weights of bone ash were greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the diet with 100% rather than 60% of the requirement for Ca and P. Correlation coefficients between the weight of total bone ash and the weight of ashed metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia were greater than 0.950 (P < 0.05), whereas correlation coefficient for femur, fibula, and ribs were less than 0.929 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia were more representative of total body bone ash compared with femur, fibula, and ribs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.080
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 93 Effects of a Functional Oils Blend on Intestinal Health and Growth
           Performance of Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Moita V; Duarte M, Kim S.
      Pages: 47 - 47
      Abstract: This study was to investigate the role of castor oil and cashew nutshell liquid (functional oil blend, FOB) on intestinal health and growth performance of nursery pigs and to determine an optimal supplemental level. Newly weaned pigs (20 barrows and 20 gilts at 25 d of age, 7.02 ± 0.58 kg BW) were randomly allotted to 5 treatments in a RCBD and fed in 2 phases (13 and 21 d respectively) with increasing levels (0, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100, and 0.150%) of FOB. Growth performance was measured by each phase. Titanium dioxide (0.4%) was added to phase 2 diets as an indigestible marker to measure AID. On d 34, all pigs were euthanized to collect jejunum to measure immune status, oxidative stress status, microbiota, morphology, and crypt cell proliferation. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed of SAS. Supplementation of FOB did not affect the overall growth performance. Supplementation of FOB tended to decrease (P = 0.064) the concentration of jejunal protein carbonyl (3.11 to 2.45 nmol/protein) and tended to increase villus height (P = 0.098, 401 to 453 μm) and crypt depth (P = 0.070, 86 to 99 μm). Increasing FOB reduced (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Helicobacteraceae (46.8 to 21.0%) and increased (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Prevotellaceae (7.9 to 13.1%), Burkholderiaceae (6.3 to 10.8%) and Pseudomonadaceae (0.1 to 1.0%), and increased (P < 0.05) alpha diversity of the jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota at the family level (Chao1 index 42.8 to 56.8%). In conclusion, FOB showed potential benefits on intestinal health of nursery pigs by increasing beneficial and reducing harmful bacteria reducing oxidative damages in the jejunal mucosa, and by enhancing villus structure, whereas without affecting the growth performance. The FOB at a range of 0.050% to 0.150% provided the most benefit for nursery pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.081
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 94 The Effects of Dietary Crude Protein, Acidifier, and Pharmacological
           Levels of Zinc on Growth Performance of Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Hutchens W; Tokach M, Woodworth J, et al.
      Pages: 47 - 48
      Abstract: Weanling pigs (n = 360, DNA 200 × 400, initially 5.90 kg) were used to evaluate pharmacological levels of Zn (ZnO), diet acidification (sodium diformate; Addcon, Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany), and crude protein (18 or 21% CP) on pig performance. At weaning, pigs were assigned to treatments with 5 pigs/pen and 9 pens/treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2×2×2 factorial with main effects of Zn (110 mg/kg from d 0 to 21 or 3,000 mg/kg from d 0 to 7, and 2,000 mg/kg from d 7 to 21), diet acidification (without or with 1.2% sodium diformate), and dietary CP (21 or 18%). The 21% CP diets were formulated to 1.40 and 1.35% SID Lys in phase 1 and 2, respectively, and 18% CP diets were formulated to 1.20% SID Lys. Experimental diets were fed from d 0 to 21 with a common diet from d 21 to 42. Fecal samples were collected weekly to determine fecal dry matter (DM). Data were analyzed using R Studio as a RCBD. From d 0 to 21, ADG and G:F increased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed pharmacological Zn, and sodium diformate. Overall, ADG tended (P ≤ 0.069) to increase for pigs fed added Zn or sodium diformate. Pigs fed 21% CP had increased (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F from d 0 to 21 and overall G:F compared with those fed 18% CP. Feeding 18% CP diets increased fecal dry matter on d 7 when pharmacological Zn and sodium diformate were not in the diet (Zn×acidifier×CP interaction, P < 0.05). From d 21 to 42, there was no evidence of difference in growth performance. In conclusion, reducing CP without acidification increased fecal DM when pharmacological Zn were not in the diet, but had little effect when it was in the diet. Adding sodium diformate and pharmacological Zn independently improved nursery pig growth performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.082
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 95 Growth Performance, Bone Mineralization, and Nutrient Digestibility of
           Nursery-grower Pigs Fed Phytase-supplemented Calcium and
           Phosphorus-deficient Diets
    • Authors: Lee J; Chevalier T, Sparks C, et al.
      Pages: 48 - 49
      Abstract: A 36-d experiment evaluated effects of supplemental OptiPhos Plus phytase (Huvepharma, Peachtree City, GA) on growth, bone mineralization, Ca and P digestibility of nursery-grower pigs. Individually housed crossbred pigs (n = 42; initial body weight [BW], 16.1 ± 0.4 kg) were randomly allotted to 7 dietary treatments based on BW and sex. A positive control (PC) diet was formulated to contain 0.601% Ca and 0.296% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P, which were marginally lower than NRC (2012) requirement estimates for 25–50 kg pigs. A negative control (NC) diet (0.431% Ca and 0.164% STTD P) was developed by the removal of dicalcium phosphate from the PC diet and replacement with limestone and sand. Diets were: 1) PC, 2) NC, and 3–7) NC + 250, 500, 750, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU phytase/kg diet. On d 36, all pigs were euthanized for femur and metacarpal measures. Compared with NC, pigs fed the PC diet provided greater (P < 0.05) response for ADG (966 vs. 730 g/d), ADFI (1,660 vs. 1,329 g/d); bone measures (37.1 vs. 17.4 g ash/femur and 71.9 vs. 29.3 kg for metacarpal strength), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca (69.5 vs. 63.5%) and P (62.5 vs. 49.3%). As supplemental phytase increased from 0 to 1,500 FTU/kg of diet, linear and quadratic increases (P < 0.002) occurred in overall ADG and ADFI, femur mineral content, metacarpal breaking strength, and ATTD of Ca and P. Responses statistically similar to PC were achieved at 250 or 500 FTU/kg and peak responses occurred at 750 to 1,500 FTU/kg that were numerically greater than PC for all but metacarpal strength. In conclusion, supplemental OptiPhos Plus improved growth, bone mineralization, Ca and P digestibility of pigs fed Ca and P-deficient diets, demonstrating enhanced Ca and P utilization of corn-soybean meal-based diets by nursery-grower pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.083
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 98 Buttiauxella Phytase Improves Growth Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed
           Corn, Soybean Meal, and Canola Meal Based Diets
    • Authors: Rundle C; Dersjant-Li Y, Hillen B, et al.
      Pages: 49 - 50
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a Buttiauxella phytase expressed in T. reesei can compensate the reduction in standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P, Ca, digestible energy (DE), and standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA in diets for pigs without impaired growth performance. A positive control diet (PC) was formulated to meet the requirement for STTD P and total Ca (0.33% STTD P and 0.60% Ca). A negative control diet (NC) was formulated with 0.18% STTD P and 0.45% Ca and with reduction of DE by 43 kcal/kg and SID AA by 0.01–0.02% vs. PC. Adding 250, 500, or 1,000 phytase units (FTU) per kg to the NC diet for a total of 5 experimental diets formulated three additional diets. A total of 155 pigs (BW: 8.77 ± 1.38 kg) were allotted to the 5 treatments, and there were 8 replicate pens per treatment. The experiment was conducted for 21 d. Pigs were weighed at the beginning and conclusion of the experiment, and daily feed allotments were recorded. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain: feed ratio (G:F) were calculated for each treatment. Data were analyzed using contrast statements to compare PC and NC, PC and phytase, and to determine linear and quadratic effects of phytase. Results indicated that pigs fed the NC diet had reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F compared with pigs fed the PC diet (Table 1). Adding phytase to NC increased ADFI (linear, P < 0.05) and ADG (quadratic, P < 0.05) with the greatest values for the 1,000 FTU treatment. Including phytase in the diet also resulted in a quadratic increase (P < 0.05) in G:F. In conclusion, Buttiauxella phytase may be included in diets with reduced nutrients and energy for weanling pigs without compromising pig growth performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.084
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 96 Nutrient Digestibility of Toasted Soybean Meal and Untoasted Soybean
           Meal Extruded at Different Temperatures by Weanling Pigs
    • Authors: Milani N; Paula V, Azevedo C, et al.
      Pages: 50 - 50
      Abstract: The apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID) of AA and CP and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of toasted soybean meal (SBM) and untoasted soybean meal (USM) extruded at 86°C (USM86), 120°C (USM120) and 149°C (USM149) were evaluated. USM was extruded mixed with corn starch (396.5g/kg USM and 603.5g/kg corn starch) in a single-screw extruder (MEX 250, Manzoni, Campinas, Brazil). Thirty-six barrows (7.69±0.89 kg BW) were fed a N-free diet, or four diets composed of 30% of each ingredient, as the only source of N, substituting for starch in N-free diet. Pigs were fed at 2.8 x maintenance (2.8 x 106 kcal digestible energy/kg BW0.75) for 10 days (5 d adaptation, 5 d feces collection), and on day 11 piglets were euthanized for ileal digesta collection. A randomized block design was used, with 8 replicates, using the pig as the experimental unit. ANOVA was performed and means were separated using Tukey test (5%). Increasing extrusion temperatures reduced trypsin inhibitors concentrations from 28.24 in USM to 3.51, 1.37, and 1.12 mg/g CP in USM86, USM122, and USM137, respectively, and 2.37 mg/g CP was found in SBM. USM86 showed lower (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM (8–13%), GE (2–4%), and CP (12–16%) compared to SBM, USM120 and USM149, which did not differ (P >0.05). The ATTD of EE of SBM was 17–19% higher (P < 0.05) than of USM86 and USM120, which were similar (P > 0.05) to each other and greater (P < 0.05) than that of USM149. Extrusion at 86oC was insufficient to inactivate anti-nutritional factors and resulted in reductions (P < 0.05) of 25–29% and 27–31% in CP and AA AID and SID compared to SBM, USM120, and USM149, which were, in general, similar (P > 0.05). Soybean meal extruded at 120 and 139°C presented a similar nutritional value to toasted soybean meal.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.085
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 97 Formulating to Fermentable Protein Can Affect the Health and
           Performance of Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Faris R; May S, Ebarb S, et al.
      Pages: 50 - 51
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of fermentable protein (FP) on pig health and performance. FP is defined as the difference in ATTD CP and AID CP on a total CP basis. In experiment 1, 1,449 pigs (~19 d of age; initial BW = 5.9 ± 0.2 kg, 16 reps/trt, 22–23 pigs/pen) were blocked by pen location and randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments with FP levels of 1.36, 1.26, 1.16, and 1.06 in phase 1 (d 0–11) and phase 2 (d 11–20.5). FP was decreased primarily through the addition of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and the reduction of soybean meal (SBM). In experiment 2, 144 pigs (~21 d of age; initial BW = 4.7 ± 0.7 kg, 8 reps/trt, 3 pigs/pen) were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to one of 6 treatments with FP levels of 1.30, 1.24, 1.20, 1.15, 1.11, and 1.07 for phase 1 (d 0–7) and 1.22, 1.17, 1.13, 1.08, 1.03, and 0.99 for phase 2 (d 7–21). FP was decreased through the incremental replacement of soybean meal with hydrothermal mechanical processed (HTM) SBM. For both experiments, performance data was analyzed as a general linear model. Mortality and removal (M&R) and stool quality were analyzed as generalized linear mixed models, with a binomial or multinomial distribution, respectively. For experiment 1 (Table 1), the reduction in FP with SPC increased ADFI, decreased gain:feed, and reduced the probability of M&R from trial. For experiment 2 (Table 2), reduction of FP with HTM SBM linearly increased ADG, gain:feed, and probability of visually observing a more normal stool. A quadratic effect of reducing FP was also detected for ADG and ADFI. In conclusion, these two experiments highlight that reducing diet FP can influence health and performance of pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.086
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 100 Hybrid Rye May Replace Corn in Diets for Nursery Pigs Without
           Negatively Affecting Average Daily Gain, but gain:feed May Be Reduced
    • Authors: McGhee M; Stein H.
      Pages: 51 - 52
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that replacing corn with hybrid rye in diets for weanling pig diets will not influence growth performance. In experiment 1, 160 pigs (6.0 ± 0.7 kg) were allotted to 40 pens and 5 treatments (Phase 1 (day 1–7): 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12% hybrid rye; Phase 2 (day 8–21): 0, 5, 11, 16, or 21% hybrid rye; Phase 3 (day 22–34): 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60% hybrid rye). In experiment 2, 128 pigs (5.6 ± 0.5 kg) were allotted to 32 pens and 4 treatments (Phase 1: 0, 8, 16, or 24% hybrid rye; Phase 2: 0, 16, 32, or 48% hybrid rye; Phase 3: 0, 20, 40, or 60% hybrid rye). Individual body weights were recorded at the start and end of each phase, and diarrhea incidence was recorded every other day. Diarrhea incidence was analyzed using proportions with SAS Proc Glimmix, whereas other data were analyzed in SAS Proc Mixed using linear and quadratic contrast statements. In experiment 1, body weights and average daily gain (ADG) did not differ among treatments (Table 1), but in experiment 2, ADG in phase 1 increased (linear, P < 0.05) as rye inclusion increased. In both experiments, overall average daily feed intake increased (experiment 1, quadratic, P < 0.05; experiment 2, linear, P < 0.05) with greater rye inclusion and in both experiments overall gain:feed decreased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as rye replaced corn in diets. Diarrhea incidence decreased (quadratic, P < 0.05) with 6 or 9% rye inclusion in phase 1 of experiment 1, but not experiment 2. To conclude, hybrid rye may replace the majority of corn in diets for nursery pigs without impacting ADG, but gain:feed will be reduced due to greater feed intake.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.087
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 99 Evaluation of IFTA NBS Alone and in Combination with Zinc Oxide on
           Antibiotic Free Programs During Nursery
    • Authors: Silva G; Knopf B, Peterson B, et al.
      Pages: 52 - 53
      Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the effect of IFTA NBS on productive performance in pigs from nursery until the end of 1st grow-finish phase. Total of 1,200 pigs (PIC 337 x 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were allotted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and assigned to blocks based on weight and sex, random allocated to pens with 25 pigs/pen. Diet changes occurred in 4 phases: N1 lasting 7 days, N2 14 days, N3 21 days and F1 21 days. Animals were random assigned to 4 treatments: T1) zinc oxide (ZnO) during N1 (3000 ppm) and N2 (2500 ppm) with no antibiotics; T2) carbadox at 50 g/ton in N1 and N2; T3) IFTA NBS at 500 g/ton during N1, N2 and N3; and T4) IFTA NBS at 500 g/ton during N1, N2 and N3 along with ZnO in N1 (3000 ppm) and N2 (2500 ppm). Treatments were fed a common diet during F1. Outcomes were analyzed as RCBD using SAS PROC GLIMMIX with pen as experimental unit, treatment as main effect and block as random effect. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in weights and average daily gain (ADG) between T2 and T3 during N2. Significant differences on average daily feed intake (ADFI) were observed between T1 and T2 vs. T3 during N2, and between T2 and T3 during N3. During nursery period (N1-N3), ADG and ADFI were different (P < 0.05) between T2 and T3. By the end of the trial, a significant difference in gain:feed between T2 and T3 was detected. Under the conditions of this study, IFTA NBS in combination with ZnO could replace carbadox as it obtained similar weight and FCR during nursery. In addition, the response on gain:feed during the first grow-finish phase deserves further investigation since suggests a beneficial residual effect of IFTA NBS.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.088
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 124 Effects of Different Feeding Levels Prior to Farrowing on Sow and
           Litter Performance
    • Authors: Harper H; Silva G, Peterson B, et al.
      Pages: 53 - 54
      Abstract: Our objective was to determine the effects of different pre-farrow feeding levels on sow and litter performance. On d 112 of gestation, a total of 309 sows (Camborough; PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were blocked by parity (P1, P2, P3+) and body weight and allotted to one of three treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments consisted of different feeding levels, which included: 1) 1.81 kg/d; 2) 2.72 kg/d; and 3) ad libitum access to feed. Sows were fed a corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with solubles-based lactation diet containing 3.36 Mcal of ME/kg and 1.17% SID Lys. Sows were weighed and visual BCS and caliper units were recorded at entry into the farrowing room at d 112 of gestation and at weaning. Daily feed intake was recorded from the beginning of the study until weaning. Litters were cross-fostered within treatment within 24-h after farrowing, and litter weights were collected at 12-h post-farrow and at weaning. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with sow as the experimental unit and block as a random effect. Covariates were used if they significantly improved the model fit. Ad libitum sows had the greatest (P < 0.05) feed intake from d 112 to farrow, followed by 2.72 kg/d and 1.81 kg/d treatments; however, no evidence (P > 0.10) for differences in lactation feed intake were observed. Wean-to-estrus interval was greater (P < 0.05) for ad libitum sows compared to sows fed 1.81 kg/d. Removal plus mortality rate was marginally lower (P < 0.10) for sows fed 2.72 kg/d compared to sows fed 1.81 kg/d. No evidence (P > 0.10) for treatment differences were observed in total born, stillbirth rate, and litter or piglet weight gain during lactation. In conclusion, results from this study do not support increasing feeding levels for sows prior to farrowing starting on d 112 of gestation.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.089
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 123 Effects of Different Feeding Regimes During Wean-to-estrus Interval on
           Sow Reproductive Performance
    • Authors: Lu N; Popa G, Wang R, et al.
      Pages: 54 - 54
      Abstract: A total of 386 mixed parity sows were used to evaluate the effects of different feeding regimes during the wean-to-estrus interval (WEI) on reproductive performance. At weaning, sows were blocked by genetic line (PIC Yorkshire and Camborough, Hendersonville, TN), parity category (Parity 1 and 4+), weaning visual body condition scores (BCS), and allotted to one of two treatments in a randomized complete block design. The number of weaned piglets of the previous lactation was balanced across treatments. Sows with BCS of 1 at weaning (based on a 3-point scale BCS system) were excluded from the study. A corn-soybean meal-soy hull-wheat bran-based gestation diet with 2.97 Mcal of ME/kg and 0.70% SID lysine was fed in the study. Treatments included two feeding regimes during WEI: T1) feed allowance of 4.5 kg/d with 200 g/day of top-dressed glucose; T2) feed allowance of 3 kg/day. Sows from T1 received two 2.25-kg meals at 0800 and 1630 with 200 g of glucose top-dressed in the morning meal. Sows from T2 received one 3-kg meal at 0800. Experimental data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models with the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS and sow as the experimental unit. There was no evidence for differences between treatments on WEI (T1: 4.48 days; T2: 4.53 days; P = 0.60); percentage of sows that returned to estrus within 7 days post-weaning (T1: 86.01%; T2: 89.64%; P = 0.47); or conception rate at day 35 of the subsequent gestation (T1: 95.87%; T2: 98.50%; P = 0.44). In conclusion, feeding 4.5 kg of gestation diet and 200 g of glucose per day during WEI did not improve return to estrus or conception rate compared to feeding 3 kg of gestation diet per day for weaned sows with BCS greater than 1 on a 3-point scale.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.090
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 126 Impact of Elevating Feed Amounts in Late Gestation on Sow and Litter
           Performance
    • Authors: Portal X; Rosero D, Carter S.
      Pages: 54 - 55
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevating feed amounts during late gestation on the performance of sows and their pigs during lactation. A total of 419 individually-housed sows were used. Sows were balanced by parity (P2 –P10) and body condition score (BCS, 1–5) on d 90 of gestation to 2 treatments [Control or bump-feeding (BP)]. Within each treatment, sows were fed a common gestation diet according to their body condition: (thin, BCS < 3 = 2.7 kg/day; ideal BCS 3 = 2 kg/day; fat, BCS > 3 = 1.6 kg/day). For sows allotted to BP, feed intake was increased by 0.91 kg/d on d 90. Data were analyzed for main effects of treatment and within body condition category. Bump-feeding decreased lactation ADFI of ideal sows (P = 0.015; 6.53 and 5.99 kg, for control and BP, respectively), but not of thin (P = 0.122, 6.05 and 6.80 kg) or fat sows (P = 0.136, 5.79 and 6.78 kg). The number of still-born pigs decreased when thin (P = 0.005, 1.63 and 0.93 pigs for control and bump-feeding) and fat sows (P = 0.133, 1.74 and 1.13 pigs) were BP. However, this was not observed for ideal sows (P = 0.779, 1.28 and 1.27 pigs). Moreover, piglet birth weight (measured in a subsample of 55 litters) improved with BP (P = 0.048; 1.36 vs 1.55 kg, for control and BP, respectively). The impact of BP on birth weight was more evident for fat sows (P = 0.08, 1.25 and 1.61 kg). This resulted in a greater proportion of small pigs (< 3.63 kg) at weaning in litters from fat sows that were not BP (P = 0.019; 7.41 vs 0%, for control and BP, respectively). In conclusion, elevating feed amounts in late gestation did not improve the performance of ideal sows but it positively impacted the performance of thin and fat lactating sows.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.091
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 125 Effects of Dietary Fiber Supplementation in Late Gestation on
           Farrowing Characteristics and Sows and Litters Performance
    • Authors: Valadares W; Leal L, de Almeida K, et al.
      Pages: 55 - 55
      Abstract: Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary fiber supplementation in late gestation on farrowing characteristics and sow and piglet’s performance. On d 105 of gestation, a total of 420 sows were selected according to body condition score, caliper units and parity (0 to 6), and randomly assigned to one of two treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments included 1) Low fiber diet (LF) with 2.02% crude fiber; and 2) High fiber diet (HF) with 5.12% crude fiber. The LF diet was based on corn and soybean meal with 3.26 Mcal of ME/kg and 0.60% SID Lys. The HF diet was corn-soybean meal-based with 10% soy hulls, containing 3.13 Mcal/kg and 0.60% SID Lys. Sows in both treatments were fed 1.8 kg/d. Fecal score was daily evaluated until farrowing. Farrowing duration and birth weight of born alive and stillborn piglets were recorded. The farrowing was manually assisted when the birth interval was longer than 30 min. Data were analyzed by the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS, and comparisons were performed with Student’s t-test at 5% of significance. Sows fed HF diet had fewer days with dry feces compared to those fed LF diet (P = 0.008). No evidence for treatment effects were observed on farrowing duration (P = 0.25) and farrowing assistance (P = 0.09). Sows fed HF diet had greater number of total piglets born (P = 0.01), but there was no evidence (P > 0.05) for treatment differences on the percentage of piglets born alive, stillborn piglets, or mummified fetuses. Piglets from sows fed LF diet had a greater birth weight than those from sows fed HF diet (P = 0.04). No evidence for differences were observed between treatments for pre-weaning mortality, number and weight of weaned pigs (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the HF diet did not show positive effects on farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, and sow and piglet performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.092
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 122 A Mechanistic Model of Growth and Amino Acid Deposition in the
           Pregnant Sow: Model Development, Evaluation, and Application
    • Authors: Ramirez-Camba C; Levesque C.
      Pages: 55 - 56
      Abstract: A mechanistic model was developed with the objective to characterize weight gain and essential amino acid (EAA) deposition in the different tissue pools that make up the pregnant sow: placenta, allantoic fluid, amniotic fluid, fetus, uterus, mammary gland, and maternal body were considered. The data used in this modelling approach were obtained from published scientific articles reporting weights, crude protein (CP), and EAA composition in the previously mentioned tissues; studies reporting not less than 5 datapoints across gestation were considered. A total of 12 scientific articles published between 1977 and 2020 were selected for the development of the model and the model was validated using 11 separate scientific papers. The model consists of three connected sub-models: protein deposition (Pd) model, weight gain model, and EAA deposition model. Weight gain, Pd, and EAA deposition curves were developed with nonparametric statistics using splines regression. The validation of the model showed a strong agreement between observed and predicted growth (r2 = 0.92, root mean square error = 3%). The proposed model also offered descriptive insights into the weight gain and Pd during gestation. The model suggests that the definition of time-dependent Pd is more accurately described as an increase in fluid deposition during mid-gestation coinciding with a reduction in Pd. In addition, due to differences in CP composition between pregnancy-related tissues and maternal body, Pd by itself may not be the best measurement criteria for the estimation of EAA requirement in pregnant sows. The proposed model also captures the negative maternal Pd that occurs in late gestation and indicates that litter size influences maternal tissue mobilization more than parity. The model predicts that the EAA requirements in early and mid-gestation are 75, 55 and 50% lower for primiparous sows than parity 2, 3 and 4+ sows, respectively, which suggest the potential benefits of parity segregated feeding.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.093
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 120 Impact of a Two-phase Lactation Feeding Program on Farrowing and
           Weaning Performance of Sows
    • Authors: Blomme A; Weihs N, Jolliff J, et al.
      Pages: 56 - 57
      Abstract: The U.S. Pork Industry uses a one-phase lactation feeding program based on logistical constraints and ease. The objective of this experiment was to quantify the sow performance differences between a one-phase and two-phase lactation feeding program to allow pork producers to calculate the economics of switching to a two-phase lactation feeding program. 257 gilts and sows (PIC 1050; Hendersonville, TN) were randomly assigned to a two-phase or one-phase lactation feeding program. Animals on the one-phase treatment were fed a typical lactation diet (2.55 Mcal/kg NE, 12.7% NDF, 0.99% SID Lys) for the duration of the experiment. Animals on the two-phase treatment were fed a high-fiber, lower-lysine transition diet (2.35 Mcal/kg NE, 18.5% NDF, 0.65% SID Lys) from the time they were loaded into the farrowing room until switching to the lactation diet on d 3 post-farrowing. From loading to farrowing, animals on both treatments were fed 1.82 kg/d, split between 2 meals at 630 and 1530 h. Daily feed amount was increased on the farrowing day and the 2 subsequent days (2.73, 4.09, 5.45 kg) until allowed ad libitum access to the lactation feed for both treatment groups on the third day after farrowing. Data were analyzed using Proc MIXED (SAS 9.4; Cary, NC) with treatment as the main effect and sow as the experimental unit. Comparing treatments, no significant differences on total born (one-phase = 16.2 vs. two-phase = 16.0, pigs/litter), live born (one-phase = 14.6 vs. two-phase = 14.4, pigs/litter), stillborn rate (one-phase = 8.1% vs. two-phase = 7.4%), number weaned (one-phase = 12.1 vs. two-phase = 11.9, pigs/litter), or weaning weight (one-phase = 5.67 vs. two-phase = 5.71, kg/pig; P ≥ 0.37) were detected. In conclusion, a two-phase lactation feeding program did not impair sow performance can be utilized to reduce lactation feed costs by $0.42/female/lactation cycle.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.095
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 121 Statistical Analysis Method Counts for Sow Count Data Responses
    • Authors: Faris R; Paton N.
      Pages: 56 - 56
      Abstract: Several statistical analysis methods are typically employed to analyze sow reproductive count data. The research objective was to compare analysis methods of pig birth counts to determine their robustness in identifying simulated treatment differences. Counts of stillborn (SB), born alive (BA) and sow parity differences were simulated using descriptive statistics from a sow farm. Different scenarios were tested: 1) Effect of a 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 percentage point change in treatment difference in SB and BA and, 2) Replicates of 20 to 200 experimental units (EU) in increments of 20 sows; yielding 40 total scenarios. For each scenario, sow observations were simulated 1000 times over. Random sub-setting was used to create a random effect of parity in each dataset as follows: 20% Parity 1, 50% Parity 2–4, and 30% Parity 5+ sows. Each simulated scenario was analyzed as: 1) General linear model (GLM) with raw counts of number of SB or BA as the response variable, 2) GLM with the ratio of BA or SB to total born as the response variable, and 3) Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with a binomial distribution of SB or BA as events and total born as trials. Across the EU replicate range, gross performance of models was compared by measuring area under the curve (AUC) with EU as abscissa and the probability of the simulation being P < 0.05 as ordinate. Simulation results are provided in Table 1. The GLMM has elevated probability of detecting true treatment differences over both GLM models for SB and BA. For BA analysis, the GLM Model 1 the probability of detecting true differences is greatly reduced vs. the other two models. This research indicates that deploying GLMM in analyses is a more effective and improved method to detect true differences in sow count data.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.094
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 167 Effects of L-lys Hcl and Distillers Dried Grains Inclusion Rate on
           Growth Performance of Finishing Pigs
    • Authors: Cemin H; Swalla L, Pietig J, et al.
      Pages: 57 - 57
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of L-Lys HCl inclusion in diets with or without distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance of finishing pigs. A total of 2,414 pigs (initial BW = 92.7 kg) were used in a 34-d trial. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial treatment structure with two levels of DDGS (0 or 10%) and three levels of L-Lys HCl (0.2, 0.3, or 0.4%). Diets were corn and soybean meal-based and were formulated to be isocaloric (NE = 2,668 kcal/kg) and isolysinic (0.75% SID Lys) by adjusting the inclusion of soybean meal, crystalline amino acids, and choice white grease. All other nutrient levels met or exceeded the NRC (2012) requirement estimates. There were 16 replicates per treatment. Pigs were weighed and feed disappearance measured to calculate ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Data was analyzed with SAS MIXED procedure. There was no evidence (P > 0.10) for interactive effects between L-Lys HCl and DDGS inclusion rate. Pigs fed diets with 10% DDGS had improved (P = 0.002) G:F, but there was no evidence (P > 0.10) for differences in ADG or ADFI. Pigs fed increasing levels of L-Lys HCl had higher (linear, P = 0.026) ADFI, decreased (quadratic, P = 0.013) G:F, and a tendency for quadratic response (P = 0.063) in ADG, overall with the poorest performance observed for pigs fed the diet with 0.4% L-Lys HCl. In conclusion, pigs fed 0 or 10% DDGS presented similar performance; however, pigs fed the high level of L-Lys HCl presented decreased performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.096
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 166 Optimal tryptophan:lysine Ratio for 25–40 Kg Growing Pigs Fed Diets
           Containing 35 % Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles
    • Authors: Sespere Faria Oliveira M; Htoo J, González-Vega J, et al.
      Pages: 57 - 58
      Abstract: Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has a high concentration of Leu, and the Trp requirement for growing pigs may be increased if diets contain excess Leu. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed diets with excess Leu from DDGS. A diet based on corn, soybean-meal, and 35% DDGS was formulated to be deficient in Trp and Lys, according to NRC requirements (0.13% SID Trp; 0.88% SID Lys; 15% SID Trp:Lys ratio). Four diets were prepared by adding L-Trp to the basal diet, which resulted in analyzed SID Trp:Lys ratios of 18, 20, 23, and 24% in these diets. One-hundred and twenty growing pigs (26.3 ± 2.0 kg) were allotted to one of the 5 dietary treatments with 3 pigs per pen and 8 pen replicates in a completely randomized design. Diets were fed for 21d and blood samples were collected on d-21. Data were analyzed by linear and quadratic contrasts in SAS. The optimal SID Trp:Lys ratio was estimated using linear broken-line (LBL) and quadratic broken-line (QBL) regressions for ADG and G:F, using NLIN procedure in SAS. Results indicated that average daily feed intake, ADG, G:F, and final body weight increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01) and plasma-urea-nitrogen decreased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as dietary SID Trp:Lys increased (Table 1). The SID Trp:Lys ratio to optimize ADG was 20.9 and 23.4% by LBL and QBL, respectively. The G:F was optimized at 18.7 and 20.2% by LBL and QBL, respectively. The average SID Trp:Lys ratio for the 4 measurements was 20.8% which is greater than the current NRC requirement (SID 17.3%). In conclusion, diets formulated with 35% DDGS may need more dietary Trp than current NRC values.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.097
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 165 Effects of Digestible Lysine Level on Growth Performance and Economics
           of Grow-finish Pigs
    • Authors: Becker L; Scholtz E, DeRouchey J, et al.
      Pages: 58 - 59
      Abstract: A total of 2,124 barrows and gilts (PIC 1050′DNA 600, initially 48.9 kg) were used in a 32-d study to determine the optimal dietary standardized ileal digestibility (SID) Lys level in a commercial setting. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 24 to 27 pigs/pen and 16 replications/treatment. Similar number of barrows and gilts were placed in each pen. Diets were fed over 3 phases (48.9 to 58.6, 58.6 to 70.9, and 70.9 to 80.8 kg respectively). Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based and contained 10 (phase 1 and 2) or 5% (phase 3) distillers dried grains with solubles. Diets were formulated to 85, 95, 103, 110, or 120% of the current Pig Improvement Company (PIC, Hendersonville, TN) SID Lys gilt recommendations with phase 1 SID Lys levels of 0.90, 1.01, 1.09, 1.17 and 1.27%, phase 2 levels of 0.79, 0.87, 0.94, 1.03, and 1.10%, and phase 3 levels of 0.71, 0.78, 0.85, 0.92, and 0.99%, respectively. Dose response curves were evaluated using linear (LM), quadratic polynomial (QP), broken-line linear (BLL), and broken-line quadratic (BLQ) models. For each response variable, the best-fitting model was selected using the Bayesian information criterion. Overall (d 0 to 32), increasing SID Lys increased (linear, P< 0.001) BW, ADG, G:F, Lys intake/d, and Lys intake/kg of gain. Modeling margin over feed cost (MOFC), BLL and QP estimated the requirement at 105.8% and 113.7% respectively. In summary, while growth increased linearly up to 120% of the PIC current feeding level, the optimal MOFC was 106% to 114% depending on the model used.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.098
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 164 Effect of Supplemental Dl-met Above Requirement on Performance and
           Serum Concentration of Amino Acids in Heat Stressed Pigs
    • Authors: Trejo A; Sánchez V, Pérez B, et al.
      Pages: 59 - 60
      Abstract: The intestinal morphology can be compromised in pigs when exposed to heat stress (HS), partly due to increased production of reactive-oxygen species. Because methionine (Met) functions as intracellular antioxidant, requirement of Met may be increased in HS-pigs. The effect of dietary supplementation with DL-Met above requirement on performance and serum concentration (SC) of free AA in HS-pigs was evaluated. A basal wheat-soybean meal diet was formulated to meet 100% Met requirement with the other indispensable AA exceeding at least 20% their requirement. Sixty individually housed pigs (23.0 ± 2.4 kg BW, 12 pigs/treatment) were randomly assigned to 5 treatments: TN100, thermal-neutral (22.7 °C) housed pigs fed the basal diet; HS100, HS120, HS140, HS160; HS pigs (29.6 to 39.4°C) fed the basal diet supplemented with DL-Met to contain 0, 20, 40, and 60% DL-Met above the requirement, respectively. Pigs had free access to feed and water during the 21-d trial. Blood samples were collected on d18 to analyze the absorptive AA-SC. The effect of ambient temperature (HS100 vs. TN100), as well as the linear and quadratic effects of increasing Met levels in the diets for HS pigs were analyzed. The performance results for the TN100, HS100, HS120, HS140, HS160 pigs were: Average daily gain (ADG), 728, 612, 720, 716, 719 g/d; average daily feed intake, 1.40, 1.34, 1.30, 1.30, 1.29 kg/d; gain:feed, 0.522, 0.474, 0.569, 0.563, 0.562, respectively. The ADG reduced (P < 0.01) in HS100 compared with TN100 pigs, but linearly increased in HS-pigs, besides gain:feed (P ≤ 0.05), in response to DL-Met supplementation. The SC of Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, and Val were higher in HS100 pigs than in TN100 pigs (P < 0.05). Graded supplemental DL-Met in diets for HS-pigs linearly decreased SC of Ile, Leu, and Val (P < 0.05), tended to decrease His, Lys, and Thr (P < 0.10), and increased Met (P < 0.01). In conclusion, HS had negative effect on weight gain; however, it was ameliorated by adding 20% Met above the requirement.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.099
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 168 Effects of Increasing Dietary Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine
           Levels on Growth Performance of 12- to 26-kg Pigs Sired by High Index
           Boars
    • Authors: Vier C; Lu N, Silva G, et al.
      Pages: 60 - 61
      Abstract: Our objective was to determine the effects of increasing dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) on the growth performance of late nursery pigs. A total of 1,125 pigs (PIC 337×Camborough, initially 12.0±0.66 kg) were used in a 21-d study. The pigs used in the study were sired by boars ranked in the top 15% of a selected PIC elite boar stud based on index. Pens of pigs were blocked by body weight and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments containing 0.95, 1.10, 1.20, 1.35, and 1.50% of SID Lys. Diets were corn-soybean meal-based and contained 2,480 Kcal of NE/kg. Treatments were achieved with increasing feed-grade amino acids. There were 9 mixed gender pens per treatment and 25 pigs per pen. Data were analyzed using generalized linear and nonlinear mixed models with pen as the experimental unit. Competing models included linear, quadratic polynomial (QP), broken-line linear (BLL), and broken-line quadratic (BLQ). Increasing SID Lys concentration improved average daily gain (ADG, linear, P < 0.001) and gain to feed ratio (G:F, quadratic, P = 0.011). The best-fitting models for ADG were QP and BLL. The QP model estimated the maximum ADG at 1.43% (95% CI: 1.12 to >1.50%), with 99% of maximum ADG achieved at 1.27%. The BLL plateau was estimated at 1.31% (95%CI: 1.06 to >1.50%). The best-fitting models for G:F were QP, BLL, and BLQ. The QP model estimated the maximum G:F at 1.48% (95%CI: 1.23 to >1.50%), with 99% of maximum G:F achieved at 1.24%. The BLL plateau was estimated at 1.30% (95% CI: 1.18 to 1.41%), whereas the BLQ plateau was estimated at 1.36% (95%CI: 1.14 to >1.50%). In conclusion, the estimated optimum SID Lys concentration for 12- to 26-kg pigs sired by high index boars ranged from 1.30 to 1.48%, depending on the response criteria and statistical model.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.101
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 169 The Effect of Standardized Ileal Digestible isoleucine:lysine in Diets
           Containing 20% Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Finishing Pig
           Performance and Carcass Characteristics
    • Authors: Clizer D; Samuel R, Cline P.
      Pages: 60 - 60
      Abstract: Previous research suggests an increase of the isoleucine (Ile) requirement for late finishing pigs. Diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) provide excess leucine which can lead to changes in available Ile due to the antagonistic relationship of branched chain amino acids. Therefore, the Ile requirement in finishing diets containing DDGS deserve to be re-evaluated. A finishing study was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lysine (Lys) requirement in diets containing 20% DDGS. Pigs (n = 2,268; 82.3 ± 0.39 kgs) were used in a 56-d trial (14 replicates per treatment). Pens were assigned to one of six dietary treatments balancing for previous treatment. Treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal diet (CS) or diets containing 20% DDGS with a SID Ile:lys ratio of 55, 60, 65, 70, or 75%. Data was analyzed as a randomized complete block, pair-wise comparisons and single degree of freedom orthogonal polynomials (DDGS diets only) were used to evaluate treatment responses, and pen was the experimental unit. Increasing the SID Ile:Lys did not impact cumulative performance of pigs fed diets containing 20% DDGS (P > 0.175). Pigs fed CS had improved (P < 0.010) ADFI compared to pigs fed SID Ile:Lys of 65 and 75% and tended (P = 0.084) to have greater ADG than 55 and 75% Ile:Lys treatments. Feed efficiency did not differ due to treatment (P = 0.427). Increasing the SID Ile:Lys to 65% in 20% DDGS diets decreased back fat and increased loin depth (quadratic; P < 0.029) and tended to increase percent lean (quadratic; P = 0.076), but did not alter hot carcass weight (P > 0.428). Pigs fed CS diets had greater hot carcass weights (P < 0.031) compared to pigs fed DDGS diets except for pigs fed 60% Ile:Lys diets. These data suggest a SID Ile:Lys of 60% is required to maximize growth performance and SID Ile:Lys of 65% increases carcass traits in diets containing 20% DDGS.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.100
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 171 Effects of Dietary Valine, Isoleucine, and Tryptophan Supplementations
           to Diets Containing Excess Leucine on Nitrogen Balance of Growing Pigs
    • Authors: Kwon W; Soto J, Stein H.
      Pages: 61 - 61
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing concentrations of dietary Val, Ile, or Trp alone or in combination will alleviate negative effects of excess dietary Leu on N balance of growing pigs. Seventy-two barrows (initial body weight: 33.9 ± 2.6 kg) were housed in metabolism crates and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 diets and 3 blocks with 3 pigs per diet in each block in a 12-d experiment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of L-Val (0 or 0.1%), L-Ile (0 or 0.1%), and L-Trp (0 or 0.05%) that were added to a basal diet containing corn and a high-protein corn product (48% crude protein; 5.9% Leu). The basal diet contained 1.00 % standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys and 171% SID Leu:Lys. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED of SAS with concentrations of Val, Ile, and Trp, and all interactions as main effects and replicate as a random effect. No 3-way interactions were observed (Table 1). Results indicated that fecal N output increased if Ile was added to diets without added Val, but that was not the case if Val was added (interaction, P < 0.05). Addition of Ile to diets reduced N retention, but N retention increased with Trp addition to diets without Val addition, but not if Trp was added to diets with added Val (interaction, P < 0.05). The biological value of protein increased if Trp was added to diets without addition of Ile, but if Ile was added, Trp addition did not increase the biological value of protein (interaction, P < 0.05). In conclusion, adding Ile to a diet with excess Leu reduced N retention, but if Trp was added alone or in combination with Ile or Val, N retention increased.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.102
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 172 Effects of Dietary Valine, Isoleucine, and Tryptophan Supplementations
           to Diets Containing Excess Leucine from Corn Protein on Growth Performance
           of Growing Pigs
    • Authors: Kwon W; Soto J, Stein H.
      Pages: 61 - 62
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that addition of Val, Ile, or Trp alone or in combination will reduce the negative effects of excess Leu in diets for growing pigs. A total of 288 growing pigs (28.6 ± 2.5 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were 2 barrows and 2 gilts in each pen and 8 replicate pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal and 8 diets based on corn and a high-protein corn product (48% crude protein) with 2 levels of crystalline L-Val (0 or 0.10%), L-Ile (0 or 0.10%), and L-Trp (0 or 0.05%) were formulated. The crystalline L-Val, L-Ile, and L-Trp increased standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val:Lys from 70 to 80%, SID Ile:Lys from 53 to 63%, and SID Trp:Lys from 18 to 23%, respectively. All diets were formulated to contain 1.00% SID Lys and the 8 diets containing corn protein contained 171% SID Leu:Lys. Individual pig weights were recorded at the beginning and at the conclusion of the 28-d experiment. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED of SAS with a pen as the experimental unit. Diet was the fixed effect and block and replicate within block were random effects. Results indicated that final body weight and average daily gain were not different between pigs fed the control diet and pigs fed the diet with Val and Trp addition, but greater (P < 0.001) than for pigs fed the diet with Val addition, Ile addition, Trp addition, Val and Ile addition, Ile and Trp addition, or Val, Ile, and Trp addition (Table 1). In conclusion, addition of Val and Trp to diets with excess Leu may prevent negative effects of excess Leu in diets for growing pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.103
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 170 Meta-analysis to Determine the Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine
           Requirements of Growing-finishing Pigs from 11- to 150-kg
    • Authors: Orlando U; Vier C, Cast W, et al.
      Pages: 62 - 63
      Abstract: A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) recommendations for 11–150 kg PIC pigs housed under commercial conditions. Data from 29 trials dating from 2013 to 2020 utilizing 48,338 pigs were recorded in a database. Number of pens/treatment and pigs/trial ranged from 9 to 16 and 12 to 25, respectively. Sire lines were PIC 337 in 25 trials, PIC 327 in 3 trials, and PIC TR4 and 327 in 1 trial. Dam lines were PIC Camborough in 18 trials and PIC Camborough 29 in 9 trials. The SID Lys to calorie ratio curves were built for both metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy (NE) systems using the feed ingredient composition in NRC (2012) for energy levels. The response variables average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G:F) were analyzed using generalized linear and non-linear mixed models with heterogeneous variance (Gonçalves et al., 2016). Each treatment mean within a trial (n = 288) was considered the experimental unit and each trial was used as a random effect. The models were developed for mixed gender pigs and the PIC 337 growth curves were used to estimate the recommendations for barrows and gilts. There was no evidence for an interaction between sire lines or dam lines and treatment (P > 0.10). The SID Lys to calorie recommendations are based on the average for ADG and G:F (Table 1). At these levels, approximately 100% of maximum ADG and 99.4% of maximum G:F are achieved. The NE to ME ratio that results in a similar SID Lys recommendation as a percentage of the diet ranged from approximately 0.72 to 0.74. The updated biological requirements for PIC pigs remained similar compared to previous PIC recommendations (Gonçalves et al., 2017). However, the requirement estimates have been adjusted for late nursery and late finishing phases.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.104
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 204 An Investigation into the Role of Dietary Essential Fatty Acids Ratios
           and Linoleic Acid Level on Growth Performance and Inflammation of
           Grow-finish Pigs
    • Authors: Becker S; Greiner L.
      Pages: 63 - 63
      Abstract: The objective was to investigate the effects of dietary linoleic acid level and the ratio of linoleic acid:linolenic acid (n6:n3) on the growth performance and inflammatory status of grow-finish pigs. A total of 300 growing pigs (BW = 41.1 ± 6.3 kg) were randomly assigned to either a high (30 g/kg; HLA) or low (15 g/kg; LLA) linoleic acid level with a high (20:1; HR), moderate (12:1; MR) or low (4:1; LR) n6:n3 in a 2 x 3 factorial design. Diets were fed across three 28-day phases and were balanced for dietary metabolizable energy. Pigs were housed 5 pigs per pen. Blood samples were collected on weeks 1, 3, 6, and 12, and synovial fluid was collected from the hock joint on weeks 1 and 12 for inflammatory marker analysis. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using PROC MIXED (SAS 9.4) with initial body weight as a covariate, pen as the experimental unit, and linoleic acid level, ratio, and their interaction as fixed effects. Compared to HLA, LLA pigs had increased BW (P < 0.05) at d56 (103.2 vs. 101.3kg) and tended to have increased BW at d84 (P < 0.10; 129.1 vs. 127.8kg). Pigs receiving LR tended to have higher d84 BW compared to MR (P < 0.10; 129.1 vs. 127.3kg). There was no effect of linoleic acid ratio interaction for growth performance. In phase 2, pigs receiving LR had higher feed intake (P < 0.05) compared to MR. Pigs receiving HR performed intermediate of LR and MR. Overall, C-reactive protein was reduced in the plasma of pigs receiving HLA (P < 0.05; 19.3 vs. 26.2mg/mL). Across all treatments, CRP was reduced in synovial fluid and plasma in week 12 vs. week 1 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, LLA and a low ratio of n6:n3 improved final pig BW, and HLA is potentially beneficial in improving inflammation.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.105
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 206 An Investigation into the Role of Dietary Essential Fatty Acids Ratios
           and Energy Level on Growth Performance, Inflammation, and Joint Health of
           Grow-finish Pigs
    • Authors: Becker S; Greiner L.
      Pages: 63 - 64
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary metabolizable energy level and the ratio of linoleic acid:linolenic acid (n6:n3) on the growth performance and inflammatory status of grow-finish pigs. A total of 240 growing pigs (BW = 41.5 ± 6.1 kg) were randomly assigned to either a high (3.55 Mcal/kg; HE) or low (3.29 Mcal/kg; LE) energy dietary treatment with a high (23:1) or low (12:1) n6:n3 in a 2 x 2 factorial design (n = 16). Diets were fed across three 28-day phases and were balanced for linoleic acid inclusion. Pigs were housed 4 pigs per pen. Blood samples were collected on weeks 1, 3, 6, and 12 of the study. Synovial fluid was collected from the hock joint on weeks 1 and 12 for inflammatory marker analysis. The pen was the experimental unit and data were analyzed as repeated measures using PROC MIXED (SAS 9.4) with energy, ratio, and the interaction as fixed effects. Compared to LE, pigs receiving HE had increased BW (P < 0.05) at d28 (73.0 vs. 69.9kg), d56 (105.0 vs. 100.7kg), and d84 (135.3 vs. 129.9kg). For the overall period, HE had increased ADG compared to LE (1.10 vs. 1.06kg; P < 0.05) and improved G:F (0.41 vs. 0.37; P < 0.05), while LE increased ADFI compared to HE (2.88 vs. 2.72kg; P < 0.05). There was no effect of ratio or energy ratio interaction for growth performance. C-reactive protein tended to be reduced in hock synovial fluid of pigs receiving LE (1854.3 vs. 2277.3ng/mL; P < 0.10). Across all treatments, CRP was reduced in the synovial fluid and plasma in week 12 compared to week 1 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary n6:n3 ratio did not impact growth performance or CRP response regardless of energy level.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.106
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 205 Dietary Strategies to Limit Average Daily Gain of Late Finishing Pigs
    • Authors: Goehring D; McCormick K, Mahoney J, et al.
      Pages: 64 - 64
      Abstract: A total of 2,164 pigs [DNA610 x DNA241; initially 100.7 ± 2.14 kg body weight (BW)] were used in a 54.1 ± 3.85-day study to determine dietary strategies to limit average daily gain (ADG) in late finishing pigs raised in a commercial environment. Mixed-sex pens (20.0 ± 0.85 pigs/pen) balanced by initial BW and gender ratio were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments fed ad libitum with 27 replications each: (1) Nutritionally replete corn soybean-meal control (CTRL), (2) Treatment 1 with 21% reduced lysine and other amino acids (AAR), (3) Corn/vitamin/mineral diet (CVM), and (4) Treatment 3 fed for 21 days then switched to CTRL. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design using a linear mixed model. Relative to CTRL, feeding AAR or CVM for 21 days reduced ADG (P < 0.001), average daily feed intake (ADFI; P = 0.005), and gain-to-feed (G:F, P < 0.001). Over 55-days, AAR and CVM diets reduced (P < 0.001) cumulative ADG, ADFI, G:F, and final BW compared to CTRL. Transitioning to CTRL diet from CVM diet after 21-days increased ADG (P < 0.001) and improved G:F (P < 0.001) from day 21 to marketing compared to 55-day CTRL, AAR, and CVM; nevertheless, the compensatory CTRL period was insufficient for the 21-day CVM fed pigs to fully compensate resulting in reduced cumulative BW, ADG (P < 0.001) and poorer G:F (P < 0.001) than the 55-day CTRL. All holding strategies decreased (P < 0.001) carcass yield, hot carcass weight (HCW), and loin depth compared to CTRL. Utilizing a CVM diet for 21 or 55 days increased (P < 0.001) backfat compared to CTRL or AAR. In summary, utilizing lysine deficient or corn/vitamin/mineral diets can limit ADG along with poorer G:F. Transitioning to a non-holding diet after feeding a corn/vitamin/mineral diet for 21-days resulted in compensatory gain, but reductions in growth performance and carcass traits remained evident.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.107
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 203 Effect of a Supplemental Water Source on Performance of
           Growing-finishing Pigs
    • Authors: Hammers K; Jasper J, Kern S, et al.
      Pages: 64 - 65
      Abstract: Crossbred pigs (Fast Genetics 276 × PIC 800; n = 2,332; initial BW = 24.5 ± 1.6 kg) were used in two, 84-d growth trials to evaluate effects of an additional water source (fixed double nipple waterer) to a wet/dry feeder on growing-finishing pig performance. Pigs were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments with 27 to 30 pigs per pen and 40 pens per treatment. Pens were equipped with a wet/dry feeder (SDI, drop shelf wet/dry feeder) or with a wet/dry feeder in combination with the additional water source. Marketing began on d 84 of each trial so the highest pig demands on feeders and waterers were assumed to occur from d 0 to 84 when all pigs were present in each pen. Growth data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS and removals, mortalities, and total removals were analyzed using a Chi-square test in SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). No significant interactions between trial and water treatment were observed, thus data were combined using water treatment as a fixed effect and trial as a random effect. No differences were observed for body weight on d 84, average market weight, or number of removals, mortalities, or total pigs removed (Table). Similarly, no evidence for differences in overall average daily gain, average daily feed intake, or gain efficiency were observed regardless of an additional water source. However, pigs given access to a supplemental water source displayed a numeric increase in water disappearance per pig compared to pigs in pens with only wet/dry feeders. In conclusion, addition of a fixed double nipple waterer to wet/dry feeders did not influence growth performance of growing-finishing pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.108
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 202 Plasma Isoprostanes, but Not Thiobarbituic Acid Reactive Substances,
           Are a Reliable Measure of Lipid Oxidation in Growing Pigs Fed Peroxidized
           Soybean Oil
    • Authors: Wilson V; Kerr B.
      Pages: 65 - 66
      Abstract: Past experiments have reported conflicting effects of feeding peroxidized soybean oil (pSO) to growing pigs on plasma F2-isoprostanes (ISP) and thiobarbituic acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations. Two experiments were conducted to clarify these inconsistencies. In experiment 1 (Exp. 1), 13.5 to 24.0 kg pigs were fed diets for 22 d which contained 10% SO that was either unheated or peroxidized (heated at 135°C for 42 h). In experiment (Exp. 2), 21.3 to 37.5 kg pigs were fed diets for 27d which contained either 8% SO or pSO. Blood was collected from 1 pig per pen on d 21 and 26 from Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively, with plasma subsequently analyzed for ISP, TBARS, reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), and antioxidant capacity (AXC). Data were analyzed as a randomized block design with experiment as the blocking factor. There were 10 replications per dietary treatment within each experiment. Pigs fed pSO had reduced gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency compared to pigs fed SO (P ≤ 0.01). Pigs fed pSO had increased concentrations of ISP (P ≤ 0.01), but tended to have decreased concentrations of TBARS (P = 0.10) compared to pigs to pigs fed SO. Pigs fed pSO had increased concentrations of ROM (P ≤ 0.01) while plasma concentrations of AXC did not differ (P = 0.28) compared to pigs fed SO. As a result, the oxidative stress index (OSi), based on the ratio between ROM and AXC, increased (P = 0.04) in pigs fed pSO compared to pigs fed SO. In conclusion, feeding pSO reduces pig performance and increases oxidative stress as measured by plasma ISP, ROM, and OSi. In contrast plasma TBARS were unaffected and may suggest they are not to be relied upon as a sole measure of oxidative stress, specifically lipid damage, in growing pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.109
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 199 Effect of the Pelleting Process on Diet Formulations with Varying
           Levels of Crystalline Amino Acids and Reducing Sugars on Digestibility in
           Growing Pigs
    • Authors: Dunmire K; Lopez D, Fiehler C, et al.
      Pages: 66 - 67
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine effects of pelleting on the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in diets with or without increased concentrations of free AA and reducing sugars (RS). Eight individually housed, ileal cannulated barrows (initially 69.2 kg) were allotted to a replicated 8×8 Latin square with 8 diets and eight 7-d periods with ileal digesta collected on d 6 and 7. Treatments were arranged in a 2×2×2 factorial with main effects of diet form (mash vs. pellet), crystalline AA (low vs. high), or reducing sugars (low vs. high) provided by dried distillers grains with solubles and bakery meal. Diets were pelleted to achieve a hot pellet temperature of 85 to 88°C. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized Latin square using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. A feed form×RS interaction (P < 0.026) for SID of tryptophan was observed. Feeding pelleted low RS diets improved SID of tryptophan compared with mash high and low RS diets, and pelleted high RS diets. For main effects of feed form, the SID of total AA, CP, and indispensable AA increased (P < 0.042) in pigs fed pelleted diets compared with mash diets. For main effects of crystalline AA, pigs fed high crystalline AA had increased (P = 0.007) SID of tryptophan and decreased (P = 0.050) SID of histidine compared with those fed low crystalline AA diets. For main effects of RS diets, pigs fed high RS diets had decreased (P < 0.05) SID of total AA, CP and indispensable AA. In conclusion, pelleting diets with increased crystalline AA or RS did not affect the improvement in AA digestibility from pelleting. Pelleting diets improved AA digestibility. Diets formulated with high crystalline AA had increased SID of tryptophan. Formulating diets with high RS resulted in decreased AA digestibility compared with corn-soybean meal-based diets.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.110
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 200 Effect of Long-term Feeding of Deoxynivalenol (DON) Contaminated Diets
           on Performance of Grower-finisher Pigs
    • Authors: Bosompem M; Wellington M, Columbus D.
      Pages: 67 - 68
      Abstract: Previous studies examining the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) intake in pigs have largely focused on young animals or have been over a short period of time. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of long-term feeding of DON contaminated diets on growth performance of grower-finisher pigs. A total of 240 mixed-sex pigs (35.9 ± 1.1 kg) were group housed in 6 pigs/pen (n = 10/treatment) and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 77 d. Diets consisted of a control diet (CON) containing no DON or a diet containing 1, 3, or 5 ppm DON (DON1, DON3, or DON5) achieved by adding DON-contaminated wheat and wheat screenings at the expense of clean wheat. In the grower period, DON5-fed pigs had reduced average daily gain (ADG) compared to CON, with DON1 and DON3-fed pigs being intermediate P < 0.05). There was no effect of dietary treatment on ADG in the finisher period (P > 0.05). Overall the entire study, DON3 and DON5-fed pigs had similar and reduced ADG (P < 0.05) compared to CON and DON1, which did not differ (P > 0.05). Feed intake was reduced in DON-fed pigs in the finisher period (3.12, 2.97, 2.96, and 2.88 ± 0.05; P< 0.05) and in DON3 and DON5-fed pigs overall (2.62, 2.55, 2.47, 2.47 ± 0.03; P < 0.05) compared to CON, with no overall effect observed in the grower period. There was no effect on feed efficiency in any period (P > 0.05). The decrease in performance resulted in reduced final body weight in DON3 and DON5-fed pigs, compared to CON, with DON1-fed pigs being intermediate (P > 0.05). Overall, the effects of DON-intake on performance were variable and generally occurred rapidly after initial exposure and appear to be largely due to the reduction in feed intake.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.111
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 201 Impact of Water Flow Rate on Finishing Pig Performance
    • Authors: Miller H; Perez-Palencia J, Levesque C, et al.
      Pages: 68 - 69
      Abstract: A survey of South Dakota pork producers in 2019 demonstrated that water flow rate for nipple drinkers was highly variable among barns. Sixty-eight percent had water flow rates above the recommended rate of 500–1,000 mL/min (NSNG, 2010). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of water flow rate on finishing pig performance during the summer months. A total of 396 mixed-sex pigs, in two groups, were utilized in a 77-day trial (34.55 to103.8 kg BW) with 6 pigs/pen. Pens were assigned to one of three water flow rates (high, medium, low) based on the 3-hole diameters of the commercial water nipples used in the facility (2.0, 1.0, 0.80 mm; n = 22 pens/treatment). Daily water usage was recorded for each treatment along with room temperature, outside temperature, and relative humidity. Individual pen water flow rate was recorded every two weeks. At every diet phase change (26± 2.6 days), feed disappearance and individual pig body weight were recorded. Water flow rates averaged 1846±188, 906±214, 508±100 mL/min for high, medium, and low flow rates, respectively. Daily water disappearance for high, medium, and low treatments were 6.8, 2.3, 1.7±3.2 liters/pig, respectively. Final body weight (BW; 103.8±7.4 kg) did not differ. Daily gain (ADG) from 34.5±4.5 to 55.5±4.6 kg BW was greatest (P < 0.05) for high treatment. Daily intake (ADFI) and gain:feed (G:F) from 55.5±4.6 to 79.1±5.3 kg BW were greatest (P < 0.05) for high treatment. Cumulative ADFI was 2.27, 2.18, 2.16±0.16 kg (P < 0.05) in high, medium, and low flow ranges, respectively. There was no differences in cumulative ADG or G:F. Water flow rate had a significant impact on ADFI although there was minimal impact on gain and G:F. Water nipples should be regularly checked as part of normal barn maintenance to ensure adequate, but not excessive, water is available.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.112
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 137 Evaluation of Narasin Inclusion Level on the Growth Performance and
           Carcass Characteristics of Growing-finishing Pigs
    • Authors: Puls C; Arentson R, Peterson B, et al.
      Pages: 69 - 70
      Abstract: Two studies were conducted to evaluate narasin inclusion level on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. The studies were carried out using a randomized complete block design with three narasin levels: 0 vs. 15 vs. 20 mg/kg. Study 1 (2,232 pigs) was carried out over a fixed time of 85 days from 33.4 ± 1.7 kg to 117.0 ± 2.6 kg. Study 2 (1,125 pigs) was carried out over a fixed time of 113 days from 28.0 ± 2.2 kg to 124.4 ± 6.0 kg. All pigs were fed diets that met or exceeded nutrient recommendations of growing-finishing pigs (NRC, 2012). Pigs were offered ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the study and weighed on day 0, 28, 56, and 84. Feed additions and feed remaining in the feeder at the time of pig weighing was recorded. Due to disruptions at the slaughter facility, carcass data were not collected on Study 1. For Study 2, pigs were sent for slaughter over five weeks, with the heaviest 20% of each pen being sent for slaughter each week. At slaughter, hot carcass weight was collected. Compared to controls, feeding 15 mg/kg narasin increased (P < 0.05) final body weight (1.2 kg and 1.4 kg for Study 1 and 2, respectively), increased (P < 0.05) hot carcass weight (1.3 kg), and tended (P = 0.07) to improve carcass yield (0.3 percentage units). Feeding 20 mg/kg narasin increased (P < 0.05) overall G:F compared to controls (1.5% and 1.9% for Study 1 and 2, respectively). There were limited differences between the 15 and 20 mg/kg narasin levels. The results of this study confirm improvements in growth performance and carcass characteristics from feeding narasin to growing-finishing pigs. The outcomes of feeding 20 mg/kg narasin were unexpected and warrant further research.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.113
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 138 Effects of Increasing Soybean Meal in Corn-based Diets on Growth
           Performance of Late-finishing Pigs
    • Authors: Holen J; Goodband R, Tokach M, et al.
      Pages: 70 - 71
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing levels of soybean meal (SBM) replacing feed grade amino acids in corn or corn-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)-based diets on growth performance of late finishing pigs. In both experiments, there were 22 to 27 pigs per pen and 14 pens per treatment. Average length of the experiments was 35 (Exp. 1) and 29 days (Exp. 2). Diets were balanced to contain 0.70% SID Lys and 2,667 or 2,610 kcal NE/kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Minimum amino acid ratios relative to Lys were: Ile, 55; Met&Cys, 60; Thr, 65; Trp, 19.5, and Val, 70. Dietary crude protein ranged from 10.1 to 15.2 for Exp. 1 and 13.6 to 19.4 for Exp. 2. The statistical model considered fixed effects of treatment, linear and quadratic contrasts, and random effect of block. In Exp.1, 1,793 pigs (L337×1050, PIC; initially 104.9 ± 1.4 kg) were fed corn-based diets and pens of pigs were assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with increasing SBM from 5 to 20%. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) and gain-to-feed (G:F) increased (linear; P < 0.05) as SBM increased with the greatest improvement observed as SBM increased from 5 to 8.75%, with little improvement thereafter. In Exp. 2, 1,827 pigs (L337×1050, PIC; initially 97.9 ± 1.1 kg) were used in a similar study as Exp. 1, but all diets contained 25% DDGS and SBM levels increased from 0 to 16%. Overall, G:F and final bodyweight of pigs marginally improved (linear and quadratic, respectively; P < 0.10) as SBM increased, with the greatest performance observed when diets contained 8% SBM. These results suggest that increasing SBM up to 8% at the expense of feed grade amino acids in corn or corn-DDGS-based diets improved ADG or G:F in late-finishing pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.115
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 139 Does Feeding an Increased Level of Narasin (Skycis) Result in Improved
           Growth Performance and Mortality in a Commercial Wean-to-finish Swine
           Feeding Program'
    • Authors: Kellner T; Ellingson J, Thomas P.
      Pages: 70 - 70
      Abstract: The response to narasin (Skycis 100, Elanco, Greenfield, IN) to date has been documented in research facilities with a high degree of control and via pigs with no insults to health or feed intake. Furthermore, these studies are always conducted on a single subset of pigs and diets. However, in commercial conditions, the response to narasin must be consistent and defined over a wide range of health statuses, stocking densities, feed intakes, environments, and diet formulations. The objective of this experiment was to determine which inclusion level of narasin (13.6 or 18.1 g/ton) would provide the greatest response under commercial conditions. A total of 197,629 weaned barrows and gilts (6.0 ± 0.1 kg; PIC 337 sired, Hendersonville, TN) were placed in 73 2,400-head commercial wean-to-finish barns that were alternated to 1 of 2 treatments (13.6 or 18.1 g of narasin/ton) in a rolling allotment over an 18-month period. Pigs were on the experiment for an average of 163 ± 1.6 days (until harvest). Throughout the 18-month experimental period, diets (outside of the narasin inclusion) were allowed to change to maximize return over feed costs. Data were analyzed using Proc MIXED (SAS 9.4; Cary, NC) with treatment as the main effect and barn as the experimental unit. Compared to 13.6 g/ton, the increased level of narasin (18.1 g/ton) improved ADG (13.6 g/ton = 0.76 versus 18.1 g/ton = 0.78 kg/d; P = 0.035), gain:feed (13.6 g/ton = 0.389 versus 18.1 g/ton = 0.401; P = 0.042), and mortality from wean to harvest (13.6 g/ton = 7.2% versus 18.1 g/ton = 5.3%; P = 0.084). In summary, feeding an increased level of narasin (18.1 g/ton) during an ever-changing (diet formulation, environment, and health status) commercial experimental conditions resulted in greater growth performance and reduced mortality.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.114
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 140 Influence of Enogen Feed Corn and Conventional Yellow Dent Corn in
           Pelleted or Meal-based Diets on Finishing Pig Performance and Carcass
           Characteristics
    • Authors: Williams H; Tokach M, Woodworth J, et al.
      Pages: 71 - 71
      Abstract: Previous research has indicated that starch gelatinization during the pelleting process is greater for Enogen® Feed corn compared to conventional yellow dent corn. Increasing starch gelatinization in the pellet increases the starch digestibility in the pig, which potentially leads to increased growth rate. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding Enogen Feed corn in meal or pellet form on finishing pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 288 pigs (53.0 ± 0.5 kg) were used with 8 pigs/pen and 9 pens/treatment in a 72-d study. Treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial with main effects of corn source (Enogen Feed corn or conventional yellow dent corn) and diet form (meal or pellet). Main effects of corn source and diet form as well as their interactions were tested. Pelleting parameters were established with a target conditioner temperature of 82.2°C and corn moisture of 13 to 14%. When pelleting the diets, the conditioning temperature for conventional yellow dent corn averaged 68.4°C and Enogen Feed corn averaged 67.7°C. The hot pellet temperature for conventional yellow dent corn averaged 75.1°C and 75.8°C for Enogen feed corn. For overall performance (d 0 to 72), no interactions between corn source and diet form were observed (P > 0.05). There was a tendency (P < 0.10) for slightly improved average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed ratio (G:F) for pigs fed conventional yellow dent corn compared to those fed Enogen Feed corn. Pigs fed pelleted diets had increased (P < 0.001) ADG, G:F, and hot carcass weight compared to pigs fed meal diets. In summary, feeding pelleted diets to finishing pigs increased ADG and G:F compared to those fed meal-based diets. There were no major differences observed between corn sources or interactions between corn source and diet form on growth performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.116
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 142 Evaluation of Proso Millet as a Partial or Complete Replacement for
           Corn in Growing-finishing Diets for Pigs
    • Authors: Nguyen K; Trenhaile-Grannemann M, Burkey T, et al.
      Pages: 71 - 72
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing the inclusion of proso millet on the growth performance of growing and finishing pigs. Using a randomized complete block design, 36 crossbred barrows, with an average initial weight of 22.2 kg, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (9 pens/treatment; 1 pig/pen). Diet 1 was corn-soybean meal-based (control) and Diets 2, 3, and 4 had proso millet replacing 33%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, of corn in the control diet. The diets were formulated according to 4 growth phases (P1, 25 to 50 kg BW; P2, 50 to 75 kg BW; P3, 75 to 100 kg BW; and P4, 100 to 135 kg BW) with nutrient contents formulated according to NRC (2012) recommendations. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS, using pig as the experimental unit. In P1 and P2, no differences in average daily gain (ADG) or average daily feed intake (ADFI) were observed among treatments (P > 0.3). In P3, pigs consuming the proso millet diets had greater ADFI than pigs consuming the basal diet, especially pigs fed Diet 4 compared to pigs fed Diet 1 (3.66 vs. 3.29 kg; P < 0.01). The ADG:ADFI ratio was not affected (P > 0.1) by treatments during this period. In P4, although there was a difference in ADFI between pigs fed Diet 3 and Diet 1 (3.8 vs. 3.47 kg; P = 0.04), no decreases in ADG:ADFI ratio were observed among the four dietary treatments (P > 0.5). Average daily gain was not affected (P > 0.3) by treatments during the growing-finishing period, suggesting that the level of corn replacement up to 100% by proso millet did not affect pig growth. In conclusion, proso millet was shown to effectively replace corn in corn-soybean meal-based diet for growing-finishing pigs without compromising growth performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.117
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 141 Relationship Between Dietary Fiber and Basal Ileal Endogenous Losses
           of Amino Acids in Growing Pigs
    • Authors: Park C; Ragland D, Adeola O.
      Pages: 72 - 72
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of sources or concentrations of dietary fiber in nitrogen-free diets (NFD) on basal ileal endogenous losses (BEL) of amino acids (AA) and subsequent standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in feed ingredients for pigs derived from such BEL. In Exp. 1, 20 pigs (initial body weight = 46.5 ± 2.97 kg) were assigned to five diets in a quadruplicate 5 × 2 incomplete Latin square design with two periods. Three NFD containing cellulose (insoluble and fermentable fiber), inulin (soluble and fermentable fiber), or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC; soluble and non-fermentable fiber) at 40 g/kg plus two diets containing soybean meal (SBM) or wheat distillers’ dried grains (WDDG) as the sole source of nitrogen were prepared. Pigs fed NFD containing CMC had greater (P < 0.05) BEL of AA, except for Arg and Pro, than those fed the other NFD. The SID of most AA in SBM and WDDG corrected by BEL of AA from NFD containing CMC were greater (P < 0.05) than those corrected by BEL of AA from the other NFD. Experiment 2 was conducted with 21 barrows (initial body weight = 34.1 ± 2.57 kg) assigned to seven diets in a triplicate 7 × 3 incomplete Latin square design with 3 periods. Seven diets consisted of three NFD containing 4, 8, or 12 g/kg cellulose and four diets containing corn, wheat, SBM, or canola meal as the sole source of nitrogen. There was no difference in the BEL of AA, except for Pro, among pigs fed NFD with increasing concentration of cellulose. The SID of AA in test ingredients were not affected by BEL of AA from NFD containing increasing concentration of cellulose. In conclusion, chemical characteristics of dietary fiber, but not concentration, affect the BEL of AA in pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.118
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 143 Impact of Replacing Soybean Meal with Corn DDGS and Crystalline Amino
           Acids on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Pigs
    • Authors: Anderson B; Holt J, Boyd R, et al.
      Pages: 72 - 73
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with DDGS and crystalline amino acids on growth and carcass lean. Pigs (n = 512; 38.51±0.13 kg BW) were blocked by BW and sex and placed in 64 pens (4 gilts and barrows per pen). Treatments were arranged as a 2×4 factorial with DDGS included at 0 or 25% and L-lysine-HCl (LYS) added at 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6%. Dietary SBM inclusion declined as LYS increased from 32.06 to 13.14% (Phase 1) and 28.25 to 9.40% (Phase 2) for control diets. It declined from 27.85 to 8.89% (Phase 1) and 24.05 to 5.10% (Phase 2) for DDGS diets. Diets contained 1.00 (Phase 1, 21 days) and 0.90% (Phase 2, 18 days) SID lysine and were balanced for ideal protein and net energy. During Phase 1, DDGS decreased ADG (P = 0.06; 786 vs. 821 g/d). Increasing LYS increased (quadratic, P ≤ 0.05) ADG and ADFI with the greatest response at 0.4% LYS. G:F decreased (linear, P = 0.035) with increasing LYS. During Phase 2, increasing LYS in control, but not DDGS diets, decreased (linear, P < 0.005) ADG and ADFI. G:F declined (P = 0.054) with DDGS inclusion (370 vs. 383 g/kg). Overall, ADG decreased (linear, P = 0.005) as LYS increased in control (959, 929, 908, 860 g/d), but not DDGS diets (863, 908, 931, 832 g/d). ADFI decreased (linear, P = 0.014) with increasing LYS in control (2270, 2198, 2186, 2130 g/d), but increased (quadratic, P = 0.039) in DDGS diets (2112, 2207, 2324, 2103 g/d). DDGS reduced (P≤0.03) ADG (883 vs. 914 g/d), G:F (405 vs. 417 g/kg) and LEA (34.5 vs. 35.3 cm2), while increasing LYS decreased (linear, P < 0.005) G:F (417, 419, 409, 401 g/kg) and LEA (35.34, 35.17, 35.46, 33.64 cm2). Displacement of SBM with DDGS reduced growth and LYS addition negatively affected growth and G:F for diets with SBM, but not DDGS.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.119
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 135 Effect of Gossypol from Cottonseed Meal on Growth Performance, Plasma
           Gossypol, and Complete Blood Cell Counts in Commercial Growing Pigs: A
           Preliminary Study on Feral Hog Control
    • Authors: Mudarra R; Tsai T, Hansen C, et al.
      Pages: 73 - 73
      Abstract: To evaluate the effect of cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, plasma gossypol and complete blood cell (CBC) counts in growing pigs, 40 gilts (Exp 1) and 24 boars (Exp 2), 63 day of age (19.85±0.43 kg), were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 and 3 treatments with 2 replicates/treatments, respectively. Treatments for Exp 1 during phase 1–3 (14 d/phase) were a nutrient adequate control diet (NRC, 2012) without CSM (0% gossypol), and increasing levels of CSM was added to produce diets containing 0.01%, 0.02% and 0.04% gossypol to form treatments 2 to 4, respectively. For Exp 2, treatments were the same as those in the gilt trail, except 0.01% gossypol treatment was eliminated. All pigs were fed a common diet without CSM in phase 4 (14 d). Whole blood was obtained from two close-to-average pen-BW pigs repeatedly at each phase to determine CBC in Exp 1 and plasma gossypol in Exp 1 and 2. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (Cary, NC). ADG did not significantly differ between treatments in phase 1&2 (P > 0.05). In phase 3, ADG decreased linearly and quadratic (P < 0.05) with increasing level of CSM in gilts and boars, respectively, while ADFI did not differ. Neutrophil concentration was higher while mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was lower in gilts fed CSM on d 42 than those fed control regardless level of inclusion, whereas after 14 d of CSM withdrawal, neutrophil level was similar to control and MCV remained low (Treatment*day, P < 0.01). Plasma gossypol increased with increasing level of CSM in both gilts and boars during phase 1–3, and was still higher than control after pigs were fed a common diet for 14 d (P < 0.05). In conclusion, cottonseed meal derived gossypol impairs growth performance, and increase plasma gossypol in gilts and boars.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.120
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 136 Mycotoxin Contamination in United States Corn and Corn DDGS from 2019
           and 2020 Harvest
    • Authors: Zheng L; Pender C, Gott P, et al.
      Pages: 73 - 74
      Abstract: Mycotoxins are harmful secondary fungal metabolites central to food and feed safety management. These toxins are detrimental to animal health and even at low levels can compromise performance. Focus on clinical signs like decreased feed intake and vomiting overlook significant impacts of mycotoxicosis, including increased disease incidence and severity, immune dysfunction, inflammation, and modulation of the gastrointestinal environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of harvest year on five major mycotoxin groups: aflatoxins (Afla), type A trichothecenes (A-Trich), type B trichothecenes (B-Trich), fumonisins (FUM), and zearalenone (ZEN) in corn and corn DDGS samples. For each mycotoxin group within ingredient, 2019 harvest (329 corn and 20 corn DDGS) were compared with 2020 harvest (27 corn and 21 corn DDGS). Data were analyzed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with harvest year as fixed effect and sample as the experimental unit. Average B-Trich and FUM contamination levels in corn are significantly (P < 0.05) affected by harvest year. However, B-Trich levels remained consistent, whereas FUM decreased (P < 0.05) from 2019 to 2020. Contamination levels in corn for Afla, A-Trich, and ZEN have remained consistent (P > 0.05) from 2019 to 2020. In corn DDGS, B-Trich contamination level was decreased (P < 0.05) from 2019 to 2020, whereas FUM and ZEN contamination levels remained similar (P > 0.05). The 2020 crop risk profile is likely to change as the sample pool expands. A combination of hot weather, storm events, and drought during the 2020 growing season resulted in crop stress and damage, ultimately leading to grain quality and mycotoxin contamination concerns. Due to the continued risk of mycotoxin co-occurrence, expanding mitigation strategies beyond adsorption by mycotoxin deactivation with biotransformation and additional support of immune and liver function is essential.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.121
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 134 Meta-analysis to Determine the Effects of Particle Size on Nursery and
           Finishing Pig’s Growth Performance and Stomach Morphology
    • Authors: Kippert C; Vier C, Lu N, et al.
      Pages: 74 - 75
      Abstract: A meta-analysis was conducted to determine grain particle size (PS) effects on pig growth performance and stomach morphology. Data from 29 trials (11 in the nursery and 18 in the finisher) published from 1986 to 2016 for a total of 140 observations were recorded in a database. The response variables were average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain-to-feed ratio (G:F), ulceration and keratinization scores. Tested predictors included the interactions between PS linear and quadratic effects, production phase, diet form, and main effects of grain type, ingredient inclusion, and mill type. Trial was included as a random effect. Data were analyzed with the lmer function from the lme4 package in R. Significant predictors (P < 0.05) and with improved model fit remained in the final model. Results indicated a significant interaction (P < 0.05) between diet form and quadratic PS for ADFI and G:F. Nursery and finishing pigs fed meal diets linearly reduced ADFI and improved G:F as PS reduced. Nursery pigs fed pelleted diets had reduced ADFI and improved G:F with PS reduced to 500–600µ, with increased ADFI and poorer G:F at lower PS. Finishing pigs fed pelleted diets had reduced ADFI and improved G:F with PS reduced to 500–600µ, with no further changes at lower PS. Regardless of diet form and production phase, ADG increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as PS reduced until approximately 600µ and decreased at lower PS. There was no evidence of PS effect on ulceration score (P = 0.12). Keratinization score increased (P < 0.05) as PS decreased. Reducing PS in meal diets linearly increased keratinization scores, reduced ADFI, and improved G:F. However, no further benefits in performance were observed at grain PS below 500–600µ in pelleted diets.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.122
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 133 Influence of Particle Size of Enogen Feed Corn and Conventional Yellow
           Dent Corn on Nursery and Finishing Pig Performance, Carcass
           Characteristics and Stomach Morphology
    • Authors: Williams H; Tokach M, Woodworth J, et al.
      Pages: 75 - 76
      Abstract: Two studies evaluated the effect of particle size of Enogen® Feed corn (Syngenta Seeds, LLC, Downers Grove, IL) and conventional yellow dent corn on nursery and finishing pig performance, carcass characteristics and stomach morphology. In Exp. 1, 360 nursery pigs (DNA 200×400, Columbus, NE; initially 6.6±0.1 kg BW) were used with 5 pigs per pen and 12 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2×3 factorial with main effects of corn source (Enogen Feed corn or conventional yellow dent corn) and ground corn particle size (300, 600, or 900 µm). Overall, there was a corn source×particle size interaction (linear, P = 0.027) for G:F ratio. There was no difference due to particle size when pigs were fed conventional yellow dent corn, but in pigs fed Enogen Feed corn, G:F increased with decreasing particle size. Neither corn source nor particle size affected (P > 0.05) ADG or ADFI. In Exp. 2, 323 finishing pigs (241′600; DNA, Columbus, NE; initially 50.0±1.3 kg) were used with 8 or 9 pigs per pen and 6 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged identical to Exp. 1. Overall, corn source did not elicit differences in ADG, ADFI or G:F (P > 0.05). For corn particle size, ADG and G:F increased (linear, P ≤ 0.014) and ADFI decreased (P = 0.043) as particle size decreased. For carcass characteristics, there was a tendency (linear, P = 0.093) for increased HCW and increased (linear, P = 0.023) carcass yield as corn particle size decreased. For stomach morphology, there was a tendency for a corn source×particle size interaction (P = 0.055) for keratinization score with keratinization increasing linearly (P = 0.001) as particle size decreased for yellow dent corn with no change in keratinization score as particle size decreased for Enogen Feed corn. In summary, reducing corn particle size improved G:F with no major differences observed between corn sources for overall pig performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.123
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 192 Application of Hemicell HT™ – a β-mannanase Enzyme – Retains
           Post-weaned Piglet Performance in the Presence of Challenging Protein
           Sources
    • Authors: Vangroenweghe F; Poulsen K.
      Pages: 76 - 77
      Abstract: β-Mannans are strongly anti-nutritive polysaccharide fibres found in most vegetable feed ingredients. The objective of the study was to compare piglet performance and antibiotic use between a Control group, fed a conventional 3-phase diet, and an Enzyme treated group, fed an adapted 3-phase diet including a β-mannanase enzyme (Hemicell™ HT; Elanco). A seven weeks feeding trial was conducted with 896 pigs in two rotations of 448 piglets in 32 replicate pens of 14 pigs. Two different 3-phase diets were compared: a standard 3-phase control diet and an adapted 3-phase diet including a β-mannanase enzyme included at 300 g/tonne. The following adaptations were made: Phase-1 (weeks 1–2): 1.14% potato protein concentrate and 1.00% Forcital (extruded soya product) were replaced with soybean meal. Phase-2 (weeks 3–4): 0.46% potato protein concentrate and 0.68% Forcital were replaced with soybean meal. Phase-3 (weeks 5–7): β-mannanase was formulated to replace 63 kcal/kg NE. Standard piglet performance parameters (ADWG, ADFI, FCR) and antibiotic use were recorded. All data analyses were performed using R version 3.6.3 (R Core Team, 2020). All tests were performed at the 5% level of significance. When multiple testing was involved, the nominal 5% Familywise Error Rate (FWER) was used. Throughout the trial and within each phase, ADWG, ADFI and FCR were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between Control and Enzyme group. Mortality was significantly (P < 0.001) lower (-0.90 %) in the Enzyme treated group. Antimicrobial use was significantly (P < 0.01) lower (-56%) in the Enzyme treated group as compared to the Control group. Inclusion of a β-mannanase to nursery diets with an adapted formulation by replacing expensive protein sources by soybean meal, or reducing the NE content by 63 kcal/kg, resulted in similar piglet performance post-weaning with reduced mortality and less antimicrobials used.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.125
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 132 Lack of Randomization and Its Impact on Statistical Power and Validity
           of Statistical Analyses
    • Authors: Serão N; Neto J, Tempelman R.
      Pages: 76 - 76
      Abstract: Allocation of treatments to experimental units (EUs) is done at random. In the presence of a concomitant variable (e.g., initial body weight; iBW), one strategy is to block WUs into iBW groups. However, in some scientific manuscripts, EUs are sorted by iBW and then allocated to treatments (e.g., treatments “A” and “B”) based on iBW, such that the lightest EU receives “A,” the second and third lightest receive “B,” etc. Although this strategy guarantees similar iBW between treatments, this ignores the random process required for statistical analysis of the data. We aimed to quantify the impact of lack of randomization on the statistical power and type I error of completely randomized designs (CRD). Data were simulated for ADG using two treatments (“A” having 50 g/d more than “B,” and MSE=1250 g2/d2). Data were simulated for different replicates per treatment (RepsPerTreat; from 3 to 18, every 3). We used two scenarios for the correlations between iBW and ADG (ρ ADG,iBW): 0 and 0.5. Treatments were allocated to EUs at random (CRD) or according to the order of EUs based on iBW (completely non-randomized design; CNRD). The model included the fixed-effects of intercept and treatment. For ρ ADG,iBW=0, results showed that CRD had greater statistical power (POW) than CNRD for RepsPerTreat from 3 to 9, whereas CNRD had greater from 12 to 18. For ρ ADG,iBW=0.5, CNRD had an even greater POW than CRD starting at 9 RepsPerTreat. Although the type I error (ERROR) of CRD were close to 5% across all scenarios with different RepsPerTreat, CNRD had consistently greater and lower ERROR than CRD with =0 and 0.5, respectively. Having ERROR deviating from 5% is not expected. Visual inspection of the F-values of these models when the null hypothesis was true showed that a distribution other than the theoretical F-distribution, indicating that the statistical test is not valid. Sorting EUs by iBW does not guarantee greater statistical power but results in invalid F-tests.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.124
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 193 Substitution of Expensive Protein Sources by Soybean Meal Supplemented
           with a β-mannanase Enzyme Results in Improved General Clinical Health
           Score During the Post-weaning Period
    • Authors: Vangroenweghe F; Poulsen K.
      Pages: 77 - 77
      Abstract: β-Mannans are strongly anti-nutritive polysaccharide fibres found in most vegetable feed ingredients. The objective of the study was to compare piglet performance and antibiotic use between a Control group, fed a conventional 2-phase diet, and an Enzyme treated group, fed an adapted 2-phase diet including a β-mannanase enzyme (Hemicell™ HT; Elanco). A seven-week feeding trial was conducted with 320 pigs in two rotations of 160 piglets in 20 replicate pens of 8 pigs. Two different 3-phase diets were compared: a standard 3-phase control diet and an adapted 3-phase diet including a β-mannanase enzyme included at 300 g/tonne. The following adaptation were made: Phase-1 (weeks 1–3): 0.15% potato protein concentrate and 2.00% Danex [extruded soybean meal (SBM)], was replaced with SBM 48%, Phase-2 (weeks 4–7): β-mannanase was formulated to replace 63 kcal/kg NE. Standard piglet performance parameters (ADWG, ADFI, FCR) and antibiotic use were recorded. All data analyses were performed using R version 3.6.3 (R Core Team, 2020). All tests were performed at the 5% level of significance. When multiple testing was involved, the nominal 5% Familywise Error Rate (FWER) was used. Throughout the trial and within each phase, ADWG, ADFI and FCR were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between Control and Enzyme group. No mortality occurred and no antimicrobials were used in either of the treatment groups. Inclusion of a β-mannanase in nursery diets with an adapted formulation, by replacing expensive protein sources by soybean meal, or reducing the NE content by 63 kcal/kg, resulted in similar piglet performance post-weaning with reduced mortality and less antimicrobials used.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.126
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 195 Does Feeding a Protease and Probiotic (Bacillus Subtilis) Combination
           (Syncra® SWI) Result in Improved Growth Performance and Mortality in a
           Commercial Wean-to-finish Swine Feeding Program'
    • Authors: Kellner T; Ellingson J, de Souza A, et al.
      Pages: 77 - 78
      Abstract: The response to probiotics and enzymes is often documented in research facilities with a high degree of control and via pigs with no insults to health or feed intake. However, in commercial conditions, the response to feed additives promoting advanced gut health and improved digestion must be consistent and defined over a wide range of health statuses, stocking densities, feed intakes, environments, and diet formulations. The objective of this experiment was to determine if a combined feed protease and probiotic system (Syncra® SWI 201, DuPont, Wilmington, DE) would improve growth performance and mortality under commercial conditions. A total of 127,092 pigs (6.0 ± 0.1 kg; PIC 337 sired, Hendersonville, TN) from a sow farm producing porcine reproductive and respiratory virus and rotavirus positive weaned pigs were placed in 53 2,400-head commercial wean-to-finish barns that were alternated to 1 of 2 treatments (a control treatment without Syncra® SWI (SSWI) or with SSWI included at 72.6 g/ton of finished feed from 22.7 kg of BW to harvest) in a rolling allotment over a 12-month period. Pigs were on the experiment for an average of 162 ± 1.0 days (until harvest). Throughout the 12-month experimental period, diets (outside of the SSWI inclusion) could change in order to maximize return over feed costs. Data were analyzed using Proc MIXED (SAS 9.4; Cary, NC) with treatment as the main effect and barn as the experimental unit. Compared to the control, adding SSWI improved mortality by 1.9% and percent grade 1 marketed pigs by 2.2% (P ≤ 0.025). Compared to the control, SSWI did not improve ADG (control = 0.75 vs. SSWI = 0.78 kg) or gain:feed (control = 0.401 vs. SSWI = 0.396). In conclusion, the inclusion of the SSWI combined feed protease and probiotic system can improve mortality and grade 1 marketed pigs, but not growth performance under commercial conditions.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.127
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 194 Efficacy of a Multicarbohydrase Containing Alpha-galactosidase in
           Lactating Sows: Impact on Progeny Weight and Uniformity
    • Authors: Kitt S; Adhikari R, Bertram M, et al.
      Pages: 78 - 79
      Abstract: Modern lactating sows are under high energetic demand due to increasing prolificity. Significant body weight (BW) losses during lactation may impair sows’ reproductive life and longevity, and the readiness for weaning of the offspring. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of a multicarbohydrase containing alpha-galactosidase (CAG; AlphaGal™280P, Kerry) on a low energy dense lactation diet. Two-hundred and eight sows (218 ± 25.2kg) were blocked by parity and BW to one of 4 treatments, in which a corn-soybean meal diet was formulated to have graded levels of added fat (0, 1.5% and 3%) to titrate an energy density model (T1–T3). T4 replicated the 0% added fat formulation with CAG supplementation at 250 g/MT. Sows were weighed individually on entry, post-farrow (by calculation) and at weaning. Daily feed intakes (ADFI) were used for calculation of sow feed conversion ratio (FCR). Litter performance was characterized at birth, and size was standardized within 24h of farrow and within treatment to ensure uniform litter sizes (LS). Average wean weight (WWt) and pre-weaning mortality were determined. Litter weight distribution was also evaluated via individually weighed piglets, with consideration for pigs < 4.1kg BW. Data were analyzed as a RCBD, using sow as the experimental unit, treatment as the main effect, and standardized average weight and LS as covariates where appropriate. CAG tended to increase sow ADFI (P < 0.10) and yielded significant improvements in sow FCR (P < 0.01), comparable to T3. Although CAG group had lower standardized LS (P < 0.001), WWt was higher and equivalent to T3 upon use of standardized LS as a covariate. CAG tended to reduce the proportion of light pigs within the litter, when compared to T1. CAG improved the efficiency of sows, while increasing WWt of the offspring, suggesting an improvement in nutrient digestion and/or post absorption metabolic efficiency from typical lactation diets.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.128
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 196 Effect of Exogenous Enzyme Supplementation and Fermentation of Oilseed
           By-products on in vitro Digestibility and Production of Short Chain Fatty
           Acid
    • Authors: Jang J; Javaid A, Urriola P, et al.
      Pages: 79 - 79
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of exogenous enzyme supplementation and solid-state fermentation (SSF) with a mixed bacterial culture on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production of soybean meal (SBM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used and included the factors of 1) exogenous enzyme cocktail (supplemented and non-supplemented), 2) microbial fermentation (fermented and non-fermented) applied to SBM or RSM in vitro. The exogenous enzyme cocktail consisted of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) degrading enzymes (NSP-EZ) with phytase (10,000 FTU/kg), and the SSF were carried out using Bacillus subtilis. The fermented feed ingredients were collected after 48 h incubation at 37oC. Samples were hydrolyzed in two steps using pepsin and pancreatin to calculate IVDMD. Subsequently, the hydrolyzed residues were filtered, dried, and pooled for incubation in a buffered mineral solution with fresh swine feces. Gas production kinetics during fermentation was measured for 72 h and analyzed by fitting data to an exponential model. The fermentation residues were filtered, and the supernatant was analyzed for concentration of SCFA. The IVDMD from simulated gastric and small intestinal hydrolysis was greater (P < 0.01) for SSF in both SBM and RSM. During fermentation, the hydrolysis residue from SBM treated with SSF required less time to reach half asymptote, had greater maximal gas production, and greater fractional degradation (P < 0.01, respectively) compared with non-fermented SBM. The IVDMD from simulated total tract digestion was greater (P < 0.01) for SSF in RSM compared with SBM, while SBM had greater IVDMD for both SSF and NSP-EZ (P < 0.01). Production of butyric acid was greater for SSF (P < 0.01) compared with non-SSF in both SBM and RSM. These results suggest that SSF can improve IVDMD and produce greater amounts of butyric acid compared with NSP-EZ supplementation in SBM and RSM.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.129
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 197 Supplementation of Bacillus Amyloquefaciens on Growth Performance and
           Diarrhea Score of Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with a Pathogenic E.
           coli
    • Authors: Jinno C; Wong B, Kluenemann M, et al.
      Pages: 79 - 80
      Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloquefaciens on diarrhea and growth performance of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic E. coli. A total of 50 weaned pigs (7.41 ± 1.35 kg) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly assigned to one of the 5 treatments: sham control (CON-), sham B. amyloquefaciens (BAM-), challenged control (CON+), challenged B. amyloquefaciens (BAM+) and challenged carbadox (CAR+). The experiment lasted 28 days with 7 days’ adaptation and 21 days after the first E. coli inoculation. The doses of F18 E. coli inoculum were 1010 CFU/3 mL oral dose daily for 3 consecutive days. Pigs were weighed on d -7, and d 0, 7, 14, and 21 PI and feed intake was recorded weekly to calculate growth performance. Diarrhea score was recorded twice daily ranging score from 1 (normal feces) to 5 (watery diarrhea). Fecal swabs were performed on each pig on d 2, 7, 14, and 21 PI to test the percentage of β-hemolytic coliforms in total coliforms. All data were analyzed with PROC MIXED of SAS. E. coli challenge reduced (P < 0.05) growth rate through the entire experiment. However, supplementation of CAR enhanced (P < 0.05) growth performance, while inclusion of BAM tended (P < 0.10) to increase growth performance of weaned pigs. No differences were observed in growth performance of pigs between BAM+ and CAR+ throughout the experiment. E. coli challenge did not change the percentage of β-hemolytic coliforms but increased (P < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea. However, no difference was observed in diarrhea among 3 dietary treatments. In conclusion, supplementing B. amyloquefaciens tended to enhance growth performance but had limited effects on diarrhea of weaned pigs challenged with E. coli.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.130
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 198 Effects of Bacillus Spp. on Pathogen Inhibition in vitro and on Growth
           Performance and Bacterial Shedding in Growing Finishing Pigs
    • Authors: Tran H; Ayala D, Spears J, et al.
      Pages: 80 - 80
      Abstract: Three experiments (EXP) were conducted to evaluate effectiveness of Bacillus strains on pathogen inhibition in vitro (EXP. 1 and 2) and on growing-finishing pig performance and bacteria shedding (EXP. 3). In EXP. 1, antimicrobial activity of 4 individual Bacillus strains were tested against 9 bacterial pathogens using agar diffusion cross-streak assay. In EXP. 2, a combination of 4 strains (FS4) was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against surrogate strains of the same pathogens in EXP. 1 using well-diffusion and competitive exclusion assays. There were strong inhibitory effects against Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus aureus with zones of inhibition (ZOI) up to 18.1 and 13.7 mm, respectively. Moderate effects were observed against Listeria monocytogenes, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with ZOI up to 8.7, 8.7, 8.1, and 6.3 mm, respectively. On broth, FS4 inhibited Listeria completely (9 log10 CFU/mL) and reduced Staphylococcus by 8 log10 CFU/mL after 24h co-cultivation. In EXP. 3, 236 pigs (initial BW: 33 kg; 6–7 pigs/pen; 17 pens/treatment) were used to evaluate effects of feeding FS4 (7.5 x 104 CFU/g of feed) vs. the control (CON) diets. On d 0, 49, and at market, a pooled fresh fecal sample per pen was obtained for the enumeration of total Salmonella, E. coli, coliform, and Lactobacillus. Feeding FS4 improved (P < 0.05) BW (d 72), ADG (d 43–72 and d 0–72), and Feed:Gain (d 43–72) compared to CON. Overall, pigs fed FS4 were numerically heavier (1.1 kg) than CON pigs. FS4 reduced (P < 0.05) total coliform counts in pigs at market, and numerically reduced E. coli at d 49; however, FS4 had no impact on Lactobacillus. Our data indicate that FS4 had strong inhibitory effects against Streptococcus, Listeria, and Staphylococcus and feeding FS4 improved performance of pigs and lowered coliform shedding without impacting Lactobacillus.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.131
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 216 Effect of Spray Dried Plasma on the Standardized Ileal Digestibility
           of Crude Protein and Amino Acids in Diets Based on Different Ingredient
           Combinations Fed to Young Pigs
    • Authors: Bailey H; Stein H, Campbell J.
      Pages: 80 - 81
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that spray dried plasma (SDP) increases the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA from other ingredients in diets for young pigs, which may result in a lack of additivity in such diets. Thirty ileal cannulated barrows (body weight: 9.30 ± 0.63 kg) were randomly allotted to a triplicated 10 × 3 Youden square design with 10 diets and three 7-d periods. Diets from four regions were formulated: the U.S.A. [corn-soybean meal (SBM)-based diet], the European Union (corn-wheat-barley-SBM-based diet), Canada (wheat-barley-SBM-fermented SBM-based diet), and Asia (corn-rice-SBM-fermented SBM-based diet). Diets from each region contained 0 or 6% SDP. Differences between measured and predicted SID of CP and AA in diets with SDP were calculated. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS as a 2 × 4 factorial with 2 levels of SDP and 4 regions. There was an SDP by region interaction for the measured SID of CP and all AA, except Lys (Table 1). When SDP was added to the U.S.A, the European Union, and Asia diets, the SID of CP and AA was not increased. The SID of CP and AA, except Lys, was greater (P < 0.05) in the Canada diet with SDP than without SDP. The measured SID of CP and AA was consistent with predicted values for the European Union and Asia diets (Table 2). The measured SID of Trp was less (P < 0.05) than predicted for the U.S.A. diet, and the measured SID of CP and all indispensable AA was greater (P < 0.05) than predicted in the Canada diet. In conclusion, addition of 6% SDP to wheat-barley-based diets may increase SID of CP and AA, and therefore, the SID of CP and AA in diets containing SDP may be greater than predicted.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.132
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 215 Effects of Increasing Dietary Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine
           Levels on Growth Performance of 39- to 119-kg Pigs Sired by High Index
           Boars
    • Authors: Lu N; Vier C, Silva G, et al.
      Pages: 81 - 82
      Abstract: Our objective was to determine the effects of increasing dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) on the growth performance of grow-finish pigs. A total of 1,120 pigs (PIC 337×Camborough, initially 39.0±0.82 kg) were used in a 77-d study. Pigs used in the study were sired by boars ranked in the top 15% of a selected PIC elite boar stud based on index. Pens of pigs were blocked by body weight and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments, which consisted of 85, 95, 105, 115, and 125% of the PIC2016 SID Lys recommendations within each phase. Diets were corn-soybean meal-based and formulated to be iso-caloric. Treatments were achieved with increasing feed-grade amino acids. There were 9 mixed-gender pens per treatment and 24 or 25 pigs per pen. Data were analyzed using generalized linear and nonlinear mixed models with pen as the experimental unit. Competing models included linear, quadratic polynomial (QP), broken-line linear (BLL), and broken-line quadratic (BLQ). Increasing dietary SID Lys from 85 to 125% marginally improved overall average daily gain (ADG, quadratic, P = 0.056), gain to feed ratio (G:F, quadratic, P = 0.062), and final body weight (linear, P = 0.075). There was no evidence for treatment effects on mortality and removals (P > 0.10). The best-fitting models for ADG were QP and BLL. The QP model estimated the maximum ADG at 110.6% (95% CI: 93 to >125%), with 99% of maximum ADG achieved at 97.4%. The BLL plateau was estimated at 105.0% (95% CI: 74 to 136%). The best-fitting model for G:F was QP, estimating the maximum G:F at 107.8% (95% CI: 92 to >125%). In conclusion, the estimated optimum overall SID Lys for 39- to 119-kg pigs sired by high index boars ranged from 105.0 to 110.6% of PIC2016 SID Lys recommendation within each phase, depending on the response criteria and statistical model.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.133
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 214 Effects of Reducing Digestible Lysine and Tryptophan to Lysine Ratio
           on Growth Performance of Grow-finish Pigs
    • Authors: Russi A; Tokach M, Goodband R, et al.
      Pages: 82 - 83
      Abstract: Due to packing plant closures or slow-downs, many producers needed to examine ways to reduce average daily gain (ADG) of finishing pigs. Therefore, a total of 1,080 pigs (L337 × 1050, PIC; initially 32.0 kg) were used in a 119-d trial to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary standardized ileal digestibility (SID) Lys and SID Trp:Lys ratio to slow growth of finishing pigs in a commercial setting. Pigs were randomly allotted in weight blocks to 1 of 4 dietary regimens with 27 pigs/pen and 10 replications/regimen. Pigs were fed a control regimen (100% of the estimated SID Lys requirement for pigs in this facility) formulated to contain 1.10, 1.01, 0.91, 0.83, 0.79, 0.71 and 0.67% SID Lys from 32 to 42, 42 to 51, 51 to 72, 72 to 85, 85 to 97, 97 to 112, and, 112 to 130 kg, respectively. Two other regimens contained 90 or 80% of the Lys estimate. These 3 regimes were formulated to a SID Trp:Lys ratio of 19% except for the last dietary phase that contained 17% SID Trp:Lys ratio. The fourth regimen contained 80% of the SID Lys estimate with 16% SID Trp:Lys in all phases. The statistical model included fixed effects of treatment, random effect of block, linear and quadratic effects of SID Lys and pairwise comparison of the two 80% treatments. Overall, decreasing SID Lys decreased (linear, P < 0.01) ADG and final body weight (BW) and tended (P < 0.10) to decrease gain:feed ratio (G:F). Reducing the Trp:Lys ratio decreased (P = 0.014) ADG and final BW compared to pigs fed diets with 80% SID Lys with higher SID Trp:Lys. In summary, decreasing SID Lys reduced ADG and feeding a reduced SID Trp:Lys ratio resulted in a further decrease in ADG of grow-finish pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.134
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 212 Conditioning and Expansion Increases Nutritional Value of Soybean
           Expellers
    • Authors: Espinosa C; Oliveira M, Limbach J, et al.
      Pages: 83 - 84
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that different combinations of conditioning and expansion of soybean expellers increases nutritional value. Non-heat-treated soybean expellers (L-1) and soybean expellers conditioned for 60 s at 90ºC followed by expansion at 110ºC (L-2) were used. Two additional sources of soybean expellers (L-3 and L-4) were processed as L-2 with the exception that the initial conditioning was followed by long-term conditioning for 12 or 48 min at 100ºC before expansion. Analyzed trypsin inhibitor activity in L-1, L-2, L-3, and L-4 was 34.0, 23.1, 4.2, and 2.4 mg/g, respectively. In experiment 1, 10 cannulated barrows (54.22 ± 4.54 kg) were allotted to a replicated 5 × 4 Youden square with 5 diets and 4 periods and 8 replicates per diet. Each source of soybean expellers was included in one diet, and a N-free diet was also used. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the Mixed Procedure of SAS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of all amino acids (AA) in L-1 was less (P < 0.01) compared with L-2, L-3, and L-4 (Table 1), and SID of all AA in L-2 was less (P < 0.01) than in L-3 or L-4. In experiment 2, 40 barrows (17.52 ± 1.63 kg) were housed in metabolism crates and fed a corn diet or 4 diets based on corn and each source of soybean expellers. Feces and urine were collected using the marker-to-marker approach with 5-d adaptation and 4-d collection periods. Data were analyzed as in Exp. 1. The metabolizable energy (ME) in L-1 was less (P < 0.01) than in L-2, L-3, and L-4 (Table 1). In conclusion, the SID of AA in soybean expellers was maximized if 12 or 48 min of conditioning at 100ºC was used before expansion, but long-term conditioning did not increase ME.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.135
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 217 Effects of Dietary Protein Content and Crystalline Amino Acid
           Supplementation Patterns on Growth Performance of Weaned Pigs Raised Under
           Different Sanitary Conditions
    • Authors: Lee J; González-Vega J, Htoo J, et al.
      Pages: 84 - 85
      Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) content and crystalline amino acids (CAA) supplementation patterns on the growth performance of weaned pigs under clean (CSC) or unclean sanitary conditions (USC). One hundred forty-four piglets (6.35 ± 0.63 kg BW) were housed under CSC or USC for 3 wk and assigned to 1 of 3 diets: a high CP (HCP; 21%) and two low CP (LCP; 18%) diets supplemented with 10 crystalline indispensable amino acids (IAA) to meet all IAA requirements or only 6 IAA (Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Val, and Ile) to meet IAA requirements except Leu, His, and Phe. Each treatment had 8 replicates (3 pigs per pen) per sanitary condition. The CSC room was cleaned and washed weekly. For the USC room, sow manure was spread and remained unwashed. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with orthogonal polynomial contrasts. Pigs raised under USC had reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F in wk 2, but overall, no difference was found between sanitary conditions due to contrary results in wk 3. Overall, ADG and ADFI were not affected but G:F tended (P < 0.10) to be lower for USC pigs. Also, G:F did not differ between HCP (0.79) and LCP (0.81) under CSC, however, LCP interactively decreased (P < 0.05) G:F to 0.75 compared to 0.83 in HCP under USC. The CAA supplementation patterns did not influence growth except reduced (P < 0.05) ADFI in wk 3. Pigs fed the HCP diet had higher (P < 0.05) fecal scores throughout the experiment than those fed LCP diets under both sanitary conditions. In conclusion, overall growth performance did not differ between HCP and LCP under CSC, but LCP diets reduced G:F under USC. The fecal score decreased in LCP diets regardless of sanitary conditions.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.137
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 213 Increased Standardized Ileal Digestible Isoleucine to Lysine Ratio
           Improved Feed Efficiency in Pigs Fed Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles
           from 11 to 80 kg
    • Authors: Xue P; Pilcher C, Li Q, et al.
      Pages: 84 - 84
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of dietary SID Ile to Lys ratio on the performance pigs from 11 to 80 kg of BW. A total of 1,092 pigs (initial BW = 11.1, SEM = 0.6 kg; 14 pens/treatment; 13 pigs/pen) were used in an 80d trial with a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement containing 2 levels of DDGS (0 and 25%) and 3 levels of SID Ile/Lys (0.54, 0.58, and 0.62). Energy and nutrient levels of all treatments were formulated at equal levels that met or exceeded NRC (2012) requirements. The SID Ile/Lys ratio was controlled by crystalline Ile. The MIXED procedures of SAS 9.4 were employed for statistical analysis. Orthogonal contrasts were used to test for main effects of DDGS and SID Ile/Lys. In the results, formulating with 25% DDGS decreased FBW, ADG, and ADFI (P < 0.05) of growing pigs. The average FBW of treatments without and with 25% DDGS were 81.7 and 78.6 kg, respectively. The ADG of diets without and with DDGS were 0.88 vs 0.84 kg/d, respectively. The ADFI of treatments without DDGS were 1.85 kg/day, while the counterparts of treatments fed diets containing 25% DDGS were 1.79 kg/d. Feeding diets containing 25% DDGS tended to decrease Gain:Feed (0.477 vs. 0.472; P < 0.10). Increasing the level of SID Ile/Lys (from 0.54 to 0.62) linearly increased Gain:Feed in pigs fed diets containing 25% DDGS (0.467, 0.471, 0.477, respectively; P < 0.05). In summary, this study demonstrated feeding diets containing 25% DDGS decreased the performance of growing pigs by reducing ADG and ADFI. Greater SID Ile/Lys in diets may help reduce the negative impact of DDGS diets in grow-finishing pigs by improving feed efficiency.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.136
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 210 A Longer Adaptation Period to a Functional Amino Acid-supplemented
           Diet Improves Growth Performance and Attenuates Acute-phase Response in
           Salmonella Typhimurium-challenged Pigs
    • Authors: Rodrigues L; Wellington M, González-Vega J, et al.
      Pages: 85 - 85
      Abstract: Functional amino acid supplementation during disease challenge enhances growth performance and immune status. The present study investigated the effect of duration of adaptation period to a functional amino acid (FAA)-supplemented diet on growth performance and immune status during a subsequent Salmonella challenge in pigs. Thirty-two mixed-sex weanling pigs (8 pigs/treatment; 11.6 ± 0.34 kg initial body weight) received either a basal diet without FAA supplementation throughout the experimental period (FAA-) or a diet containing a supplemented FAA profile (Thr, Met, and Trp at 120% of requirements) fed for either 0 (FAA+0), 1 (FAA+1) or 2 (FAA+2) wk pre- and 1 wk post-inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). Pigs were orally inoculated with saline containing ST after the 2 wk pre-inoculation period and monitored for 1 wk post-inoculation. Pigs had ad libitum access to diets throughout the experiment. Performance parameters [average daily gain (ADG), feed intake, and gain:feed (GF)] were measured in the pre- and post-inoculation periods. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 4, and 7 post-inoculation for serum haptoglobin and albumin analysis. There was no effect of diet on pre-inoculation performance (P > 0.05). Post-inoculation, FAA+2 pigs had the highest ADG (0.46 kg/d) and GF (0.63 kg/kg), FAA- the lowest (0.21 kg/d; 0.29 kg/kg), with FAA+0 (0.33 kg/d; 0.46 kg/kg) and FAA+1 (0.40 kg/d; 0.53 kg/kg) being intermediate (ADG, P < 0.05, SEM=0.059; GF, P < 0.05, SEM=0.099). Overall, albumin was higher in FAA+2 (35.25 g/L) and FAA+1 (34.63 g/L) pigs compared to FAA+0 (30.38 g/L) and FAA- (29.67 g/L) pigs (P < 0.05, SEM=0.717). Furthermore, FAA+2 pigs had the lowest overall haptoglobin (0.90 g/L), FAA- the highest (1.54 g/L), with FAA+0 (1.32 g/L) and FAA+1 (1.06 g/L) being intermediate (P < 0.05, SEM=0.111). In conclusion, a longer adaptation period to FAA supplementation improved performance and attenuated the immune response of pigs when exposed to an enteric disease challenge.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.138
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 211 A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino
           Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When
           Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs
    • Authors: Medellin J; Espinosa C, Jaworski N, et al.
      Pages: 85 - 86
      Abstract: The hypothesis that the nutritional value of corn protein (approximately 50% protein) is greater than in two sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS1 and DDGS2) was tested. In Exp. 1, eight ileal-cannulated barrows (37.1 ± 2.4 kg) were allotted to a Latin square and fed a N-free diet or diets based on corn protein, DDGS1, or DDGS2. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using SAS with treatment and replicate being fixed and random effects, respectively. Concentrations of standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA were greater (P < 0.05) in corn protein than in DDGS (Table 1). In Exp. 2, 32 barrows (16.5 ± 0.9 kg) in metabolism crates received diets based on, corn, corn protein, DDGS1, or DDGS2. Data were analyzed as in Exp. 1. Corn protein had greater (P < 0.01) ME compared with DDGS1 and DDGS2 (Table 1). In Exp. 3, 160 pigs (6.02 ± 0.84 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments with 8 pens per treatment. Phase 1 and 2 diets contained 0, 5, 5, or 10% and 0, 2.5, 7.5, or 10% corn protein, respectively, which replaced enzyme-treated soybean meal (HP300) or plasma in phase 1 or HP300 in phase 2. Diets were formulated using ME and SID AA values from Exp. 1 and 2. A common phase 3 diet was used. Data were analyzed as in Exp. 1. At the end of phase 1, BW was reduced (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the diet with the greatest inclusion of corn protein, but there was no difference at the end of the experiment (Table 2). Fecal score tended (P = 0.066) to be reduced in phase 2 for pigs fed the greatest inclusion of corn protein. In conclusion, corn protein has greater ME and digestible AA than DDGS and may reduce fecal scores of pigs
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.139
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 218 Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids Is Greater in Sunflower Expellers
           Than in Sunflower Meal When Fed to Growing Pigs
    • Authors: Ibagon J; Lee S, Stein H.
      Pages: 86 - 87
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to test the null hypothesis that country of origin and oil extraction method does not affect the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in sunflower co-products. Six sources of sunflower meal (SFM) and one source of sunflower expeller (SFE) were obtained from Ukraine, Hungary, Italy, and the United States. Eight barrows (initial BW: 28.5 ± 2.4 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were housed individually and allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 diets and eight 7-d periods. Each source of SFM or SFE was included in one diet as the only source of CP and AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also used. Data for SFM were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS with the fixed effect of ingredient and the random effects of animal and period. A contrast statement was used to compare results for SFM and SFE. Pig was the experimental unit and an alpha value of 0.05 was used. Results indicated that the SID of most AA in SFM sources 2 and 6 were greater (P < 0.05) than in source 4, but the SID of Lys, Met, and Trp were not different among the 6 sources of sunflower meal (Table 1). The SID of all AA, except Trp, was greater (P < 0.05) in SFE compared with SFM. In conclusion, differences in the SID of all AA except Lys, Met, and Trp in SFM sourced from Ukraine, Hungary, Italy, or the United States were observed, but the SID of all AA, except Trp, was greater in SFE than in SFM indicating that country of origin or site of production as well as oil extraction method influence SID of AA.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.140
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 185 The Impacts of Commercial Dietary Acidifiers on Growth Performance of
           Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Dahmer P; Jones C.
      Pages: 87 - 87
      Abstract: A total of 360 weanling pigs (DNA 200 x 400; initially 9.7 ± 0.23 kg BW) were used in a 21-d growth trial to evaluate the effects of commercial diet acidifiers in nursery diets. Upon weaning, pigs were weighed and allotted to pens (6 pigs/pen, 10 replicate pens/treatment, blocked by 2 separate nursery rooms) and pens were then randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment diets: 1) negative control (no antibiotics or acidifiers) and the control with 2) 0.25% Acidifier A (KEM-GEST™, Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA); 3) 0.3% Acidifier B (ACITVATE® DA, Novus International, Saint Charles, MO); 4) 0.5% Acidifier C (OutPace®, PMI Additives, Arden Hills, MN); 5) 50 g/ton carbadox; 6) 400 g/ton chlortetracycline. Pigs were fed common phase 1 and phase 2 starter diets without antimicrobials for 21 days, then fed experimental diets for 21 days. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design with pen as the experimental unit. Dietary treatment significantly impacted (P < 0.05) all growth response criteria for each week of the experiment. Overall (d 0 to 21), ADG was the greatest (P < 0.0001) for pigs fed a diet containing CTC. Likewise, ADFI was increased (P < 0.0001) for pigs consuming CTC compared to those fed the negative control, acidifier A, acidifier B and carbadox diets, while those fed acidifier C were intermediate. Feed efficiency was poorest (P < 0.0001) in pigs fed a diet with carbadox. By the end of the experiment, pigs fed CTC were significantly heavier (P < 0.0001) than pigs fed all remaining treatments. In summary, feeding CTC improved nursery pig performance while carbadox unexpectedly reduced it. The addition of dietary acidifiers did not improve growth performance compared to a negative control.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.141
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 186 Effects of a Phytogenic Feed Additive (Aromex® Pro) and Narasin
           (Skycis®) on Finishing Pig Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics
           
    • Authors: Ewing K; Mendoza O, Shull C, et al.
      Pages: 87 - 88
      Abstract: Feed additives are commonly used in finishing pig diets to improve growth performance and carcass characteristics; however, data is limited on the interaction of various feed additives. The objective of this study was to determine the individual and combined effects of a phytogenic feed additive (Aromex® Pro) and narasin (Skycis®) on finishing pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. The study was conducted at a commercial research facility using a RCBD with 4 dietary treatments: Control (no Aromex® Pro or Skycis®); Aromex (as Control with 90.7 g/ton Aromex® Pro); Skycis (as Control with 13.6 g/ton Skycis®); Aromex + Skycis (as Control with 90.7 g/ton Aromex® Pro and 13.6 g/ton Skycis®). Diets were based on corn, soybean meal, and corn germ meal and were fed using a 3-phase program. Diets were formulated to the same nutrient levels across treatments that met or exceeded nutrient recommendations (NRC, 2012), with the feed additive added at the expense of corn. Pigs were placed on test at 40.6 ± 4.7 kg and harvested in 2 equal groups at 122.4 ± 2.2 kg. Thirteen blocks were used with pens of 34 pigs for 1,768 total pigs. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS with pen as the experimental unit, fixed effect of treatment, and random effect of block. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of treatment on start or end weights, overall ADG (live or carcass weight), overall ADFI, or any carcass characteristics. Overall G:F (live and carcass weight) for Aromex and Skycis was similar (P > 0.05) to each other and greater (P < 0.05) than Control. Aromex + Skycis had G:F (live and carcass weight) similar to Control and Aromex, but less than Skycis. In conclusion, including Aromex® Pro and Skycis® in finishing diets improved feed efficiency, but those effects were not additive.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.142
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 183 Effects of Protein Supplementation on the Gut Bacterial Community
           Composition of Hybrid Striped Bass, Morone Chrysops X M. Saxatilis
    • Authors: Fowler E; St-Pierre B, Poudel P, et al.
      Pages: 88 - 89
      Abstract: Plant-based protein ingredients have become an attractive substitute for traditional animal sources in the aquaculture feed industry. However, inclusion in carnivorous fish diets is limited due to reduced digestibility, presence of anti-nutritional factors, and increased risk of digestive tract inflammation. To gain further insight on the adaptation of the fish digestive tract environment to plant-based protein sources, intestinal bacterial communities from Hybrid Striped Bass, Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis, fed diets supplemented with different protein sources were compared. Data were generated by Illumina MiSeq 2X300 sequencing of PCR generated amplicons targeting the V1–V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. A comparative analysis using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test identified 17 highly represented species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) that differed in abundance across dietary treatments (P < 0.05). Notably, OTU SD_McMs-0001 was at its highest abundance in samples from individuals fed poultry-fishmeal (PFM; 47.61% ± 0.92%) and plant protein-based (PP; 43.13% ± 1.76%) diets, while it was found in much lower abundance in the non-supplemented control diet samples (B; 4.29% ± 0.92%). It was predicted to be a novel species of the family Peptostreptococcaceae based on its limited 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to its closest valid relative (Peptostreptococcus russellii, 91%). In contrast, three Proteobacteria-affiliated OTUs (SD_McMs-0002, SD_McMs-0003, and SD_McMs-0004) were most highly represented in B diet samples, with averages of 30.28%, 27.22%, and 13.54%, respectively. They were in much lower abundance in the PFM and PP samples, with averages ranging between 0.18% and 4.82%, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA sequence comparisons, they were predicted to be strains of Plesiomonas shigelloides (99%), Ralstonia pickettii (99%) and Sphingomonas elodea (99%), respectively. These results indicate that protein supplementation affects gut bacterial community composition of Hybrid Striped Bass, but that the type of protein used has minimal or no detectable impact.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.143
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 184 Evaluation of Aviplus on Growth Performance of Nursery and
           Growing-finishing Pigs
    • Authors: Hutchens W; Tokach M, Woodworth J, et al.
      Pages: 89 - 90
      Abstract: A total of 1,215 pigs (L337×1050, PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were used in a 156-d wean-to-finish experiment. Pigs were weaned at 21 d of age and placed in pens based on initial body weight (BW) with 27 pigs/pen. There were three dietary treatments including a: 1) control; 2) pigs fed diets containing AviPlus (micro-encapsulated sorbic and citric acids and synthetic thymol and vanillin botanicals; Vetagro Inc., Chicago, IL) during the nursery and finisher phases; or 3) pigs fed AviPlus during the nursery but not the finishing phase. AviPlus was included at 2.72 kg/ton from d 0 to 21, 0.90 kg/ton from d 21 to 42, and 0.45 kg/ton from d 42 to 156. Thus, there were 15 control pens and 30 Aviplus pens in the nursery and 15 pens for the 3 treatments in the finisher phase. On d 42, pigs were transported as intact pens to the finishing facility. Data were analyzed as a RCBD with pen as experimental unit. For the overall nursery period (d 0 to 42), pigs fed AviPlus had improved (P < 0.05) G:F, with no evidence of difference (P > 0.05) for d 42 BW, ADG, or ADFI. For the overall finishing period (d 42 to 156) and overall experimental period (d 0 to 156), there was no evidence of difference (P > 0.05) for BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F. There was no evidence of difference (P > 0.05) observed for mortality and removals during the nursery, finisher, or overall. In summary, providing AviPlus during the nursery improved nursery G:F, but there was no effect on overall wean-to-finish performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.144
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 187 Effects of Oligosaccharide-based Polymer on Growth Performance,
           Diarrhea, and Fecal β-hemolytic Coliforms in Weanling Pigs Experimentally
           Infected with a Pathogenic E. coli
    • Authors: Kim K; He Y, Jinno C, et al.
      Pages: 90 - 90
      Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to investigate dietary supplementation of oligosaccharide-based polymer on growth performance, diarrhea, and fecal β-hemolytic coliforms of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic F18 Escherichia coli (E. coli). Forty-eight pigs (7.23 ± 1.11 kg BW) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly allotted to one of four treatments with 12 replicate pigs per treatment. The four dietary treatments were a nursery basal diet (control), and 3 additional diets supplemented with 50 mg/kg Mecadox (AGP), 10 or 20 mg/kg of oligosaccharide-based polymer. The experiment lasted 18 d [7 d before and 11 d after the first inoculation (d 0)]. The doses of F18 E. coli inoculum were 1010 cfu/3 mL oral dose daily for 3 days. Growth performance was measured on d -7 to 0 before inoculation, and d 0 to 5 and 5 to 11 post-inoculation (PI). Diarrhea score (DS; 1, normal, to 5, watery diarrhea) was daily recorded for each pig. Fecal samples were collected on d 2, 5, 8, and 11 PI to test the percentage of β-hemolytic coliforms in total coliforms. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using the PROC MIXED of SAS with pig as the experimental unit. Inclusion of oligosaccharide-based polymer linearly increased (P < 0.05) ADFI on d 0 to 5 PI, and feed efficiency on d 0 to 5 PI and d 5 to 11 PI (P = 0.07), compared with the control. Supplementation of AGP or oligosaccharide-based polymer reduced (P < 0.01) frequency of diarrhea of pigs from d 0 to 11 PI. No differences were observed in overall growth performance and percentage of fecal β-hemolytic coliforms on d 8 PI among pigs in AGP and oligosaccharide-based polymer treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of oligosaccharide-based polymer enhanced feed efficiency and reduced diarrhea of weaned pigs infected with a pathogenic E. coli.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.145
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 188 Evaluation of Alternative Summer Feeding Strategies to Optimize
           Performance in High Lean Genetics Using Energy, Narasin and Phytonutrient
           Blend Individually, Or, in Combination
    • Authors: Knopf B; Hanson A, Silva G, et al.
      Pages: 90 - 91
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding medium energy diets together with feed ingredients (Narasin-Skycis, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN; Phytonutrient blend-LeanFuel, Furst-McNess Company, Freeport, IL) as compared to low and high energy diets in high lean genetics during the summer. A total of 1375 pigs (PIC 337×PIC 1050; average 32.92 kg) were used in the experiment and were randomly assigned within block to 1 of 5 treatments by weight and gender, and 5 diet phases were formulated to meet and exceed NRC 2012 requirements, and formulated to a constant Lysine:NE ratio using corn, soybean meal and fat as low-energy, 3307 kcal/kg ME (L), moderate-energy, 3362 kcal/kg (M) and high-energy, 3417 kcal/kg ME (H) diets, and the trial ran from 32.92 kg to slaughter. Treatments 1) L 2) H 3) M with 1135 g/ton of LeanFuel added from 81.65 kg onwards 4) M with 13.6 g/ton Narasin throughout 5) M with 13.6 g/ton Narasin throughout and LeanFuel added from 81.65 kg onwards. Data were analyzed using the PROC GLIMMIX of SAS with pen serving as the experimental unit and blocks included in random effects. There was no difference in removals (P = 0.934). There was no difference in ADG between L and H, but H improved G:F by 2.5% (P < 0.01) as expected. ADG was intermediate for M+LF and M+Nar, with M+Nar+LF having a significantly greater ADG than both L and H by 4.8% for the overall period (P < 0.01). Feed efficiency was significantly lower for H, M+LF, M+Nar and M+Nar+LF as compared to L, but there was no difference for G:F between H and M+LF, M+Nar and M+Nar+LF. Gain per pig was increased by M+Nar+LF by 5.1 kg and 4.5 kg over L and H, respectively (P < 0.01). The combined use of Nar and LF offer an approach to supporting growth rate during the summer.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.146
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 246 Effects of Feeding Thermally Processed Spray-dried Egg Whites on
           Growth Performance, Apparent Digestibility, and Oxidative Stress in
           Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Wilson V; Kerr B.
      Pages: 91 - 92
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine if feeding thermally processed (TP, heated at 100°C for 120 h) spray-dried egg whites (SDEW) to nursery pigs would impact growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, N, and S, and oxidative stress. Thirty-two barrows, (initial BW 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments with 1 pig per pen. In a preliminary study, thermally processing SDEW at 100°C for 120 h increased protein carbonyls (PC) from 6 µmol/g to 19.4 µmol/g (P ≤ 0.01). Diets included either 12% SDEW, 6% TP-SDEW plus 6% SDEW, or 12% TP-SDEW. The experiment lasted 24 d for collection of growth performance data, while plasma was collected on d 21 and liver tissue harvested on d 24 to analyze for markers of oxidative stress. Feces were collected on d 22 for measures of ATTD. Daily gain, daily feed intake, feed efficiency, and ATTD of GE were not found to be different among dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.57). In contrast, ATTD of N (P = 0.11) and S (P = 0.03) were found to increase with increasing protein oxidation in the diet. There was no change in the plasma or liver F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine among dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.28). An increase in plasma PC (P = 0.02) was observed in pigs fed 12% TP-SDEW compared to pigs fed 12% SDEW and pigs fed 6% TP-SDEW. In contrast, a decrease in liver tissue PC (P = 0.04) was observed in pigs fed 6% TP-SDEW compared to pigs fed 12% SDEW and 12% TP-SDEW. These results indicate that feeding TP-SDEW does not affect growth performance, ATTD of GE, and oxidative stress as indicated by F2-isoprostanes or 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine; but appeared to have variable effects on oxidative stress as measured by PC.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.147
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 245 Evaluation of Cellulose in Diets with and Without Added Zno on Nursery
           Pig Performance
    • Authors: Chance J; Tokach M, Calderon H, et al.
      Pages: 92 - 93
      Abstract: A total of 1,296 pigs (PIC L337×1050; initially 4.8 kg) were used in a 42-d study to evaluate cellulose in diets with and without pharmacological levels of Zn on nursery pig performance. Our hypothesis was that added fiber (cellulose) may provide more benefit in diets without ZnO. Pens were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a RCBD by BW with 27 pigs/pen and 12 pens/treatment. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial with main effects of cellulose (0 vs 1%; J. Rettenmaier USA, Schoolcraft, MI) and Zn (200 vs. 3,000 mg/kg in phase 1 and 110 vs. 2,000 mg/kg in phase 2). Treatment diets were formulated in two phases fed from d 0 to 7 and 7 to 21 with a common diet fed from d 21 to 42 post-weaning. Pig weights and feed disappearance were collected weekly to determine ADG, ADFI, and G:F. On d 16 or 17, fecal samples were collected from 3 pigs/pen to determine fecal DM, and all pens were visually evaluated for fecal consistency. There were no Zn×cellulose interactions. For the experimental and overall period, pigs fed diets containing added Zn had increased (P < 0.001) ADG, ADFI, G:F and BW while those that were fed cellulose had decreased (P < 0.05) ADG. For fecal dry matter, there was no evidence for difference (P >0.10) between any of the treatments but those fed added ZnO had visually firmer feces as evidenced by lower (P < 0.001) fecal scores. When fed a common diet from d 21 to 42, pigs previously fed added ZnO had increased (P < 0.001) ADG (502 vs. 523 g/d) and ADFI (697 vs. 734 g/d). In conclusion, there were no interactive effects between added cellulose and Zn; however, cellulose reduced ADG while the inclusion of pharmacological levels of Zn improved all growth criteria.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.148
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 249 Increasing Structural Fiber Improves Growth Performance of Nursery
           Pigs
    • Authors: Ebarb S; May S, Newcomb M.
      Pages: 93 - 93
      Abstract: Fiber ingredients in swine diets have various components that affect the intestinal tract distinctively. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of structural fiber sources on growth performance of nursery pigs. A total of 1,760 weanling pigs (initial BW = 6.12 ± 0.3 kg, 16 reps/trt, 22 pigs/pen) were used in a study with 5 dietary treatments: 1) Complex nursery diet with no additional fiber (CON); 2) CON + 2% rice hulls; 3) CON + 4% rice hulls; 4) CON + 6% wheat middlings; 5) CON + 12% wheat middlings. Fiber ingredients were added at the expense of corn and some processed soybean meal to maintain similar dietary protein levels. Using an in vitro fermentation estimation of fermentation for rice hulls and wheat middlings, diets were constructed to add similar levels of structural (non-fermentable NDF) fiber between low and high additions of rice hulls and wheat middlings. Pens across two barns were randomly allotted independent of one another and within a location block to one of the five treatments on d 0 of a two-phase study (d 0–11 and d 11–20.5 post-weaning). Data were analyzed by general linear model in R. Mortality and removal data were analyzed as a generalized linear mixed model with a binomial distribution. Contrasts tested the effect of additional fiber (CON vs treatments 2–5), effect of medium vs high fiber (treatment 2/4 vs 3/5), effect of source of fiber (treatment 2/3 vs 4/5), and the interaction of level and source of fiber. Overall (Table 1), additional fiber resulted in increased ADFI (P < 0.05) and tended to increase ADG (P < 0.10). Probability of mortality and removal was reduced (P < 0.05) when additional fiber was included. In summary, increasing the level of structural fiber improved performance and livability of nursery pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.149
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 248 Impact of Adding a Stimbiotic or Sugar Beet Pulp to Nursery Pig Diets
           on Growth Performance and Individual Injections
    • Authors: Merriman L; Wilcock P, Cordero G, et al.
      Pages: 93 - 94
      Abstract: Utilizing different dietary fiber sources has been studied in piglets to help mitigate post-weaning diarrhea and improve post-weaning performance. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of adding sugar beet pulp or a stimbiotic (Signis; AB Vista) on nursery pig performance. Barrows (n = 216; average initial BW = 5.1kg) were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments and fed a 4 phase feeding program; 1) Control (Con), Insoluble/Soluble fibre ratio (I/S), P1; 4.47, P2; 5.84, P3; 5.82, P4; 7.08. 2) High Soluble (HS) with sugar beet pulp added at 5% (P1 and P2) and 2.5% (P3 and P4) giving the following I/S ratio; P1; 2.63, P2; 2.91, P3; 5.02 and P4; 5.42. 3) Control plus stimbiotic added at 100 g/t (SIG). Pen weight and feed disappearance were recorded weekly to calculate ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Fecal score was visually ranked by pen daily from wean to 35 days. Blanket water medications were not provided. Instead, individual pigs that needed treatment were identified and injected with individual antibiotic interventions, and the number of interventions per pig was recorded. Performance data were submitted to ANOVA using JMP with mean separation by Tukey test and a contingency analysis was used to compare antibiotic injections. At day 14, pigs had a Rotavirus A and B challenge. Addition of HS or SIG reduced (P < 0.05) individual antibiotic treatments by 56 and 32% compared to the CON, respectively. No differences were observed in scour scores or overall ADG. Overall intake was greater (P < 0.01) in HS (0.560 kg) than CON (0.491 kg) or SIG (0.492 kg). Pigs fed SIG (0.671) had a better (P = 0.011) G:F over SBP (0.602), with CON (0.649) being intermediate. In conclusion, HS increased intake where stimbiotic improved feed efficiency, and both decreased antibiotic treatments.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.150
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 247 The Effect of Feeding Low Complexity Diets Contaminated with
           Deoxynivalenol and Supplemented with Nutramixtm or Fish Oil on Nursery Pig
           Growth Performance
    • Authors: Lariviere E; Huber L, Zhu C.
      Pages: 94 - 94
      Abstract: Three hundred twenty newly weaned pigs (6.7±0.3 kg BW) were used to determine the effect of low complexity diets contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and supplemented with NutraMixTM or fish oil on nursery pig growth performance. Pigs were randomly divided into 40 pens and assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments (n = 8): [1] high-complexity diet containing animal proteins (HC) or one of four low complexity diets with protein supplied only by corn and soybean meal with [2] no DON contamination (LC), or [3] DON contamination of 3 ppm without supplements (DON-), [4] with NutraMixTM supplementation (2 g/kg; DONNM), or [5] with fish oil supplementation (2.5%, as-fed; DONω3). Diets were fed over two phases (7 and 15 days, respectively) and a common phase III diet was fed to all pigs for 20 days. In phase I, ADG, ADFI, and G:F were not different between pigs fed the HC and LC diets, but were lower for pigs fed DONNM and DONω3(P < 0.05). In phase II, pigs fed the DON- and DONω3 diets had lower ADG than LC (375 vs. 410 g/d; P < 0.05) and lower ADFI than HC (452 vs. 519 g/d; P < 0.05), while pigs fed DON- and DONω3 had greater G:F than those fed HC (0.83 vs. 0.78; P < 0.05). The BW at the end of phase II were not different between HC and LC (13.0 kg), but tended to be less for DONω3 (12.6 kg; P = 0.084 and 0.079, respectively). In phase III and over the entire nursery period, there were no treatment effects on ADG, ADFI, G:F, or final BW (26.0±0.7 kg). Feeding low complexity diets contaminated with 3 ppm DON initially reduced growth performance, but pigs were still able to achieve BW not different from HC pigs at the end of the nursery period, regardless of supplementation.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.151
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 244 Effect of Fiber Source and Crude Protein Level on Nursery Pig
           Performance
    • Authors: Hammers K; Calderon H, Tokach M, et al.
      Pages: 94 - 95
      Abstract: A total of 360 pigs (DNA 200′400, initially 5.0 kg) were used in a 45-d growth trial to determine the effects of fiber source and crude protein (CP) level in diets without pharmacological levels of ZnO on nursery pig growth performance and fecal dry matter (DM). Pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 treatments with 5 pigs/pen and 9 pens/treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2×4 factorial with main effects of CP (21 or 18%) and fiber source [none, coarse wheat bran (CWB), oat hulls, or cellulose (Arbocel, J. Rettenmaier USA, Schoolcraft, MI)]. Fiber source was added to equalize the level of insoluble fiber contributed from 4% CWB, resulting in the addition of 1.85% oat hulls or 1.55% cellulose. Diets were fed in two phases (d 0 to 10 and 10 to 24) followed by a common diet (d 24 to 45). The 21% CP diets contained 1.40% SID Lys in phase 1 and 1.35% SID Lys in phase 2. Treatment diets were formulated to a maximum SID Lys:digestible CP level of 6.35%, thus SID Lys decreased in the 18% CP (1.25% SID Lys) diets. Data were analyzed using the lmer function in R. No fiber source × CP level interactions (P >0.05) were observed. Decreasing dietary CP decreased (P = 0.05) ADG, G:F, and d 24 BW. Overall, ADG and d 45 BW decreased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed 18% CP diets. No main effects of fiber source were observed for growth performance throughout the study. Fecal DM increased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed added cellulose compared to pigs fed no fiber or CWB in the experimental period. In conclusion, reducing dietary CP decreased growth performance and the inclusion of cellulose improved fecal DM of nursery pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.152
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 243 Effects of Initial Nursery Diet Budget on Growth Performance of 5.5-
           to 23-kg Pigs
    • Authors: Cemin H; Swalla L, Pietig J, et al.
      Pages: 95 - 96
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of the initial nursery diet budget on growth performance. A total of 3,264 pigs (initial BW = 5.5 kg), placed in pens with 51 pigs each, were used in a 45-d trial. There were 4 treatments consisting of different feed budgets of the initial nursery diet: 4.1 kg, 5.4 kg, 6.8 kg, or 8.2 kg. The experimental diet was corn, soybean meal, and whey permeate-based and contained 1.38% SID Lys. After the allocated budget was consumed, pigs were provided a common corn and soybean meal-based diet. There were 16 replicates per treatment. Pigs were weighed weekly to calculate ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Data were analyzed with SAS MIXED procedure. In the first 14 d of the trial there was no evidence for differences (P > 0.10) in growth performance as all pigs were receiving their allocated budget of the initial diet. From d 14 to 21 as well as d 0 to 21, pigs that received a budget of 6.8 or 8.2 kg had improved ADG (quadratic, P < 0.05) and G:F (linear, P < 0.05) compared to those fed budgets of 4.1 or 5.4 kg. From d 21 to 45, when all pigs received a common diet, there was no evidence for differences (P > 0.10) in ADG. However, there was a linear response (P < 0.05) in G:F, with pigs previously fed the lowest feed budget presenting improved G:F. Overall (d 0 to 45), there was an improvement (linear, P < 0.05) in ADG and ADFI as feed budgets increased, with the best performance observed when pigs were fed 6.8 or 8.2 kg of the initial nursery diet. In conclusion, providing a 6.8 or 8.2 kg budget of the initial nursery diet resulted in improved overall nursery performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.153
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 264 Effects of Low Dietary Crude Protein Diets Containing Coarse Wheat
           Bran as an Alternative to Zinc Oxide in Nursery Pig Diets
    • Authors: Hammers K; Calderon H, Tokach M, et al.
      Pages: 96 - 97
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of reduced crude protein (CP) in diets containing coarse wheat bran (CWB) without pharmacological levels of Zn (ZnO) on growth performance and fecal dry matter (DM) of nursery pigs. A total of 650 pigs (DNA 241′600; initially 6.6 kg), were used with 5 pigs/pen and 26 replicate pens/treatment. Pens were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a RCB design based on BW. Treatments were fed for 13-d, contained 4% CWB, and consisted of: 1) diet with pharmacological ZnO (2,000 mg/kg Zn) and 21% CP formulated to 1.35% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys; 2) a diet with 110 ppm added Zn and 21% CP (1.35% SID Lys); 3) a diet with 110 ppm added Zn formulated to 18% CP (1.20% SID Lys); 4) an 18% CP diet with 110 ppm added Zn formulated to 1.35% SID Lys by the addition of increased levels of feed grade amino acids; and 5) diet 4 with addition of non-essential amino acids (NEAA; glycine and glutamic acid). Data were analyzed using the lmer function in R. Overall, pigs fed 21% CP with ZnO had increased (P < 0.05) ADG compared to those fed 18% CP (1.35% SID Lys) with high levels of feed grade amino acids or those fed the reduced SID Lys (1.2%) diet. Gain-to-feed ratio was increased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed 21% CP diets and those fed the 18% CP diet with NEAA compared to pigs fed 1.2% SID Lys and pigs fed high levels of feed grade amino acids. Fecal DM was increased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed reduced SID Lys diet. In conclusion, reducing CP (subsequently SID Lys) in diets without ZnO decreased growth performance but increased fecal DM.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.154
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 265 The Efficacy of Replacing Animal Protein Products in Nursery Pig Diets
           with a Bioactive Peptide-based Feed Additive Program on Growth Performance
           and Efficiency in a Commercial System
    • Authors: LaRosae M; Shieh T, Nosbisch S, et al.
      Pages: 97 - 98
      Abstract: A 42-d commercial nursery study was conducted utilizing 1,296 pigs (DNA genetics, BW: 5.27 ± 0.05 kg; 21-d of age) that evaluated the efficacy of replacing animal protein products while also reducing SID Lys in nursery pig diets with a bioactive peptide-based feed additive program on growth performance, efficiency, health and well-being, and profitability. The dietary treatments were applied over 3 phases (PH) and were fed based on a feed budget: PH1: 2.27 kg/pig [Positive Control (PC): 1.46% SID Lys; 3,415 kcal/kg ME]; PH2: 4.54 kg/pig (PC: 1.42% SID Lys; 3,395 kcal/kg ME); and PH3: 15.88 kg/pig (1.26% SID Lys; 3,395 kcal/kg ME). The four dietary treatments were: 1) PC: complex diet in PH1-2 and standard diet in PH3; 2) negative control (NC): diet in PH1-2 devoid of fishmeal and spray-dried plasma and -0.10% SID Lys compared to the PC and PH3 the same as the PC; 3) PEP1 in PH1-2 was the NC diets plus Peptiva® Maximo (Vitech Bio-Chem Corp., Orange, CA) fed at 0.25% and in PH3 the PC + Peptiva® Optimo fed at 0.1%; 4) PEP2 in PH1-2 was the NC diets plus Peptiva® Maximo fed at 0.50% and in PH3 the PC plus Peptiva® Optimo fed at 0.2%. Pen weights of pigs and pen feed consumption were evaluated in 2-wk increments and overall. Additionally, animal health and well-being and economics were evaluated for the entire nursery program. Overall, pigs fed the PEP1 diets had a better FCR (with or without mortality adjustments) than either control group, while the PEP2 group was intermediate. These results indicate that highly digestible proteins, such as fish meal and spray-dried plasma, can be removed from early nursery diets while supplementing with bioactive-peptide feed additive strategy to optimize performance and economics of production.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.155
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 267 Evaluating the Interaction Between Nursery Diet Complexity and
           Pharmacological Zinc and Copper
    • Authors: De Mille C; Gabler N.
      Pages: 98 - 99
      Abstract: Weaned pigs are typically fed complex, highly digestible diets to maximize feed intake and weight gain as they transition into the nursery. Further, pharmacological concentrations of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are commonly fed to mitigate weaning-related diarrhea and performance reductions. A 2 x 2 factorial design was utilized to determine the effect of diet complexity with or without Zn and Cu. Four-hundred and thirty-two weaned pigs were randomly allotted to 48 pens (n = 9 pigs/pens). Pens were assigned to one of four diets: 1) A high soybean meal diet (Simple), 2) Simple + ZnCu, 3) Low soybean meal diet with spray-dried plasma, casein, and oats (Complex), and 4) Complex + ZnCu. Diets were fed in two 14 d phases. For ZnCu there were 3,000 and 2,000 ppm Zn in phase 1 and 2, and 200 ppm Cu in both phases. Bodyweight and feed intake were determined in phase 1 (d 0–14) and phase 2 (d 15–28). Pen was the experimental unit and all data were analyzed by diet complexity, pharmacological minerals and their interaction. No complexity by ZnCu interaction or diet complexity effects were observed in the 28 d study. However, ZnCu increased ADG (0.23 vs. 0.16 kg/day, P < 0.0001), ADFI (0.28 vs. 0.24 kg/d, P < 0.0001), and GF (0.80 vs. 0.69, P < 0.0001) in phase 1. In phase 2, ZnCu increased ADG by 9% (P = 0.008) and ADFI by 16% (P = 0.0001) compared to non-supplemented counterparts. Overall (0–28 d), ZnCu pigs had heavier end bodyweight (15.9 vs. 14.5 kg, P = 0.009), and greater ADFI (0.47 vs. 0.41 kg/d, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, diet complexity (high levels of soybean meal versus specialized protein alternatives) did not alter nursery performance. Irrespective of diet complexity, pharmacological Zn and Cu improved performance parameters.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.157
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 266 Growth Performance, Fecal Score, and Blood Immune Parameters of
           Nursery Pigs Challenged with Escherichia coli F18 Fed Canola Meal-based
           Diet
    • Authors: Hong J; Ariyibi S, Scaria J, et al.
      Pages: 98 - 98
      Abstract: Effects of dietary canola meal (CM) on growth performance, fecal score, and blood parameters of E. coli-challenged nursery pigs were investigated. Thirty-six pigs (initial body weight = 6.22 kg) weaned at 21 d of age were housed individually and fed 3 diets (12 replicates/diet) in randomized complete block design. The diets were corn-soybean meal-based diet without or with antibiotics (0.2% chlortetracycline and 0.2% tiamulin) or with CM (20%). The diets were fed in 2 phases; Phase 1: d 0 to 7, and Phase 2: d 7 to 21. Pigs were orally challenged with F18 strain of E. coli on d 7. Feed intake and body weight were measured on d 7, 14, and 21. Blood samples for measuring thyroid hormones were collected from each pig on d 7, 14, and 21. Blood samples for measuring white blood cells, immunoglobulins, and cytokine were collected on d 21. Fecal score was assessed daily. Dietary antibiotics increased (P < 0.05) ADG by 50%. Dietary SECM also increased (P < 0.05) ADG by 23%. Week 1 fecal score was unaffected by diet. However, during weeks 2 and 3, fecal score for diet with antibiotics was less (P < 0.05) than that for basal diet or diet with CM, which did not differ in fecal score. During weeks 1 and 2, serum tetraiodothyronine level for diet with antibiotics was less (P < 0.05) than that for basal diet or diet with CM, which did not differ in serum tetraiodothyronine level; week 3 serum tetraiodothyronine level was unaffected by diet. White blood cell count was reduced (P < 0.05) by dietary antibiotics, and tended to be reduced (P = 0.087) by dietary CM. In conclusion, dietary CM increased ADG and tended to reduce white blood cell count. Thus, dietary CM at 20% may improve the performance of pigs challenged with E. coli F18 partly by decreasing immune response.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.156
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 268 In-feed Antibiotics Elicit Intestinal Integrity Modifications Early in
           Post-weaning Life
    • Authors: Johnson J; Helm E, Gabler N, et al.
      Pages: 99 - 99
      Abstract: The physiological mechanisms by which in-feed antibiotics improve pig growth performance are largely unknown. One proposed mode of action is improvements in intestinal integrity and function. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that in-feed therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antibiotics would improve intestinal integrity and function in nursery pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (6.1±1.1 kg BW) were randomly allotted to individual pens and assigned one of three dietary treatments as follows (n = 8 pigs/trt): 1) control, no antibiotics (CON), 2) CON + sub-therapeutic chlortetracycline [40 ppm in feed (sCTC)], and 3) CON + chlortetracycline-tiamulin [400 ppm + 35 ppm, respectively (CTCDen)]. The study consisted of two consecutive 14 d phases. Chlortetracycline-tiamulin was only fed in phase 1, sCTC was fed in both phases. Phase 1 and 2 ADG, ADFI, and G:F were determined. After 28 d, ileal and colonic ex vivo intestinal integrity was assessed via transepithelial resistance (TER) and macromolecule flux (FD4) in modified Ussing chambers. All data were analyzed for the fixed effects of treatment and start BW as a covariate. In phase 1, compared with CON and sCTC, CTCDen tended to have greater ADG (0.28, 0.31, and 0.33 kg/d, respectively, P = 0.10) and ADFI (0.28, 0.30, and 0.35 kg/d, respectively, P = 0.09). No differences in phase 1 G:F were observed (P = 0.11). Phase 2 ADG, ADFI, and G:F did not differ (P > 0.10). Further, ileal TER and FD4 did not differ (P > 0.10). Colonic TER tended to be increased in sCTC compared with CON and CTCDen (78, 56, and 59 Ω/cm2, respectively, P = 0.07). Compared with CON, colonic FD4 flux was decreased in sCTC and CTCDen by 35–40% (P = 0.03). Altogether, these data indicate that in-feed antibiotics improve colon integrity early in production which may contribute to improved growth performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.158
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 269 Mycotoxin Mitigation Strategy to Improve Nursery Pig Performance
           During Natural Mycotoxin Challenge
    • Authors: Ramirez S; Wilson V, Hendel E, et al.
      Pages: 99 - 100
      Abstract: Mycotoxins (MTX) such as deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FUM), and zearalenone (ZEN) are a few of the most prevalent mycotoxins in livestock feed. Effects of MTX can vary based on contamination and type, but include losses in performance, immune function and reproduction impacting profitability. Effectiveness of mitigation strategies for MTX can greatly vary depending on type and contamination level. Therefore, the trial objective was to evaluate an in-feed mitigation strategy [Biofix® Plus (BPL), 1.5 kg/MT inclusion, BIOMIN America, Inc., Overland Park, KS] on nursery pig performance during a natural mixed MTX challenge. A total of 105 newly weaned pigs (BW = 5.5 ± 0.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 MTX contamination levels [low (L-MTX) and high (H-MTX); Table 1] and 2 BPL levels [without (Control) and with (BPL)] with 3 pigs per pen and 8 to 9 pens per treatment for a 5-week trial. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with main effects of MTX and BPL and their interaction. There was no interaction of MTX and BPL on any of the cumulative 5-week performance metrics, therefore only main effects will be discussed. Average pig BW at 5-week was reduced (P < 0.05) in H-MTX compared with L-MTX diets (21.5 vs 18.5 kg, respectively). Similarly, ADG and ADFI were reduced (P < 0.05) in H-MTX pigs compared with L-MTX pigs. Feed efficiency was numerically reduced (P = 0.050) in H-MTX pigs compared with L-MTX pigs. However, BPL fed pigs had increased (P < 0.05) feed efficiency compared with pigs not fed BPL. Thus, MTX did effect BW, ADG, and ADFI and BPL was able to increase feed efficiency regardless of MTX level suggesting that BPL should be considered as a mitigation strategy to address mixed MTX challenges.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.159
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 270 Evaluating Nutritional Strategies to Improve Performance of Poor
           Health Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Miller K; Mendoza O, Shull C, et al.
      Pages: 100 - 100
      Abstract: Nursery pigs are frequently faced with disease challenges and producers are seeking nutritional strategies to help pig performance and health. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate five dietary formulation strategies that may improve performance in poor health nursery flow pigs (confirmed Rotavirus A and hemolytic E. coli positive at d 14). A total of 431 weaned pigs (5.5 ± 1.25 kg BW) were assigned to pens (10–11 pigs/pen) and one of five diets (n = 8 pens/treatment) over a 63-day test period consisting of 4 diet phases using a complete randomized design. In phase 1 and 2, treatments were: 1) 15–25% low soybean meal (LSBM), 2) 35–45% high soybean meal (HSBM), 3) 130% increase in valine and isoleucine branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to Lys, 4) 2.1% combination of C8, C10 and C12 medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), and 5) 20% modified oats (MO). All pigs were fed a common diet for phases 3 and 4. Within phase, all diets were isocaloric with similar SID Lys:ME. Pen was considered the experimental unit and data were analyzed with contrast statements comparing each diet against the LSBM control. Across all phases, compared to LSBM, HSBM, BCAA and MO did not alter ADG, ADFI and G:F (P > 0.10). However, MCFA reduced (P < 0.05) ADG in phase 1 (0.20 vs 0.16 kg) and 2 (0.45 vs 0.39 kg) and phase 2 ADFI (0.66 kg vs 0.58 kg) compared to the LSBM treatment. Overall (0–63 days), compared to the LSMB, the MCFA treatment reduced ADG (0.46 vs 0.42 kg, P = 0.004) and ADFI (0.75 vs 0.68 kg, P = 0.009). Diet did not affect mortality. These data report that MCFA attenuated nursery pig performance, while HSBM, MO and BCAA diets fed in phases 1 and 2 had no longitudinal impact on pig performance or health.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.160
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 271 Investigating the Relationship Between Nursery Pig Performance and
           Markers of Intestinal Morphology and Integrity
    • Authors: De Mille C; Gabler N.
      Pages: 100 - 101
      Abstract: Weaning induces major structural and function changes to the small intestine of pigs and they transition from milk to solid feedstuffs. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine how intestinal morphology and function markers relate to feed intake and growth rates of nursery pig. Forty-eight weaned pigs (5.63 ± 0.50 kg) were randomly selected, individually penned and fed a common diet. Pig bodyweights and feed intake were determined at d 2, 7, and 21. At each time point, 16 pigs were randomly selected and euthanized. Sections of ileum were assessed for morphology [villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD) and VH:CD] and ex vivo transepithelial resistance (TER), macromolecule permeability (FD4), and active transport of glucose and glutamine via modified Ussing chambers. Within each period (d 0–2, 0–7, and 0–21), Pearson correlations were performed between ADG, ADFI, VH, VH:CD, TER, FD4 and active transport of glucose and glutamine. At d 2 post-weaning, no correlations (P > 0.05) were observed between performance and intestinal variables. By d 7, moderate positive correlations between VH and ADFI (r = 0.69, P = 0.005), VH and ADG (r = 0.68, P = 0.006) were reported. At 21 d post-weaning, moderate positive correlations were still observed for VH and ADFI (r = 0.55, P = 0.026) and between VH and ADG (r = 0.51, P = 0.042). Interestingly, ADFI and ADG tended to be negatively correlated with active glucose transport (r = -0.45, P = 0.083 and r = -0.47, P = 0.064, respectively) and active glutamine transport (r = -0.45, P = 0.083 and r = -0.46, P = 0.073, respectively). Markers of ileal integrity (TER and FD4) were not correlated with ADG or ADFI at any time point. Altogether, these data highlight the importance of intestinal morphology on early nursery pig performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.161
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 108 A Veterinarian’s Perspective on How Health and Nutrition
           Intersect
    • Authors: Hough S.
      Pages: 101 - 101
      Abstract: Nutritionists and veterinarians have long recognized that the provision and consumption of all essential nutrients is critical to the health of pigs, in all production phases. Animals that are properly fed, and maintain adequate body stores, are better able to reach their full genetic potential and defend themselves from pathogen invasion. This may be due to better tissue integrity, proper antibody production, improved detoxifying ability, and many other factors (Shurson et al, 1998). The pathology of various infectious organisms can influence absorption and the metabolism of nutrients, and inadequate nutrition can worsen the frequency, duration or pathogenicity of infectious disease. Herd health programs can only be most effective if pigs have adequate nutrition. Although much attention has been given to diagnostics, immunology, epidemiology and surveillance of infectious challenges, there is still relatively little known about the interactions viruses have with digestibility, metabolism and tissue accretion (Gabler et al, 2017). There is increasing interest in discovering ways to support the immune system, as improved alternatives are necessary with evolving restrictions on antibiotic use, zinc and others. The future demands a holistic approach to create resilient, robust animals, and that we identify alternatives that improve the productivity and overall wellbeing of food animals. It is well established that the gastrointestinal tract is the largest interface between the external and internal environments of the pig, and that the pig gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in harmony with a myriad of other physiological functions. Knowing this, how do we “feed the gut” and support a proper microbiome' What considerations do we need to have for the wean pig, the growing pig, the often-forgotten replacement gilt, and the challenges and environments they encounter' In this presentation, we will describe the relationships of nutrition and health, and how they can influence productivity.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.162
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 107 Raised Without Antibiotics, Lessons Learned
    • Authors: Lincoln W.
      Pages: 101 - 102
      Abstract: Smithfield Foods has initiated Raised Without Antibiotics (RWA) programs into its vertical integration model in the past. This opportunity to drive change to meet a growing demand provides an unique ability to analyze approaches to raising swine in a setting where multiple entities are tied to the success of a program and maintaining a focus of animal welfare, traceability and financial responsibilities are a must. There is a wide range of housing and resources used for industry RWA programs across those that implement such practices. Smithfield Foods program was performed in conjunction with its company-owned sow farms weaning to contracted grower bases in conventional wean-to-finish barn settings within the Midwest making it a multi-entity managed approach. Therefore, a full-package view is mandatory for the success of a RWA program and takes into account many current industry research approaches as well as fulfilling basic husbandry parameters. A focus too heavily on one will alter the ability to achieve program goals. The focus in the most recent success of the RWA program provided by Smithfield Foods included beginning with high health pig sources sourcing robust offspring, utilizing strategic vaccines and timing to combat potential obstructive issues, specific biosecurity plans, optimal environment uniformity, nutrition and water quality focuses and individual pig awareness throughout the entirety of the pig’s time in the program. Over 400,000 pigs were placed into Smithfield Foods RWA Program. The outcome of implementing the multi-faceted approach of securing the basic animal husbandry, along with newer industry knowledge and research, led to only 1.53% individual pigs needing to be taken off of the program due to requiring an antibiotic treatment and the remaining pigs within the program having high success in financial returns with competitive company growth performances.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.163
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 103 The Role of Crude Protein in Reducing the Need for Antibiotics in the
           Post-weaning Period
    • Authors: Pluske J.
      Pages: 102 - 102
      Abstract: For many decades, antimicrobial compounds such as antibiotics and some mineral compounds have been used in pork production to promote pig growth and survival after weaning through mitigation of subclinical and clinical diseases, such as enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli. Bans and restrictions in the use of some antimicrobial compounds has led, often out of necessity, to the development of alternative feeding strategies to address these challenges. One tool to reduce the post-weaning malaise in the absence of specific antimicrobial compounds is manipulation of the protein content of diets offered to pigs. Numerous studies have shown that feeding higher crude protein diets in the post-weaning period, usually in the absence of specific antimicrobials, is generally related to decreased fecal consistency (looser stools) and an increased incidence of post-weaning diarrhea. In some cases, this causes more therapeutic antibiotic administrations, more animal care, and a greater mortality. Production indices are poorer as a consequence. Conversely, feeding diets of lower crude protein content after weaning has typically been associated with better health outcomes, but if diets are not correctly formulated with the addition of appropriate crystalline amino acids, then production outcomes can suffer. Increasing the quantity of fermentable protein entering the cecum and colon by feeding more dietary protein will stimulate changes in microbial composition, with the microbiota shifting to a more N-utilizing community resulting in greater protein catabolic activity and the increased production of products including ammonia, amines and branched-chain fatty acids. This, in turn, can be associated with increased diarrhea. Formulating starter diets that limit the flow of exogenous and endogenous proteinaceous compounds posteriorly to the ileo-caecal valve can be used to reduce the post-weaning malaise and may minimize the use of certain antimicrobial compounds. However, feeding lower-protein diets alone is not always the panacea to this production issue, and will likely need to be used in conjunction with other targeted nutritional and health measures specific to the farm in question.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.164
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 109 When Too Many Feed Additives Is Not a Sustainable Approach to
           Replacing Feed Antibiotics
    • Authors: Bradley C; Rosero D.
      Pages: 102 - 103
      Abstract: Due to consumer and regulatory demands swine producers are being ever more pressured to remove feed- and water-grade medications from their production systems. Consequently, there is an ever-growing list of feeding strategies and feed additives that indicate their value to maintain growth performance in diets void of antibiotics, leaving a confusing landscape for producers to navigate their options. Non-antibiotic feed additives, as reviewed by Liu et al. (2018), of options include acidifiers, minerals, prebiotics, direct fed microbials or yeast, nucleotides, and plant extracts. Furthermore, enzymes such as phytase and xylanase when fed to pigs have shown indirect benefits to not only performance but also livability. But within this landscape of research there has been little evidence to support synergies of these different feed additive types as an opportunity to replace antibiotics, while providing relatively little on the economic implications of different strategies. A commercial example of this was a study conducted in the Hanor System (Enid, OK USA) in which they conducted a 3 different feed additives that could benefit gut health of nursery pigs: organic acids, phytochemicals, and direct-fed microbials. Of the three different products tested, the phytochemical additive was the only product to demonstrate a profit above diets without the addition of feed additives. Furthermore, another study in the Hanor System evaluating antibiotic alternatives in the nursery period using pigs that were positive with PRRSv (1-7-4) found an increase in mortality and reduction in full value pigs when antibiotics were removed. However, the beta-glucan product demonstrated a positive response to both mortality and full-value pigs, yet still did not return to full profitability as the antibiotic fed pigs. In conclusion, further investigation into the synergies of different categories of feed additives is necessary to not only find the ideal balance of performance benefits but also profitability.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.165
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 105 Feed Additives That Optimize Nitrogen Bio-availability in Nursery Pigs
           Fed Reducing Crude Protein Diets
    • Authors: Tsai T.
      Pages: 103 - 103
      Abstract: Reducing dietary crude protein in early nursery has been suggested as a way to conquer the challenge of post-weaning diarrhea. In order to meet the amino acid requirement in RCP diets, feed grade amino acids are typically used, but the detrimental effect on growth performance associated with the aggressive usage of these amino acids resulted in the establishment of dietary limits. Given the fact that protein deposition rate is the highest in young pigs, lower amino acid consumption could slow the growth rate and feed efficiency in early nursery phase. Therefore, identifying feed additives that increase nutrient retention not only can further reduce dietary nitrogen but also maintain GI tract health. Among all feed additives that exert improvements on nutrient digestibility, peptide and organic acids will be discussed here. Peptide, a di- tri amino acid, is absorbed more efficiently than free amino acids in the small intestine through a peptide transporter at the enteric site. In addition, aside from meeting the amino acid requirement, the bioactive peptide possesses functions such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and as a stimulated Peptide transporter associated with nutrient absorption. Hence, a dietary peptide can help pigs meet the nutrient requirement in RCP diets. Organic acids, on the other hand, have been found to lower gastric pH which improves nutrient absorption, alters microbiome structure (via bacteriostatic and bactericidal) and promotes the growth and health of animals. In addition, organic acids are a ready energy source which is especially critical since nutrient supply disruption, due to low intake during early weaning, is commonly found in weaning pigs. It is noteworthy that variations of growth-promoting effects do exist for both peptide and organic acid products. Thus, understanding the mode of action and response of dietary peptide and organic acid supplements when used across different farm settings is important to help producers decide when to transfer to an antibiotic-free, low zinc operation.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.166
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 104 The Danish Perspective to Remove Medicinal Zinc and Reducing the Use
           of Antibiotics in Swine Production
    • Authors: Maribo H.
      Pages: 103 - 104
      Abstract: Diarrhoea in weaners has been commonly controlled by adding medicinal zinc (2500 ppm), but by June 2022 this was no longer allowed. In Denmark, antibiotics are accepted for therapeutic use only and usage is registered on pen level and is monitored by Danish authorities. This increases the risk of post-weaning diarrhoea. SEGES has tested several tools, additives e.g. organic acids, diet composition, raw materials e.g. blood plasma. Lowering the protein level in the diet post-weaning is very efficient, but adversely affects productivity. The latest results show on average that a reduction in protein from 19% to 15% in the weaner diet (6-9kg) results in a 60% reduction in diarrhoea; however, it also leads to a productivity loss of 1-1,5 euro. Reducing the protein level from 19% to 16,5% reduces the frequency of diarrhoea by 30% and the productivity loss by approx. 0,3 euro. A trial testing the possibility for compensation for this loss in the weaner period by adding extra protein and amino acids in the finisher diet (30–115 kg) is running now and preliminary results will be presented. Further results from trials reducing diarrhoea by reducing protein, a new way to calculate ideal protein and amino acid balances as well as results from concept tests with weaners will be presented. Further new results evaluating ideal protein and amino acid balances will be presented.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.167
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 189 Fundamentals, Common Mistakes, and Graduate Education in Statistics
    • Authors: Serão N; Tokach M, Paton N.
      Pages: 104 - 105
      Abstract: Experimental design and statistical data analyses are fundamental components of animal science research. Proper design of experiments and adequate sampling permits testing hypotheses raised by researchers and sets the stage for collecting required data and subsequent statistical analysis. When designing experiments, researchers should respect rules of randomization of treatments to avoid statistical bias and permit proper inference to be drawn. Use of sample sizes that result in adequate statistical power to identify the hypothesized differences among factor levels of interest is key and should be driven by formal processes determining such. Best practices for data collection should be performed to obtain high quality data by reducing collection (e.g., mislabeling, improper technique) and measurement errors. With sound data, appropriate and optimal statistical methods should be used to generate valid results. The statistical method deployed should be chosen based on assumptions about residuals (e.g., normality, correlation, and homogeneity) and on the type of data (e.g., quantitative continuous or categorical). The appropriate statistical model used should also be consistent with the experimental design to validate the respective test statistics. The science of statistics is changing rapidly. With the development of high-throughput technologies, the generation of large datasets, high performance and sophisticated models and the interest in Big Data, the training of animal science graduate students in data management and rigorous statistical analyses is more important than ever. In order to meet the demands of current trends, animal science graduate students must be trained in several complex statistical and computational skills to meet the challenges imposed by these complicated, sophisticated and nuanced analytical methods. The livestock production sector will benefit from improved training, use of advanced and appropriate experimental designs, and collection and analysis of quality data in research.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.169
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 106 Agriculture Residues as a Possible Sustainable Approach to Replacing
           Antibiotics in Animal Nutrition
    • Authors: Ekmay R.
      Pages: 104 - 104
      Abstract: The last several years has seen a substantial increase in the investment and development of alternative proteins to lower the environmental footprint of animal agriculture. In addition to insects, single cell proteins (SCP), i.e. algae, bacteria, yeast, have received renewed attention due to their ability to utilize unconventional carbon feedstocks. Traditionally, conventional sugar streams such as corn syrup or molasses have been used for cultivation of SCP. However, algal and bacterial meals are looked at as potential solutions for industrial carbon waste such as carbon dioxide and methane. Yeasts have the ability to use pentose sugars that are found in lignocellulosic materials, i.e. agricultural and forestry residues. Much of the discourse surrounding these alternative protein sources has been on the environmental impact of their production, but less so on the impact of their use. In particular, the impact of single cell proteins on nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal health warrants attention. Nutritional value remains varied among SCP products and dependent on microbial strain and down-stream processes. Maintaining high protein digestibility, and reducing fermentable protein, as well as maintaining high phosphorus digestibility remains a critical nutritional and environmental strategy. Recent findings have indicated that the microbial strain and the carbon feedstock on which it is grown on may have an interactive effect on gastrointestinal health. In particular, yeast products can be characterized as generally anti-inflammatory, but cultivation on lignocellulosic residues appears to enhance these properties. Bacterial meals are known to contain pro-inflammatory components such as lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans, however, in some instances, they may also produce bioactive molecules that result in a net positive impact. It remains critical to evaluate alternative proteins in the context of whole animal health and consider the environmental impact of their use as well as their production.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.168
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 262 Fiber and Co-product Utilization in Pigs
    • Authors: Zijlstra R; Beltranena E.
      Pages: 105 - 105
      Abstract: Fiber is one of the four macronutrients that yield dietary energy for pigs (others are starch, fat, and protein). To yield energy, fiber must be fermented (primarily in the hindgut) by microbes producing volatile fatty acids (VFA). Price increases for traditional feedstuffs such as cereal grains and protein meals have stimulated the pork industry to consider dietary inclusion of fibrous co-products that are produced when grain is processed into human food, fuel, and bio-industrial products. High fiber co-products include distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), oilseed meal, expeller, and cake, and co-products from flour milling. As omnivores, pigs are ideally suited to convert these non-human edible co-products into high quality food animal protein. Thereby, co-products can partially offset increases in feed cost provided their price is competitive per unit of net energy or digestible lysine, but also present risks and feeding challenges. Effects of feeding high fiber co-product may depend on diets being balanced for energy value or not. In weaned pigs, high fiber diets were thought to reduce feed intake, and thereby hinder energy intake during the energy-dependent phase of growth. However, such a relation is not solid across the spectrum of dietary fiber. Fiber characteristics play a role in gut health and early development. High fiber diets have lower energy digestibility and concurrent lower feed efficiency, but increased feed intake may maintain growth. In growing-finishing pigs, high fiber diets increase viscera mass, and thereby reduce dressing percentage. In restricted-few sows, fiber and produced VFA play a role in reaching satiety responses. In conclusion, depending on the price of high fiber co-products, high fiber diets may be part of a range of solutions to reduce the feed cost, and may thereby support economically-sustainable pork production.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.170
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 263 Review of Current Nutrition Knowledge and Practices for Gilt
           Development
    • Authors: Menegat M; Tokach M.
      Pages: 105 - 106
      Abstract: Nutrition for replacement gilts aims to support the development of prepubertal gilts towards their physiological maturity in terms of body weight, body tissue composition, structural soundness, and reproductive development. A key concept of gilt nutrition for lifetime productivity is to maintain a positive prepubertal growth rate and reach a target body weight of 115 to 140 kg at puberty. The application of this concept commonly presents a challenge with fast-growing and highly efficient contemporary gilt lines, particularly considering the proportion of gilts exceeding the target body weight at puberty and the negative impacts of overweight gilts on lactational performance, structural soundness, and longevity. Thus, nutritional decisions regarding dietary levels of energy, amino acids, and minerals in the pre- and peripubertal stage can be conflicting. Typically, gilts are fed ad libitum with moderate levels of energy and amino acids because restrictions below the requirements can have a negative effect on puberty onset. In addition, a high plane of nutrition is offered after the pubertal estrus to set ovulation rate for breeding at the next estrus. Moreover, gilts are fed levels of dietary calcium, phosphorus, and trace minerals above the requirements to improve bone mineral density in preparation for fetal development and lactation mobilization. Although these nutritional practices improve gilt performance, they also typically increase weight gain. Thus, there is a need to review nutritional strategies to manage body weight of replacement gilts while attaining optimum reproductive success and lifetime productivity.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.171
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 261 Dietary Fiber: Chemical and Physical Characteristics and Methods of
           Analysis
    • Authors: Fahey G.
      Pages: 106 - 106
      Abstract: The fiber component of the diet is the major food source for the intestinal microbiota of swine. Included are traditional insoluble (e.g., cellulose) and soluble (e.g., pectin) dietary fibers, resistant starches (four types), and oligosaccharides (some of which are “prebiotics”). Fiber constituents are found both in the primary and secondary cell walls of plants, but some are found in non-cell wall structures as well. In cereals, cell walls consist of a reinforced multi-component matrix of cross-linked polymers (acidic xylans, arabinoxylans, glucomannans) in which a network of cellulose microfibrils is embedded. Proteins form a second network in the matrix, and lignin and phenolic acids may be covalently linked to the matrix polysaccharides. In addition, whole grains have considerable amounts of resistant starch. Physical processing and cooking have a major effect on the chemical composition and subsequent utilization of the whole grain. Techniques are available to quantify both the insoluble and soluble fibers present in swine diets. Solubility often impacts the location of fermentation within the swine gastrointestinal tract, and solubility often, but not always, reflects fermentation potential. Other important attributes of fiber include its viscosity/gel-forming capacity/water-holding capacity, and its fermentability. On the analytical front, considerable progress has been and continues to be made, with many AOAC-approved techniques currently available. In summary, dietary fiber is perhaps the most chemically complicated of any swine feed constituent, making its analysis difficult. Fibers, whether they be intrinsic and intact, isolated, chemically and (or) enzymatically synthesized, alternative, etc.represent the key foods for the swine intestinal microbiota, so a good understanding of their properties is critical to fully understand how to optimize their role in swine nutrition.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.172
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 79 Direct and Indirect Effects of Heat Stress on the Hepatic and Ovarian
           Proteome in Gilts
    • Authors: Studer J; Kiefer Z, Gianluppi R, et al.
      Pages: 106 - 107
      Abstract: Seasonal infertility (SI) caused by heat stress (HS) impacts the US swine industry by reducing litter size, farrowing rates, and production efficiency. Identifying the biological underpinnings of SI is a foundational step towards developing mitigation strategies to reduce the nearly $1 billion annual revenue losses to the swine industry. The study objective was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of HS via HS conditioned serum infusion in swine. We hypothesized gilts housed in thermoneutral (TN) conditions receiving gradual infusions of serum obtained from HS gilts would experience altered endocrine and metabolic function compared to gilts receiving serum from TN gilts. Prepubertal gilts (n = 18) were assigned to donor or recipient groups and donors were allocated to TN or HS environments. Blood was collected from HS donors and TN donors exposed to 24-hours of HS or TN conditions, respectively. Serum was infused into recipients housed in TN conditions via indwelling jugular catheters. Over a 24-hour period approximately 20% of the estimated recipient gilt serum volume from donors (pooled by treatment) was infused into recipients. After infusions were completed, gilts were euthanized and tissues collected. Increased rectal temperatures were observed in HS recipients compared to TN recipients (P ≤ 0.05). Protein extracts from liver and ovary underwent proteomic analysis via liquid-chromatography with tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to assess protein abundance. In the liver and ovary, we identified 135 and 264 proteins, respectively, that were differentially abundant between TN and HS recipients (P < 0.10). Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified alterations to pathways involved in hormone regulation, immune response, and apoptosis. Collectively, these data demonstrate gilts receiving HS serum experienced altered endocrine and metabolic function compared to gilts receiving TN serum. This project was supported in part by the Iowa Pork Producers Association. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.173
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 80 Use of an Electronically-controlled Floor Cooling Pad During Heat
           Stress on Thermoregulatory and Reproductive Performance in Boars
    • Authors: Shirley L; Field T, Schinckel A, et al.
      Pages: 107 - 107
      Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of electronically-controlled floor cooling pads on thermoregulatory and reproductive parameters in boars during heat stress (HS). Boars (n = 24) were randomly assigned to crates with non-functional pads (CON) or pads that were flushed in either 8-min intervals or when the pad reached 28.5°C (FLUSH). For 3 d, boars were subjected to cyclical HS (28 to 35°C; >65% relative humidity). Boars were fed 2.4 kg/d and daily feed intake was recorded. Respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (Rtemp) and skin temperature were recorded every 2 h during HS (via IR camera), testicular temperature was recorded twice daily. Semen was collected d7 and d14 before HS, the day following HS and weekly for 6 weeks and evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, motility, progressive motility, morphological abnormalities, and viability. After 2 h of HS, FLUSH boars had reduced RR (P < 0.001) and RTemp (P < 0.001) when compared to control boars, and this difference was maintained throughout HS. Skin and testicular temperature were reduced in FLUSH vs. CON boars after 6 h of HS (P < 0.05). Semen volume was greater in FLUSH vs CON boars (P = 0.01) resulting in a tendency for an increase in total sperm per ejaculate (P = 0.075). From weeks 2 to 5 post-HS, FLUSH boars had increased motility (P = 0.006) and progressive motility (P = 0.001), with corresponding increases in sperm kinematic motion parameters when compared to CON boars. The number of morphologically normal sperm cells were increased (P = 0.006) in FLUSH vs CON boars due to reduced distal droplets (P = 0.033) and proximal droplets (P < 0.001). Abnormal acrosomes were reduced (P < 0.001) in FLUSH vs CON boars at week 3 post-HS. In summary, electronically controlled cooling pads effectively reduced negative thermoregulatory indicators of HS and minimized or removed the negative impacts of HS on semen quality in boars.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.174
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 81 Zearalenone Affects the Ovarian Proteome During Heat Stress in
           Prepubertal Gilts
    • Authors: Roach C; Mayorga E, Baumgard L, et al.
      Pages: 107 - 108
      Abstract: Zearalenone (ZEA), an estrogenic mycotoxin, causes hormonal disruption and reproductive dysfunction in pigs. Heat stress (HS) occurs when exogenous and metabolic heat accumulation exceeds heat dissipation; a scenario negatively impacting gilt reproduction. Our objective was to identify differentially abundant ovarian proteins in gilts exposed to HS +/- ZEA. We hypothesized that ZEA exposure would negatively impact the prepubertal gilt ovarian proteome and HS would be additive to ZEA-induced toxicity. Prepubertal gilts (n = 38) were assigned to one of six treatment groups: thermoneutral (TN) ad libitum control (TNCtl; n = 6); TN + ZEA (TNZea; 2 ppm; n = 6); pair-fed (PF) control (PFCtl; n = 6); PF+ ZEA (PFZea; 2 ppm; n = 6); cyclical HS control (HSCtl; n = 7); and HS + ZEA (HSZea; 2 ppm; n = 7). Gilts were subjected to TN (20 ± 1°C) or cyclic HS (35 ± 1°C for 12 h/31.6° for 12 h) conditions for 7 d. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on ovarian protein homogenates. Exposure to ZEA altered (P < 0.05) abundance of 93 proteins in TN gilts (48 increased and 45 decreased). In PF gilts, ZEA increased 50 and decreased 47 proteins (P < 0.05). During HS, ZEA differentially affected (P < 0.05) 126 proteins: 58 increased and 68 increased. Pathways impacted by either HS or ZEA alone or in combination included cellular stress, metabolic pathways, and estrogenic pathways. Thus, ZEA and HS, either alone or in combination, impact the ovarian proteome in prepubertal gilts in ways that could contribute to seasonal infertility. This project was supported by the Iowa Pork Producers Association.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.175
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 84 Aging Model in Pig Oocytes as Viewed Through DNA Epigenetic
           Modification
    • Authors: Arena H; Sprungl K, Reynolds S, et al.
      Pages: 108 - 109
      Abstract: Oocytes of older animals are less likely to be fertilized during the optimal time window post ovulation, resulting in the potential diminished fertilization and embryonic development success. The activity of the epigenetic modifications during this period is a possible target to reverse these damaging effects of aging. The objective of this study was to study the effects of aging during in vitro oocyte maturation in pigs on epigenetic modifications. Oocytes (n = 54) were matured with or without Trichostatin A (TSA; 100 ng/mL), a known meiotic inhibitor, for 24 h, then for an additional 16 h without TSA or hormones for a total of 40 h. At the end of maturation, oocytes were denuded and their zona pellucida’s removed. Oocytes were stained with anti-5-methylcytosine (5mC, 1:500). Fluorescent images of the oocytes were acquired, images were analyzed using ImageJ, and data analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Oocytes matured with TSA had significantly greater (P < 0.05) levels of DNA methylation by the end of in vitro maturation compared to those not supplemented with TSA These results suggest that TSA can be used to develop an in vitro model to study the effects of epigenetic modifications in oocytes from aged livestock.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.177
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 83 MicroRNA574-3p Influences Porcine Oocyte Maturation and Regulates
           Abundance of Proteins Critical to Early Embryo Development
    • Authors: Adur M; Li Y, Ross J.
      Pages: 108 - 108
      Abstract: MicroRNA are small non-coding RNA involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation impacting oocyte maturation and embryo development. MIR574-3p abundance decreases during oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and blastocyst development. The study objective was to evaluate the role of MIR574-3p during porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo development. To assess the function of MIR574-3p during these processes, denuded GV stage oocytes injected with MIR574-3p mimic (MIR574-3p-M), MIR574-3p inhibitor (MIR574-3p-I) or negative control oligo (NC) underwent IVM for 42 hours. The number of MII arrested oocytes was decreased (P = 0.06) in the MIR574-3p-M group (67.7 ± 1.4%) as compared to the NC group (76.1 ± 1.3%), whereas maturation was not affected by MIR574-3p-I (75.6 ± 1.5%) as compared to the NC group (73.1 ± 3.6%). MII arrested oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured for 7 days. Neither mimic nor inhibitor affected the cleavage or blastocyst rate. Using LC-MS/MS we evaluated changes in global protein abundance in injected oocytes after 42 hours of IVM. We identified 971 proteins in MIR574-3p-M injected oocytes, of which 57 were differentially abundant as compared to the control group. In MIR574-3p-I injected oocytes, 1007 proteins were identified, of which 107 were differentially abundant as compared to the control group. Overall, MIR574-3p-M upregulated proteins critical to membrane binding mediating sperm receptors on the zona pellucida, while it downregulated intranuclear activity such as nucleotide biosynthesis, mitotic spindle assembly and orientation; whereas MIR574-3p-I induced upregulation of proteins involved in the processes between and including protein biosynthesis and metabolism, while downregulating proteins critical to ATP, RNA, DNA and protein binding. These data suggest artificially increasing MIR574-3p abundance during IVM alters the oocyte proteome and influences meiotic progression to MII. Project was supported by Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2017-67015-26459 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.176
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 82 Methyl Donor Supplementation Alters Cytosine Methylation and Biological
           Processes of Cells Cultured in Divergent Glucose Media Reflecting
           Improvements in Mitochondrial Respiration and Cell Growth Rate
    • Authors: Crouse M; Da Silva Diniz W, Caton J, et al.
      Pages: 109 - 109
      Abstract: We hypothesized that supplementation of one-carbon metabolites (OCM: methionine, folate, choline, and vitamin B12) to bovine embryonic tracheal fibroblasts in divergent glucose media would alter cytosine methylation, and alterations in cytosine methylation will reflect biological processes matching previously improved mitochondrial respiration, cell proliferation, and cell growth rate data. Cells were cultured with 1g/L glucose (Low) or 4.5g/L glucose (High). Control medium (CON) contained basal concentrations of folate (0.001g/L), choline (0.001g/L), vitamin B12 (4µg/L), and methionine (0.015g/L). The OCM were supplemented at 2.5 and 5 times (2.5X and 5X, respectively) the CON media, except methionine was limited to 2X across all supplemented treatments. Cells were passaged three times in their treatment media before DNA extraction. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing was adopted to analyze and compare the genomic methylation patterns within and across treatments using edgeR. Biological processes (BP) were retrieved based on the nearest genes of differentially methylated cytosines (P < 0.01) for each comparison between treatments. In both Low and High treatments, greater OCM increased the proportion of hypomethylated vs. hypermethylated cytosines. Functional analyses pointed out positive regulation of BP related to energy metabolism, except for the contrasts within the High group. Among the BP, we can highlight positive regulation of: GTPase activity, catalytic activity, molecular function, protein modification processes, phosphorylation, protein phosphorylation, cellular protein metabolic processes, MAPK cascade, and metabolic processes. These data support previously reported results from this experiment that showed increased mitochondrial respiration, cell proliferation, and growth rates with increasing OCM levels. We interpret these data to imply that when energy and OCM requirements are met for growth and basal methylation levels, DNA methylation levels decrease which may allow for greater transcription. Thus, OCM can be utilized for other functions such as polyamine synthesis, nucleotide synthesis, energetic metabolites, and phosphatidylcholine synthesis. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.178
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 260 Growth Performance and Gut Integrity of Nursery Pigs Fed Diet with
           butyric Acid and Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Product
    • Authors: Hong J; Kim H, Patterson R, et al.
      Pages: 109 - 110
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of butyric acid (BA) and enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast product (EYP) on growth performance and gut health of nursery pigs. A total of 96 weaned pigs (initial body weight = 6.60 kg) were housed in 24 pens (4 pigs/pen) and fed 3 diets in a randomized complete block design. The diets were corn-soybean meal-based without or with 0.05% BA or 0.1% EYP. The diets were fed in 2 phases; Phase 1: d 0 to 7 and Phase 2: d 7 to 20. Growth performance and fecal score were determined by phase. One pig from in each pen was selected for measuring organ weights, gut permeability, and electrophysiological parameters of jejunum mounted in Ussing chambers. The selected pigs were sacrificed at a rate of 6 pigs (balanced for diets) per day from d 10 to 17. Dietary BA increased (P < 0.05) gain to feed ratio for d 7 to 20 by 5.8% and for entire study period by 15.8%. Fecal scores were unaffected by dietary BA or EYP. Dietary EYP increased (P < 0.05) weight of cecum as a proportion of live body weight by 36.4%. Dietary BA decreased (P < 0.05) the flow of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran from mucosal to serosal side of jejunum by 31.7%, implying that dietary BA reduced jejunal permeability. Jejunal short circuit current was decreased (P < 0.05) by dietary BA or EYP. However, jejunal trans-epithelial electrical resistance was unaffected by dietary BA or EYP. In conclusion, dietary BA improved feed efficiency and reduced jejunal permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, implying that it can improve the gut health of weaned pigs through reduced jejunal permeability to toxins. Dietary EYP increased caecum weight, implying that it can improve hindgut fermentation in weaned pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.179
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 259 Effects of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Fermentation Products on Lactating
           Sow’s Blood and Uterine Cytokine Profiles
    • Authors: Garcia R; Thayer M, Mills K, et al.
      Pages: 110 - 111
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of a liquid prototype (LIQP) and dry (XPC®; Diamond V) Saccharomyces cerevisiae feed additives on blood and uterine cytokine profiles in sows (n = 40). On d 112 of pregnancy sows were allotted to dietary treatments: 1) Control diet (CON), 2) CON +15 mL of LIQP (LIQ), 3) CON +0.20% of XPC (DRY), and 4) DRY +15 mL of LIQP until d 7 post-farrowing (D+L). Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were quantified from serum samples collected on d 112 of gestation, d 2 and 6 post-farrowing, and from uterine fluid collected on d 2, 4, and 6 post-farrowing. Serum C-Reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin concentrations were evaluated. No interactions between treatments and day of collection were observed (P > 0.13). LIQ and D+L sows had the greatest serum IL-10 concentration (P < 0.001) and sows fed CON tended to have lower concentration of IL-8 (P < 0.06) vs. other treatments. Serum CRP concentrations were greatest on d 2 (P < 0.001), serum IL-10 (P < 0.04) and IL-4 (P < 0.07) linearly decreased while serum haptoglobin (P < 0.02) and INF-γ (P < 0.001) linearly increased post-farrowing. In the uterine fluid, LIQ and D+L sows had greater INF-γ (P = 0.04) concentrations and CON tended to have the least concentration of TNF-α (P = 0.08). Uterine fluid IL-1 tended to linearly increase (P < 0.07) and IL-6 linearly decrease (P < 0.01) post-farrowing. No strong correlations were detected between cytokines in the serum and uterine fluid within day. LIQ sows had the greatest daily feed intake and CON the least during the first week of lactation (P = 0.04). Providing LIQP post-farrowing to sows modified immune response increasing both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum and uterine fluid in an independent manner, allowing animals a quicker recovery and increased feed intake.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.181
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 258 The Interactions of Change in Nutrition on Uterine Environment and
           Plasma Cholesterol Concentrations in Beef Cattle
    • Authors: Andrews T; Epperson K, Rich J, et al.
      Pages: 110 - 110
      Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the impact of nutritional changes prior to and after artificial insemination (AI) on uterine environment and plasma cholesterol concentrations. Beef heifers (n = 79) were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment groups (High=155% or Low=86% of maintenance energy) for 30 d prior to AI (pre-AI). At AI, heifers were randomly assigned new treatment groups (post-AI) which created four pre- x post-AI diet treatments (High-High, High-Low, Low-High, and Low-Low). Post-AI dietary treatments continued until uteri were flushed for embryo recovery (d 7 or 8 post-AI). Blood samples were collected on d -3,-2,-1, 0 (AI day), 1,3,5,7, and 8 for analysis of plasma cholesterol concentrations using a colorimetric assay. Uterine flushes were analyzed for concentrations of Mg, Al, P, S, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Se, and Fe by ICPMS. Plasma cholesterol (repeated measures) and uterine mineral concentrations were analyzed using the MIXED procedures in SAS. Plasma cholesterol concentrations changed over time (P < 0.0001); however, there were no differences between treatments (P > 0.10). There was an effect of embryo presence on uterine flush mineral concentrations for Mg (P < 0.04), Al (P < 0.01), S (P < 0.01), K (P < 0.01), and Ca (P < 0.01), with decreased concentrations when uterine flushes contained an embryo. There was no effect of pre-AI diet on mineral concentrations; however, there was an effect of post-AI diet on S (P < 0.02) and Ca (P = 0.03). High diet heifers had increased S and Ca concentrations compared to low diet heifers. Sulfur concentration was affected by a pre-AI diet by embryo interaction (P < 0.03). There was a post-AI by embryo interaction on P (P < 0.03), Zn (P = 0.02), and Se (P = 0.02). Also, there was a pre-AI by post-AI by embryo interaction on Mg (P < 0.05). In conclusion, changing plane of nutrition pre- and post-AI had no effect on plasma cholesterol concentrations; however, presence of an embryo affected uterine mineral concentrations.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.180
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 287 Effects of Number of Sperm and Site of Uterine Semen Deposition on
           Conception Rate and Number of Embryos in Weaned Sows Receiving a Single
           Fixed Time Insemination
    • Authors: Stewart K; Belstra B, Willenburg K, et al.
      Pages: 111 - 111
      Abstract: Induced ovulation with single fixed time artificial insemination (SFTAI), combined with uterine (IUI) or deep uterine insemination (DUI), could improve fertility with low numbers of sperm and allow greater use of high genetic merit boars. At weaning (0 h), sows (n = 534) were assigned by parity and estrus induction method (eCG or Control) to receive 1200 × 106 sperm by IUI, 600, 300, or 150 × 106 sperm by IUI or DUI, or 75 × 106 sperm by DUI. At 80 h post weaning, sows received OvuGel and 26 h later a pooled semen SFTAI. Ultrasound was performed to determine follicle size and time of ovulation (OV). Sows were slaughtered 27 d after AI to determine pregnancy and litter traits. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of eCG on estrus (93%) within 5 d of weaning or follicle size (6.1 mm) at OvuGel, but wean-to-estrus (3.8 vs. 4.0 d,P < 0.01) and AI-to-OV (15.9 vs. 17.0 h, P = 0.04) intervals and AI-to OV were slightly reduced. eCG did not affect pregnancy rate (78.6%), number of CL (21.7), or number of viable embryos (12.2). There was no effect of number of sperm or site of insemination (P > 0.05) on pregnancy rate (range: 80.9% to 70.5%), but AI occurring after ovulation reduced pregnancy rate (P < 0.02). Total number of embryos (range: 16.5 to 10.3) increased with CL number (P < 0.001) but was not affected by number of sperm or site of insemination (P > 0.05). Higher sperm treatments (1200 and 600 x 106) had more embryos compared to lower sperm treatments (P < 0.01), suggesting that lower sperm numbers effects litter size more than the pregnancy status. Acceptable fertility can be achieved with low sperm numbers when using SFTAI and uterine deposition, but AI-to-OV interval and ovulation rate influence final fertility.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.182
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 289 Serum Trace Minerals in Late Gestation Sows at Variable Risk for
           Pelvic Organ Prolapse
    • Authors: Kiefer Z; Chipman A, Showman L, et al.
      Pages: 111 - 112
      Abstract: Within the last decade, pelvic organ prolapse (POP) resulting in sow mortality has become an increasing concern for the U.S. swine industry, contributing approximately 21% of all sow deaths. While little is known regarding the etiology preceding POP in sows, many have proposed an association with vitamin and trace minerals abundance to POP incidence. We tested the hypothesis that sows differing in POP risk would have differences in serum trace minerals and vitamins. A perineal scoring (PS) system (PS1 - presumed low risk; PS2 - presumed moderate risk; and PS3 - presumed high risk) to assess risk for POP during late gestation was used to score 213 individual sows. Blood was collected from sows of two different farms during late gestation (days 105–115) that scored a PS3 (n = 20) and a parity matched sow scored as PS 1 (n = 16). Subsequently, 1.5, 0.8, and 23.1% of sows scored as PS1, PS2, or PS3, respectively, experienced POP. Serum was analyzed at the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Lab for trace mineral content (Calcium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Phosphorus, Selenium, and Zinc). Additionally, vitamin E was evaluated in serum via GC-MS. Differences (P < 0.05) in copper, potassium, molybdenum, phosphorus, and selenium was observed between farms. Further a PS x Farm interaction (P = 0.06) was observed for serum copper abundance which across all farms was 12% less (P < 0.04) in PS3 compared to PS1 sows. No impact on serum vitamin E was observed between PS sows. These data demonstrate sows with greater POP risk may have potential differences in serum factors although these data also underscore the importance of measuring vitamin and mineral quantities in a tissue specific manner. This project was supported by the National Pork Board and the Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.183
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 288 Plasma Concentrations of Cortisol During the Periparturient Period in
           Gilts
    • Authors: Dierking S; Everding T, Morton J, et al.
      Pages: 112 - 112
      Abstract: An increase in plasma concentrations of cortisol is one signal that begins parturition and uterine contractions in pregnant sows; however, it is not known whether a critical level of cortisol is necessary or the role that it may play in the duration of parturition. The objective of the study was to characterize plasma concentrations of during the periparturient period and assess its relationship with initiation of parturition, litter size, and farrowing duration. Blood was collected via indwelling catheters from 5 primiparous gilts twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) from d113 of gestation until the birth of the first piglet, after which blood was collected every 15 minutes until farrowing was considered complete. Time of birth of each piglet was recorded. Farrowing duration was defined as the time between birth of the first and last piglets. Plasma concentrations of cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay. Litter size was 12, 12, 18, 17, and 14 piglets and farrowing duration was 72 minutes, 4.1, 6.7, 5.8, and 4 hours, respectively. Quadratic and linear regressions were performed using the RStats package in RStudio (version 1.2.5025). Serum concentrations of cortisol were 3.37 ± 1.55 and 5.73 ± 2.18 ng/mL prior to parturition and at the birth of the first piglet, respectively. There was a positive quadratic relationship (P ≤ 0.07) between time of birth of each piglet and plasma cortisol levels; peak cortisol was 14.45 ± 3.20 ng/mL. There was a positive correlation between initial cortisol level and average piglet birth weight (P = 0.0124) but no relationship with total litter weight (P > 0.05). Determination of the periparturient changes in cortisol may be useful in designing farrowing induction protocols.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.184
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 175 Analysis of Cryopreserved Semen Quality: With the Tools Available,
           What Is Possible to Be Interpreted
    • Authors: de Andrade A.
      Pages: 112 - 113
      Abstract: Identifying doses of post-thawed semen with high and low fertility potential is the main objective pursued by professionals and companies involved in commercializing frozen semen. In post-thaw semen, we can evaluate the motility characteristics and the integrity of the spermatozoa membranes and their DNA so that we can identify the number of cells that have the minimum characteristics to be considered with the potential to fertilize the oocyte. However, even with these analyzes using fluorescent probes, flow cytometry, and a computerized semen analysis system, it is impossible to predict the dose’s fertilizing potential accurately. The spermatozoa and seminal plasma originate from an individual (e.g., boar, bull, stallion), and even the spermatozoa and seminal plasma from this individual are different between different ejaculates. Factors such as genetics, age, ambiance, nutrition, and semen manipulation can alter the cryotolerance capacity of a given ejaculate, thus affecting its fertility potential. However, recent studies with assessments of proteomics, lipidomics, metabolomics, and miRNAs have associated cryotolerance and semen fertility with markers that can be evaluated before the ejaculate cryopreservation process—in this way, creating the possibility of selecting high fertility doses before the freezing process. Suppose these biological markers will conclusively make it possible to inform whether post-thawed semen dose has high or low fertility potential. In that case, only future research work verifying fertility will allow us to know. In the meantime, it is highly recommended to evaluate the post-thaw semen by assessing characteristics of motility, the integrity of the plasma and acrosomal membranes, and the integrity of DNA. Thus, ensuring that inseminations are carried out with the minimum number of sperm able to provide a high potential for fertility. These minimum numbers are related to the species and type of cryopreserved semen: conventional or sexed.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.185
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 174 What Quality and Fertility Should We Expect When Using Semen
           Cryopreservation and AI with Livestock' a Comparison Across Species
    • Authors: Purdy P.
      Pages: 113 - 113
      Abstract: Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) can be used across most agricultural species and will result in some degree of fertility when employed correctly. Still, conversations with agricultural producers and scientists (corporate, academic, governmental) repeatedly reveal that they do not know what success rates they should anticipate when using some ARTs, specifically semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination, with agricultural species (beef and dairy cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, sheep). These perceptions hinder ART application within the agricultural and scientific communities. Understanding these expected results is a critical component that is used to guide the USDA National Animal Germplasm Program laboratory operations for collecting, freezing and using germ plasm (semen, eggs, embryos, DNA, tissues, organs, cells), has consequently resulted in growth of the national collection, and provided tools, technologies, and educational opportunities for agricultural producers with documented success. Therefore, the intent of this presentation is to provide an overview of what results should be expected when using semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination across livestock species, explain the factors that influence successful use of these ARTs, which should encourage a more broad acceptance of their use with all agricultural species, and discuss opportunities for research and optimization that will improve fertility when using these technologies.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.186
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 208 Sperm Retention, Storage and Release from the Oviduct: A Story of
           Sugars, Steroids, and Channels
    • Authors: Miller D.
      Pages: 113 - 114
      Abstract: Because mating is not always synchronized with ovulation, females from many species store sperm in the female reproductive tract until ovulation and fertilization. This may be done for short periods, a day or two for swine and cattle, or longer periods. Other mammals, such as some species of bats, store sperm for several months. Chickens and turkeys store sperm for 2–4 weeks and queens of some species of insects store sperm for over a decade in specialized structures. How sperm are retained, kept fertile for varying times and released is unclear. We have identified two specific carbohydrate motifs that are abundant in the porcine oviduct that bind and retain sperm in the isthmus. When immobilized, these two glycans lengthen sperm lifespan and suppress the normal increase in intracellular Ca2+ that normally accompanies capacitation. Porcine sperm can be released from oviduct cells and immobilized glycans by progesterone, perhaps of ovarian or cumulus-oocyte complex origin, which activates CatSper, a sperm-specific Ca2+ channel. Progesterone, as well as other compounds that stimulate hyperactivated motility, trigger sperm release, suggesting that hyperactivated motility is sufficient to release porcine sperm from oviduct glycans. We also have found that blocking proteasome-induced sperm protein lysis diminishes the number of sperm released from oviduct glycans. Finally, a transcriptomic approach has identified several groups of genes that are differentially regulated in both bovine and porcine oviducts from estrus animals that are storing sperm compared to oviducts from diestrus animals. This provides clues about how sperm lifespan is extended during storage.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.187
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 207 Female Reproductive Fluids and Epigenetics
    • Authors: Canovas S; Romar R, Coy P.
      Pages: 114 - 114
      Abstract: Physiological fertilization, and early embryo development, involves dramatic transcriptomic, epigenetic and morphological changes in a short temporal window. During this period gametes and early embryos are surrounded by reproductive fluids (oviductal and uterine), which contain nutrients, growth factors, hormones and extracellular vesicles acting as carriers of DNA, RNA, proteins and other factors with putative roles in intercellular communication. Under in vitro conditions, and in the absence of these fluids, embryos derived from Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) reveal transcriptional and epigenetic differences compared with in vivo embryos, which could result in long-term phenotypic consequences in adult life. Therefore, reproductive fluids supplementation in the culture medium offers an alternative to imitate physiological conditions and decrease these consequences. In vitro, oviductal fluid (OF) can modulate capacitation-associated events and sperm-zona pellucida interactions and contribute to the control of polyspermy in pigs. The use of in vitro fertilization media supplemented with reproductive fluids (Natur-IVF) improves embryo quality and blastocysts hatching ability. Moreover, Natur-IVF embryos show expression and methylation patterns closer to in vivo blastocysts. In cows, supplementation of culture media with reproductive fluids, or some isolated factors, improves blastocyst rate and survival after embryo transfer, and reverses the expression of some altered genes. However, considering the complexity of the oviductal and uterine fluids, it seems difficult that the use of just a few factors in isolation can reverse all undesired consequences of the IVP. On the other hand, sex-specific embryonic plasticity, as a consequence of the oviductal regulatory signals, have been proposed. Thus, we have analysed the sex-specific effect of supplementation with reproductive fluids in bovine embryos and data reveal sex-dependent impact in DNA methylation. All these results confirm that developmental programme can be modulated by reproductive fluids and it shows sex-specific effects. This strategy allows the possibility of minimizing undesired in vitro derived consequences.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.188
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 209 Large Offspring Syndrome: Effects of in vitro Production on Embryo
           Epigenetics and Development
    • Authors: Rivera R.
      Pages: 114 - 115
      Abstract: In cattle, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) can result in a congenital overgrowth condition known as large/abnormal offspring syndrome (LOS/AOS). The phenotypic characteristics of LOS include; somatic overgrowth, abdominal wall defects, large organs, breathing difficulties, skeletal defects, hypoglycemia, abnormal placentas, difficulty suckling, and perinatal death. LOS can have detrimental effects on the offspring and dam and also pose managerial and financial challenges to the producer. Research from the Rivera laboratory has demonstrated that LOS is an epigenetic syndrome. As in cattle, ART can promote the development of congenital overgrowth in humans, a condition known as Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS). For the past 13 years, the Rivera laboratory has been characterizing LOS and we have shown that LOS and BWS are phenotypically and epigenotypically similar. In our studies, using gestation day ~105 Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus F1 hybrids, we showed global misregulation of imprinted and non-imprinted transcripts, micro RNAs and global misregulation of DNA methylation. In brief, LOS fetuses displayed variable loss-of-imprinting in kidney, liver, muscle and brain, when compared to controls. Biallelic expression of imprinted genes in LOS was associated with tissue-specific hypomethylation of the normally methylated parental allele. Not only was there loss of allele-specific expression of imprinted genes in LOS, but we also observed differential transcript amounts of these genes between control and overgrown fetuses. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between bodyweight and the number of biallelically expressed imprinted genes in LOS fetuses. From this work, we concluded that LOS is a multi-locus loss-of-imprinting condition. Current work, aims to determine if LOS is identifiable during pregnancy using day 55 fetal ultrasonography and day 55 and 105 maternal blood. In addition, we aim to determine how serum supplementation of culture medium can program preimplantation embryos to develop LOS. Findings will be discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.189
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 73 Effect of Rate of Gain During Early Gestation on Colostrum and Milk
           Composition in Beef Heifers
    • Authors: Baumgaertner F; Menezes A, Da Silva Diniz W, et al.
      Pages: 115 - 115
      Abstract: We evaluated effects of rate of gain during the first 84 d of gestation on composition of colostrum and milk. At breeding, forty-five Angus-based heifers received either a basal total mixed ration allowing 0.28 kg/d gain [low gain (LG), n = 23] or basal diet plus starch-based supplement allowing 0.79 kg/d gain [moderate gain (MG), n = 22] for 84 days. Heifers were then managed on a common diet until parturition. Colostrum samples (50 mL) were collected before first suckling. Milk samples (50 mL) were collected 6 hours after calf removal on d 62 ± 10 and 103 ± 10 postpartum. Samples were collected by stripping each teat 15 to 20 times after discarding the first 5 strips. At d 103 sampling techniques were compared by collecting a second sample after 1 mL oxytocin administration and 90 sec lag. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS. Fat, protein, somatic cell count (SCC), milk urea nitrogen, and other solids were analyzed in colostrum for effect of treatment, whereas milk was evaluated for effects of treatment, day and their interaction. Heifer was experimental unit and significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Colostrum SCC was greater (P = 0.05) in LG (6,949 ± 739 cells/mL) than MG (4,776 ± 796 cells/mL). In milk, protein and other solids were greater (P ≤ 0.03) in MG (3.02 ± 0.03 and 6.20 ± 0.02 %, respectively) than LG (2.87 ± 0.03 and 6.14 ± 0.02 %, respectively). On d 103, oxytocin administration and extended lag time after teat stimulation (0.96 ± 0.05 %) increased fat content in milk (P < 0.01) compared with immediate milk sample collection (0.34 ± 0.05 %). Nutrition during early gestation had a sustained impact on milk composition and techniques of oxytocin administration results in greater milk fat content.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.190
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 76 Growth and Health of Limousin Crossbred Dairy-beef Calves in an
           Automated Feeding System
    • Authors: Heins B; Sharpe K.
      Pages: 115 - 116
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine growth and health of Limousin crossbred dairy-beef calves fed alternative milk allowances in an automated group feeding system. The study was conducted at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center’s, Morris, MN dairy. Forty-eight Limousin-sired crossbred calves were assigned to feeding groups by birth order during two calving seasons from September to December 2019 and March to July 2020. Calves were introduced to the Holm & Laue HL100 Programmable Calf Feeder (Holm & Laue GmbH & Co KG, Westerronfeld, Germany) at 5 d and were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Treatments for calves were 8 L/d (8L) or ad libitum (AL) milk allowance. Calves were weaned from the automated feeder at 56 d. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Independent variables for analyses were the fixed effects of season of birth, sex of calf (M or F), treatment group and sex of calf nested within season of birth was a random effect. No differences (P > 0.05) were found between 8L or AL groups for birth weight. The AL calves (109.4 kg) had higher (P < 0.01) weaning weight than 8L calves (95.3 kg). Furthermore, the AL calves had higher (P < 0.01) hip height (95.6 cm) and greater (P < 0.01) heart girth (110.2) compared with 8L calves (93.8 cm and 104.8 cm, respectively). The AL calves (1.14 kg/d) had higher average daily gain at weaning compared to 8L calves (0.91 kg/d). Males calves were not different (P = 0.39) for average daily gain compared to female calves (1.07 kg/d versus 0.98 kg/d). Drinking speeds of AL calves were lesser (P < 0.05; 1,222 mL/min) than the 8L calves (1,453 mL/min). The AL calves and 8L calves were not different for hygiene scores or health scores. The results from this study indicate advantages to feeding dairy-beef calves ad libitum whole milk during the pre-weaning period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.191
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 74 Production Responses of an Alternative Beef Cow-calf System
    • Authors: Carlson Z; McPhillips L, Erickson G, et al.
      Pages: 116 - 116
      Abstract: A two-yr study was conducted to measure reproductive responses of an alternative cow-calf production system. Multiparous, crossbred cows (n = 160; average age = 5.7 ± 2.8 yrs-old) were utilized, per yr, in a generalized randomized bock design and unstructured treatment design. In yr one, cows were blocked by origin source and age, randomly assigned to one of two production systems, each with four replicates (n = 20 cows/rep). Once allotted to treatment and replicate, cows remained in assigned treatment for the duration of their productive life. Treatments were: 1) traditional extensive spring calving system utilizing perennial pasture and corn residue grazing (TRAD); 2) alternative fall-calving system utilizing confinement, summer-planted oats, and corn residue grazing (ALT). Breeding body condition score (BCS) was greater (P < 0.01) for TRAD compared to ALT (6.45 vs. 5.47 ± 0.159, respectively). There were no differences (P ≥ 0.24) in conception rates (93.86 vs. 94.14 ± 2.26 %), pregnancy loss (4.37 vs. 5.62 ± 1.86 %), calving rates (89.50 vs. 88.49 ± 3.06 %), and weaning rates (86.88 vs. 82.50 ± 3.08 %) for TRAD and ALT, respectively. There was no difference (P = 0.47) in calf body weight at birth (40 vs. 39 ± 1.0 kg) for TRAD and ALT, respectively. Weaning BCS was greater (P < 0.01) for TRAD compared to ALT (5.71 vs. 5.27 ± 0.048). Calves in the TRAD system had greater (P < 0.001) wean BW (237 vs. 185 ± 3.7 kg) compared to ALT calves. Cows from TRAD system had greater (P < 0.001) kg weaned per cow exposed to bulls (208 vs. 151 ± 6.3 kg) compared to ALT cows. Results indicate no difference in reproductive performance among systems. The extensive spring-calving system produced heavier calves at weaning, leading to more kg of calf weaned per cow exposed.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.192
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 75 Management of the Young Calf When Dams Are Limit-fed in Confinement
    • Authors: Grabau M; Wilke K, Drewnoski M.
      Pages: 116 - 117
      Abstract: Limit-feeding cows in confinement can lower feed costs; however, calves have limited time to access feed. This study was designed to evaluate management options to economically improve calf performance. Calves (n = 54) were stratified by age (105 ± 16 DOA) and assigned randomly to one of nine groups, then each group assigned randomly to one of three treatments: 1) kept with dam with access to cow diet only (PAIRS) 2) early-weaned (EW) or 3) kept with dam with access to creep (CREEP). The cow diet was 54% wet distillers grains (WDGS), 37% straw, and 8% corn. This diet was fed to meet dry cow requirements (7.7 kg DM/d) for EW, lactation requirements (10.9 kg DM/d) in CREEP, and lactation requirements plus allow for some calf intake (14.8 kg DM/d) in PAIRS. The calf diet consisted of 51% alfalfa hay, 25% WDGS, and 22% corn. Calves in the EW had greater (P < 0.01) intake (5.0 kg DM/d) than CREEP (4.1 kg DM/d) from 105 to 203 DOA. Calf ADG differed (P < 0.01) among treatments from 105 to 203 DOA, with CREEP (1.29 kg/d) being greater (P = 0.02) than EW (1.01 kg/d) and both being greater (P ≤ 0.02) than PAIRS (0.74 kg/d). At ~203 DOA, PAIRS and CREEP were weaned and all calves were fed a growing diet. Calf intakes during the growing phase (223 to 314 DOA) did not differ (P = 0.39). However, calf ADG tended (P < 0.06) to differ. The ADG of PAIRS (1.13 kg/d) and EW (1.10 kg/d) did not differ (P = 0.67) but were greater (P ≤ 0.05) than CREEP (0.92 kg/d). However, when calf value and total feed costs were considered, creep resulted in the most return over feed costs at weaning as well as at the end of growing.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.193
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 77 Evaluation of Models Used to Predict Dry Matter Intake in Forage-Based
           Diets
    • Authors: Wiseman A; Watson A, Stock R, et al.
      Pages: 117 - 117
      Abstract: Data from experiments conducted at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln were pooled to compare predicted and observed dry matter intake (DMI) of growing cattle consuming foraged-based diets (corn silage, grass, alfalfa, or sorghum-hay) to determine the accuracy of current modeling systems. Experiments (n = 22) were a minimum of 84 days and included individually fed calves using the Calan gate system with 8 to 12 calves per treatment mean or pen-fed calves with 8 to 12 head per pen. Average body weight (BW) of calves ranged from 235 to 397 kg with average daily gain (ADG) between 0.16 and 1.65 kg. Cattle were fed ad libitum and mid-point BW and ADG were entered into the Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Model (2016) to determine predicted DMI. Simple regression was used to compare predicted and observed DMI to determine the accuracy of the prediction model. Ninety-three treatment means were evaluated and were separated into three categories: hay-based diets (n = 24), hay-based diets with distillers grains (n = 31), and corn silage-based diets (n =38). The model for observed versus predicted DMI was significant (P < 0.05; R2 = 0.09) when comparing all means but had a poor R2. The model was the best at predicting DMI for forage-based diets (P < 0.08; R2 = 0.22). Observed and predicted DMI were regressed along TDN values, calculated using book values and digestion studies. As TDN increased, observed DMI increased linearly (P < 0.01) and predicted DMI had a quadratic response (P < 0.01), increasing up to 63% and then decreasing with increasing TDN. The model over predicted DMI intake for TDN < 63% and under predicted DMI in forage-based diets greater than 63% TDN. Further development of the current modeling system through addition of intake data from forage fed growing cattle is needed
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.194
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 78 Winter Hardy Small Cereal Cover Crops for Grazing and Silage in
           Nebraska
    • Authors: Calus K; Drewnoski M, Redfearn D, et al.
      Pages: 117 - 118
      Abstract: Cereal rye, winter wheat, and winter triticale are commonly planted cover crops in corn and soybean systems and have the potential to provide early spring grazing. The three cover crops differ in growth pattern. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the grazing potential of the three species, including the timing of the start of grazing and nutritive value of forage as measured by growing calf gain. A 7.3 hectare field was divided into 9, 0.81-hectare paddocks. Three paddocks (n = 3 replicates per treatment) were randomly assigned to each treatment: variety not stated cereal rye, Pronghorn winter wheat, or NT11406 triticale. Pastures were seeded in Mid-September following early maturity soybean harvest and received no fertilizer. Fifty-four steers (305 kg SD ± 5 kg) were stratified by weight and assigned to one of nine groups which were then assigned to a paddock. The paddocks were split in half. Steers were turned out when forage reached a 12.7 cm height and rotated to the other half once the occupied half reached 5 cm. Grazing began April 3 for rye pastures and April 9 for triticale and wheat pastures. Two groups of cattle grazing rye were pulled April 29 due to limited forage. All remaining cattle were pulled May 8 to allow for soybean planting. Throughout the grazing period pre and post-graze biomass did not differ (P ≥ 0.36) among treatments. Average daily gain did not differ among treatments (P = 0.88) averaging 1.79, 1.86, 1.84 kg/day for rye, wheat and triticale, respectively. Likewise, gain per hectare did not differ (P = 0.80) among treatments with 378, 399, 394 kg/ha for rye, wheat, and triticale, respectively. Rye offered grazing a full week before triticale and wheat, but all three small grain cereal species resulted in desirable animal performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.195
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 72 Relationships Among Lifetime Feed Efficiency Traits in Growing Heifers,
           Mature Cows and Their Progeny
    • Authors: Lancaster P; Davis M, Rutledge J, et al.
      Pages: 118 - 119
      Abstract: Uncertainty exists in relationships among feed efficiency traits in different production stages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships among feed efficiency traits measured in various stages of production. Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from dams (n = 160), and their progeny (n = 406). Individual feed intake was measured from 240 d of age through weaning of 3rd calf for dams, and from weaning to slaughter for progeny. Body weight was measured at 28-d intervals until first parturition for heifers and slaughter for progeny, and cows were weighed at parturition and weaning each production cycle. Milk yield of dams was measured at 14-d intervals throughout lactation. Residual feed intake was computed as the residual from linear regression of daily DMI on metabolic mid-test body weight, average daily gain, and milk yield for dams only with year-diet-breed factor as a random effect using lmer function in R software. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed using corr.test function. Pearson correlations of RFI with DMI ranged from 0.58 to 0.74 and with feed:gain or feed:milk ranged from 0.24 to 0.67 within production stage. Heifer RFI was correlated with cow RFI during parity 1 (0.74), but not parity 2 (0.11) or 3 (-0.06). Heifer RFI was correlated with progeny 3 RFI (0.17), but not progeny 1 or 2 RFI. Cow RFI was weakly correlated among parities (0.25 to 0.36) whereas feed:milk was strongly correlated (0.56 to 0.70). Cow RFI was not correlated with progeny RFI of the same parity. In conclusion, RFI was poorly correlated across stage of production.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.196
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 71 Evaluation of the CVDS Beef Cow Model to Estimate Biological Efficiency
           in Mature Cows
    • Authors: Lancaster P; Davis M, Tedeschi L, et al.
      Pages: 119 - 119
      Abstract: There is no clear method to measure biological efficiency in grazing beef cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate a nutrition model to estimate biological efficiency in mature cows. Data from dams (n = 160) and their 2nd and 3rd progeny were collected from 1953 through 1980. Individual feed intake was measured at 28-d intervals for lifetime of dams and during 240-d lactation for progeny. Body weight of progeny were measured at birth and weaning, and dams at parturition and weaning each production cycle. Milk yield of dams was measured at 14-d intervals by hand milking. Metabolizable energy required (MER) and predicted milk energy yield (MEY) of each cow was computed using the CVDS beef cow model for each parity. Biological efficiency was computed as the ratio of cow ME intake (MEI) to calf weaning weight (WW) based on observed (MEI/WW) and predicted (MER/WW) values. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed using corr.test function in R software. Average (SD) cow weight, calf weaning weight, cow MEI, and observed MEY were 507 (81) and 548 (88) kg, 287 (49) and 294 (44) kg, 9406 (2695) and 9721 (2686) Mcal, and 1009 (538) and 1051 (521) Mcal, for progeny 2 and 3, respectively. Cow MEI and MER (0.87 and 0.85), and observed and predicted MEY (0.51 and 0.51) were positively correlated for progeny 2 and 3, respectively. The CVDS model under predicted cow MEI [mean bias = 1685 (1718) and 1658 (1702) Mcal] and MEY [mean bias = 82 (465) and 129 (450) Mcal] for progeny 2 and 3, respectively. Observed and predicted progeny feed intake were not correlated. Observed and predicted biological efficiency were positively correlated (0.63 and 0.61) for progeny 2 and 3, respectively. In conclusion, nutrition models can reasonably predict biological efficiency, but further refinement of the relationship between calf feed intake and milk yield could improve prediction.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.197
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 159 Evaluation of Bacillus Subtilis PB6 Probiotic (CLOSTAT® 500) on
           Feedlot Phase Growth Performance, Efficiency of Dietary Net Energy
           Utilization, and Fecal and Subiliac Lymph Node Salmonella Prevalence
    • Authors: Smith Z; Broadway P, Underwood K, et al.
      Pages: 119 - 120
      Abstract: Yearling beef steers (n = 238; initial BW=402 ± 31.2 kg) were used to evaluate a Bacillus subtilis probiotic on growth performance, dietary net energy (NE) utilization, carcass characteristics, and fecal and subiliac lymph node Salmonella prevalence during a 140-d finishing period. Steers were allotted to 24 pens (n = 9 to 10 steers/pen) and assigned to one of two treatments (12 pens/treatment): no probiotic (CON) or 0.50 g·steer-1·d-1 of a Bacillus subtilis PB6 probiotic (CLOSTAT® 500, Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA; CLO). Steers were transitioned to a 90% concentrate diet (DM basis) over 14-d. Steers were fed once daily at 0700 h; bunks were managed according to a slick bunk management. Fecal samples were collected on d 1, 28, 56, 112, and 140 from each pen (n = 5 steers/pen) via rectal palpation and composited by pen for determination of Salmonella prevalence. Upon harvest, subiliac lymph nodes were obtained from 60 steers in CON and 57 steers in CLO. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design; pen was the experimental unit; α of 0.05 determined significance. No differences were detected (P ≥ 0.25) between treatments for live or carcass-adjusted average daily gain, dry matter intake, gain efficiency, dietary NE utilization, nor calculated dietary NE content based upon performance. No differences were detected between treatments for any carcass traits (P ≥ 0.15). Salmonella was not recovered in any fecal samples except on d 112, where steers from CLO had a numerically lower (P = 0.17; 8.3 vs. 25.0%) incidence of fecal Salmonella compared to CON and on d 140 fecal, where Salmonella incidence did not differ (P = 0.34; 0.0 vs. 8.3%) for CON and CLO, respectively. Salmonella was not recovered in any subiliac lymph nodes. These data indicate that CLO did not influence growth performance or Salmonella prevalence.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.198
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 156 Effect of Anti-yeast on Sugarcane Silage Gas Production
    • Authors: Neto G; Rosa C, Sampaio J, et al.
      Pages: 120 - 121
      Abstract: Although sugarcane produces a large amount of energy per hectare, its ensiled storage leads to losses, which makes it one of the most expensive options for animal feeding. These losses occur due to fermentation of sugars and organic acids by yeasts, producing alcohol and gas. Inoculants containing Lactobacillus buchneri increase acetic acid production, which has effect against yeast. In this study, we produced egg yolk antibodies (IgY) against yeasts that ferment lactate (Candida glabrata, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Pichia manshurica) and sugar (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulospora delbrueckii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Debaryomyces etchellsii) isolated in sugarcane silage. Shortly before ensiling, doses of 0, 175, 350, and 700 g/t IgY, and Lactobacillus buchneri were applied to chopped forage. Gas losses were calculated using experimental silos in triplicate, according to the equation: G = (PCf - PCa)/(MFf) × 100, in which: G = gas losses (kg/t); PCf = weight of full silo (equipped with a Bunsen valve to allow gas outflow) at sealing (kg); PCa = weight of full bucket at opening (kg); MFf = forage mass at sealing (kg). The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design and submitted to analysis of variance and regression using the SAS (SAS, 1998), which was chosen because of the significance of the regression parameters, tested by Tukey’s test (P < 0.05) and the values of the coefficients of determination. Thirty days after sealing the L. buchneri inoculant and doses of 350 and 700 g/t IgY promoted less gas losses than control that had no any product (12.74; 15.59 and 15.28 versus 27.74, respectively, P < 0.05) and the L. buchneri did not differ from IgY doses. The gas losses decreased quadratically with the anti-yeast addition, estimating maximum of 530 g/t fresh forage. We conclude that anti-yeast use reduces gas production during fermentation. With continuity of this research, we may obtain a roughage with higher nutritional value, as its mode of action in yeast control does not involve consumption of sugars or organic acids.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.199
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 160 Injectable Vitamin C Prior to Transit and Transit Duration Effects on
           Feedlot Performance, Inflammation, and Muscle Fatigue of Beef Steers
    • Authors: Beenken A; Deters E, Hansen S.
      Pages: 121 - 121
      Abstract: This study examined the effects of injectable vitamin C (VC) before transport and duration of transit on feedlot performance, inflammation, and muscle fatigue in cattle. One hundred thirty-one, Angus-cross steers (409 ± 4 kg) were stratified by bodyweight (BW) to a 2 × 2 factorial of intramuscular injection (INJ; 20 mL/steer): VC (250 mg sodium ascorbate/mL) or saline (SAL) and road transit duration (DUR): 18 (18; 1,770 km) or 8 h (8; 727 km). On d 0, steers were weighed and received INJ of SAL or VC immediately before transport. Upon return (d 1), BW and blood were collected before steers returned to pens with GrowSafe bunks. Steers were weighed on d 0, 1, 7, 15, 30, 31, 54, and 55. Data were analyzed via ProcMixed of SAS (experimental unit = steer; 32–34 steers/treatment) with fixed effects of INJ, DUR, and the interaction. Blood was collected on d -5, 1, 2, and 3 (9 steers/treatment); blood parameters were analyzed as repeated measures. Average daily gain (ADG) and BW were greater on d 7 and 15 for SAL-18 compared to all other treatments (INJ × DUR, P < 0.01). Final BW, overall ADG, and gain:feed were greater for 18 than 8 (P < 0.01). Injection did not affect BW (P > 0.13) but VC decreased overall dry matter intake compared to SAL (P = 0.03). Steers transported for 18 h had greater serum lactate, haptoglobin, and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on d 1 compared to steers transported for 8 h (DUR × DAY, P < 0.01). Day 1 plasma ascorbate concentrations were greater for VC and returned to baseline concentrations by d 2 (INJ × DAY, P < 0.01). In contrast to previous work, VC did not improve post-transit performance; however, longer transit duration increased indicators of muscle fatigue and inflammation.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.200
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 163 Relative Bioavailability of Bis-glycinate Bound Copper in Beef Steers
           Fed a High Antagonist Growing Diet
    • Authors: Deters E; VanDerWal A, VanValin K, et al.
      Pages: 121 - 122
      Abstract: To assess relative bioavailability of an organic Cu source, 90 Angus-cross steers (265 ± 21 kg) were blocked by body weight to pens with GrowSafe bunks and randomly assigned to dietary Cu treatments (14–18 steers/treatment): 0 mg Cu/kg dry matter (DM; CON), 5 or 10 mg Cu/kg DM as Cu sulfate (CS5; CS10) or chelated bis-glycinate Cu (GLY5; GLY10). Steers were fed a common high antagonist growing diet (0.48% S; 5.3 mg Mo/kg DM; 4.9 mg Cu/kg DM). Blood was collected from all steers on d 0, 28, 56, 84 and 124. Liver samples were collected at trial beginning (d -3/-2) and end (d 125/126). Data were analyzed using ProcMixed of SAS (experimental unit = steer; fixed effect = treatment; random effect = block). Plasma Cu was analyzed as repeated measures (repeated effect = day). Plasma and liver Cu concentrations were regressed against Cu intake using ProcGLM to calculate relative bioavailability of GLY. Initial liver Cu did not differ between treatments (P ≥ 0.63), but final liver Cu was lesser in CON versus steers supplemented 5 or 10 mg Cu/kg DM from either source (P ≤ 0.09). Final liver Cu was greater for CS versus GLY (P < 0.01). Plasma Cu for all treatments decreased through d 28; final plasma Cu was greatest for steers supplemented either source at 10 mg Cu/kg DM (treatment × day P < 0.01). Relative bioavailability of GLY was 82% compared to CS (P < 0.01) based on liver Cu but did not differ based on plasma Cu (P = 0.60). High concentrations of dietary antagonists and lower solubility of GLY (68.9% relative to CS) in rumen-like conditions (pH 5.2) may have resulted in free thiomolybdate absorption across the rumen wall and subsequent depletion of liver Cu stores in GLY supplemented steers.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.201
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 161 Effects of Supplemental Zn Source (sulfate or Bis-glycinate) on
           Metabolism, Apparent Absorption, and Retention of Zn by Lambs
    • Authors: Deters E; VanDerWal A, VanValin K, et al.
      Pages: 122 - 122
      Abstract: To assess bioavailability of bis-glycinate Zn (Plexomin Zn, Phytobiotics), 36 crossbred wethers (34 ± 2 kg) were sorted by body weight into three groups and stagger started on a Zn deplete diet (18.6 mg Zn/kg dry matter [DM]; 22.5% neutral detergent fiber) for 45 d prior to a 15-d metabolism period (10 d adaptation, 5 d collection). On d 46, lambs were randomly assigned to dietary Zn treatments (4 lambs/treatment/group): no supplemental Zn (CON) or 15 mg supplemental Zn/kg DM as Zn sulfate (ZS) or bis-glycinate Zn (GLY). Blood was collected from all lambs on d 1, 44, 56, and 61. Liver, small intestine, and muscle samples were collected after euthanasia on d 61. Liver and intestinal gene expression was determined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed using ProcMixed of SAS (experimental unit = lamb; fixed effects = treatment, group, and breed). After 15 d of Zn supplementation, plasma Zn concentrations were greatest for GLY versus CON or ZS (P ≤ 0.01), but tissue Zn concentrations were unaffected (P ≥ 0.15). Liver MT1 expression was approximately 2-fold greater for GLY versus CON or ZS (P ≤ 0.07). Intestinal ZIP4 expression tended or was lesser for ZS or GLY versus CON (P ≤ 0.07) and ZNT1 expression tended to be lesser for ZS versus CON (P = 0.07). Zinc intake, fecal output, retention, and apparent absorption were greater for ZS or GLY versus CON (P ≤ 0.01). Apparent absorption of Zn was -5.1, 12.8, and 15.0% for CON, ZS, and GLY, respectively. Although Zn apparent absorption did not differ between supplemental Zn sources (P = 0.71), differences in post-absorptive metabolism may be responsible for the observed increase in circulating Zn concentrations and liver MT1 expression in GLY supplemented lambs, suggesting improved bioavailability of GLY relative to ZS.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.202
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 157 Effects of Monensin and Protein Type on Performance of Yearling Steers
           Grazing Smooth Brome
    • Authors: Carlson Z; Butterfield K, McPhillips L, et al.
      Pages: 122 - 123
      Abstract: A two-yr study was conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin on sparing ruminal degradable protein in yearling steers grazing smooth bromegrass pastures (n = 288, initial BW = 332 kg, SD = 7). Treatment design was a 2 x 3 factorial with the following factors: 1) 0 or 200 mg monensin/steer daily; 2) no protein supplement, 1.25 kg soybean meal (SBM) as a source of RDP, or 1.31 kg non-enzymatically browned SBM as a source of RUP. Steers receiving supplemental protein were provided isonitrogenous amounts equivalent to dried distillers grains plus solubles at 0.50% BW. Steers were weighed approximately every 34 d to adjusted the amount of protein supplement. There was no interaction (P > 0.41) of monensin by protein type for average daily gain (ADG). Rate of gain for steers supplemented monensin was not different (P = 0.26) from steers not supplemented monensin. However, monensin supplemented steers numerically gained 7.9% more than steers not provided monensin when no supplemental protein was provided. Compared to steers supplemented with no protein, supplementing RDP increased ADG by 0.19 kg/steer (P < 0.001). Likewise, RUP supplementation increased ADG by 0.24 kg/steer (P < 0.001) compared to steers supplemented no protein. Supplementing RUP increased ADG by 0.05 kg/steer (P < 0.001) compared to steers supplemented RDP. Supplementing protein, especially rumen undegradable protein, improved yearling steer rate of gain on smooth bromegrass pastures. Monensin supplementation did not improve rate of gain. These data do not support the protein-sparing effects of monensin for steers supplemented with RDP.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.203
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 162 Increasing Concentrations of Supplemental Zinc Influence Performance,
           Carcass Characteristics, and Trace Mineral Status of Non-implanted and
           Implanted Steers
    • Authors: Messersmith E; Hansen S.
      Pages: 123 - 123
      Abstract: One hundred twenty-eight Angus-cross steers (492 ± 29 kg) were utilized in a 2 × 4 factorial to determine the effects of dietary Zn within implant strategy on performance, carcass characteristics, and Zn status. Factors included Zn supplemented at 0, 30, 100, or 150 mg/kg dry matter ([DM]; Zn0, Zn30, Zn100, Zn150, respectively) from ZnSO4 and implant administered on d 0 as no implant (NoIMP) or Component TE-200 (TE-200; Elanco, Greenfield, IN). Cattle were stratified by bodyweight (BW) to GrowSafe equipped pens of 5 or 6 steers and assigned to pen-wide treatments (experimental unit of steer; n = 16/treatment). Steers were weighed on d -1, 0, 18, and 59 with blood collected on -1, 18, and 40. Via Proc Mixed of SAS, linear and quadratic effects of Zn within implant treatments and assessment of NoIMP vs. TE-200 were tested for performance, carcass characteristics, and plasma data, with initial value covariates. Plasma Zn concentrations on d 18 and 40 linearly increased within NoIMP and TE-200 (P ≤ 0.03) and were lesser for TE-200 than NoIMP on d 18 (P = 0.001). Zinc linearly increased (P ≤ 0.002) d 18 BW and d 0–18 average daily gain (ADG). Within TE-200, Zn increased dressing percentage (P = 0.01) and tended to increase hot carcass weight (P = 0.09) linearly. Carcass-adjusted final BW and overall ADG tended to increase (P = 0.10) linearly within TE-200, with no Zn effects within NoIMP (P ≥ 0.18). Implanting increased carcass-adjusted final BW 13 kg over NoIMP (P < 0.0001). Overall feed efficiency quadratically increased within NoIMP (P = 0.01) peaking at Zn100 with no observed Zn effects within NoIMP or TE-200 for overall DM intake (P ≥ 0.15). These data suggest implant-induced growth in steers may require dietary Zn above current national recommendations.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.204
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 158 Effect of Mootral™ and Forage Amount on Methane Emissions, Growth
           and Carcass Characteristics of Feedlot Steers
    • Authors: Bitsie B; Osorio A, Henry D, et al.
      Pages: 123 - 124
      Abstract: One hundred and forty-four Angus x Simmental steers were allotted by body weight (BW; 363 kg, breed composition, and farm origin to a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of 6 treatments (4 pens per treatment) to determine the effect of Mootral (garlic + citrus extract; 0.25% of the diet DM vs. 0.0%) on methane emissions, growth and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. During the first 84 days, cattle were fed three different diets (forage content of 15, 41.5, or 68% corn silage). From day 85 to slaughter, corn silage was included at only 15% of the diet DM. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. There was an interaction (P = 0.03) between forage content and Mootral for DMI from d 0 to 84, where Mootral decreased DMI of steers fed 15% corn silage, but did not affect DMI of steers fed 41.5 or 68% corn silage. There were no effects (P ≥ 0.22) of forage content or Mootral on BW or average daily gain at any time, or on DMI from d 84 to slaughter and overall. Gain-feed ratio from d 0 to 84 and overall was greater (P = 0.04) for steers fed 68% compared to 15 or 41.5% corn silage. On d 41, steers fed 41.5 and 68% corn silage had increased (P ≤ 0.02) methane emissions compared to steers fed 15% corn silage. There tended to be an interaction (P ≤ 0.09) between forage content and Mootral for methane emissions (g/d) on d 41 and 203, where steers fed Mootral showed lesser methane emissions with 15% corn silage, but not with the 41.5 and 68% corn silage diets. Steers fed Mootral showed lesser (P ≤ 0.03) methane emissions on d 203. Mootral tended to decrease (P < 0.10) fat thickness and yield grade. In conclusion, Mootral decreased methane production in 15% corn silage diets and improved carcass leanness.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.205
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 254 Evaluation of Different Corn Milling Methods for High-moisture and Dry
           Corn on Finishing Cattle Performance and Carcass Characteristics
    • Authors: Coulson C; Troyer B, McPhillips L, et al.
      Pages: 124 - 124
      Abstract: Steers (n=600; Initial BW = 402 ± 17 kg) were fed for134 day to evaluate the effect of milling method and corn type on performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments were evaluated as a 2 × 3 factorial with factors being milling method (Automatic Ag® roller mill or hammer mill) and corn type (100% high-moisture, 100% dry, or 50:50 blend of high-moisture and dry corn). High-moisture corn was processed at harvested based on respective treatment and ensiled until trial initiation. Both dry corn and HMC were processed using a 16-mm screen in the hammer mill and the roller mill was adjusted to ensure all kernels were broken. There were no interactions between milling method and corn type for final BW, daily gain (ADG), or dry matter intake (DMI; P ≥ 0.32), but there was a tendency for an interaction for G:F (P = 0.09). Cattle fed 100% high-moisture corn processed with the Automatic Ag roller mill were 4.7% more efficient (P ≤ 0.01) with 55% lower fecal starch (P < 0.01) compared to high-moisture corn processed with the hammer mill. Cattle fed dry corn tended (P = 0.07) to have a greater live final BW regardless of milling type and had the greatest DMI (P ≤ 0.01) Intake decreased as high-moisture corn was increased in the diet. Due to no differences in ADG with lower DMI led to a 6% improvement (P ≤ 0.01) in G:F for steers fed HMC. There were no further effects (P ≥ 0.14) on performance or carcass traits regardless of milling method or corn type. Processing high-moisture corn using Automatic Ag roller mill improved feed efficiency compared to processing with a hammer mill when corn was included at 70% of the diet, but processing method had little effect when fed as dry corn or blended diets.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.206
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 255 Evaluation of Different Corn Milling Methods for High-moisture and Dry
           Corn on Nutrient Digestion
    • Authors: Coulson C; Woita N, Spore T, et al.
      Pages: 124 - 125
      Abstract: A 2 × 2 factorial digestion study using seven ruminally cannulated steers evaluated the effect of feeding diets containing 70% (dry matter-basis) high-moisture (HMC) or dry corn (DC), processed with either a hammer mill or Automatic Ag Roller Mill (Pender, NE), on nutrient digestion. Feeding HMC decreased the amount of excreted dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM; P ≤ 0.01) regardless of mill type, but there was a tendency (P ≤ 0.13) for an interaction between corn type and mill type for DM and OM digestibility. There was no difference between either milling treatments fed as HMC (P ≥ 0.69), but the hammer mill DC diet was more digestible than the roller mill DC (P = 0.05). There was no effect on NDF digestibility, but there was a tendency for an interaction between grain type and processing method for ADF digestibility, with the roller mill DC diet having the lowest (P = 0.02) ADF digestibility and no differences (P ≥ 0.15) among the other treatments. As expected, HMC based diets had greater (P < 0.01) starch digestibility compared to DC, but milling method had no effect (P = 0.56). High moisture corn diets had greater (P = 0.01) DE intake (Mcal/kg), and hammer mill DC tended to be greater (P = 0.07) than roller mill DC. There tended (P = 0.07) to be an interaction for minimum pH, with roller mill HMC and hammer mill DC having the lowest average pH, but not different from hammer mill HMC (P ≥ 0.32). There were no differences (P = 0.56) in average pH, but HMC diets had greater variance (P = 0.04) and greater area under pH 5.6 (P = 0.05) compared to DC based diets. Feeding cattle HMC compared to DC increases nutrient digestibility but milling process had little impact.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.207
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 252 Effects of Increasing Urea in Corn Silage Diets and Duration of
           Ensiling on the Rumen Undegradable Protein Content of Corn Silage
    • Authors: Spore T; Jolly-Breithaupt M, Meier N, et al.
      Pages: 125 - 126
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing urea in a corn silage cattle diet and ensiling time (ET) impact on rumen undegradable crude protein (RUP) content of corn silage. In Exp. 1, ten ruminally- and duodenally cannulated heifers (body weight 265 ± 16 kg) were utilized in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and treatments were urea included at 0, 0.5, 1, or 1.5% of dietary dry matter (DM). In Exp. 2, corn silage samples were collected during feedout at 32-d intervals from the time of ensiling (d 0) to 160 d post-ensiling followed by separation in water to forage and grain components. Forage and grain samples were ruminally incubated in two steers to calculate RUP content of corn silage. In Exp. 1, DM intake increased linearly from 5.7 to 6.8 kg/d as urea inclusion increased (P < 0.001). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM and organic matter increased linearly from 55.8% to 60.8%, and 60.1% to 64.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Total tract digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing urea inclusion (P ≤ 0.004). In Exp. 2, the RUP content of the corn grain component decreased from 43.7% of CP at day 0 to 15.8% and 10.0% of CP after 32 and 96 d of ensiling, respectively (quadratic, P < 0.01). The RUP content of the forage averaged 19.3% of CP across ET ranging from 21.5 to 17.8% of CP (P ≥ 0.28). Estimated from the individual components, the RUP content of whole corn silage decreased from 32% to 17.1% of CP after 160 d in storage, a portion of which is digestible. Urea supplementation improved digestibility of corn silage diets and RUP content of corn silage decreased with storage time, primarily driven by changes in the corn grain component.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.209
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 256 Evaluation of Replacement of Dietary Corn with Corn Bran Plus
           Condensed Distillers Solubles on Growth Performance and Carcass Trait
           Responses in Finishing Beef Steers
    • Authors: Smith Z; Wilken M.
      Pages: 125 - 125
      Abstract: This experiment evaluated replacing dietary corn (50:50 blend of dry-rolled and high-moisture) with corn bran plus condensed distillers solubles (CBCDS) on finishing phase growth performance, efficiency of dietary net energy (NE) utilization, comparative NE value, and carcass trait responses in finishing beef steers. This study used 30 pens of 8 steers/pen assigned to one of three treatments in a randomized complete block design (initial BW=401±43.2 kg); pen served as the experimental unit. Treatments included: 1) finishing diet that contained no corn co-product (Control); 2) finishing diet that contained a dry-corn milling bio-refinery product (20% DM basis inclusion) that replaced corn in the diet: CBCDS; 3) finishing diet that contained a wet-corn milling co-product (20% DM basis inclusion) that replaced corn in the diet: wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). For all analyses, an α of 0.05 determined significance and an α of 0.06 to 0.10 was a tendency. No differences were detected (P ≥ 0.58) among treatments for carcass-adjusted final BW (HCW/0.6433), ADG, or G:F. Observed NE for maintenance and gain was not impacted (P ≥ 0.28) by treatment. No appreciable influence for treatment was detected for the ratio of observed to expected dietary NE for maintenance or gain (P ≥ 0.40). Replacement NEm and NEg values (Mcal/45.4 kg) were determined to be 93.5 and 62.3 for CBCDS and 91.5 and 60.5 for WCGF. There was no influence (P ≥ 0.16) of treatment on DP, HCW, REA, RF, USDA Marbling, KPH, EBF, or final BW at 28% EBF. Treatment tended to influence (P = 0.10) YG, where steers fed WCGF had lesser YG than Control; however, CBCDS diet was intermediate, not differing from WCGF or Control. Distribution of USDA Quality and Yield Grade did not differ (P ≥ 0.29) among treatments. Substitution of corn for CBCDS at 20% of dietary DM can occur without detriment to growth performance or carcass traits.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.208
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 257 Including Sweet Bran in the Diet of Growing Feedlot Steers Increased
           Body Weight and Influenced Rate of Feed Disappearance
    • Authors: Heiderscheit K; Beenken A, Deters E, et al.
      Pages: 126 - 126
      Abstract: This study assessed the effect of Sweet BranTM (SWBR; 40% DM inclusion; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) or modified distiller’s grains (MDGS; 25% DM inclusion) in the diet of newly received feedlot steers on feeding behavior and growing period performance. Diets were formulated for similar metabolizable protein and DM. Two hundred sixteen freshly weaned Angus-cross steers (253 kg ± 18.1) were stratified by BW to 36 pens (n = 18 per treatment; 6 steers/pen). Individual BW were recorded on d 0, 28, and 60. Eight pens per treatment were utilized to assess rate of feed disappearance early (day 5 and 6) and late (53 and 54) during growing by weighing feed in bunks every 2 hours post-delivery for 12 consecutive hours. Feed weights were averaged across consecutive days within pen and timepoint. Slopes were calculated between each timepoint to determine rate of feed disappearance. Data were analyzed with Proc Mixed of SAS 9.4; diet was fixed effect and pen was experimental unit. Feed disappearance slopes were analyzed as repeated measures with the repeated effect of time. Body weights did not differ on d 28 (P ≥ 0.29), but d 60 BW and d 0 to 60 ADG were greater for SWBR than MDGS (P < 0.05). Steers fed SWBR had greater DMI throughout the trial (P < 0.05). Feed efficiency (G:F) did not differ throughout the trial (P ≥ 0.31). Rate of feed disappearance on d 5/6 was greater for SWBR between hours 6–8, and greater for MDGS from hours 10–12. On d 53/54, SWBR had increased feeding rate during hours 0–2, while MDGS was increased from hours 8–10. Steers fed SWBR had a greater rate of feed disappearance earlier in the day and had improved DMI and growth than steers fed MDGS.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.210
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 253 Impact of Corn Hybrid Selection for Fiber and Starch Traits on in Vivo
           Nutrient Digestion in Beef Cattle
    • Authors: Xiong J; Norman M, Wilson H, et al.
      Pages: 126 - 127
      Abstract: Evaluation of corn silage digestibility is normally done using laboratory techniques to predict the performance if fed to cattle, which may or may not predict actual performance when fed to cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate two Masters Choice corn silage hybrids previously selected for improved fiber and starch digestion on nutrient intake and digestion in cattle. In a 126-day digestion study, six ruminally fistulated beef steers were utilized in a 3×6 Latin rectangle design with three dietary treatments and six periods (21 days in length with 14 days of adaptation and 7 days of collection). Diets consisted of 80% corn silage (dry matter basis) of Masters Choice hybrid MCT6365 RIB (MC1; selected for greater fiber and starch digestion) and MCT6733 GT3000 (MC2; older hybrid selected for greater fiber digestion) and were compared to a conventional corn hybrid (CON; commonly grown in Eastern Nebraska). The remainder of the diet included 15% modified distillers grains plus solubles and 5% supplement. Corn silage hybrid did not impact dry matter or organic matter (OM) intake (P ≥ 0.68), but hybrid treatment impacted OM, starch, and energy digestibility (P < 0.02). Steers fed MC1 corn silage had greater (P < 0.01) total tract OM and energy digestibility, as well as digestible energy (DE, P = 0.02) content of the diet when compared to MC2, with steers fed CON being intermediate (P ≥ 0.09). Feeding MC1 also resulted in greater (P = 0.03) total tract starch digestibility than MC2, with no difference (P = 0.12) when compared to CON. Results indicated that feeding MC1 corn silage improved digestion and energy availability to the steers, which allowed for greater average daily gain and improved feed efficiency observed in the corresponding growing trial, while the opposite was true for MC2.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.211
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 250 Effects of Bunk Management and Bulk Density of Steam-flaked Corn on
           Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Liver Score of Finishing
           Beef Cattle Fed Diets Without Tylosin Phosphate
    • Authors: Smock T; Woerner D, Hales K.
      Pages: 127 - 128
      Abstract: One hundred ninety-two beef steers (BW = 332 ± 8.2 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of differing bunk management and bulk density of steam-flaked corn (SFC) in a randomized complete block design. A factorial arrangement of treatments was used with: 1) slick bunk management (SBM) + 335 g/L SFC; 2) modified ad libitum bunk management (MAL) + 335 g/L SFC; 3) SBM + 425 g/L SFC; 4) MAL+ 425 g/L SFC. Steers were randomly assigned to treatment within BW block, with 12 pen replications per treatment. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with fixed effects of bunk management, SFC bulk density, and their interaction. Block was included as a random effect. Bunk management strategy did not affect growth performance, carcass characteristics, or liver abscess score (P > 0.10). The average daily gain (ADG) of steers fed 425 g/L SFC was greater (P = 0.05) from days 35 to 105 than those fed 335 g/L SFC; however, overall ADG did not differ (P = 0.36). The DMI of steers fed 425 g/L SFC was greater (P ≤ 0.05) than those fed 335 g/L SFC. Gain-to-feed of steers fed 425 g/L SFC tended (P = 0.10) to be lesser from days 0 to 35 but did not differ overall (P ≥ 0.12). Steers fed 425 g/L SFC tended to have greater backfat and calculated empty body fat (P ≤ 0.07) than those fed 335 g/L SFC and had a greater calculated yield grade (P = 0.05). Steers fed 425 g/L SFC had 43.51% fewer (P = 0.04) liver abscesses. Bunk management strategy did not impact growth performance or carcass characteristics; whereas, SFC processed to 425 g/L increased DMI, fat thickness, and yield grade while resulting in a decreased proportion of liver abscesses.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.213
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 251 Effects of Roughage Source on Rumination Time and Ruminal Ph in Steers
           Fed a Steam-flaked Corn Finishing Diet
    • Authors: Smith W; Lockard C, Lockard C, et al.
      Pages: 127 - 127
      Abstract: Research is limited on how physically effective fiber from various roughage sources aids in rumination time and ruminal pH of finishing beef cattle. This experiment’s objective was to evaluate rumination time and ruminal pH of beef steers consuming finishing diets with varying roughage sources (corn stalks, cotton burrs, or wheat silage). We hypothesized that roughage type would not impact rumination time and ruminal pH if different sources provide similar dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Ruminally cannulated steers (n = 6; average BW = 644.56 + 13.15 kg) were used in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square with 3 dietary treatments and 3, 21-d periods (20-d diet adaptation, 1-d sampling). Steers consumed a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet containing corn stalks (CS), cotton burrs (CB), or wheat silage (WS) included at 7% (DM basis) of the diet. Dietary NDF was similar across treatments. Steers were fitted with a sensory collar to record daily rumination (Allflex Livestock Intelligence). Ruminal pH was measured using a handheld pH probe on d-21 at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 hr postprandial. The NDF and dry matter intake (DMI) were greatest for steers consuming the WS diet (P < 0.01) while CS and CB diets did not differ (P = 0.81). While dietary NDF and estimated physically effective NDF (peNDF) were similar among roughage sources, CB had the lowest actual peNDF, consistent with lower rumination time (P < 0.01) and lower ruminal pH (P = 0.29). This experiment’s results indicate that roughage source impacted rumination time despite feeding steers a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet with similar roughage and NDF levels. Using rumination time (min/d) to determine peNDF was a better indicator of rumen function parameters than particle size measured via the Penn State Particle Separator equation.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.212
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 278 Effect of Feeding CARS on Digestibility in Finishing Cattle Diets
    • Authors: Gibbons J; Watson A, Erickson G, et al.
      Pages: 128 - 128
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the digestibility of a novel liquid feed, Condensed Algal Residue Solubles (Veramaris, Blair, NE) in finishing cattle diets. Mass production of algae to harvest omega-3 fatty acids results in byproduct production of CARS (25.4% DM, 19.3% CP, 8.3% Fat, 9.96% Na on DM basis), made up of the de-oiled algae cells and residual fermentation substrates. The CARS product has generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated crossbred steers were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments over 3 collection periods, for a 3 x 3 replicated Latin Square design. Treatments differed by increasing inclusion of CARS (0, 2.5, and 5% of diet DM) fed with CARS replacing steam flaked corn (72, 69.5, and 67% of diet DM as CARS inclusion increased). All diets contained 15% dry distillers grains, 8% alfalfa haylage, and 5% supplement. Cattle were dosed with 10 g of titanium dioxide per day. Duodenal and fecal samples were collected four times per day across four days and composited by period for each animal. Fecal samples were analyzed for titanium dioxide concentration to determine fecal output and diet digestibility. Data were analyzed with CARS inclusion and period as fixed effects and animal as a random effect. Orthogonal contrasts were used to test linear and quadratic effects of CARS inclusion. There were no significant differences for DM intake and OM intake between the different CARS inclusions (P ≥ 0.17), averaging 7.76 kg DM/d and 6.94 kg OM/d. Total tract DM digestibility was not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.71) and averaged 73.0%. Total tract OM digestibility was also not different between treatments (P ≥ 0.93) and averaged 71.1%. Replacing steam flaked corn with CARS up to 5% of diet DM in finishing cattle diets did not affect diet digestibility.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.214
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 276 Evaluation of a Long-acting Growth-promoting Implant (Revalor-XS) as
           an Initial Implant in a Re-implant Program with a revalor-200 Terminal
           Implant in Feedlot Cattle: A Three-study Pooled Analysis
    • Authors: Crawford G; Nichols W, Hutcheson J, et al.
      Pages: 128 - 129
      Abstract: Data from three large-pen feedlot studies were pooled to evaluate use of a long-acting implant (Revalor-XS) as an initial implant in a re-implant program. The three studies consisted of 2,764 steers in 40 pens, with an initial body weight (BW) of 271 kg. Treatments consisted of Revalor-IS [80 mg trenbolone acetate (TBA), 16 mg estradiol (E2)] administered on arrival, followed by Revalor-200 (200 mg TBA, 20 mg E2) terminal implant (IS/200) or Revalor-XS (80 mg TBA, 16 mg E2 uncoated; 120 mg TBA, 24 mg E2 coated; 200 mg TBA, 40 mg E2 total) on arrival followed by Revalor-200 terminal implant (XS/200). Steers were fed to equal days-on-feed (DOF) within study and averaged 210 DOF. Steers within treatment were re-implanted at same DOF in two studies (Day 124 on average followed by an 81-day terminal implant window). In the third study, IS/200 steers were implanted on Day 120 and XS/200 steers on Day 140 of the 217-day study. Final BW averaged 635.6 and 638.3 kg for IS/200 and XS/200, respectively (P = 0.21). There were no differences (P > 0.26) in DMI, ADG and Gain:Feed between treatments. Hot carcass weight tended (P = 0.07) to be greater with XS/200 (412.7 kg) compared with IS/200 (409.1 kg). Ribeye area was greater (P < 0.01) and fat thickness tended (P = 0.06) to be lower with XS/200 compared with IS/200. Distributions of USDA quality grades were not affected (P = 0.26) by treatment. Distributions of USDA yield grades (YG) were affected (P = 0.01) by treatment with a shift toward more YG 1 and 2 carcasses with XS/200 and more YG 4 and 5 carcasses with IS/200. This analysis indicates that using Revalor-XS as an initial implant leads to greater carcass weight and ribeye area and lower YG when compared with Revalor-IS.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.215
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 277 Survey of Feedlot Nutritionists Provides Insight on How Industry
           Professionals Gather Practical Information
    • Authors: Rients E; VanDerWal A, Reynolds M, et al.
      Pages: 129 - 129
      Abstract: A survey of feedlot nutritionists was conducted regarding how industry professionals use published resources. Surveys were included in the spring 2020 mailing to 550 potential attendees of the Plains Nutrition Council meeting. Sixty-two responses were returned via postal service or an online survey platform (Qualtrics). Participants were asked to rank the importance of types of resources, peer-reviewed journals and learning platforms, and demographic questions. A scale of 1 to 5 was used, with 1 being not important and 5 being most important. Data were analyzed using PROC FREQ in SAS 9.4. An overwhelming majority of participants, 90%, reported serving the Plains and Midwest regions, with service split evenly between the regions. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported having a Ph.D. or other professional degree. Interestingly, 43% of participants reported having less than 16 years of professional nutritional consulting experience, and 39% reported having greater than 26 years of experience with the balance reporting in between. Of the resources offered, 87% of participants ranked peer reviewed journals as a 4 or 5, indicating they are one of the most important resources. Eighty percent of respondents found open access publications important (4 or 5), while only 49% said the same for articles accessed via membership/subscription. For Journal of Animal Science, 84% indicated an importance of 4 or 5. Not surprisingly, 75% responded as being a member of ASAS but only 34% responded as attending national or sectional ASAS meetings. This suggests a large population uses memberships for journals and other resources, but not for meetings. Participants were able to write in additional resources they find valuable, and 9 of 14 participants who listed additional resources responded with some form of in-house or commercial research. Through these data, feedlot nutrition researchers can better understand how to reach intended audiences in future publications.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.216
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 279 Evaluation of Green Grass Inclusion on Digestibility and Fatty Acid
           Flow in Finishing Diets of Beef Cattle
    • Authors: Wiseman A; Spore T, Norman M, et al.
      Pages: 129 - 130
      Abstract: Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers were utilized in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square experiment to determine duodenal fatty acid (FA) flow. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of Green Grass (GG, Sunseo Omega 3; Chungcheong Duk-Do, South Korea), a feed comprised of sesame meal, giant kelp, cassava, and sorghum, at 0, 15, and 30% of diet DM. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with treatment and period as fixed effects and animal as a random effect. There were no differences in DMI, organic matter (OM) intake, total tract DM or OM digestibility (P ≥ 0.16). Intake of NDF and ADF increased linearly (P < 0.01) from 0 to 30% GG inclusion. Total tract digestibility of NDF was the poorest (P ≤ 0.02) for GG0 with no differences between GG30 and GG15 (P = 0.33). Total tract ADF digestibility was poorest for GG30 (P < 0.01) while GG0 and GG15 were not different (P = 0.17). Fatty Acid values were reported as relative abundance of the total FA present in duodenal samples. The lowest (P < 0.01) concentration of saturated FA was GG30 (70.3%) while GG0 and GG15 were not different (P = 0.83; 78.2%). The concentration of unsaturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated, and trans FA responded quadratically (P < 0.01) with no difference between GG0 and GG15 and increasing to GG30. Omega-6 FA tended to decrease linearly (P = 0.06) from 0 to 30% GG inclusion (4.91 and 3.85 g/d, respectively). Omega-3 FA increased linearly (P < 0.01) from 0 to 30% GG inclusion (1.84 and 10.78 g/d, respectively). These data suggest increasing inclusion of GG up to 30% of diet DM does not affect DM or OM digestibility. Greater inclusions of GG resulted in more unsaturated and omega-3 FA concentrations in the duodenum.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.217
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 275 Comparison of Revalor-xh with a revalor-ih/revalor-h/revalor-200
           Re-implant Program on Feedlot Cattle
    • Authors: Gibbons J; Streeter M, Nuttelman B, et al.
      Pages: 130 - 130
      Abstract: A commercial feedlot trial evaluated a 3-implant re-implant program using Revalor-IH/Revalor-H/Revalor-200 compared to a single Revalor-XH (200 mg TBA and 20 mg E2 partially coated) implant strategy on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of calf fed heifers. Heifer calves (n = 1356) were purchased through time and blocked by source and arrival date, assigned randomly to pen within block, and pen assigned randomly to one of the two implant treatments. Heifers who received the 3-implant re-implant treatment were re-implanted on d67 with Revalor-H and on d137 with Revalor-200. Each block of cattle were harvested on the same study day, which averaged 215 days on feed. Performance data were analyzed as a randomized block design, with the blocking factor as source/arrival time being considered random. Implant strategy was analyzed as a fixed effect with pen (n = 20) as the experimental unit. On a live basis, heifers implanted with Revalor-XH had a tendency for a greater gain efficiency (P = 0.06) though there were no significant differences between implant treatments for final body weight, gain or intake (P ≥ 0.15). There were no significant differences between implant treatments for hot carcass weight, gain, or gain efficiency (P ≥ 0.29) on a carcass-adjust basis. Marbling score and 12th rib fat thickness were not impacted by implant treatment (P ≥ 0.80); however, there was an increase in LM area (P = 0.02) for heifers on the 3-implant re-implant treatment compared to the Revalor-XH implanted heifers. There was also a tendency for a greater calculated YG in heifers who received Revalor-XH (P = 0.07). Heifers fed for approximately 215 d with a single Revalor-XH implant performed similarly to heifers fed the same amount of days receiving a 3-implant re-implant strategy using Revalor-IH/H/200 combination.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.218
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 274 Effects of Revalor ih/revalor-200 Re-implant Program or Revalor-xh on
           Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Heifers Fed for 179,
           200, or 221 Days
    • Authors: Nuttelman B; Hutcheson J, Nichols W, et al.
      Pages: 130 - 131
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare feedlot performance and carcass traits between two implant programs in heifers harvested at 3 different days on feed (DOF; 179, 200, or 221 d). Crossbred beef heifers (n = 3,084; 291 + 3.9 kg) were used in a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. Revalor-IH (80 mg TBA and 8 mg E2) was administered on arrival followed by Revalor-200 (200 mg TBA and 20 mg E2) 94 d before harvest (IH/200) or Revalor-XH (80 mg TBA and 8 mg E2, uncoated; 120 mg TBA and 12 mg E2, coated) was administered on arrival (XH). No implant × DOF interaction was detected (P ≥ 0.09) for any parameter. Heifers subjected to IH/200 had greater (P ≤ 0.01) final BW, ADG (P < 0.01) and G:F (P = 0.01). As DOF increased, BW increased (P ≤ 0.01) while ADG (P<0.01) and G:F (P ≤ 0.01) decreased. Hot carcass weight was greater (P = 0.01) for IH/200 compared with XH (367 vs. 361 kg, respectively). Heifers receiving XH had greater marbling scores (P = 0.02; 582 vs. 568) and BF (P = 0.01; 1.78 vs 1.70 cm) compared with IH/200 while re-implanted heifers had increased (P = 0.01) REA (86.5 vs. 83.2 cm2). Heifers implanted with XH tended to be fatter than those implanted with IH/200 having a greater (P = 0.01) proportion of USDA Prime and fewer (P<0.01) USDA Select. Increasing DOF increased (P ≤ 0.03) HCW, DP, BF, REA, marbling, and proportion of USDA Prime carcasses. Growth performance and HCW were increased for IH/200 compared with XH heifers. Increasing DOF resulted in poorer ADG and G:F but increased HCW.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.219
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 272 Managing for Efficiency and Quality Through Diet and Implant
           Strategies on Steers Selected for Superior Marbling
    • Authors: Lundy E; Beenken A, Wall P, et al.
      Pages: 131 - 132
      Abstract: A 144-day study assessed the effects of dietary energy and implant potency to determine optimum strategies for managing feed conversion (F:G) and marbling. Fifty-four Angus steers (327 ± 8 kg) from Iowa State University’s herd genetically selected for enhanced marbling were stratified by initial bodyweight (BW), ultrasound intramuscular fat, and age to a 2 × 3 factorial. Dietary treatments included: low energy (1.30 Mcal NEg/kg DM, 18% roughage level; LE) or high energy finishing ration (1.39 Mcal NEg/kg DM, 8% roughage; HE). Implant treatments (IMP; Merck) included: no implant (NOIMP), Revalor-IS (RIS), or Revalor-200 (R200) on d 0 and 74. Steers were fed via bunks capturing daily individual feed disappearance (n = 9 steers/treatment). Steers were weighed on d 0, 74, and 144 and harvested on d 145. Data were analyzed in Proc Mixed of SAS with fixed effects of diet, IMP, and interaction. No interactions were observed for feedlot performance (P > 0.17). Steers fed HE had greater average daily gain (ADG) and final BW than LE steers (P < 0.01) while LE steers had greater F:G (P = 0.04). Final BW and ADG were greatest for R200, intermediate for RIS, and lowest for NOIMP (P < 0.01). F:G was greatest for NOIMP, intermediate for RIS, and lowest for R200 (P < 0.01). Steers fed HE had increased ribeye area (P < 0.01) and tended to have greater marbling score (P = 0.06; 809) than LE steers (769). While ribeye area increased in response to implant potency (P < 0.01), marbling score was not impacted (P = 0.21) by IMP (815, 771, 782, for NOIMP, RIS, R200, respectively). Overall, steers graded 100% Choice or higher and 55% Prime. These data suggest implants, when used appropriately, improve growth performance and efficiency in beef steers without compromising carcass quality.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.221
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 273 Effect of Feedlot Implant Dose and Terminal Window Timing on Heifer
           Performance and Carcass Characteristics
    • Authors: Pyatt N; Vogel G, Brown M, et al.
      Pages: 131 - 131
      Abstract: Feedlot heifers (n = 3,778; initial BW = 310 kg; SD = 28 kg) were utilized in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (9 pens/treatment) to investigate increasing implant dose and terminal window (TW) timing on growth and carcass merit. Component with Tylan® implant dose treatments were 1. Initial TE-IH [80 mg trenbolone acetate (TBA), 8 mg estradiol (E2)] and terminal TE-H (140 mg TBA, 14 mg E2; IH/H), 2. Initial TE-IH and terminal TE-200 (200 mg TBA, 20 mg E2; IH/200), or 3. Initial TE-200 and terminal TE-200 (200/200). Heifers were fed 171 d with terminal implant administered 100 or 60 d prior to slaughter; initial implant window was inverse (71 or 111 d) to TW. Data were analyzed as a mixed model with block included as a random effect. No significant dose x TW interactions occurred for growth or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.06) therefore, main effects are presented. Terminal window treatments resulted in similar (P > 0.25) live performance. Heifers reimplanted 60 d prior to slaughter had improved (P < 0.05) marbling score and lower YG2 carcasses. Final weight, gain, HCW, yield, and LM area increased (linear; P < 0.05), while marbling score and fat thickness decreased (linear; P < 0.05) with increasing heifer implant dose. Heifers implanted with IH/200 had lower (P < 0.05) DMI compared to IH/H. IH/200 and 200/200 had improved (+2.1%; P < 0.05) efficiency compared to IH/H. HCW for 200/200 was +3.2 and 5.5 kg greater than IH/200 and IH/H, respectively. 200/200 were leaner with +7.4% YG 1&2 and -5.4% YG 4&5, but -8.5% Prime & Choice carcass compared to IH/H. Shortening TW from 100 to 60 d prior to slaughter did not alter growth performance. Increased implant dose in heifers improved gain, efficiency, HCW and yield with some quality grade considerations.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.220
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 67 Current Status and Future Prospective of the Use of Plant Bioactive
           Compounds in Dairy and Beef Cattle
    • Authors: Calsamiglia S; Rodriguez-Prado M, Fernandez-Turren G, et al.
      Pages: 132 - 132
      Abstract: In the last 20 years there has been extensive in vitro research on the effects of plant extracts and essential oils on rumen microbial fermentation. The main objectives have been to improve energy metabolism through a reduction in methane emissions and an increase in propionate production; and to improve protein metabolism by reducing proteolysis and deamination. While the positive results from in vitro studies has stimulated the release of commercial products based on blends of essential oils, there is limited in vivo evidence on the rumen fermentation and production performance effects. A literature search was conducted to select in vivo studies where information on rumen fermentation and animal performance was reported. For dairy cattle, we identified 37 studies of which 21 were adequate to test production performance. Ten studies reported increases and 3 decreases in milk yield. For beef cattle, we identified 20 studies with rumen fermentation profile and 22 with performance data. Average daily gain improved in 7 and decreased in 1 study. Only 1 out of 16 studies reported an improvement in feed efficiency. Data indicate that out of more than 500 products tested in vitro, only around 20 have been tested in vivo in different mixtures and doses. The use of statistical approaches will allow to describe the conditions, doses and responses in dairy and beef cattle performance. The search for postruminal effects offers another alternative use. Evidence for effects on the intestinal and systemic effects on the immune system and antioxidant status (i.e., capsicum, garlic, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde curcuma, catechins, anethol or pinene), and in the modulation of metabolic regulation (capsicum, cinnamaldehyde, curcuma or garlic) may open the opportunity for future applications. However, stability of the product in the GI tract, description of the mechanisms of action and the impact of these changes on performance needs to be further demonstrated.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.222
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 68 Utility of 3-NOP in Beef Production Systems
    • Authors: Beauchemin K.
      Pages: 132 - 133
      Abstract: Ruminant production systems need to embrace the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to be in sync with other sectors of society that are adopting net-zero emission goals. The major greenhouse gas from ruminants is enteric methane, which contributes 3% to 5% of total global greenhouse gases. A broad range of potential mitigation strategies has been proposed to decrease methane emissions from ruminants. One promising strategy is the investigational methane inhibitor 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP; DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Kaiseraugst, Switzerland), which when fed to beef cattle, has decreased methane yield (g methane/kg dry matter intake) by 20% to 80%, depending upon the diet composition and dose. Furthermore, the decrease in methane production persists over several months. 3-NOP reduces methanogenesis in the rumen by inactivating the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase used by archaea. 3-NOP is most effective when incorporated into a total mixed ration. Some advantages of 3-NOP are: only a small dose is required (1–2 g/d); no negative effects on digestibility, animal health or carcass characteristics; rapid degradation to compounds naturally occurring in the rumen (e.g., nitrate, nitrite and 1,3-propanediol); sustained efficacy over time; and risk assessments indicate residues in meat and milk are unlikely. However, 3-NOP is not yet approved for commercial use. Research studies in small pens indicate up to 5% improvement in gain:feed ratio for backgrounding and finishing cattle, although recently completed studies at a commercial feedlot indicate improvements in feed conversion may be less. This presentation will highlight the current findings of beef cattle research using 3-NOP to decrease methane emissions, with emphasis on its potential for decreasing the carbon footprint of beef.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.223
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSI-11 Evaluation of Electronically Controlled Cooling Pad Flush Rates on
           Heat Stressed Gilts
    • Authors: Cleaver K; Shirley L, Field T, et al.
      Pages: 133 - 133
      Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of electronically controlled cooling pads on measures of physiological responses in HS gilts. The study utilized 12 gilts randomly assigned into one of three treatment groups [Control(CN), flush 2.0 L cool water over 30 s every 4 min(F4), or flush 2.0 L over 30 s every 8 min(F8)] in a Latin Square design and replicated 12 times(2 repetitions/d over 6 d). Gilts were housed in farrowing crates and fed 1.2 kg at 0700 and 1300 h daily. On d 1 to 3(6 repetitions) the room was gradually heated from 18ºC to 32ºC, while on d 4 to 6 the room was gradually heated from 18ºC to 35ºC starting at 0730 or 1330 h. Once the temperature was achieved, cooling pads were turned on and the temperature was maintained for 2.5 h. Two baseline measurements were taken of respiration rates(RR), skin temperature through thermal imaging(IRTemp), and vaginal temperature(VTemp) before room heating began and then recorded every 20 minutes after pads were turned on. Measurements at the end of HS(PostH) and the change in values during the HS period(DIFF) were evaluated using PROC mixed of SAS. Gilts in F4 and F8 had lower RR than CN for PostH for both 32ºC and 35ºC (P< .05). DIFF in RR was less in F4 and F8 than in CN[(32ºC, P=.097) and (35ºC, P=.005)]. There was a tendency for DIFF in Vtemp at 32ºC between treatments (P=.064) but had no effect by treatment for PostH (P=.534). There was no effect in PostH and DIFF for IRTemp between treatments for 32ºC and 35ºC. PostH and DIFF for VTemp were significant at 35ºC (P=.009 and P=.001). PostH for RR was different at 35 ºC and 32 ºC (P=.0074; P=.0472) with F4 and F8 lesser and CN. In conclusion, cooling pads, regardless of flush rate, had positive impacts on physiological indicators of HS.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.224
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 145 Effect of Substandard Teats on Piglet and Sow Performance
    • Authors: Knauer M; Peppmeier Z.
      Pages: 133 - 134
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate sow teat quality in relation to subsequent reproductive throughput. Data included one cohort of 42 Landrace × Large White second parity maternal line sows at the Tidewater Research Station (Plymouth, NC). Functional teats (FUNCTIONAL) were classified pre-farrow as acceptable (ACCEPTABLE) or substandard (SUBSTANDARD). Teats were categorized as SUBSTANDARD when teat size was ≤75% of ACCEPTABLE. At day 20 of lactation, ACCEPTABLE and SUBSTANDARD were assessed for the presence of a swollen mammary gland and piglets observed nursing SUBSTANDARD were recorded (24 piglets from 15 litters). Means for FUNCTIONAL, ACCEPTABLE and SUBSTANDARD were 15.07, 13.59 and 1.48 teats, respectively. Biological dam traits included birth weight (BWT), total number born (TNB), litter size at weaning (LSW) and piglet survival (LSW/TNB). Weaning weight (WWT) was considered a trait of the nurse dam. Means for TNB, LSW, litter BWT and litter WWT were 13.4, 10.9, 17.8 kg and 57.8 kg, respectively. Data was analyzed using a chi-square test for binary traits and linear mixed models for continuous traits. At weaning, a greater (P < 0.01) proportion of ACCEPTABLE had a functional mammary gland when compared to SUBSTANDARD (76 vs. 47%). Within litters, piglets nursing SUBSTANDARD tended (em>P = 0.09) to be 158 grams lighter at weaning in comparison to ACCEPTABLE. Yet BWT of SUBSTANDARD piglets did not differ (em>P = 0.60) from piglets nursing ACCEPTABLE. Across litters, an increase in one SUBSTANDARD tended (em>P = 0.07) to reduce litter WWT by 1.74 kilograms. An increase in one SUBSTANDARD tended (em>P < 0.07) to increase piglet survival by 3.5%. Results suggest substandard teats, identified pre-farrow, are less likely to have a functional mammary gland at weaning, impair piglet quality yet may enhance piglet survival.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.225
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 146 Association Between Gilts and Sows Body Condition and Reproductive
           Performance
    • Authors: Huerta I; Fernandez P, Vier C, et al.
      Pages: 134 - 134
      Abstract: Our objective was to determine the association between gilts and sows body condition (BC) with reproductive performance. Data from 4,543 gilts (PIC Landrace, Hendersonville TN) was collected from January 2017 and July 2019 in a 5,000-sow farm located in Spain. The sow caliper was used to assess BC and was measured in units. Measurements were taken pre-farrowing at d 110 to 113 of gestation and at the day of weaning. Caliper units were used to classify gilt BC at farrowing as thin (< 12), ideal (12–15) and fat (>15). Caliper loss was determined as the caliper units at weaning minus the caliper units pre-farrowing. Response variables included total born, retention rate up to parity 3, total pigs born and total pigs weaned up to parity 3 per gilt served. Tested predictors included BC at farrowing, caliper loss during lactation, number of weaned pigs, lactation length, age at first breeding, wean-to-estrus interval. Data were analyzed with the lm and glm functions from the stats package in R, and final models were selected based on backwards elimination. There was a significant interaction between gilt BC at farrowing and caliper loss in the first lactation. Gilts in ideal condition at farrowing had greater (P < 0.05) retention rate and number of total pigs born and total pigs weaned per gilt served up to parity 3 compared to thin and fat gilts. Fat gilts that lost more than 3 caliper units during lactation had further reduction in retention rate and productivity up to parity 3 compared to fat gilts that lost up to 3 caliper units. For every unit of caliper lost during the first, second, and third lactation, subsequent total born was reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.27, 0.12, and 0.19 pigs, respectively. Results indicated that over-conditioned females are negatively associated with retention and productivity up to parity 3.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.226
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 149 Evaluation of Hammermill Tip Speed, Air Assist, and Screen Hole
           Diameter on Ground Corn Characteristics
    • Authors: Braun M; Dunmire K, Sodak M, et al.
      Pages: 134 - 135
      Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate hammermill tip speed, assistive airflow and screen hole diameter on hammermill throughput and characteristics of ground corn. Corn was ground using two Andritz hammermills (Model: 4330–6, Andritz Feed & Biofuel, Muncy,PA) measuring 1-m in diameter each equipped with 72 hammers and 300 HP motors. Treatments were arranged in a 3 × 3 × 3 factorial design with 3 tip speeds (3,774, 4,975, and 6,176 m/min), 3 screen hole diameters (2.3, 3.9 and 6.3 mm), and 3 air flow rates (1,062, 1,416, and 1,770 fan RPM). Corn was ground on 3 separate days to create 3 replications and treatments were randomized within day. Samples were collected and analyzed for moisture, particle size, and flowability characteristics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS 9.4 with grinding run serving as the experimental unit and day serving as the block. There was a 3-way interaction for standard deviation (Sgw), (linear screen hole diameter × linear hammer tip speed × linear air flow, P = 0.029). There was a screen hole diameter × hammer tip speed interaction (P < 0.001) for geometric mean particle size dgw (P < 0.001) and composite flow index (CFI) (P < 0.001). When tip speed increased from 3,774 to 6,176 m/min the rate of decrease in dgw was greater as screen hole diameter increased from 2.3 to 6.3 mm resulting in a 67, 111, and 254 µm decrease in dgw for corn ground using the 2.3, 3.9, and 6.3 mm screen hole diameter, respectively. For CFI, increasing tip speed decreased the CFI of ground corn when ground using the 3.9 and 6.3 mm screen. However, when grinding corn using the 2.3 mm screen, there was no evidence of difference in CFI when increasing tip speed. In conclusion, the air flow rate did not influence dgw of corn but hammer tip speed and screen size were altered and achieved a range of dgw from 304 to 617 µm.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.227
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 147 Effect of Within-pen Variation in Weaning Weight on the Growth
           Performance of Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Morris J; Ellis M, Shull C.
      Pages: 135 - 136
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of housing newly-weaned pigs in uniform versus mixed weight groups on nursery growth performance (5.9 ± 1.1 to 26.2 ± 2.9 kg BW). Pigs were assigned to a weaning weight (WW) quartile: Q1 (light; 4.2 ± 0.1 kg), Q2 (medium-light; 5.5 ± 0.1 kg), Q3 (medium-heavy; 6.3 ± 0.2 kg), and Q4 (heavy; 7.5 ± 0.1 kg). A RCBD was used (blocking factor = start date) with 5 treatments: Control (equal number of pigs from each quartile); Uniform Q1 (all pigs from Q1); Uniform Q2 (all pigs from Q2); Uniform Q3 (all pigs from Q3); Uniform Q4 (all pigs from Q4). There were 16 replicates and 3,503 pigs, with mixed-gender pens of 44. Pen was the experimental unit; data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (fixed effect = treatment; random effect = replicate). Overall ADG and ADFI increased (P < 0.05) according to WW quartile for the Uniform treatments, with the Control being intermediate. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments for Overall G:F. A contrast statement was used to compare Control to the mean of all 4 Uniform treatments. Compared to Control, the mean of the 4 Uniform treatments had similar (P > 0.05) overall ADG (0.44 vs. 0.44 kg, respectively) and ADFI (0.72 vs. 0.68 kg, respectively), but greater (P < 0.05) overall G:F (0.637 vs. 0.611, respectively). Comparison of pigs from each quartile within Control pens with the respective quartile in Uniform pens suggested no effect (P > 0.05) of weight quartile on ADG (respective means for Control vs Uniform: Q1 0.34 vs. 0.36 kg; Q2 0.39 vs. 0.40 kg; Q3 0.42 vs. 0.42 kg; Q4 0.47 vs. 0.45 kg). These results suggest that penning nursery pigs in uniform versus mixed weight groups had limited effect on growth performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.228
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 144 The Effect of Pre-farrow Meal Time on Onset of Parturition in Swine
    • Authors: Obermier D; Uitermarkt A, Frobose H, et al.
      Pages: 136 - 136
      Abstract: Genetic selection for increased litter size has resulted in a concomitant increase in stillborn rates in modern genetic lines. In commercial farms, pre-parturient sows are typically fed during daytime hours with a high percentage of farrowings occurring unassisted overnight. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if feeding time can influence the onset of parturition to better align with farm staff hours and increase available assistance. A total of 1,016 sows were used in a commercial farm in Nebraska, USA, to determine the impact of pre-farrow meal time on onset of parturition. Sows were assigned to either control (0700) or alternative (0200) feeding treatments upon entry to farrowing room (~d112 of gestation) and all sows received 2.23 kg daily. Daily feeding time and quantity was controlled with the use of electronic feeders (Gestal SOLO; JYGA Technologies, Inc.). Farrowings had 24 hr monitoring with traits recorded including onset (ON), duration (DUR), piglet interval (PI), and stillborn percentage (SB). The linear model function (lm) in RStudio was used for regression estimates. Alternative sows farrowed earlier (P < 0.05; 1204 vs. 1256 hr) than control-fed sows. Alternative sows also tended to have shorter DUR (P < 0.10; 6.05 vs. 6.19 hr) and narrower PI times (P < 0.10; 22.98 vs. 24.13 min) than control-fed sows. Stillborn percentage decreased (P < 0.05; 8.53 vs. 9.68%) in alternative sows compared to control-fed sows. Combining ON and DUR, we calculated farrowing completion. Alternative fed sows finished parturition earlier (P < 0.05; 1813 vs. 1929 hr) than control fed sows. These results suggest that the alternative strategy can result in earlier onsets, shorter piglet interval and farrowing duration, and a lower stillborn rate when compared to those fed the control strategy and should especially be of interest to farms without labor for 24hr farrowing assistance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.229
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 148 Effects of the Immunization Against Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone in
           Gilts and Boars Under Commercial Conditions
    • Authors: Lima G; Camargos A, Cavalcante R, et al.
      Pages: 136 - 137
      Abstract: Our objective was to determine the effects of immunocastration on growth performance, carcass characteristics and reproductive tract traits of gilts and boars. A total of 1,584 gilts and boars (PIC 337 x Camborough®, 6.11±0.29 kg, 20.64±0.81 days of age) were blocked by weaning group, and the gilt pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments, which consisted of: T1) non-immunocastrated gilts, T2) immunocastrated gilts; whereas the boar pens were alloted to: T3) immunocastrated barrows. There were a total of 12 pens per treatment for T1 and T2, and 24 pens per treatment for T3, with 33 pigs per pen. The immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (administrated with Vivax®, Zoetis, São Paulo, SP, Brazil) was given at 108±1.16 and 143±1.16 days of age (21 days before harvest). Growth performance was assessed from day 143 of age until harvest. Performance data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with pen as the experimental unit, and carcass and reproductive tract data were analyzed with pig as the experimental unit. Initial (day 143) and final (day 164) body weights were greater (P < 0.05) for T3 than T1 or T2, with no evidence for differences between T1 and T2 (P > 0.05). There were no evidence for treatment differences (P > 0.05) for average daily gain and feed efficiency. Average daily feed intake was reduced (P < 0.05) for T1 compared to T2 or T3. Hot carcass weight and lean content were greater (P < 0.05) and backfat thickness was thinner (P < 0.05) for T3 compared to T1 or T2, but no evidence for treatment differences (P > 0.05) were observed for loin depth. The ovary weights and the percentage of ovulatory follicles were greater (P < 0.05) for T1 compared to T2. Results of this study show no evidence for differences for immunocastration on growth performance of gilts or barrows. However, immunocastration influenced gilts’ reproductive tract traits.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.230
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 241 Evaluation of a DFM and OA, Alone or in Combination, on Sow
           Reproductive and Litter Growth Performance
    • Authors: Thayer M; Richert J, Rulon K, et al.
      Pages: 137 - 138
      Abstract: Forty-seven sows and their progeny were used to determine if feeding gestating and lactating sows a Bacillus licheniformis direct-fed microbial (DFM), an organic acid blend of medium chain and short chain fatty acids (OA), or in combination improves sow lactation feed and water intake, litter growth, and subsequent reproductive performance. On approximately d80 of gestation, sows were fed one of four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial design: 1) gestation control (CON; 0.55% SID Lysine), 2) CON with DFM (1.6x109 CFU/kg of complete feed), 3) CON with 0.4% OA, 4) CON with both DFM and OA. Dietary treatments were also fed throughout lactation (1.00% SID Lysine) starting on approximately d112 of gestation when sows entered farrowing facility. There was a tendency (P = 0.079) for DFM to decrease the amount of sow body weight loss in lactation by approximately 6% compared to sows not consuming the DFM, likely related to DFM sows numerically (P = 0.124) consuming 8.4% more feed during d7-14 of lactation. Sows fed the OA diets had fewer mummies/litter (P = 0.038) compared to diets not containing OA. Sows fed diets with the DFM gave birth to lighter pigs born alive (P = 0.003) compared to non-DFM fed sows, and a tendency for an interaction (P = 0.092) existed where feeding OA+DFM lessened the decrease in born alive BW. There was an interaction tendency (P = 0.133) where sows fed DFM returned to estrus 22 hours sooner than CON, but only 8 hours sooner when sows were fed the OA+DFM diet. In conclusion, feeding a Bacillus licheniformis DFM to sows may decrease pig born alive weight but reduce sow BW loss through 6.4% more lactation feed intake, quickening the return to estrus. Feeding the OA alone or in combination did not improve sow reproductive and litter growth performance in this study, and may require a larger sample size.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.231
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 236 Performance and Antibiotic Use of Piglets Vaccinated with an E. coli
           F4/F18 Vaccination for the Prevention of F18-ETEC Post-weaning Diarrhea
    • Authors: Vangroenweghe F; Van Poucke A, Defoort P.
      Pages: 138 - 138
      Abstract: Post-weaning Escherichia coli diarrhea (PWD) remains a major cause of economic losses for the pig industry. PWD, caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), typically provokes mild to severe watery diarrhea between 5 and 10 days after weaning. Recently, an oral live bivalent E. coli F4/F18 vaccine (Coliprotec® F4/F18; Elanco) is available on the European market, which reduces the impact of PWD provoked by F4-ETEC and F18-ETEC. The objective was to compare technical results of E. coli F4/F18 vaccination with previous standard therapeutic approach under field conditions. A 1100-sow farm with diagnosed problems of PWD due to F18-ETEC was selected. Control piglets received the standard treatment protocol with antimicrobials during the post-weaning phase. Vaccinated piglets were immunized at 18 days with the oral live bivalent E. coli F4/ F18 vaccine. At weaning, no standard group medication (ZnO and antibiotics) was applied for prevention of PWD. Piglets were fed a commercial dry feed. Several performance parameters were collected: weight at d0-47, ADWG, ADFI, FCR, TI100 and mortality. Statistical analysis was performed with JMP 14.0 – comparison of means. Oral E. coli F4/F18 vaccination significantly reduced the mortality rate (3.56% to 1.67%; P< 0.05) and TI100 (10 to 0 days; P< 0.05). All other performance parameters (ADWG, ADFI and FCR) were at the same level compared to pre-vaccination. Live E. coli F4/F18 vaccination against PWD resulted in similar technical performance parameters, in combination with a significant reduction in the mortality and medication use. In conclusion, control of PWD through vaccination is a good option in order to prevent piglets from the negative clinical outcomes of F18-ETEC infection during the post-weaning period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.232
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 240 Research Model of Colostrum Intake to Study Effect of Colostrum
           Bioactive Factors on Piglets Development
    • Authors: Senn L; Suarez-Trujillo A, Teeple K, et al.
      Pages: 138 - 139
      Abstract: Swine colostrum intake within the first 24 hours after birth plays a large role in determining survivability, feed efficiency, growth, and fertility. This study tested the effects of feeding three doses of a homogeneous colostrum sample on BW over 24h, RT, immunocrit, and growth through PND7. Three female piglets were selected from eight litters at birth (n = 24 piglets total; n = 3/liter), and bottle-fed 10% (COL10, n = 8), 15% (COL15, n = 8) or 20% (COL20, n = 8) BW colostrum over 24h. Piglet birth weights were similar between treatments (P = 0.838). Piglets were weighed, RT recorded and immunocrit measured at 24h postnatal, then returned to their litter of origin. BW was recorded daily through PND7. At 24h, COL20 had an ADG of 136.3g, COL15 86.3g, and COL10 8.8g, and an average RT of 39.30⁰C, 38.84⁰C and 38.81⁰C respectively. Immunocrit levels varied from 0.028, 0.024 and 0.017 at 24h. SAS MIXED procedure was used to perform statistical analysis. Post-hoc analysis was performed using Tukey’s test. Colostrum dose had an effect on 24h weight gain (P < 0.001), RT (P = 0.007), immunocrit (P = 0.026), and growth through PND7 (P < 0.05). Treatment, day and interaction were determined as main effects of BW and ADG through PND7. Post-hoc analysis showed COL20 had higher ADG (136.3±54.8g), RT (39.30±0.11°C) and immunocrit (0.028±0.010) at 24h than COL10 (ADG 8.8±24.9g, RT 38.81±0.26°C, immunocrit 0.017±0.004). COL15 ADG (86.3±85.2g) differed from COL10 (P < 0.001), and RT (38.84±0.45) differed from COL20 (P = 0.017). There was no statistical difference in ADG between groups through PND7 (P = 0.874). One piglet within each treatment was crushed before PND7. This model permits controlled studies intended to understand the level of 24h colostrum intake on piglet growth and development using standardized, homogenous colostrum doses.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.233
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 242 Evaluation of a DFM and OA, Alone or in Combination, on Sow
           Offspring’s Nursery Growth Performance
    • Authors: Thayer M; Richert J, Rulon K, et al.
      Pages: 139 - 139
      Abstract: Progeny from sows fed diets containing a Bacillus licheniformis direct-fed microbial (DFM), an organic acid blend of medium and short chain fatty acids (OA), DFM+OA, or a control (CON) diet from d80 of gestation until weaning were used to determine if feeding CON, DFM, OA, or DFM+OA to the dam and/or progeny post-weaning improved nursery growth performance. Weaned pigs from 47 dams (n = 384, Initial BW=6.15 kg) were blocked by initial BW and sex and allotted (6 pigs/pen, 8 pens/treatment) to one of 8 nursery treatments. Pigs from CON sows were fed a negative (NC; no antibiotics, pharmacological Zn or Cu) or positive [PC; Neo-Terramycin phases 1 and 2 (827 and 551 ppm) and Carbadox phase 3 (55 ppm)] control diet. Pigs from sows fed DFM, OA, or DFM+OA were fed the NC diet or a diet representative of their dam. Diets with DFM contained 1.6x109 CFU/kg DFM and diets with OA contained 0.5, 0.4, and 0.3% OA in phases 1–3, respectively. Weaning weight was used as a covariate for nursery performance. For all phases and overall, PC fed pigs had greater ADG, ADFI, and G:F (P < 0.05). Feeding DFM or OA in sow diets improved (interaction; P< 0.042) nursery pig G:F, but DFM+OA offspring had no improvement for d7–14, 0–14, and 0–21 G:F. Feeding DFM or OA to sows and their progeny decreased ADFI (interaction; P < 0.042) but improved G:F (interaction; P < 0.028) for d7–14 and 0–14 with DFM+OA having no improvement above CON. For d14–21 and 0–21, feeding DFM or OA to sows and their progeny decreased ADFI whereas DFM+OA increased ADFI above CON (interaction; P < 0.019). In conclusion, feeding DFM or OA to sows or their offspring may improve nursery feed efficiency and feeding DFM+OA diet to sows and their progeny may increase ADFI late in the nursery period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.234
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 237 Stable Performance with Reduced Antibiotic Use in Piglets Vaccinated
           with an E. coli F4/F18 Vaccine for the Prevention of F18-ETEC Post-weaning
           Diarrhea
    • Authors: Vangroenweghe F.
      Pages: 139 - 140
      Abstract: Post-weaning Escherichia coli diarrhea (PWD) remains a major cause of economic losses for the pig industry. PWD, caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), typically provokes mild to severe watery diarrhea between 5–10 days after weaning. Recently, an oral live bivalent E. coli F4/F18 vaccine (Coliprotec® F4/F18; Elanco) was approved on the European market, which reduces the impact of PWD provoked by F4-ETEC and F18-ETEC. The objective was to compare technical results and antibiotic use following E. coli F4/F18 vaccination with previous standard therapeutic approach under field conditions. A 1600-sow farm (weaning at 26 days) with diagnosed problems of PWD due to F18-ETEC was selected. Piglets were vaccinated at 21 days with the oral live bivalent E. coli F4/F18 vaccine. At weaning, no standard group medication (ZnO and antibiotics) was applied for prevention of PWD. Several performance parameters were collected: treatment incidence (TI100), mortality and days in nursery. Statistical analysis was performed using JMP 14.0 – comparison of means. Oral E. coli F4/F18 vaccination significantly reduced TI100 (7 ± 2 days to 0 ± 1 days; P < 0.05). Mortality rate remained stable (2.05% in Control to 1.96% in Vaccinated group; P < 0.05). Days in nursery (40 ± 3 days) remained at the same level compared to pre-vaccination. The results show that live E. coli F4/F18 vaccination against PWD has led to similar technical performance parameters and mortality, in combination with a significant reduction in medication use. In conclusion, control of PWD through oral vaccination is a successful option in order to prevent piglets from the negative clinical outcomes of F18-ETEC infection during the post-weaning period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.235
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 238 Vaccination with an E. coli F4/F18 Vaccine for the Prevention of
           F4-ETEC Post-weaning Diarrhea Resulted in Reduced Post-weaning Mortality
           and Antibiotic Use
    • Authors: Vangroenweghe F.
      Pages: 140 - 140
      Abstract: Post-weaning Escherichia coli diarrhea (PWD) remains a major cause of economic losses for the pig industry. PWD, caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), typically provokes mild to severe watery diarrhea between 5–10 days after weaning, which may result in mortality. Most common adhesins in ETEC are F4 and F18 fimbriae. Therapy to combat PWD typically consists of antibiotic treatment in combination with ZnO (3,000 ppm). Recently, an oral live bivalent E. coli F4/F18 vaccine (Coliprotec® F4/F18; Elanco) was approved on the European market, which reduces the impact of PWD provoked by F4-ETEC and F18-ETEC. The objective was to evaluate mortality and antibiotic use following E. coli F4/F18 vaccination under field conditions. A 160-sow farm (weaning at 26 days) with diagnosed problems of PWD due to F4-ETEC was selected. Piglets were vaccinated at 21 days with the oral live bivalent E. coli F4/F18 vaccine. At weaning, no standard group medication (ZnO and antibiotics) was applied for prevention of PWD. Several performance parameters were collected: treatment incidence (TI100), mortality and days in nursery. Vaccination (n = 3 groups) was compared to a historical control (n = 3 groups) Oral E. coli F4/F18 vaccination significantly reduced TI100 (18.6 ± 6.3 days to 2.4 ± 1.9 days; P < 0.05) due to the reduction in days of antimicrobial group treatment. Mortality rate significantly reduced (11.2 ± 2.6% in control to 4.5 ± 1.5% in vaccinated group; P < 0.05) following vaccination. Days in nursery (48.5 ± 0.3 days) remained constant throughout the trial. The results show that live E. coli F4/F18 vaccination against PWD has significantly impacted mortality, in combination with a reduction in medication use. In conclusion, control of PWD through oral vaccination is a successful option in order to prevent piglets from the negative clinical outcomes of F18-ETEC infection during the post-weaning period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.236
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 239 Body Weight and Growth in Normal Cyclic and Acyclic Gilts
    • Authors: Lents C; Nonneman D.
      Pages: 140 - 141
      Abstract: Anestrus, or failure to express estrus during boar exposure, is commonly observed in replacement gilts, and results primarily from either delayed onset of puberty (prepubertal; PP) or cyclic ovulations without behavioral estrus (behavioral anestrus; BA). Gilts born between 2007 and 2018 at USMARC were observed for age at puberty between 160 and 240 days of age. Mature boars were placed in an alleyway pen while a herdsman observed gilts for standing lordosis in response to the back pressure test. Gilts failing to be observed in estrus by 240 days of age were slaughtered (250.4 ± 0.3 days of age) and reproductive tracts recovered to determine if gilts had ovulated. Gilts were defined as PP (n = 606), BA (n = 649), or Peripubertal (n = 118; PP with large preovulatory follicles on the ovary). There were 96 age-matched, cyclic contemporary gilts included as cyclic control gilts. Body weights were recorded at birth, weaning, 8 weeks, and 21 weeks of age with hot carcass weight (HCW) recorded at slaughter. The objective was to retrospectively determine if growth and HCW differed between these groups. Data were analyzed as a mixed ANOVA using group as a fixed effect with sire and farrowing group to which the gilt was born as random effects. Birth weight, weaning weight, ADG at weaning, and weight at 8 weeks did not differ between groups (P > 0.16). The BA gilts had greater growth rate (weight per day of pig age at 21 weeks; P < 0.02) and HCW (P < 0.0001) than PP and Peripubertal gilts, which also had smaller HCW than control gilts. Some cyclic control gilts (7.3%) that displayed estrous behavior had a prepubertal reproductive tract with no ovulatory activity at slaughter. Results indicated that gilts exhibiting delayed puberty grow slower late in development and during boar exposure. Estrus without ovulation in replacement gilts may be more prevalent than assumed. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.237
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 15 Precision Pig Nutrition: Unlocking the Potential Through Digital Data
           Collection
    • Authors: Connolly A.
      Pages: 141 - 141
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.239
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 14 Opening the Black Box of Fertility Prediction
    • Authors: Kerns K.
      Pages: 141 - 142
      Abstract: Analysis of the U.S. swine herd shows variation in pregnancy rate is more attributable to male-factor subfertility than the dam. To date, a limited degree of correlations has been observed between conventional semen analysis parameters and actual fertility after standard quality cutoffs are met. Thus, a clear ability to predict male-factor fertility is lacking. Knowledge of what makes fertilization competent spermatozoa has been long sought after for centuries. It was only in the last half-century that we understood spermatozoa undergo a biological process after ejaculation to acquire the capacity to fertilize. Since then, work has been done to elucidate the molecular pathways involved in sperm capacitation. Recent technological advances in flow cytometry, namely image-based flow cytometry, allows for high-throughput, single-cell phenotyping. Single-cell phenotyping with biomarkers reflecting significant sperm capacitation events, mitochondrial status, cell health, and more, allows multi-million bioimage data sets to be easily attained. These datasets can then be analyzed utilizing machine and deep learning analytic methods and correlated with single sire field fertility data to open the black box of boar fertility prediction. Our findings establish a new paradigm in sperm function and pave the way for accurate fertility prediction in future precision agriculture applications. This work was supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) award number 2019-67012-29714.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.240
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 16 What’s a Connected Barn and How Do We Use It'
    • Authors: Ramirez B.
      Pages: 141 - 141
      Abstract: Internet enabled swine facilities with smart controllers are forging the future directions of swine management, data analytics, and research. Today’s smart controllers have capabilities far beyond just ventilation operation, they are sophisticated data acquisition and control systems with cloud-based platforms for data aggregation and visualization. This technology has promoted the concept of a connected barn – a facility with autonomous, real-time data capture, analysis, and decision making. Connected barns can monitor indoor environmental conditions, personnel traffic, ventilation function, power consumption, bin weights, weather, refrigerators, etc. This new abundance of customizable measurement options sampled at a high-resolution will fundamentally change swine production. There is often a general lack of information related to conditions/events the pigs experience inside a barn that impact short-/long-term productivity and provide context for interpreting conventional data. Information is now superimposable with other data streams and new relationships between, for example, pig activity, environment, feed intake, daily gain, water consumption, etc. can be discovered. This will enable new avenues in nutrition, health, genetics, technology, husbandry, and engineering because a unified data stream, across numerous spaces is possible. Connected barns provide the link between pigs, data, and their environment. While opportunities are limitless, several key challenges need addressing: representativeness and accuracy of data; diligent management of advanced technology; and cultivation of transdisciplinary knowledge to understand limitations and make thoughtful inquiries. A connected barn is no longer a future concept, but a tangible production system ripe with a myriad of opportunities that will shape the course of animal production.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.238
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 13 Using Cameras to Predict Estrus and Ovulation
    • Authors: Shull C.
      Pages: 142 - 142
      Abstract: One of the leading challenges facing the swine industry in recent years that will likely continue has been assembling a talented work force that can consistently execute farm protocols. Talented labor is difficult to find and animal husbandry is becoming a lost art. One production task that particularly requires skill is timely detection of estrus in gilts and sows. While recruiting and training talented people must remain a priority, it is important to pursue solving these problems such as estrus detection by other means, and technology utilization offers a viable path forward. Camera technologies have the potential to not only reduce the need for skilled labor to assess signs of estrus, but improve the ability to inseminate in a timely manner prior to ovulation, which could lead to improved fertility and a reduction in total sperm per mating. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the use of infrared thermal cameras for detecting body surface temperature changes in sows. Variations in anatomical location, external ambient temperature, skin moisture, and camera technology used all have the potential to impact the applicability of those measurements. There is some evidence in the literature that vulva surface temperature or, perhaps more interesting, its relationship with other anatomical body surface locations may offer predictability of the onset of estrus and warrants additional research. It is also generally accepted that sow behavior and activity level changes, especially in the presence of boars, during the onset of estrus. Camera technologies have the ability to continuously monitor changes in temperature and behavior and offer exciting opportunities for future development.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.241
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 12 Equipping Humans--Optimizing Performance: The Role of Technology in
           Human Capital
    • Authors: Hoek J; Miller M.
      Pages: 142 - 143
      Abstract: Human capital influences 100% of the production and business performance achieved in swine production. “Five years from now 35% of the of important workforce skills will have changed.” according to Digital Transformation 1. To meet the coming digital transformation in swine production, the need for innovative human capital strategies has never been greater. Boessen, Artz, and Schutlz 2 found labor is a critical issue for the industry. High performing swine farms achieve it because of their people. Swan 3 noted that “pigs do not achieve excellence; people achieve excellence through their pigs.” Agriculture has been slow to adapt soft skill strategies due to the ambiguity in the value proposition. Cost metrics of turnover, poor performance, and safety are traditionally buried within the P&L under labor with labor impacting 100% of the value chain in pig and pork production. The need to analyze the human impact has never been more crucial, and this led to the 2019 Labor intel Study by sponsors and Summit SmartFarms. Schmidt and Hunter‍ 4 found that the use of general mental ability testing improves the predictability and utility of hiring the right person. The increased validity can be as high as 20% vs. traditional means of recruitment. Assessments have proven to provide intelligence on humans for many years through the principles of industrial psychology. Platforms like Cloverleaf and the Organizational Cultural Inventory have harnessed all the attributes of digital transformation to provide human intelligence for predictive and prescriptive human optimization. Pigmanship training has accelerated the value of assessments through precision training. The next step is to integrate these platforms into an analysis tool that combines production, human resource, and assessment data to quantify the value of organizational health.1. Digital Transformation by Thomas Siebel Rosetta Books 2 National Pork Board. Employee Compensation and HR Practices in Pork Production.3 Swan, M.K. Swine Human Resources: Managing Employees. 4 Schmidt FL, Hunter JE. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.242
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 152 Body Weight Standardized Cull Sow Non-edible Trim Loss Evaluation
    • Authors: Taylor W; Humphrey D, Peyer B, et al.
      Pages: 143 - 143
      Abstract: Non-edible trim loss has been shown to reduce value in market hogs (Johnson et al., 2013). Non-edible trim loss from pork carcasses results from; adhesions, arthritis, and abscess (Keenlislide, 2005). Sow harvest facilities often encounter sow carcasses having one or more non-edible trim loss factors (Knauer, 2007). Non-edible trim loss observed repeatedly in high levels will result in carcass discounts to the seller. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of non-edible trim loss from cull sow carcasses. Data were collected as a convenience sample from a Midwestern cull-sow harvest facility. This facility focuses on harvesting high quality animals and harvesting “lean” or “boner” sows occurs relatively infrequently. For this study, trim was expressed as a percentage of carcass weight. At this harvest facility all carcasses have some non-edible trim loss. The average total pre-trim carcass weight was 149 kgs (n = 87). The relative percentage of non-edible trim loss was sorted into quartiles. Based on percent trim and average carcass weight the quartiles were classified as 1st Qu. = normal trim (0.5% – 1.2%, n = 22), 2nd Qu. = low trim (1.2% – 2.1%, n =20), 3rd Qu. = medium trim (2.1% – 3.4%, n = 21), and 4th Qu. = high trim (3.4% – 20.9%, n = 22). A 5-year average cull sow price (USDA, ERS) was utilized to calculate the economic loss represented from each quartile of percentage trim. Normal trim, low trim and medium trim showed to have low economic impact. High trim loss had an average economic loss of $9.37 (s.d. = 6.9) on a standardized basis. Substantial economic losses are observed when high trim is measured. Additional work is needed in identifying significant trim loss prior to harvest.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.243
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 155 Opportunities and Challenges of Teaching Laboratory Content of a Swine
           Discipline-focused Course with Limited Swine Access
    • Authors: Austin A; Wiegert J.
      Pages: 143 - 144
      Abstract: In spring semester, 2020, ANSC 412: Swine Production and Management (4 credits, lecture and laboratory) was offered in the Department of Animal Science at Texas A&M University following a period of nonappearance in the curriculum. Simultaneously, planned renovation of the campus swine teaching farm required depopulation of the existing herd. Hence, animal access for course laboratories was restricted for the 2020 spring and fall semesters. The objective is to present strategies to achieve effective laboratory learning objectives with limited livestock access. Average course enrollment in 2020 spring and fall semesters was 11 students of junior and senior standing. The course laboratory was held for two hours weekly for fifteen weeks. COVID-19 interruption of the spring semester, and arrival of pigs to the campus swine teaching farm in the fall semester, necessitated creation of ten equivalent laboratory sessions per semester. Example laboratory sessions include: panels with swine industry professionals, Pork Quality Assurance version 4.0 certification, virtual farm tours, evaluating genetic merit with National Swine Registry Swine Testing and Genetic Evaluation System EPD data and indexes, understanding least-cost diet formulation with diet formulation software, creating and implementing a Secure Pork Supply enhanced biosecurity plan for the campus swine farm, and multiple case study models of troubleshooting reproductive deficiencies with the US Pork Center of Excellence National Swine Reproduction Guide. Laboratory session execution facilitated achievement of TAMU Department of Animal Science programmatic learning outcomes, specifically: understanding animal breeding programs, animal husbandry, reproductive management, and nutrient conversion, and assessing business models and application of animal management strategies. In future semesters with unrestricted swine access for teaching, live-animal handling will be emphasized in the syllabus, yet preservation of effective classroom-based laboratories will persist. These methods have value for instructors operating without campus swine resources and those whose laboratory content has been impacted by COVID-19 disruption.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.244
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 150 A Factorial Approach to Estimate Energy Requirements and Feeding
           Levels for Boars in Studs
    • Authors: Lu N; Kleve-Feld M, Wilson M, et al.
      Pages: 144 - 144
      Abstract: Boars are a source of genetic improvement and influence farrowing rate and litter size. Overfeeding boars increases incidence of feet and leg problems and reduces libido, whereas underfeeding boars may decrease semen output and libido. To help boar stud personnel estimate the energy requirements and base feeding levels, an interactive web application named PIC Optimum Boar Feeding Tool has been developed. The application encompasses three components, including an input interface using dynamic models to estimate energy requirement, an output interface displaying recommended feeding program, and functional modules facilitating the ease of use. The input interface requests users to provide the start and final weight of boars in isolation, isolation length, boar stud room temperature, number of collections per week, and dietary energy level. The daily energy requirement (Mcal of ME/day) is calculated using the following energy-demanding factors: 1) maintenance, 0.1823 × (body weight, kg)0.665; 2) weight gain, 0.00489 × (average daily gain, kg/d); 3) each degree below 17°C for individually penned boars on slatted floors, 0.00382 × (body weight, kg)0.75; 4) mating activity, 0.0043 × (body weight, kg)0.75; and 5) sperm production, 0.1. These factors and the user-defined inputs including dietary energy, are used to calculate a daily feeding amount. The users also have the option to calculate the recommended feeding level for boars of specified body weight. Other functional modules include a flank-to-flank measurement tool that estimates boar body weight and customized downloadable nutrient specifications. This web application incorporates a spectrum of biological, nutritional, and management aspects to allow boar stud personnel to easily make boar feeding decisions.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.245
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 151 A Web Application to Establish Customized Feeding Program and Nutrient
           Specifications for Highly Prolific Sows
    • Authors: Jerez-Bogota K; Ramirez-Camba C, Navales R, et al.
      Pages: 144 - 145
      Abstract: A web application was developed to provide a dynamic feeding program for PIC maternal dam lines during gilt development, gestation, peri-partum, lactation and wean-to-service interval (WSI). These recommendations for each production phase are based on peer-reviewed large-scale commercial research. The tool was developed using the Shiny package of R and includes CSS themes, html widgets, and JavaScript actions. Inputs, include pigs weaned per sow per year (PWSY), farrowing rate (FR), total born (TB), replacement rate, the existing feeding program of the breeding herd and the diet energy and standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) levels. Outputs include the feeding program, nutrient specifications and estimates of economic opportunity and performance improvement. The feeding program is based on user-defined energy and SID Lys levels for the gestation and lactation diets and the PIC nutrient recommendations for the breeding herd. Correspondingly, recommended specifications of other nutrients in the diets are provided and calculated based on the recommended feeding program. The tool provides economic and productivity opportunity analysis by comparing the PIC recommendations and the current user feeding programs. Improvement in PWSY is driven by the energy intake impact on caliper score during breeding and farrowing and consequently to FR and TB. This web application can be used by nutritionists and production managers to compare their current feeding practices to PIC recommendations for highly prolific sows. This will aid in their decision-making process regarding nutrition and feeding programs considering productivity and profitability outcomes.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.246
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 153 Characteristics of Animal Science Graduate Students Associated with
           Their Professional Interest in Statistics and Career Path
    • Authors: Serão N; Petry A, Sanglard L, et al.
      Pages: 145 - 145
      Abstract: Statistical training is a major component in the education of animal science graduate students (ASGS). Although most graduate courses in animal science require ASGS to take credits in statistics courses, ASGS differ on their educational and professional interest in statistics. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify associations between the overall graduate and statistical training of ASGS with the statistical interest related to their professional career path. Data from a nationwide statistical training survey was used and included information on 381 ASGS from 42 universities. Analyses focused on identifying overall graduate and statistical training factors associated with ASGS’s answers to the following questions: “Gives statistical advices to lab peers” (No/Yes), “Gives statistical advices to others outside the lab” (No/Yes), “Desired career path after graduation” (Academia/Industry/Other), and “Desire to be involved in statistical analysis in desired career path” (No/Somewhat/Yes). Data were analyzed using logistic regression model including 11 fixed effects, such as degree being pursued (MS/PhD), years of graduate education (covariate), previous professional experience (No/Yes), preferred stats software (SAS/R/SAS and R/Other), etc. There were significant associations (P < 0.05) for all four analyses. ASGS were more likely to give statistical advice to lab peers as they had more years of graduate education [odds-ratio (OR)=1.33], had additional training in statistics (OR=1.92), and had analyzed their own dataset (OR=4.46). ASGS with and without previous professional experience had greater desire to go to industry (OR=1.3) and academia (OR=1.23), respectively. ASGS interested in being involved in statistics in their future career had greater years of graduate education (OR=1.31) and credits in stats courses (OR=1.31), had previously completed a graduate degree (OR=1.49), had previous research experience (OR=1.5), and had additional training in statistics (OR=1.54). These results indicate that a variety of experiences prior to and during graduate ASGS education are associated with their interest in statistics.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.247
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 154 Efficacy of a Virtual Operation Main Street in Changing Perceptions of
           Pork Production
    • Authors: Tesch L; Samuel R, Eidson A, et al.
      Pages: 145 - 146
      Abstract: The objective of the virtual Operation Main Street (OMS) program was to provide a live, interactive experience to educate audiences anywhere in the world about modern pork production. National Pork Board’s OMS began in 2004 to train pork producers to share their stories to improve the image of pig farming. Since its inception, they have trained >1,300 producers influencing >240,000 people However, there are locations that don’t have access to OMS speakers, and because presenters use slides, it doesn’t provide a real-time experience of being in the barn. Therefore, the virtual OMS was developed through a collaborative effort between the National Pork Board, Eidson & Partners, and South Dakota State University (SDSU). After a formal interview process, students participate in a 2-day OMS training. Students are trained to cover a set of defined speaking points, but discuss them in their own words. Each live tour is conducted in the SDSU Swine Unit, and is done entirely by the student on her/his own cellphone. Tours last approximately 10 minutes, with the audience asking questions at any time through a moderator at the venue. The first virtual tour was given on December 7, 2017, and since then there have been a total of 133 tours impacting 24,558 people. Audiences include Veterinary Colleges, high schools, the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, and the Association of Nutrition and Foodservice Professionals. In the last year, 51 tours were given to 1,678 people in 22 different states. Respondents to a Google survey offered at the end of every virtual tour stated the presentation and tour resulted in a >60% increase in a positive opinion of the pork industry. Virtual OMS is an impactful method to dispel myths about modern pig farming, and creates a personal connection between the faces of pork production and consumers.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.248
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 46 Effects of Implants, Clover, and Fescue Variety on Stocker Steers
    • Authors: Buessing Z; Farney J.
      Pages: 146 - 146
      Abstract: Fescue thrives due to a symbiotic relationship with a fungus called endophyte. Endophyte releases ergot toxins leading to metabolic issues, such as vasoconstriction, rough hair coats and poor cattle gains. Developments have occurred to remove or limit the toxins. The objective of this project was to identify management practices while grazing fescue to improve production and toxicity issues. Sixty-four growing steers (283 ± 14 kg BW) were used in a split-plot experiment, where the whole plot was pasture and the split plot was implants. Whole plot treatment was a 4 x 2 factorial with four levels of fescue (High Endophyte, Low Endophyte, Novel, Endophyte Free) and two levels of legume (Legumes or No Legumes). Split plot included four implant levels (No Implant, Synovex One Grass, Revalor-G, Ralgro). Data collected were weights, hair coat scores, hair length, rectal temperature (every 28d) and ultrasound carcass characteristics last day on pasture. Data were analyzed using the Glimmix Procedure of SAS (v. 9.4, Cary, NC). Steers on high endophyte had the lowest ADG, longest hair, and highest temperature as compared to steers on all other fescue types (P < 0.05). The gain differentiation was observed beginning at D56 through the end of the study (P < 0.05). Overall ADG was not impacted by addition of legume nor implant type (P > 0.10). Steers that were not implanted had a longer hair length throughout many measurement dates (P < 0.05). Steers grazing pastures with legume tended (P < 0.10) to have a higher ultrasound measured marbling score and less muscle depth. This study found that the best management strategy for fescue toxicity is to use non-endophyte or non-toxic varieties of fescue pasture. Contrary to previous research, the addition of implants and legumes for this project showed no improvement in cattle gains.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.249
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 44 Effects of Decreasing Corn Particle Size on Metabolizable Energy and
           Proportions of Fecal Volatile Fatty Acids in Gestating Sows
    • Authors: Kort R; Nichols G, Evans C, et al.
      Pages: 146 - 147
      Abstract: The objective of the first experiment was to determine the effects of corn particle size on the diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of protein (CP), digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and N-corrected ME (AMEn) in addition to estimating the ME of corn in gestating sows. A total of 27 sows, during the second phase of gestation, were fed a common diet manufactured with corn ground to one of 3 target particle sizes (dgw): 400, 800, or 1200 µm. Titanium dioxide (0.25%) was included in the diet as an indigestible marker for digestibility calculations. Sows were fed experimental diets for 7 days to allow for diet adaptation before a 2-day collection period of urine and fecal samples. Reducing dgw of corn from 1,200 to 400 µm increased (linear, P < 0.01) ATTD CP and GE, DE, ME, AMEn and calculated ME of corn. The objective of the second experiment was to determine the effects of corn particle size on the total concentration and molar proportions of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the feces of gestating sows. A total of 27 sows were fed treatments similar to Exp. 1 from day 61 to 82 of gestation. On day-82 and 83 of gestation, 2 fecal grab samples were collected for VFA analyses. Sows fed diets with decreasing corn dgw had increased (quadratic, P = 0.021) fecal acetic acid proportions, and decreased propionic (quadratic, P = 0.019) and valeric acid (P = 0.005). In conclusion, for every 100 µm decrease in corn dgw from 1,200 to 400 µm, corn ME value increased by 28.6 kcal/kg. Additionally, decreasing corn particle size led to an increase in the proportion of acetic acid and a decrease in propionic and valeric acid in fecal samples of gestating sows.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.250
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 43 Cow Performance and Lameness Are Affected by Housing in Drylots vs
           Pasture During the Summer
    • Authors: Hofer L; Myerscough M, Chapple W, et al.
      Pages: 147 - 148
      Abstract: The objective was to compare the performance of cows housed in drylots or on pasture. Spring-calving, Simmental × Angus cow-calf pairs (n = 108; 77 ± 18 days postpartum) were stratified by age, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), calving date, and calf sex. Cows were allotted into six groups which were randomly assigned to drylot or pasture. Drylot cows were limit-fed a ration consisting of corn silage, dried distillers grain, corn stalks, cracked corn, and a corn-based supplement to meet protein and energy requirements. Cows on pasture were rotationally grazed with access to free-choice mineral. Cows were artificially inseminated on day 0. Cow BW, BCS, hair coat scores, locomotion scores, and lameness treatments were evaluated throughout the 110-day experiment. Milk production and composition were evaluated on day 56. Data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX (binary data) procedures of SAS. Artificial insemination and overall pregnancy rates did not differ (P ≥ 0.79) between groups. Drylot cows were 22 and 51 kg heavier (P ≤ 0.02) than pasture cows on days 83 and 110, respectively. Drylot cow BCS was greater (P = 0.03) on day 110. Hair coat scores were more desirable (P = 0.03) in drylot cows than pasture cows on day 110. Drylot cows had greater (P = 0.04) milk production than pasture cows. Pasture cows had greater (P ≤ 0.03) milk protein content and milk urea nitrogen. Although locomotion scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.45) on days 0 and 34, they were less desirable (P = 0.02) for the drylot cows on day 110. A greater (P = 0.02) percentage of drylot cows (33%) were treated for lameness than pasture cows (7%). Housing cows in drylots increased BW, BCS, and milk production, but resulted in poorer locomotion scores and increased lameness treatments.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.251
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 56 The Effect of a Developmental Bacillus Direct-fed Microbial on Nursery
           Pig Growth Performance and Health
    • Authors: Rulon K; Richert J, Thayer M, et al.
      Pages: 148 - 148
      Abstract: A developmental Bacillus based direct-fed microbial (DFM) was added to nursery pig diets to evaluate the effect on growth and health in two 35-d randomized complete block design experiments blocked on initial BW and sex. Experiment 1 used 315 weaned pigs (20.1 d of age; 6.11 kg initial BW) allotted to one of three diets: 1) Negative Control (NC; no antibiotics but with pharmacological Zn or Cu), 2) NC+DFM 0.55x109CFU, 3) NC+DFM 1.1x109CFU. Experiment 2 used 376 weaned pigs (17.8 d of age; 5.99 kg initial BW) allotted to one of four diets, the same 3 diets from Experiment 1 plus a lower inclusion rate: 4) NC+DFM 0.275x109CFU. Both studies had 15 replicates/treatment, 6–7 pigs/pen. Pigs were budget fed phase 1–3 diets (1.13 kg/pig; 2.72 kg/pig; and 6.35 kg/pig, respectively) and ad libitum fed Phase 4 diet to d35. For Experiment 1, during week 1 pigs fed the DFM tended to linearly decrease ADFI (P = 0.086) and linearly increase G:F (P = 0.085). During day 21–35 of Experiment 1 pigs fed DFM linearly increased ADG (P = 0.035) and quadratically increased ADFI (P = 0.027). Overall for experiment 1, ADG (P = 0.114) and ADFI (P = 0.104) tended to quadratically increase and G:F linearly increased (P = 0.012) with increasing concentrations of DFM. Experiment 2; during week 1 and 3 ADFI (P = 0.084, P = 0.050, respectively) quadratically increased and G:F (P = 0.081; P = 0.022, respectively) quadratically decreased as DFM increased in the diet. During d21–35 of experiment 2, ADG (P = 0.064) quadratically increased and G:F (P = 0.012) quadratically decreased as DFM increased. Overall for Experiment 2 ADFI numerically increased (4.3%) with no increase in ADG, resulting in a quadratic decrease in G:F (P = 0.010) as the DFM increased in the diet. Summarizing these two studies, the DFM product had its greatest effect increasing ADFI while inconsistently impacting gain and efficiency.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.252
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 54 Relationships Between Heat Stress and Behavioral Responses with
           Reproductive Traits of Maternal-line Gilts
    • Authors: Cleaver K; Hill B, Johnson J, et al.
      Pages: 148 - 149
      Abstract: Heat stress (HS) during summer months can negatively affect reproductive efficiency and sow productivity. This study was designed to evaluate potential relationships between HS sensitivity and behavior with litter characteristics in replacement gilts. A total of 61 replacement gilts (108.8± 10.4 kg BW; 8 repetitions; 9d/repetition), were tested from February to May 2020 at the USDA-ARS Food Animal Behavior Laboratory in West Lafayette, IN. Pigs were housed (2/pen) in thermoneutral (TN; 22.6± 1.6⁰C) conditions and their behavior was recorded for 5 d. On d 6, gilts were subjected to an open field test and novel object test. Heart rate, number of escape attempts, and vocalizations were recorded during behavior testing. Vaginal temperature monitors were inserted to record body temperature (TB) every 15 min. Gilts were individually housed and exposed to cyclic HS (28.2± 0.97⁰C nighttime to 36.9± 1.9⁰C daytime; 46± 15.4% relative humidity) on d 7 to 9. Feed was provided ad libitum and feed intake was recorded daily. During the HS challenge, respiration rate (RR), skin (ear, shoulder, rump, and tail) temperature, and posture were recorded every 2 h from 0800 to 2000 h. Following the HS challenge, gilts were transported to the Purdue University swine farm, and gilts that displayed signs of estrus were artificially inseminated (253±29 d of age) between May and September 2020. At farrowing, litter characteristics were obtained and included total number of piglets born, total number of piglets born alive, average litter birth weight, total number of piglets weaned, and average weaning weight of the litter. Correlations between behavior, HS response, and litter characteristics were obtained using JMP 15 software. The preliminary analysis indicated no significant interactions (P < 0.05) between RR or TB with litter characteristics. However additional records are currently being collected, which might reveal important trends among the traits analyzed.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.253
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 57 The Impact of Functional Teat Number on Piglet Survival and Sow
           Efficiency
    • Authors: Obermier D; Eickhoff M, Mote B, et al.
      Pages: 149 - 149
      Abstract: Pre-weaning mortalities have become a pressing issue in modern swine production. Litter size at birth has greatly increased through direct genetic selection. Unfortunately, little emphasis was placed on improving functional teat number, resulting in a nutrient access shortage. Therefore, a total of 750 sows consisting of three genetic lines in a commercial barn in Nebraska, USA, were used to evaluate the impact of functional teat number on piglet survival. Teat traits recorded at farrowing included total teat number (TT), functional teat number (FT), and non-functional teat number (NFT); with population means of 14.84 (1.21), 14.55 (1.30), and 0.28 (0.56), respectively. Production traits recorded included total number born (TNB), wean number (WN), total pre-weaning mortality (PWM), and post-cross foster mortality (CFPWM). The lm function within RStudio was used to estimate regressions, with parity and piglets placed (PP) used as covariates for WN and CFPWM, and parity, PP, and TNB for PWM. One additional FT increased WN (P < 0.01; 0.33), and reduced PWM (P < 0.01; -3.04%) and reduced CFPWM (P < 0.01; -3.71%). A subset of 274 sows were used to determine the effects of increasing functional teats on sow and piglet efficiency. Additional traits recorded included sow average daily feed intake (ADFI), backfat loss (BF) and average piglet weaning weight (WW). Parity, ADFI, backfat-entry, and WN were used as covariates for BF; parity, backfat-entry, and WN for ADFI; and parity, PP, ADFI, and WN were used for estimating WW. Regression estimates showed that an additional functional teat had no significant impact (P > 0.05) on ADFI, BF, or WW. Taken together, these results suggest that improving functional teat number does not impact ADFI or BF for sows and does not influence average piglet weaning weight, but it does decrease PWM resulting in more pigs weaned per litter.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.254
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 47 Effects of Lactobacillus and Bacillus Probiotics on Pre-ruminating Calf
           Growth Performance and Efficiency
    • Authors: Bowman S; Quantz S, Rehberger T, et al.
      Pages: 149 - 150
      Abstract: Lactobacillus and Bacillus probiotics may serve as an alternative to antibiotics in milk replacer for pre-ruminant calves by altering gastrointestinal microflora to prevent the proliferation of harmful bacteria. However, there are limited studies evaluating their impact on calf growth and efficiency. The objective of this trial was to discover the impact of probiotic-containing milk replacer on pre-ruminating calf growth performance. A total of 44 pre-ruminant calves (50% Angus/50% Holstein, average weight 39.3 kg + 7.5 kg) were fed milk replacer with either no probiotic or 1.25x10^9 colony forming units/head/day of a probiotic blending containing Lactobacillus and two different Bacillus species (Church & Dwight Animal Nutrition (Princeton, NJ). Calves were blocked by age and randomly assigned within block to one of two treatments in a randomized complete block design. Calf was the experimental unit, with 22 calves per treatment. Calf weight and hip height was measured on d 0 and 30 to calculate average daily gain (ADG) and average growth per day. Calves were offered 1.36 kg milk replacer [15% dry matter (DM)] twice daily and up to 0.5 kg starter feed (88% DM) once daily. Refusals were recorded to calculate average daily intake and gain to feed ratio (G:F). Initial weight differed (P = 0.020) between treatments, and was therefore used as a covariate in all response criteria. Calves fed milk replacer with probiotic had greater (P < 0.05) ADG (0.53 vs. 0.42 kg/d, respectively) and G:F (0.50 vs. 0.41, respectively) than those fed the control. There was no evidence (P >0.05) that probiotic inclusion impacted hip height on d 30 or daily intake. In summary, Lactobacillus and Bacillus probiotic inclusion in milk replacer improved calf growth performance without impacting intake. Subsequent research is warranted to elucidate mode of action and evaluate impact relative to an antibiotic-containing positive control.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.255
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 52 Ovarian Follicular Profiling of High- and Low-immunocrit Gilts on
           Postnatal Day 14
    • Authors: Lynnes B; Cushman R, Miles J, et al.
      Pages: 150 - 151
      Abstract: Colostrum intake by neonatal piglets can be measured using the immunoglobulin immunocrit assay (iCrit). Lactocrine effects occur when maternally derived, milk-borne bioactive factors are transferred to the neonatal circulation with consumption of colostrum during nursing and affect development of somatic tissues, which can have long-term consequences in adulthood. Lactocrine deficiency, indicated by low neonatal iCrit, altered uterine gene expression and reduced fecundity in adult, neonatally lactocrine-deficient gilts. Litter size in pigs is dependent on both ovarian and uterine function. It was hypothesized that lactocrine deficiency affects development of ovarian follicles in gilts. The objective was to determine the number of primordial, primary, and secondary follicles in ovaries of gilts with high (12% ± 0.5; n = 10) or low (1.9% ± 0.4; n = 10) iCrit, determined on postnatal day (PND) 1 after birth. Paired high- and low-iCrit gilts were chosen from the same litters (birth weight; 3.1 ± 0.2 lbs). On PND 14, ovaries were collected and histological sections prepared (3 sections per animal; 30–150 µm apart). Ovarian follicles in each section were staged and the number of follicles in each category were quantified and subjected to ANOVA. Total number of ovarian follicles did not differ with iCrit (P = 0.55; 1,370.6 ± 147.8 follicles per section). The proportion of primordial, primary, and secondary follicles was 89.6 ± 1.15%, 7.7 ± 0.87%, 2.7 ± 0.51%, respectively. The number of primordial (P = 0.55), primary (P = 0.64), and secondary (P = 0.93) follicles did not differ with iCrit. Results indicate that ovarian follicular development of neonatal gilts is not sensitive to immunocrit status. Although lactocrine deficiency did not influence the ovarian follicular profile at PND 14, it remains unknown whether lactocrine programming alters ovarian follicular dynamics in neonatally lactocrine-deficient adults. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.257
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 45 Effects of Grazing Management Systems on Forage Quality, Forage
           Availability, and Cow Performance
    • Authors: Jurak M; Johnson M, Neira L, et al.
      Pages: 150 - 150
      Abstract: The objectives were to compare the effects of two rotational grazing systems on forage quality, forage availability, and cow performance. Multiparous, fall-calving beef cows (n = 360; BW = 597±62 kg) were stratified by body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), age, and sire and allotted to 6 groups. Groups were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 8-paddock system rotated every 5 d or 6-paddock system rotated every 7 d. All paddocks (6.1 ha) contained endophyte-infected tall fescue and were grazed in two rounds. Cow BW and BCS were obtained on d 0, 28, 56, and 84. Forage heights were measured using a rising plate meter upon the groups entering and exiting each paddock. Forage samples were clipped from each paddock for proximate analysis. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. During the first and second grazing rounds, grazing management system had no effects (P ≥ 0.11) on dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein of the forage. The 8-paddock system tended (P = 0.09) to have greater forage availability than the 6-paddock system at the end of each rotation in the first round with 3,665 and 3,263 kg DM/ha, respectively. However, grazing system did not affect (P = 0.13) forage availability at the end of the rotation in the second round. Cow BW was not affected (P ≥ 0.63) by grazing system on d 0, 28, or 56. On d 84, cows rotationally grazed through an 8-paddock system had greater (P = 0.04) BW than those who grazed the 6-paddock system. Treatment had no effect (P ≥ 0.37) on BCS at any time point. In conclusion, grazing management system did not affect forage quality; however, the 8-paddock system resulted in greater forage availability which led to greater cow BW.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.256
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 48 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Phytophenols Against
           Bacterial Pathogens That Cause Liver Abscesses in Feedlot Cattle
    • Authors: Roubicek C; Amachawadi R, Nagaraja T, et al.
      Pages: 151 - 151
      Abstract: Liver abscesses occur in finishing cattle fed high-grain, low-roughage diets. Cattle with abscessed livers do not show any clinical signs and are detected only at slaughter. Liver abscesses, which account for 67% of all liver abnormalities in cattle slaughtered in the United States, are of major economic concern to the beef industry. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Trueperella pyogenes, and Salmonella enterica, particularly the serotype Lubbock, are the main etiologic agents. Currently, the control of liver abscesses is based on in-feed use of antibiotics. The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics use in animals is a public health concern. Plant-based phenolic compounds, called phytophenols, are known to have antimicrobial properties. Our objectives were to evaluate antimicrobial activities of phytophenols on the liver abscess bacterial pathogens. Phytophenols extracted from rosemary, green tea, grapeseed, organic goji berry, and green coffee were selected for testing. The phytophenols were extracted using 75% aqueous acetone and total phenolic content was determined by a spectrophotometric analysis. Bacteria were cultured in Mueller-Hinton broth (S. Lubbock and T. pyogenes) or anaerobic brain-heart infusion broth (F. necrophorum with and without phytophenols, at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours and bacterial concentrations were determined. If phytophenol was inhibitory, a micro-broth dilution method was used to quantify the inhibition. Phytophenols from green tea, grape seed, and rosemary inhibited T. pyogenes. Further studies are ongoing to investigate different concentrations of phenolic compounds on the pathogens. Phytophenols that inhibit the pathogens may have the potential to be used as feed additives to prevent liver abscesses.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.258
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 51 Observing the Effect of Creep Feeding on Calf Behavior Before and After
           Weaning
    • Authors: Heidtke M; Redden M, Shike D, et al.
      Pages: 151 - 152
      Abstract: The objective was to determine the effect of creep feeding on calf behavior before and after weaning. Cow-calf pairs (n = 54) were stratified by cow age, cow and calf BW, and allotted to 9 pastures. Pastures were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: unsupplemented control (CON), lower protein pellet (14.3% CP; LP), and a higher protein pellet (18.6% CP; HP) for 82 d. Pre-weaning calf behaviors were observed for 9 h on d 60, 64, and 74: position (standing or lying), location (pen, pasture, shade, creep), and consumption (creep, grass, milk, water, none). Post-weaning calf behaviors were observed for 12 h on d 83 and 84: position, walking, drinking, eating, and vocalizations. Prior to weaning, an interaction (P £ 0.01) occurred for consumption behaviors; CON calves spent the greatest percentage of time grazing at h 7 and 8 and not consuming at h 11. Also, LP calves had the greatest percentage of time nursing at h 8 and 11, with CON calves being intermediate, and HP calves being the least. On the day after weaning (d 83), an interaction (P = 0.02) was observed for time spent eating; CON calves spent the greatest time eating at h 10 and LP calves were the greatest at h 11. An interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for time spent walking on d 83; HP calves spent the greatest percentage of time walking at h 9 and 13. On d 84, an interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for time eating on d 84; CON calves spent the greatest percentage of time eating at h 7, 9, 11, 14, and 16 as well as overall (P = 0.05). An interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for number of vocalizations on d 84; CON calves had the greatest number of vocalizations at h 16–18 as well as overall (P < 0.01). Overall, creep feeding altered calf behaviors before and after weaning.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.259
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 55 Sow Milk Lipidome Study Reveals Changes in Fatty Acyl Residues in
           Triglycerides and Phosphatidylglycerol, but Not in Plasma Membrane
           Phospholipids Across Lactation
    • Authors: Luecke S; Suarez-Trujillo A, Logan L, et al.
      Pages: 152 - 153
      Abstract: Sow milk fat content is crucial to neonatal survival, as it is utilized for thermogenesis and nutrition. However, fat is the most variable component of milk in concentration and lipid species. Characterizing lipid changes across the course of a sow’s lactation may help identify molecules or systems to target to help enhance milk fat quality and quantity for neonatal survival and growth. Percent fat variation is greatest in colostrum, the first milk. Little is known regarding colostrum synthesis, other than it accumulates in the gland beginning in mid-late pregnancy, which is prior to the initiation of fatty acid synthesis in lactocytes. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in lipid composition of milk across the course of lactation and determine if there was a relationship between fat percent and lipid species in colostrum and mature milk. Milk was collected from 9 multiparous sows on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 relative to birth. Percent fat was determined by creamatocrit, and found to be different (p< 0.05) between day 0 (12.36 ± 5.90%) and day 3 (16.22 ± 3.65%) but not between day 7 (13.13 ± 2.19%) and 14 (12.13 ± 2.45%). Fat was extracted from milk using the Bligh-Dyer method and profiled using multiple reaction monitoring. Amounts of lipid species were calculated relative to standards and data analysis was performed using Metaboanalyst 4.0. Principle component analysis revealed lactation day had a significant effect on distribution of fats. Triacylglycerides (TAG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and plasma membrane lipids were modified from colostrum to mature milk, with a significant increase in PGs and TAGs across the course of lactation. Correlation analysis of percent fat with lipid concentration indicated strong relationships (P < 0.05; r >0.80) with eight lipids. No differences are found in the abundance of plasma membrane phospholipids, sphingomyelin, or cholesterol esters across lactation days.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.261
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 50 Long-term Motility of Semen Following Breeding Soundness Exams for
           Yearling Beef Bulls
    • Authors: Seltzer G; Hartman A, Tucker S, et al.
      Pages: 152 - 152
      Abstract: To find an in vitro predictor of in vivoM/em> semen motility prompted this study. Our objective was to evaluate semen motility for an 8-hour period immediately following a breeding soundness exam. Ejaculates from 52 Angus and 56 Charolais bulls were evaluated. Motility, morphology, scrotal circumference and pH of ejaculate were evaluated at the time of collection. Ejaculates were then extended using a one to one ratio and incubated in a water bath held at 37 degrees Celsius and evaluated hourly. Motility was evaluated hourly for 8 hours, or until motility of the sample reached zero. Data were analyzed for breed and hourly effects using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There was statistical evidence for difference (P < 0.0001) between breeds for motility over time. Angus ejaculates had higher pH values than Charolais ejaculates showing an association between breed and pH (6.82 vs 6.76, respectively). Primary spermatozoa abnormalities were greater (P < 0.0001) for Angus bulls compared to Charolais bulls (13.33% vs. 10.91%, respectively). Scrotal circumference between breeds tended to be different (P < 0.07), with Charolais bulls having a larger scrotal circumference compared to Angus bulls (38.29 vs. 38.03 centimeters, respectively). There was no difference (P > 0.05) between breeds for secondary abnormalities. There was a significant interaction (P < 0.01) between breed and time of motility measurement. Angus bull’s motility decreased drastically until hour 4, it then had a more gradual decrease until hour 8. Charolais bulls had a more gradual decrease in the percentage of motile sperm over time. In conclusion, there was evidence for difference between breeds for pH, primary spermatozoa abnormalities, and long-term motility, and a scrotal tendency. Understanding the effects of breed and individual biological factors may help producers adjust BSE expectations and lead to future research in long term semen motility.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.260
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 49 Histomorphic Analysis of the Effect of Day and Level of Colostrum
           Intake on Jejunum Development
    • Authors: Sheets J; Suarez-Trujillo A, Teeple K, et al.
      Pages: 153 - 153
      Abstract: The first milk sows synthesize is colostrum, and is only available to the neonate right after birth. Colostrum provides immunity, nutrients, energy, and bioactive factors which are essential for the survival, growth, and development of newborn piglets. The first few days after birth the gastrointestinal (GI) tract undergoes developmental changes and rapid growth in response to bioactive factors in milk. We hypothesized that amount of colostrum a neonate consumes the first 24 h postnatal effects the development of the GI tract. The objectives of this study were to measure the histomorphic growth of the jejunum between birth (day 0, D0) and postnatal day 7 (D7) and to determine the effect of ingesting a high versus low amount of colostrum. Gilts were identified at birth and immediately euthanized (D0, n = 6) or bottle fed a 24 h colostrum dose of 10% (COL10, n = 7) or 20% (COL20, n = 7) of birth body weight. Colostrum fed neonates were returned to birth sows after 24 h and allowed to nurse naturally until postnatal (D7), when gilts were euthanized. Gilts were dissected and jejunum was removed, weighed and placed in buffered formalin for preparation of histological sections. Five µm sections were mounted on glass slides and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Images were captured using light microscopy at 10X magnification. ImageJ was used to measure villi length, width, stromal area, epithelial area, and crypt length. T-test analysis indicated that there was no difference between COL10 and COL20 in any of the morphological features (P > 0.05), however between D0 and D7 villi width, epithelial area, and crypt length increased (P < 0.05). Differences in histomorphology across the first week postnatal was not affected by level of colostrum intake in the first 24 h postnatal.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.262
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 53 Relationships Between Fecal Characteristics, Ruminal Ph, Intake and
           Digestion in Feedlot Cattle
    • Authors: Brown C; Huizenga K, McCann J.
      Pages: 153 - 154
      Abstract: The objectives were to: 1) determine the relationship of fecal characteristics with ruminal pH, dry matter intake (DMI) and dry matter digestion and 2) determine the ability of fecal characteristics to predict ruminal pH, DMI, and dry matter digestion. Data were collected in two metabolism studies using eighteen ruminally cannulated steers (n = 36). Each study was a completely randomized design evaluating the effect of a direct-fed microbial during an acidosis challenge. Ruminal pH, DMI, total tract DM digestion and fecal characteristics (fecal pH, washed fecal particle size and mucin casts) were measured for 4 d after the acidosis challenge. Rumen pH was not correlated (P ≥ 0.15) with mucin cast score or mean fecal particle size but was negatively associated with fecal pH (r = -0.42; P < 0.01). Total tract DM digestion was correlated (r ≥ 0.53; P ≤ 0.02) to fecal pH and fecal particle sizes between 1180 and 2360 µm. Dry matter intake was correlated (r ≥ 0.41; P < 0.01) to mean fecal particle size and fecal particle sizes between 2360 and 4750 µm. Multiple regressions were performed with the GLMSELECT procedure of SAS 9.4 using stepwise selection. Ruminal pH was best predicted (r2 = 0.20) by fecal pH and fecal particle size between 1400 and 1700 µm. Total tract DM digestion was best predicted (r2 = 0.92) by fecal pH, mucin cast score, and fecal particle size between 3350 and 1700 µm. Dry matter intake was best predicted (r2 = 0.51) by mean fecal particle size, fecal pH and fecal particle size between 1400 and 850 µm. Overall, results indicated fecal pH was correlated to ruminal pH and total tract DM digestion. Fecal characteristics including washed particle size can also predict total tract DM digestion in feedlot cattle.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.263
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • 42 Activity and Bone Lesion Analysis on Gilt Retention to the Breeding
           Herd
    • Authors: Hauxwell K; Ostrand L, Schmidt T, et al.
      Pages: 154 - 154
      Abstract: A consistent theme in swine production is to increase efficiency and reduce input costs. In this study, sow activity traits and lesions were analyzed to identify associations with lameness and gilt retention. Gilts (n = 73) were culled based on structural unsoundness as determined by an experienced herdsman. Females (n = 132) that had been retained for breeding, but either did not show estrus at an appropriate age or were excessed due to limited farrowing space were used as controls. Gilts were recorded with the NUtrack System for 1 week prior to selection. The NUtrack System records distance travelled (m), time standing (s), eating (s), and laying (s), angle rotated (degrees) and average speed (m/s). Animals were humanely harvested in a USDA inspected abattoir. Both ends of the humerus and the femur head were evaluated for osteochondrosis or osteoarthritis lesions. Joint lesions were categorized as Major or Minor lesions. Major lesions were severe osteochondrosis lesions where cartilage was severely fractured or cartilage exhibited a region of necrosis larger than 2 millimeters in diameter. Minor lesions were defined creases or indentations in the cartilage or where abnormal blood flow existed in bone tissue underneath cartilage. Ninety-eight animals were identified with minor or major lesions (28 cull and 70 control). Unexpectedly, chi-square analysis did identify control animals as having higher incidences of minor or major lesions than cull animals (p < 0.05). Data were analyzed using logistic regression (RStudio V1.2.5033) with farrowing group included in the model. No NUtrack trait was predictive of joint lesions (P > 0.1). However, time standing (P < 0.001) and average speed (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with being retained for breeding. These data suggest that animal behavior and movement, as analyzed by NUtrack, can enhance herdsman efforts in making culling decisions of breeding animals.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.264
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-2 Effect of Piglet Characteristics on Blood Glucose Levels at Birth
    • Authors: Rivas R; Willard N, Vande Pol K, et al.
      Pages: 154 - 155
      Abstract: Blood glucose levels in piglets at birth are potentially associated with survival, however, there has been limited research to quantify these and to establish any associations with piglet characteristics. This study, which evaluated the effects of a number of piglet characteristics on blood glucose levels at birth, was conducted as a cross-sectional survey involving 32 litters. Litter was the experimental unit; piglet was a sub-sample of litter. At birth, piglets were weighed and assigned a vitality score [1 = high vitality; 2 = low vitality (limited mobility and/or respiration)]. Piglets were then dried with a cellulose-based desiccant, and blood samples were collected from half of the piglets in each litter with a vitality score of 1 (n = 226) and all piglets with a vitality score of 2 (n = 7). Samples (1.2 μL) were collected from the vena subcutanea abdominis; blood glucose was measured using a glucometer (Accuchek Aviva; Roche Diabetes Care, Inc., Indianapolis, IN). Effects of piglet characteristics and relationships with blood glucose levels were analyzed using PROC MIXED, PROC GLIMMIX, and PROC REG of SAS, as appropriate. There were no effects (P > 0.05) of piglet birth weight or gender on blood glucose levels. Piglets with a vitality score of 2 had higher (P < 0.05) blood glucose levels than those with a score of 1. Blood glucose levels increased linearly (P < 0.05) with birth order (0.8 mg/dL for each piglet increase). In conclusion, blood glucose levels at birth were higher for piglets with low compared to high vitality and for those born later in the birth order. Further research is needed to establish relationships between blood glucose levels in piglets at birth and subsequent survival.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.265
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-1 Effect of Rearing Cross-fostered Piglets in Litters of Differing
           Size Relative to Sow Functional Teat Number on Pre-weaning Growth and
           Mortality
    • Authors: Vande Pol K; Rivas R, Espinal A, et al.
      Pages: 155 - 156
      Abstract: Litter sizes of commercial sows have increased recently, often resulting in the number of piglets exceeding the sow functional teat number. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of litter size after cross-fostering on piglet pre-weaning mortality (PWM) and growth. A RCBD was used with 13 blocks of 3 litters (total 39 litters/561 piglets); blocking factors were farrowing day, sow parity, body condition score, and functional teat number. Three Litter Size treatments (LS) relative to sow functional teat number were compared: Under (2 piglets below); Equal (same number of piglets); Over (2 piglets above). Piglets were weighed 24 h after birth and allotted to LS to create litters with similar gender ratio and average and CV of birth weight. Weaning was at 19.5 ± 0.50 d, weights and PWM were recorded. Piglet weight data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS; PWM data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS. Models included LS and sow within block. Litter sizes averaged 12.1, 14.1, and 16.1 for the Under, Equal, and Over treatments, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). The Under treatment tended (P = 0.07) to have greater weaning weights compared to the Equal and Over treatments (Table 1). The Under treatment had lower (P ≤ 0.05) PWM than the Over treatment, with the Equal treatment being intermediate and not different to the other 2 (P > 0.05; Table 1). In conclusion, reducing litter size after cross-fostering to two piglets below the number of functional teats of the sow decreased PWM and tended to increase weaning weights.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.266
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-3 Effect of Type of Desiccant Used to Dry Piglets at Birth on
           Postnatal Changes in Rectal Temperature
    • Authors: Espinal A; Willard N, Vande Pol K, et al.
      Pages: 156 - 156
      Abstract: All piglets experience hypothermia immediately after birth, which can be a predisposing factor for pre-weaning mortality. Drying piglets at birth with a desiccant reduces the extent and duration of postnatal temperature decline. This study compared the effectiveness of different types of commercially-available desiccant products using a CRD with four treatments (applied at birth): Control (piglets not dried) and 3 Desiccant Product treatments [dried with a Mineral-based, Cellulose-based, or Mixed (mineral and cellulose-based) desiccant]. Sows (40) and litters (546 piglets) were randomly allotted to a treatment at the birth of the first piglet. Sows were housed in individual farrowing crates within pens; a heat lamp was suspended over one side of each pen. Room temperature was set at 22.8°C throughout farrowing. Piglets were weighed at birth, those on the Desiccant Product treatments were coated with desiccant until completely dry, and then returned to the pen. Piglet rectal temperatures were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 120 min after birth. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). The model included the fixed effects of treatment, measurement time (repeated measure), and the interaction. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of treatment on rectal temperatures at birth. At all other measurement times, piglets on the Control treatment had lower (P < 0.05) rectal temperatures than those on the 3 Desiccant Product treatments, which had similar (P > 0.05) rectal temperatures. These results suggest that the 3 commercial desiccant products evaluated were equally effective at minimizing the extent and duration of piglet rectal temperature decline in the early postnatal period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.267
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-4 Determining the Efficacy and Safety of Differing
           Caliber/Ammunition Combinations for the Humane Euthanization and
           Subsequent Mass Depopulation of Market Weight Pigs
    • Authors: Stahl C; Fangman J, Fangman T.
      Pages: 156 - 157
      Abstract: The objective of this proof of concept exercise was to validate a field applicable methodology designed to objectively assess the multiple caliber/ammunition combinations available for the safe and humane euthanization of market weight pigs during mass depopulation events. Heads of an equal number of barrows and gilts (n = 64) were randomly assigned to one of four caliber/ammunition combinations consisting of the .22 LR, .22 Mag, 0.38 Special, and 9mm. Fully jacketed (FMJ) ammunition was discharged from each of four unique firearms while ensuring that the distance from the muzzle to the forehead was consistent. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to test the fixed effects of sex and caliber. No differences in skull thickness existed between sex (P = 0.32) or caliber/ammunition combination (P = 0.34). There was no difference in entrance wound diameter between the .38 Special and the 9mm (P = 0.15) yet the entrance wound diameter of the .38 Special and 9mm was larger than both the .22 LR and .22 Mag, respectfully (P < 0.0001). The 9mm bullets traveled further into the ballistic gel (P < 0.0001) and the furthest total distance (P < 0.0001). Bullets from the .38 Special traveled further into the ballistic gel and a further total distance than both the .22 LR and .22 Mag (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in the measurable trauma area of the brain for the 9mm bullets compared to .38 Special bullets (P = 0.83). The measurable trauma area of the brain was greater for the 9mm and .38 Special bullets when compared to both the .22 LR and .22 Mag (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the efficacy and safety of the multiple caliber/ammunition combinations available for use in the euthanization of market weight pigs can be objectively quantified, replicated, and reported.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.268
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-5 Delaying Weaning Age of Lambs Grazing Chicory (Cichorium Intybus)
           Increases Body Weight
    • Authors: Campbell B; McCutcheon J, Fluharty F, et al.
      Pages: 157 - 157
      Abstract: Two common challenges in forage-based lamb production systems is the restriction of net energy from grass-based pastures and the production losses associated with parasitic infection. The inclusion of nutrient rich forage in the diet and delaying lamb weaning age has shown to improve lamb growth rates in some systems. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus) and delayed weaning on the growth and health of young pasture-raised lambs. We hypothesized that improving the quality of available forage and delaying weaning would increase the body weight and parasite resilience of lambs. A total of 18 cross-bred ewes and 36 cross-bred lambs (25.2 ± 0.5 kg) were stratified by weight, sex, and randomly assigned to one of two weaning treatments: lambs weaned at 60 days of age (weaned) and lambs remained with their dam and weaned at 120 days of age (delayed weaned). Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS. Lamb body weight and indices of parasitism were measured every 14 days. There was a treatment × day effect for body weight as delayed weaned lambs were heavier on days 28, 42, and 56 compared with the body weight of weaned lambs (P < 0.02). In addition, there was a treatment × day effect for average daily gain (ADG) whereas delayed weaned lambs demonstrated greater ADG on days 14, 28, 42, and 56 compared with the ADG of weaned lambs (P < 0.02). In monitoring lamb health, there was a treatment × day effect as weaned lambs had a greater packed cell volume (PCV) on day 14 compared with the PCV of delayed weaned lambs (P < 0.03). Conversely, on day 56, weaned lambs had a lower PCV compared with the PCV of delayed wean lambs (P < 0.004). Delayed weaning has shown to be beneficial in improving lamb growth; however, in this instance, delayed weaning demonstrated variable responses in supporting lamb health while grazing on improved pastures.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.269
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-6 Gene Expression Profile of Beef Heifer Placental Caruncles Is
           Affected by Pre-breeding and Early Gestation Micronutrient Supplementation
           
    • Authors: Da Silva Diniz W; Reynolds L, Ward A, et al.
      Pages: 157 - 158
      Abstract: Vitamins and minerals are essential for proper fetal and placental development and function. However, the impact of micronutrient supplementation on placental function and gene expression remains unclear. Herein, we performed a transcriptomic analysis to determine the impact of pre-breeding maternal micronutrient supplementation on the gene expression of placental caruncles (CAR; maternal placenta). Crossbred Angus beef heifers were supplemented (VTM, n = 7) or not (CON, n = 7) with 113 g•heifer-1•d-1 of mineral premix (Purina® Wind & Rain® Storm® All-Season 7.5 Complete) from d 71 to 148 before breeding and until d 83 of gestation. After breeding, heifers were fed a diet to gain 0.79 kg/d. Uteroplacental tissues were collected at d 83. The largest placentome closest to the fetus was collected, and CAR was manually dissected from the cotyledon. Total RNA was isolated from CAR, and gene expression was measured with RNA-Seq. After data quality control and read mapping, differential expression was performed using DESeq2. We identified 46 upregulated and 19 downregulated genes in the VTM group (adj.Pval < 0.1). ShinyGO pathway analysis software was used to identify genes in the Ca and CGMP-PKG signaling pathways, including CALM2 and CAMK2G, which were down and upregulated, respectively. Calcium-mediated systems may activate steroidogenic activity in bovine placentomes, while the cGMP-PKG pathway plays a key role in vascular homeostasis mediated by nitric oxide and decreased Ca concentrations. Furthermore, biological processes underlying blood circulation were among those over-represented. Previous studies report that maternal nutrition may impact placental vascularity and uterine blood flow. ATP2B, that is upregulated in the VTM group, is a calcium/calmodulin-regulated, magnesium-dependent protein involved in intracellular Ca homeostasis. In summary, pre-breeding and early gestation maternal micronutrient supplementation leads to differential expression of genes involved in Ca homeostasis and has a putative effect on placenta vascular function.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.270
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-8 Genetic Parameter Estimates for Bull Prolificacy and Its
           Relationship with Scrotal Circumference in a Commercial Beef Cattle
           Population
    • Authors: Russell C; Pollak E, Spangler M.
      Pages: 158 - 159
      Abstract: The commercial beef cattle industry relies heavily on the use of natural service sires. Either due to the size of breeding herds or to safe-guard against injury during the breeding season, multiple-sire breeding pastures are utilized. Although each bull might be given an equal opportunity to produce offspring, evidence suggest that there is substantial variation in the number of calves sired by each bull in a breeding pasture. DNA-based paternity assignment enables correct assignment of calves to their respective sires in multi-sire pastures and presents an opportunity to investigate the degree to which this trait complex is under genetic control. Field data from a large commercial ranch were used to estimate genetic parameters for calf count (CC; n=623) and yearling scrotal circumference (SC; n=1962) using univariate and bivariate animal models. Average CC and SC were 12.1±11.1 calves and 35.4±2.30 cm, respectively. Average number breeding seasons per bull and bulls per contemporary group were 1.40 and 24.9, respectively. The model for CC included fixed effects of age during the breeding season (in years) and contemporary group (concatenation of breeding pasture and year). Random effects included additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, and a residual. The model for SC included fixed effects of age (in days) and contemporary group (concatenation of month and year of measurement). Random effects included an additive genetic effect and a residual. Univariate model heritability estimates for CC and SC were 0.237±0.156 and 0.456±0.072, respectively. Similarly, the bivariate model resulted in heritability estimates for CC and SC of 0.240±0.155 and 0.461±0.072, respectively. Repeatability estimates for CC from univariate and bivariate models were 0.517±0.054 and 0.518±0.053, respectively. The estimate of genetic correlation between CC and SC was 0.270±0.220. Parameter estimates suggest that both CC and SC would respond favorably to selection and that CC is moderately repeatable.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.271
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-21 The Effects of Lactobacillus Fermentum on Nursery Pig Performance
    • Authors: Knapp J; Bartenslager A, Winkel S, et al.
      Pages: 159 - 160
      Abstract: The use of probiotics may be an effective strategy in sustainable pig production. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum (LF) on nursery pig performance. Weaned pigs (n = 70; average initial BW 6.464 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments, forming 6 replicates per treatment. Treatments included: 1) pigs fed a standard nursery diet (NRC 2012); CTL; 2) pigs fed CTL with the addition of 10^10 CFU LF per day for phase 1 (wk 2 and 3; LF1); and 3) pigs fed CTL with the addition of 10^10 CFU LF per day for phase 1 and phase 2 (wk 2 thru 5). A common diet was fed during adaptation (wk 1) and during a wash out phase (wk 6). Individual piglet BW were recorded weekly along with pen feed disappearance. No differences were observed in BW by the end of phase 1; at the end of phase 2 the pigs fed LF had a lower BW than the others (19.38, 19.22, 17.3 kg; P = 0.031). This was associated with a reduced feed efficiency seen in week 5 (0.679, 0.656, 0.445; P = 0.0404). However, no differences (P > 0.10) were observed in BW of the pigs throughout the trial and final BW were 24.15, 24.45, 24.3 kg. No differences were observed in ADFI between treatments (ADFI Phase 1: 0.359, 0.366, 0.353 kg/d;P = 0.965; Phase 2: 0.906, 0.896, 0.843 kg/d; P = 0.578; Phase 3: 1.183, 1.227, 1.196 kg; P = 0.920). Results suggest that pigs fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus fermentum performed similar to pigs fed a conventional diet.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.273
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-7 Relationship of Age and Genetics with the Methylation Profile of
           Beef Cattle
    • Authors: Ribeiro A; Wijesena H, Ciobanu D, et al.
      Pages: 159 - 159
      Abstract: This study aimed to compare models for the prediction of cow age from DNA methylation profiles and estimate the heritability of the proportion of methylated sites (PM) and methylation status at each site (MS). Methylation data from blood samples of cows (n=136) were generated from the HorvathMammalMethylChip40 array that consists of 34,324 CpG sites that mapped to the bovine genome. Methylation status was determined by the distribution of the methylation values, with values above, within and below 2 standard deviations classified as methylated (2), intermediately methylated (1) and unmethylated (0), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to a (co)variance methylation status matrix. The first and second PC accounted for 25.65% and 9% of the total variance, respectively. Five Bayesian models (Bayesian ridge regression, BayesA, BayesB, BayesCπ and Bayesian LASSO) were implemented with the BGLR package in R. Bootstrapping validation (n=400) was used to evaluate the tested models, with 102 and 34 individuals in the training and validation sets, respectively. The correlation between the predicted and true age was high (r = 0.97 to 0.99). A BayesA model performed the best (r = 0.99, MSE = 0.11 and slope = 0.93), while Bayesian LASSO was the least accurate (r = 0.97, MSE = 0.26 and slope = 0.88). Heritability was estimated using GBLUP implemented in the BGLR package. The mean (SD) heritability estimate for PM was 0.46 ± 0.10 and the heritability of MS ranged from 0.18 to 0.73 (mean = 0.33). The 10% of sites with the highest heritability (343 sites; mean = 0.62) were located in exon (91), intron (84), intergenic (152), and promoter (16) regions. The largest number of these top sites (31) were located on chromosome 3 in genetic or intergenic regions close to transcription factor binding sites (i.e., FOXO6, ELAV4 and LMO4).
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.272
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-19 Effect of a Sensory Additive on Sow Feed Intake During Lactation
    • Authors: Tsai T; Davis N, Bass B, et al.
      Pages: 160 - 161
      Abstract: Sow feed intake during lactation is crucial to the maintenance of sow body condition, milk production, and litter performance. Loss of body weight or condition during this time could compromise future reproductive performance. Two groups (n = 52 total) of breeding age gilts and sows were used to evaluate whether a sensory additive would improve intake during the lactation period. Gilts/Sows were weighed, and back fat depth was measured, at 110 d of gestation prior to entering the lactation room, and again at weaning. The sows were sorted by parity and then allotted by BW at d 110 to Control or 0.075% sensory additive (Luctamax® SowVive, Lucta S.A., Barcelona, Spain). Experimental lactation diets were offered upon entry to the lactation room and fed through weaning. During this time feed was weighed back every three days. Gilts/sows were fed 2.72 kg/head/day until farrowing, and sows were placed on full feed 24 hours post-farrowing and allowed to eat ad libitum. Data was analyzed using the PROC MIXED of SAS as an RCBD with treatment as the fixed effect and group as a random effect. During lactation sows on the sensory additive diet showed an increase in intake during days 10 to 21 when compared to sows on the control diet (Table 1). Although it was not significantly different, sows fed sensory additive had numerically heavier weaning BW (239.4 vs 236.2 kg, P = 0.42) and increased litter weight gain (51.96 vs 48.69 kg, P = 0.24) compared to control fed sows. However, backfat thickness change during lactation did not differ between control and sensory additive fed sows (-4.74 vs -5.81 mm, P = 0.65). In conclusion, in the current study lactation diets supplemented with a sensory additive stimulated sow appetite during the lactation period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.275
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-22 The Effects of Lactobacillus Fermentum on Sow and Litter
           Performance
    • Authors: Knapp J; Winkel S, Bartenslager A, et al.
      Pages: 160 - 160
      Abstract: The use of probiotics may be an effective strategy in sustainable pig production. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum LfQi6 (LF) on sow and litter performance. First parity, gestating sows (UNL Resource Population Rep x DNA Genetics Duroc; n = 28) were allotted one of two treatment groups. Treatment groups consisted of a control group (CTL) fed a standard gestation and lactation diet for the duration of the study, while the experimental group was fed CTL supplemented with 10^10 CFU LF per day from d 80 of gestation through lactation. Individual piglet body weights (BW) were recorded weekly. LF sows tended to enter the farrowing crates lighter than the control sows (209.93 vs 200.91kg; P = 0.0794). LF sows had a smaller loin eye area when compared to CTL sows (6.24 vs 5.86 cm2; P = 0.0374) when entering the farrowing crates. However, LF sows tended to lose less loin area per day when in the crate (0.025 vs 0.012 cm2/d; P = 0.078); resulting with there being no difference in loin area when the sows left the farrowing crates. Piglet BW tended to be greater at weaning for the sows fed the LF (5.37 vs 5.66 kg, P = 0.0528). The mean piglet BW were 1.25,1.33; 2.37,2.44; 4.08,4.22; and 5.37,5.66 at d 0, 7, 14, 21; respectively for CTL and LF. Sows fed the LF had fewer pigs born alive per litter (16.09 vs 14.12; P < 0.05) when compared to the sows fed the control diet. However, piglet mortality tended to be decreased for LF compared to CTL (3 vs 1.76; P = 0.0645). Results suggest that supplementation with Lactobacillus fermentum LfQi6 may provide some benefits with respect to sow and litter performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.274
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-15 Dietary Supplementation of Bacillus Subtilis Modified Intestinal
           Microbiome of Weaned Pigs Differently to Antibiotics
    • Authors: Jinno C; He Y, Liu Y.
      Pages: 161 - 162
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the dietary effects of Bacillus subtilis and antibiotics in intestinal microbiota of pigs experimentally infected with F18 E. coli. Forty-eight weaned pigs (6.17 ± 0.36 kg BW) were individually housed and randomly allotted in one of four treatments with 12 replicates per treatment: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), antibiotics, and B. subtilis (probiotics). Pigs in NC and PC were fed with basal diet without or with E. coli, respectively. Pigs with antibiotics and probiotics were challenged with E. coli and supplemented with 50 mg/kg of carbadox or 500 mg/kg of B. subtilis, respectively. After 7 days habituation period, pigs were inoculated with F18 E. coli at 1010 CFU/3 mL dose for three consecutive days. All pigs were euthanized to collect feces and digesta from jejunum, ileum, and colon on d 21 post-infection to perform 16S rRNA sequencing at the V4 hypervariable region. Downstream analysis was performed using QIIME2 (2019.4) and R. Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Conover test was used to analyze data in R. Colon digesta and feces have greater (P < 0.05) alpha diversity than ileal and jejunal digesta. No difference was observed among treatments at different intestinal sites. Bray-Curtis PCoA plots displayed pronounced clusters of all treatment groups throughout all sites. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were more (P < 0.05) abundant but Firmicutes were less (P < 0.05) abundant in ileal digesta of pigs fed with antibiotics than pigs in probiotics. Firmicutes were more (P < 0.05) abundant in colon and feces of NC than of antibiotics. Bifidobacterium was least (P < 0.05) abundant throughout all sites and Prevotella 1 was most (P < 0.05) abundant in colon of pigs fed with antibiotics compared with other treatments. In conclusion, both B. subtilis and carbadox supplementation modified gut microbiota of weaned pigs challenged with F18 E. coli. However, the impacts are different and need further investigation.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.276
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-17 Phosphorus Release Values in Growing Pigs Fed Increments of
           Optiphos Plus Phytase in Pelleted Diets
    • Authors: Crenshaw T; Haas C, Hansen M, et al.
      Pages: 162 - 163
      Abstract: The efficacy of phytase (Pase) from OptiPhos Plus G (Huvepharma, Peachtree City, GA) was compared to inorganic phosphorus (iP) supplements to assess phosphorus equivalency. In 6 replicate 28-d trials, 288 crossbred F2 (Duroc X LR X LW) pigs (20.0 kg, 6 pigs/pen, 48 pens) were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 diets. Pig sex was balanced within pens. Basal corn-soybean meal diets, formulated to exceed nutrient requirements except for Ca and P, supplied 1.30% lysine from the same amounts of all ingredients. Sand was used to balance variable amounts of monocalcium phosphate and limestone. Diets supplied either 0.061, 0.156, or 0.241% iP from monocalcium phosphate or increments of 250, 500, 750, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg from Pase. All diets were pelleted (160°F, 2.5 tons/hr). The modified pellet durability index averaged 92.8% and 88.7% for all diets in each of 2 mixes. Non-linear growth responses to increments of iP and Pase were detected (P < 0.05). Using nonlinear regression models, maximum gain was calculated at 0.23% iP and 1144 FTU/kg Pase (equivalent to 0.31% available P or 0.38% STTD P). Likewise, from non-linear responses (P < 0.05), maximum response in whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC) from analysis of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were calculated at 1227 FTU/kg Pase. The maximum Pase response for WBBMC was below expectations and raised concerns for potential Ca limitations in diets at higher Pase supplements. Only linear WBBMC responses (P < 0.001) to iP levels were detected. Responses across iP and Pase treatments for femur bone mineral content reflected the same conclusions as responses to WBBMC. As growth responses to iP and Pase diets were non-linear, simple conversions of phytase activity to phosphorus release was not straight-forward. However, non-linear equations can predict economic values of target levels as a function of ingredient costs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.277
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-12 Effects of Available Space in Pens and Homeopathic Product
           Supplement Consisting of Botanicals and Mineral mixture on the Performance
           and Production Traits of Finishing Pigs
    • Authors: Upadhaya S; Palanisamy T, Park H, et al.
      Pages: 163 - 164
      Abstract: A total of 144 mixed sex pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] with an initial average body weight (BW) of 52 kg were used in a 11-week trial in a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: space allocations [3pigs/pen vs 5 pigs/pen] and 0 or 0.2% homeopathic product supplementation to evaluate growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality and stress related hormones. The homeopathic product supplementation resulted in an increased (P < 0.05) BW at week 11, average daily gain (ADG) during days 42–63 and 64–77. In addition, an increase (P < 0.05) in ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI) during overall experiment period and an increase (P < 0.05) in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM) at day 77 were observed in pigs receiving homeopathic product. A trend in increase (P=0.088) in serum cortisol concentration during day 42 and increase (P > 0.05) during day 77 was observed in pigs with less space allocation. However, supplementing the diet with homeopathic product reduced cortisol concentrations during day 42 (P < 0.05) and day 77 (P = 0.084) respectively suggesting the effectiveness of homeopathic product in reducing the stress caused by less space allocation.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.278
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-13 Supplemental Effects of Unrefined Fish Oil, Powdered/Coated
           Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Growth Performance in Weaner Pigs
    • Authors: Upadhaya S; Park H, Kim I, et al.
      Pages: 164 - 166
      Abstract: A total of 18 sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) with an average body weight of (within 24 h after farrowing) were used for a 5- week experiment to determine the effects of varying dietary Valine, Lysine (V:L) ratios on performance and fecal score in lactating sows and litters. Sows were raised in individual pens, and assigned to one of three experimental diets consisting different concentration of Valine, Lysine ratios (0.83%, 0.85% and 0.88%). sows body weight was significantly improved by 0.85% valine and lysine ratio compared to 0.85% and 0.88%. However, no significant difference were observed on sows body weight loss, back fat thickness, average daily feed intake and days to return to estrus of sows during the three experiment period. In addition, growth performance of piglet weaning weight were significantly improved by 0.85% valine and lysine ratio compared to 0.85% and 0.88%. Morever, piglet average daily gain was significantly increased 0.88% valine and lysine ratio compared to 0.83% and 0.85%. The three dietary treatments had a significant differences (P>0.05) on fecal score of sows, farrowing and 14 d old age piglets were significantly observed by valine and lisiune ratio. In conclusion, Valine, Lysine had no positive effects on the fecal score of sows and litter during lactation and also no positive effect on gut and its microflora.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.279
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-20 Energy Evaluation of Heat-treated and Intact Extruded-expelled
           Soybean Meal for Growing Pigs
    • Authors: Koo B; Adeshakin O, Nyachoti M.
      Pages: 166 - 166
      Abstract: An experiment was performed to evaluate the energy contents of extruded-expelled soybean meal (EESBM) and the effects of thermal treatment on energy utilization in growing pigs. Eighteen growing barrows (18.03 ± 0.61 kg initial body weight) were individually housed in metabolism crates and randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments to give six replicates per treatment. The three experimental diets were: a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet and two test diets with simple substitution of a basal diet with intact EESBM or heat-treated EESBM in a 70:30 ratio. Intact EESBM was autoclaved at 120°C for 60 mins to make heat-treated EESBM (heat-EESBM). Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 16 d, including 10 d for adaptation and 6 d for total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were then moved into indirect calorimetry chambers to determine 24-h heat production and 12-h fasting heat production. The energy contents of the tested DESBM were calculated by using the difference method. All data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure of SAS with the individual pig as the experimental unit. Pigs fed heat-EESBM diets showed lower (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy, and nitrogen than those fed intact EESBM. A trend (P < 0.10) was observed for greater heat increments in pigs fed intact EESBM than those fed heat-EESBM. This resulted in intact EESBM having greater (P < 0.05) digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents than heat-EESBM but comparable net energy contents between intact and heat-EESBM. In conclusion, respective values of DE, ME, and net energy are 4,591 kcal/kg, 4,099 kcal/kg, and 3,242 kcal/kg on a DM basis. However, thermal damage during EESBM production should be considered in terms of DE and ME content of EESBM fed to growing pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.280
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-23 Addition of Hydrogen Chloride to Collection Bags or Containers Did
           Not Change Basal Endogenous Losses or Digestibility of Amino Acid in Corn,
           Soybean Meal, or Wheat Middlings Fed to Growing Pigs
    • Authors: Lee S; Blavi L, Navarro D, et al.
      Pages: 166 - 167
      Abstract: The hypothesis that apparent ileal digestibility (AID), basal endogenous losses, and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA are not affected by adding acid to collection containers or bags used to collect ileal digesta from pigs was tested. Twenty-four barrows (initial BW: 77.8 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were fed diets for three 7-d periods. Corn, soybean meal, and wheat middlings were the sole AA sources in each diet and an N-free diet was also used. Within each period, each of the 4 diets was fed to 6 pigs. Among the 6 pigs, digesta from 3 pigs were collected in bags containing no HCl, whereas 40 mL of 3N HCl was included in the bags used to collect digesta from the remaining 3 pigs. Every other bag collected from each pig was emptied into a container without adding HCl, whereas the remaining bags were added to a container along with 40 mL of 3N HCl for each bag. All digesta were stored at –20 °C immediately after collection. Data were first analyzed using a model that included feed ingredient, HCl in bags, HCl in containers, and all 2-way and 3-way interactions as fixed effects. No 3-way interactions were significant, and data were, therefore, analyzed independently for each diet as a 2 × 2 factorial. Results indicated that there were no interactions between adding HCl to collection bags and to containers, and no effects of adding HCl to collection bags or containers for AID, basal endogenous losses, or SID of most AA were observed (Table 1). In conclusion, if digesta are stored at –20 °C immediately after collection, it is not necessary to add acid to digesta collection bags or collection containers.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.281
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-16 Effects of Oligosaccharide-based Polymer on Blood Profiles in
           Weanling Pigs Experimentally Infected with a Pathogenic E. coli
    • Authors: Kim K; He Y, Jinno C, et al.
      Pages: 167 - 168
      Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to investigate dietary supplementation of oligosaccharide-based polymer on blood profiles of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic F18 Escherichia coli (E. coli). Forty-eight pigs (7.23 ± 1.11 kg BW) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly allotted to one of four treatments with 12 replicate pigs per treatment. The four dietary treatments were a nursery basal diet (control), and 3 additional diets supplemented with 50 mg/kg Mecadox (AGP), 10 or 20 mg/kg of oligosaccharide-based polymer. The experiment lasted 18 d [7 d before and 11 d after the first inoculation (d 0)]. The doses of F18 E. coli inoculum were 1010 cfu/3 mL oral dose daily for 3 days. Blood samples were collected before E. coli inoculation (d 0), and on d 2, 5, 8, and 11 post-inoculation (PI). Total and differential blood cell count were analyzed by CBC test. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using the PROC MIXED of SAS with pig as the experimental unit. Supplementation of oligosaccharide-based polymer linearly (P < 0.05) reduced white blood cell counts, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils on d 2 PI, and neutrophils on d 5 PI, compared with the control. No differences were observed in total and differential white blood cell counts among AGP and two oligosaccharide-based polymer treatments except that pigs fed with AGP had greater (P < 0.05) lymphocytes on d 2 PI compared with pigs fed with oligosaccharide-based polymer diets. Supplementation of low dose oligosaccharide-based polymer or AGP reduced (P < 0.05) red blood cell count and packed cell volume on d 2 PI, whereas inclusion of high dose oligosaccharide-based polymer or AGP reduced (P < 0.05) packed cell volume on d 5 PI, compared with the control. In conclusion, supplementation of oligosaccharide-based polymer may alleviate the systemic inflammation caused by F18 E. coli infection.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.282
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-18 Effect of L-trp Source and Standard Ileal Digestible (SID)
           Tryptophan to Lysine Ratio on Growth Performance of Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Tsai T; Bottom k, Coble K, et al.
      Pages: 168 - 168
      Abstract: To evaluate the different sources of L-Trp on growth performance, a total of 288 weaned pigs (PIC1050 x DNA600) were stratified by gender and BW, and assigned to 1 of 7 dietary treatments. Treatments were control (devoid of feed grade Trp to create SID Trp/Lys = 17), and L-Trp from (Ajinomoto CO., INC., TrpA vs Daesang CO., LTD., TrpD) was added to form SID Trp:Lys ratios of 19, 21, and 23. Chlortetracycline (Zoetis Inc. Parsippany-Troy Hills, NJ) was supplemented in phase 1 (6 d) &2 (9 d), and Mecadox (Philbro Animal Health Corp., Ridgefield Park, NJ) was added in phase 3 (10 d) while antibiotic free diets were fed in phase 4 (17 d). Individual pig BW and pen feed intake was measured at each phase to determine BW, ADG, ADFI and F:G ratio. Data were analyzed as Mixed procedure of SAS as RCBD. Orthogonal contrast was conducted to determine linear and quadratic response with SID Trp/Lys from 17 (control) to 23 for each source of L-Trp. Adding both sources of L-Trp had minimum impact on growth performance in phase 1–3. As in phase 4, a tendency and significant linear increase on ADG with increasing level of TrpA (P = 0.09) and TrpD (P = 0.04) was observed with the highest ADG in pigs fed TrpA19. Pigs fed increasing level of SID Trp/Lys from TrpA had a quadratic reduction on F:G ratio (P = 0.09). The results suggested that a Trp:Lys ratio over 17 may enhance growth performance and source of L-Trp may impact performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.283
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSII-14 Supplementation of Bacillus Amyloquefaciens on Systemic Immunity
           of Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with a Pathogenic E. coli
    • Authors: Jinno C; Wong B, Kluenemann M, et al.
      Pages: 168 - 169
      Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloquefaciens on total and differential blood cell count in weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic E. coli. A total of 50 weaned pigs (7.41 ± 1.35 kg) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly assigned to one of the 5 treatments: sham control (CON-), sham B. amyloquefaciens (BAM-), challenged control (CON+), challenged B. amyloquefaciens (BAM+) and challenged carbadox (CAR+). The experiment lasted 28 days with 7 days’ adaptation and 21 days after the first E. coli inoculation. The doses of F18 E. coli inoculum were 1010 CFU/3 mL oral dose daily for 3 consecutive days. Whole blood samples were collected from all pigs on d -7, and d 0, 7, 14, and 21 post infection (PI) to measure total and differential blood cell count by complete blood count (CBC) analysis. Supplementation of BAM or CAR increased (P < 0.05) either the percentage or the number of lymphocytes on d 0 before E. coli inoculation. E. coli challenge increased (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count on d 7 and 21 PI, while supplementation of BAM tended (P < 0.10) to have low WBC on d 7 PI and had lower (P < 0.05) WBC on d 21 PI compared with CON+. Pigs in BAM+ also had lower (P < 0.05) neutrophil count on d 14 PI, pigs fed with CAR had lower (P < 0.05) neutrophil count on d 14 and 21 PI, compared with pigs in CON+. No difference was observed in red blood cell profile among all treatments throughout the experiment. In conclusion, pigs fed with B. amyloquefaciens have similar systemic immune response to pigs in antibiotic group and have relatively lower systemic inflammation caused by E. coli compared with control group.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.284
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-9 The Effect of Sire Line on Reproductive Performance During
           Lactation
    • Authors: Manu H; Fletcher M, Fang K, et al.
      Pages: 169 - 169
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of sire line on sow and piglet performance during lactation. Commercial Landrace x Large White females (n = 60) were bred to one of the following sire lines: a purebred Duroc line (Line S1), a synthetic (Line S2), or purebred Duroc (Line S3) from a different genetic source. Matings were balanced by line and parity. Females were fed a common gestation and lactation diet during these respective phases. Sow and piglet data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the GLM procedure of SAS. Results show that, during lactation, females bred to line S3 lost significantly (P = 0.01) more BW (-16.93 ± 3.56 kg) than females bred to line S2 (-2.00 ± 3.50 kg). However, no evidence of a difference (P = 0.18) in BW loss was detected between females bred to line S3 (-16.93 ± 3.56 kg) vs. Line S1 (-7.90 ± 3.56 kg). Further, sows bred to line S3 weaned significantly (P = 0.03) more piglets (12.0 ± 0.28) than females bred to line S2 (10.9 ± 0.27), but not (P = 0.1) compared to females bred to line S1 (11.7 ± 0.27). No significant effect of line (P > 0.05) or parity (P > 0.05) on total number of piglet’s born, number born alive, number of stillborn piglets, or preweaning mortality was detected. The number of mummified fetus tended to be lower in line S2 (0.17 vs 0.66; P = 0.079) and line S3 (0.12 vs 0.66; P = 0.051) sows compared with line S1 sows, respectively. In conclusion, sire line did not have a significant effect on total number born, number born alive, number stillborn, or preweaning mortality. However, females bred to line S3 lost significantly more BW during lact but weaned significantly more piglets than females bred to line S2.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.285
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-10 The Effect of Sire Line on Grow-finish Performance, Carcass
           
    • Authors: Manu H; Fletcher M, Fang K, et al.
      Pages: 169 - 170
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sire line on wean-to-finish performance, carcass characteristics, and meat pricing variables. Pigs used for this study were the progeny of a commercial Landrace x Large White female mated to one of the following sire lines: a purebred Duroc line (Line S1), or a synthetic (Line S2) or purebred Duroc line (Line S3) originating from a different genetic source. An equivalent number of pigs (n =144) were used per group, for 432 pigs placed on test. Average initial weights per line were 6.67 ± 0.24, 6.67 ± 0.24, and 6.60 ± 0.24 for lines S1, S2, and S3, respectively. At placement, 8 pigs were assigned to each pen (split sex) and blocked by line and initial BW, with 18 replicates per line. Data were analyzed at the pen level using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS, where the effects of line, sex, and line*sex were fitted as fixed effects and replicate was fitted as a random effect. Overall, piglets from line S2 (0.403 vs 0.381; P ≤ 0.0004) and line S3 (0.402 vs 0.381; P ≤ 0.001) had improved GF compared with piglets from line S1. The ADFI was greater in piglets from line S1 relative to piglets from line S2 (2.264 vs 2.117 kg; P ≤ 0.0001) and line S3 (2.264 vs 2.159 kg; P ≤ 0.004). The ADG, HCW, dressing yield, and loin depth were not different among treatment (P > 1.00). Piglets from line S3 had greater percent lean (57.12 vs 56.29 %; P ≤ 0.0001) and better carcass grade premium ($7.07 vs 6.60; P ≤ 0.0291) relative to piglets from line S1. In conclusion, line S1 piglets had greatest ADFI, but line S2 pigs and line S3 piglets had better feed efficiency. Line S3 pigs were leaner and had better carcass grade premium.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.286
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-19 The Effect of Xylanase on Finisher Pig Performance
    • Authors: Merriman L; Wilcock P, Cordero G.
      Pages: 170 - 170
      Abstract: The breakdown of long chain arabinoxylans into smaller chain xylo-oligomers by the use of xylanase results in a shift towards fiber utilizing bacteria resulting in production of small chain fatty acids and improved pig performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylanase (Econase XT; AB Vista) on finisher pig performance. A total of 598 pigs; (37.4 ± 1.0 kg) were fed a single-phase diet for 60 days. Pigs were assigned to two treatments; 0 (CTL) or 16,000 BXU/kg of xylanase (XYL) with 12 pen replicates and 24/25 pigs (mixed sex; gilts and boars) per treatment. The diet was based on wheat, barley, soybean meal, rapeseed meal, and wheat midds; SID Lys: 0.88%, NDF: 14.7%, and NE: 2090 kcal/kg. Average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated in phase 1 (0-26d), phase 2 (26-60d) and overall (0-60d). Liveability was measured per treatment. Data were analysed using JMP 12 using the standard least square platform and ANOVA was performed to determine significance at P < 0.05. The model included initial BW as a covariant. The results indicated that there was no effect of xylanase on liveweight, ADG or ADFI at any phase of the finisher period. The use of xylanase improved FCR in phase 2 (2.53 v 2.60: P < 0.05) and overall (2.44 v 2.49 P=0.03). No differences were seen in liveability (CTL; 96%; XYL 98%; P = 0.29). It can be concluded that the use of xylanase can be used in finisher feeds to improve FCR which is linked with greater energy utilisation that has been associated with greater fiber breakdown through xylanase use.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.287
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-20 Inclusion of a Live Yeast to Mixed Cereal Diets Improves Growth
           Performance of Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Merriman L; Cordero G, Wilcock P, et al.
      Pages: 170 - 171
      Abstract: As an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters, live yeast supplementation has proven useful in reducing weaning stress and improving health and performance of piglets. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a high concentrated live yeast product (20 billion CFU/g) supplemented in post-weaning piglet diets without antibiotics. A total of 144 pigs Pietrain × [LW×Landrace] (average initial BW = 8.55 ± 1.5 kg) weaned at 28 days of life were used for a 6-week growth study to determine post-weaning performance. Pigs were assigned to 2 treatments; 0 (Control group; CT) and 1 g of live yeast/kg (Yeast Supplemented group; YS) feed to 12 replicate pens of 6 pigs (3 barrows; 3 gilts). Average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated in pre-starter (days 0–14), starter (days 14–42) and in the whole nursery (days 0–42) periods. Data were analysed with ANOVA using PROC MIXED of SAS according to the completely randomized design. The model included initial BW as a covariant. Differences were deemed statistically significant when P ≤ 0.050 using a one tailed t-test. Live yeast supplementation improved ADG in starter (5.8%; P = 0.034) and in the whole nursery periods (7.0%; P = 0.045) compared with the CT group. Consequently, final BW was also higher in supplemented animals than in the CT (4.5%; P = 0.034). Differences in ADG were associated with differences in ADFI, higher in YS than in the CT group, both in starter (6.4%; P = 0.023) and in the whole nursery period (6.5%; P = 0.030). No differences were observed for FCR, mortality rate, and health incidences between dietary treatment groups. Therefore, supplementation of a live yeast to post-weaned piglets improved growth performance, confirming this product as an alternative to reduce antibiotic usage in nursery piglets.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.288
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-15 Effect of the Pelleting Process on Diet Formulations with Varying
           Levels of Crystalline AA and Reducing Sugars on Nursery Pig Growth
           Performance
    • Authors: Dunmire K; Braun M, Zhang Y, et al.
      Pages: 171 - 172
      Abstract: A total of 360 pigs (DNA 200×400; initially 11.3 kg) were used in an 18-d study to determine the effect of pelleting diets with or without increased concentrations of free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugars (RS) on pig growth performance. There were 9 replications/treatment and 5 pigs/pen. Treatments were arranged in a 2×2×2 factorial with main effects of diet form (mash vs. pellet), crystalline AA (low vs. high), and RS (low vs. high) provided by dried distillers grain with solubles and bakery meal included at 20% and 15%, respectively. Diets were pelleted to achieve a conditioning temperature of 86.7°C using a 22.4 kW pellet mill equipped with a 4.7 x 34.9-mm die. Data were analyzed as a CRD using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There were no 3-way interactions observed. For the main effect of feed form, ADFI decreased (P=0.001) and G:F and caloric efficiency improved (P=0.001) in pigs fed pelleted diets compared to mash diets. For the main effect of crystalline AA, pigs fed diets with high crystalline AA had increased (P< 0.024) ADFI compared to those fed diets with low crystalline AA. For the main effect of RS, pigs fed high RS diets had decreased (P< 0.041) ADG, ADFI, G:F, and caloric efficiency compared to those fed low RS. In conclusion, there was no evidence of interactions between treatments, indicating that increasing amounts of crystalline AA and RS did not influence the response to pelleted diets. Pigs fed the high RS diets had reduced feed intake which resulted in reduced gain and improved feed and caloric efficiency.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.289
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-13 Effects of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Fermentation Products on
           Lactating Sow Performance
    • Authors: Garcia R; Thayer M, Mills K, et al.
      Pages: 172 - 172
      Abstract: Lactating sows (N=140, York x Landrace) were used to evaluate the effects of a liquid prototype (LIQP) and dry (XPC®; Diamond V) Saccharomyces cerevisiae feed additives on sow and litter performance. Sows were fed a common gestation diet (0.55% SID-Lysine) until d112 of pregnancy and then allotted to lactation treatments: 1) Control diet (CON; 1.00% SID-Lysine), 2) CON +15 mL of LIQP from d112 to weaning (LIQ), 3) CON +0.20% of XPC from d112 to weaning (DRY), and 4) DRY +15 mL of LIQP from d112 to d7 post-farrowing (D+L). The LIQP was given once daily using an oral dose gun and XPC was included in the feed. Immunoglobulin concentrations were estimated on colostrum samples using Brix refractometer and piglet d 1 serum immunocrit ratio and plasma IgA and IgG. Daily sow water intake and daily feed intake (DFI) from d112 of gestation to d7 post-farrowing and weekly feed intake (ADFI) were recorded. There were no treatment effects on sow BW, backfat, or loin depth (P >0.05) although sows from LIQ group had numerically smaller BW reductions compared to CON sows (4.9% vs 7.2%, P=0.19). LIQ sows had greater DFI and CON lower DFI during week 1 of lactation (P=0.04) as well as ADFI for weeks 2, 3, and overall lactation period (P< 0.01) with DRY and D+L sows being intermediate. Water intake, immunoglobulins, and litter performance did not differ among treatments (P >0.05) although pigs from LIQ sows, compared to CON, had numerically increased weaning (6.14 vs 5.82kg, P >0.05) and litter weights (63.2 vs 60.1kg, P >0.05). LIQ sows had 0.7 d reduced wean-to-estrus interval (P< 0.001) and tended to have greater conception rates (P=0.07). In conclusion, LIQ supplementation of lactating sows improves feed intake, allowing sows to keep body reserves, and have better subsequent rebreeding performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.290
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-23 Feeding In-shell Hazelnuts (Corylus Spp) to Pigs Alters Fatty
           Acid Profile of Pork Fat
    • Authors: Lammers P; Pralle R, Wellnitz K.
      Pages: 172 - 173
      Abstract: The study objective was to examine the effects of feeding growing pigs in-shell hazelnuts (Corylus spp). Barrows (n = 36; 58.0 ± 0.73 kg body weight) were sorted into pens (6 pigs/pen; 4.05 m2/pig) across two study replicates. Pens were randomly assigned (n = 3 pens/treatment/replicate) to receive a balanced corn-soybean meal diet (control) or a diet diluted with in-shell hazelnuts (HAZEL; 90% control and 10% hazelnuts). Hazelnuts were pulverized using a roller mill before incorporation into the diet. Composition of the hazelnuts was 7.11% CP, 19.84% crude fat, and 53.32% ADF; C18:1 accounted for 74.93% of the total fat. Pigs were individually weighed every 28 days and feed disappearance by pen was recorded. Within replicate, all pigs were harvested on the same day after either 68 or 69 days of feeding. Two chops (last-rib location; 2.54 cm thick) were collected from each carcass to assess pork quality. One cube (2.54 cm3) of fat was removed from half of the chops (1 sample/pig) and analyzed for fatty acid profile. The R software (v. 4.0.2) package afex (v. 0.28) was used for statistical analysis by GLM (ADG, ADFI, G:F) or mixed models with subsampling (carcass traits and fatty acids). All models included fixed effects of treatment, replicate, and their interaction; mixed models included the random effect of pen and P-values were determined by parametric bootstrapping. Control pigs grew 6% more efficiently than HAZEL pigs (P = 0.03), but ADG and ADFI were not affected by treatment (P > 0.05). Depth of backfat, hot carcass weight, chop color, intramuscular fat, and pH were not impacted by treatment (P > 0.05). Fat from HAZEL pigs had more C18:1 and less C16:0 (P = 0.01) than control pigs. Supplementation of hazelnuts to pigs may alter pork fat composition.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.291
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-21 Optimum SID Threonine to Lysine Ratio in Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Mercado A; Weeden T, Otto-Tice E, et al.
      Pages: 173 - 173
      Abstract: A total of 270 pigs (PIC 1050 x DNA 600, 6.0 kg) were used in a 42-d nursery trial to determine the optimum SID threonine to SID lysine (SID Thr/Lys) ratio for young pigs. Pigs were sorted by sex and initial BW, and were allotted to each pen (3 barrows, 3 gilts). Pens were then randomly assigned to diets containing incremental levels of SID Thr/Lys ratio (0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.75), achieved using THRPRO 80 (CJ America, CA) as the source of L-threonine. Each treatment consisted of 45 piglets and 9 replicates per treatment. There were 3 dietary phases (2 weeks each) and the same levels of SID Thr/Lys were tested for each phase. All performance data (ADG, ADFI, and Gain to Feed (G:F)) were analyzed using Proc Mixed in a RCBD model with SID Thr/Lys ratio as fixed effect and weight block as random effect. Orthogonal contrasts were performed to test for linear and quadratic effects of SID Thr/Lys ratio on all performance parameters. Final BW averaged around 20.8 kg (±0.6) and was not influenced by SID Thr/Lys ratio (P>0.20). It was however lower than previously observed from previous nursery batches and might be due to pig infection with Lawsonia intracellularis and Streptococcus suis. A linear trend on ADG was observed during the last phase of nursery (P=0.10) but this response was not significant for the overall study (P>0.15). SID Thr/Lys ratio had no significant effect on ADFI during any phase or overall experimental period (P>0.20). Increasing SID Thr/Lys ratio, however, linearly increase G:F of nursery pigs overall (P< 0.05). The results of this study suggest that there is value in terms of increasing efficiency of gain with higher level of SID Thr/Lys as compared to current NRC recommendation (0.59), especially under disease challenge conditions.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.292
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-22 Impact of a Dietary Phytogenic Feed Additive on Growth
           Performance of Growing Finishing Pigs
    • Authors: Mercado A; Weeden T, Tran H, et al.
      Pages: 173 - 174
      Abstract: : Two experiments were conducted involving a total of 1560 pigs (25.82 kgs, PIC and Hypor) to evaluate if phytogenic feed additive (PFA), containing essential oils and pungent substances, has positive impact on growth performance of growing finishing pigs. Pens in each experiment (Study 1: 11 pens, 20 pigs per pen; Study 2: 15 pens, 20 pigs per pen) were randomly allocated to one of 3 dietary treatments containing 0, 68, or 136 g/ton of the PFA. Feeding program consisted of 3 feeding phases of 21 d each. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain to feed (GF) were measured for each phase and overall. Performance data were analyzed using PROC MIX of SAS using RCBD design with dietary inclusion of PFA, pen location blocked within a study and initial BW as covariate. Orthogonal contrasts were used to determine linear or quadratic effect of PFA. No significant differences (P>0.20) were observed in ADG, ADFI or GF during the first 2 phases of the study. During phase 3 however, increasing the level of PFA resulted in a linear increase in ADG (P< 0.001) and a quadratic response in ADFI (P< 0.05) and GF (P< 0.05). Overall, linear improvements in ADG (P< 0.001) was observed with addition of PFA in the diets (+2.5%, +3% vs. NC). Similarly, increasing the level of PFA in the diet tended to linearly improve final BW (P< 0.10, +0.9%, +1.6% vs. NC). The results of this study indicate a positive impact of feeding a PFA on growth of growing-finishing pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.293
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-11 Evaluating the Performance of Grow-finish Pigs Supplemented with
           
    • Authors: Knauer M; Mani V, Marsteller T, et al.
      Pages: 174 - 174
      Abstract: Heat stress (HS) severely impacts swine leading to compromised barrier integrity, diminished intestinal health and decreased performance. ButiPEARL® Z (BPZ) is an encapsulated formulation of zinc and butyrate shown to alleviate the impact of HS by improving intestinal health. KemTRACE® Chromium (KTCr) is an organic trace mineral shown to decrease the impact of stress and improve glucose utilization, leading to muscle growth and improved performance. To test the efficacy of BPZ and KTCr on mitigating stress from natural heat exposure, a grow-finish trial was conducted from June-September. There were four treatments: negative control (NC), NC+.45kg BPZ, NC+.91kg BPZ and NC+1.82kg BPZ. Three BPZ treatments were also supplemented with 200ppb KTCr. Pigs (n=480) were randomly assigned to 96 pens at 22.5kg. Performance was measured at d0, 28, 56 and at marketing. From d56 to market, ADFI was greater (P< 0.05) for 0.45kg and 0.91kg BPZ when compared to NC and 1.82kg BPZ (3.40 and 3.35 vs. 3.26 and 3.27kg, respectively). Therefore, relationships between ADFI day 56 to market and ADFI day 0 to market with BPZ level were curvilinear (P< 0.05). Both market weight and overall ADG tended (P< 0.10) to have curvilinear relationships with BPZ level. While not different, 0.45kg and .91kg BPZ supplemented pigs were .97kg and 1.25kg heavier, respectively, on marketing day compared to control. No differences (P >0.10) were observed for Feed:Gain. Part of the negative effects of HS include decrease in feed intake which contributes to intestinal damage and decreased performance. Data from this study show that both treatment combinations were able to improve feed intake and decrease stress which might have led to the improved weight gain at the end. The data provides evidence that the combination of BPZ and KTCr may alleviate the negative effects of HS and help with the performance of grow-finish pigs during heat stress.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.294
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-14 Hybrid Rye Can Replace Corn in Diets for Growing Pigs Without
           Impacting Growth Performance Although Pigs Prefer to Eat Corn Rather Than
           Hybrid Rye If Given a Choice
    • Authors: McGhee M; Stein H.
      Pages: 174 - 175
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that feed preference and growth performance will not be affected if hybrid rye replaces corn in diets for growing pigs. In experiment 1, 36 pigs (32.0 ± 1.8 kg) were housed for 8 d with one gilt and one barrow in each pen. Each pen had 2 feeders containing a corn-based or a hybrid rye-based diet. Feeder positions were switched daily, and feed allotments and disappearances were recorded daily. In experiment 2, 128 pigs (27.2 ± 2.2 kg) were allotted to 32 pens with 4 pigs/pen and 8 replicate pens per diet. A corn-based basal diet and 3 diets containing 22, 45, or 67% hybrid rye were fed for 27 d. Body weights were determined at the start and conclusion of the experiment. Experiment 1 data were analyzed by a paired t-test and experiment 2 data were analyzed using SAS Proc Mixed with diet as the fixed effect and pen as a random effect. Contrast statements were used to test linear and quadratic effects of including graded levels of hybrid rye in diets. In experiment 1, preference for the hybrid rye diet was less (P < 0.05) than for the corn diet on each day and for the overall experiment (Table 1). In experiment 2, body weights of pigs, average daily gain (ADG), and gain:feed did not differ among treatments. Average daily feed intake tended to decrease (linear, P < 0.10) with increased hybrid rye inclusion. Taste preference and satiating effects of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract may contribute to the reduced consumption of hybrid rye in both experiments. Nevertheless, the observation that diet did not influence ADG or gain:feed indicate that growing pigs may be fed diets with high inclusion rates of hybrid rye without negatively impacting growth.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.295
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-16 Growth Performance of Weaned Pigs Fed Barley Differing in
           Fermentable Starch and Fiber Profile
    • Authors: Zannatta J; Wang L, Beltranena E, et al.
      Pages: 175 - 176
      Abstract: Barley grain containing more fermentable starch or fiber might be an attractive energy source in weaned pig diets due to benefits on gut health. Barley rapidly-fermentable carbohydrates may serve as prebiotic and slowly-fermentable fiber may decrease diarrhea in weaned pigs. Steam-explosion processing may disrupt the fiber matrix of hulls, increasing slowly-fermentable fiber of barley. To explore, 220 pigs were fed 1 of 5 diets containing 60% cereal grain: 1) low-fermentable hulled barley (LFB); 2) LFB steam-exploded (LFB-E; 1.2 MPa, 120 s); 3) high β-glucan (10% DM) hull-less barley (HFB); 4) high amylose (17% DM) hull-less barley (HFA); or 5) low-fermentable wheat (LFW). Diets were fed starting 1-week post-weaning and formulated to provide 2.4 and 2.3 Mcal net energy (NE)/kg, 5.5 and 5.1 g standardized ileal digestible lysine/Mcal NE for phase 1 (day 1–14) and phase 2 (day 15–35), respectively. For the entire trial (day 1–35), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) of pigs did not differ among diets. Gain:feed (G:F) did not differ between LFB and LFW diets, but steam-explosion of hulled barley reduced (P < 0.05) G:F. Feces consistency did not differ between LFB and LFW diets, but was better (P < 0.05) for LFB than HFB, HFA and LFB-E diets. For phase 1, G:F of pigs was lower (P < 0.05) for LFB-E diet than LFW diet. For days 22–28, LFB-E diet had greater (P < 0.01) ADFI than HFA diet and tended (P = 0.09) to have a greater ADG than HFB diet. In conclusion, hulled or hull-less barley grain replaced wheat grain without affecting growth performance in weaned pigs. Hulled barley increased feces consistency. Steam-explosion of hulled barley did not increase growth performance of weaned pigs. Barley grain is an attractive energy source for weaned pigs for managing growth and feces consistency.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.296
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-18 Super Dose Phytase and Carbohydrase Cocktail Enhance Ileal
           Nutrient and Energy Digestibility of Corn-soybean Diets in Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Le Thanh B; Bergstrom J, Hahn J, et al.
      Pages: 176 - 176
      Abstract: Feed enzymes may ameliorate reduced nutrient and energy digestibility in nursery pigs. The objective was to test effects of super-dosing phytase and fiber-degrading enzymes on digestibility of DM, GE, CP, AA, and Ca. We tested supplementing a super dose (added 1,500 FYT/kg) of phytase (Ronozyme Hi-Phos) with or without carbohydrase cocktail that contained 85 FXU β-xylanase/kg, 587 U/g endo-1,4-β-glucanase, 513 U/g endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase, 15,000 U/g hemicellulases, and 3,000 U/g pectinases in corn-soybean meal diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Diets included 68% corn, 17% SBM, and a basal level of 500 FTU/kg of phytase, and were formulated to contain 2.50 Mcal/kg NE and 5.10 gSID Lys/Mcal NE. Eight ileal-cannulated nursery pigs (initial BW 10 kg) were fed 4 diets at 3.0 × maintenance DE (110 kcal per kg of BW0.75) for four 9-day periods in a double 4 × 4 Latin square. Apparent hindgut fermentation (AHF) was calculated as apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) minus apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Interactions between super-dosing phytase and carbohydrase cocktail were observed. Supplementing either carbohydrase cocktail or super dose phytase, but not their combination, increased (P < 0.05) diet AID of DM, GE, CP, and most AA by 4–5%-units. Supplementing super dose phytase increased (P < 0.05) AID of P by 16%-units and ATTD of P by 10%-units. Supplementing super dose phytase or carbohydrase cocktail did not affect AID of Ca and ATTD of GE, CP, and Ca, and diet DE value. Supplementing carbohydrase cocktail without super dose phytase decreased (P < 0.05) diet AHF of DM, GE, and CP. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of super dose phytase or carbohydrase cocktail increased ileal digestibility of nutrients in nursery pigs, and thereby reduced protein entering the large intestine. Additive or synergistic effects of carbohydrase cocktail and super dose phytase were not detected.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.297
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-17 Extrusion Enhances Nutrient and Energy Digestibility of Pulse
           Grain-based Diets Fed to Growing Pigs
    • Authors: Zannatta J; Wang L, Beltranena E, et al.
      Pages: 176 - 177
      Abstract: Heat processing may enhance nutrient digestibility of diets based on pulse grains. The objective of this study was to determine nutrient and energy digestibility of extruded lentil-based diets containing either supplemental plant or animal protein source in growing pigs. Two diets were formulated to provide 2.4 Mcal NE/kg and 4.35 g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal NE: 1) soybean meal diet (SBM), containing 50% lentil, 31% wheat, and 12.8% soybean meal; and 2) fish meal diet (FM), containing 40% lentil, 45% wheat, and 10% fish meal. Following mixing, each diet was divided into 2 parts: one part remained mash while the other part was extruded using a single-screw extruder (105°C, 400 rpm, 5 kg water/h). The 2 extruded and 2 non-extruded diets were tested in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows (32.3 kg) were fed the 4 diets at 2.8 times maintenance DE (110 kcal per kg of BW0.75) for four 9-d periods in a double 4 × 4 Latin square. The FM diets had greater (P < 0.05) AID of DM, GE, and most AA, and ATTD of CP, but lower apparent hindgut fermentation of DM and GE than the SBM diets. The AID of CP and AA were 3.2 and 4.7%-units greater (P < 0.05), respectively, and the ATTD of GE and DE values were 2.1 and 3.1%-units greater (P < 0.05), respectively, for the extruded diets than the non-extruded diets. Interactions between protein source and extrusion were not observed. In conclusion, FM diets had greater ileal digestibility of DM, energy, and AA than SBM diets. Extrusion increased the AID of CP and most AA, and DE value of both plant- and animal-protein diets based on lentil grain, indicating that extrusion can increase the energy and protein value of pulse-grain based diets fed to growing pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.298
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIII-12 In vitro Evaluation of Purified Fiber Sources for Production of
           Short-chain Fatty Acids Using Pig Cecal Content as an Inoculum
    • Authors: Padilla G; Jha R, Fellner V, et al.
      Pages: 177 - 177
      Abstract: This study evaluated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from purified fiber sources when fermented in vitro using pig cecal contents as an inoculum. Fiber sources of interest were inulin from chicory root (native and long-chain inulin with 90 and 98% fiber, respectively), pectin from citrus peel (high methoxyl pectin), resistant starch (native starch), potato starch (commercial grade), and β-glucan (β-1,3;β-1,6 yeast-derived). Cellulose and cornstarch were used as indigestible and highly digestible carbohydrates, respectively. Triplicate samples of substrates (2 g) were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with pepsin and pancreatin for 6 h. Subsequently, hydrolyzed residues (200 mg) were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C with 30 mL solution of cecal inoculum collected from 3 sows fed a standard commercial diet and buffered mineral solution. After 48 h of incubation, solutions from fermented samples were analyzed for pH, SCFA, and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) using gas-liquid chromatography. Enzymatic hydrolysis had no effect on digestion of β-glucan, but total SCFA concentration after fermentation was highest (26.13 mmol/g) followed by resistant starch (22.61 mmol/g) and potato starch (22.20 mmol/g) and was lowest for cellulose (13.91 mmol/g). In contrast, native inulin was highly digested during enzymatic hydrolysis, resulting in the lowest substrate available for fermentation (11.84% DM) and the highest pH (5.98). Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of resistant starch increased (P< 0.001) concentrations of acetate (0.60 mg/g), whereas potato starch and β-glucan yielded more butyrate (0.60 and 0.54 mg/g respectively), and β-glucan resulted in greater (P< 0.001) propionate concentrations (0.69 mg/g). Pectin resulted in the highest fermentation (82.38% DM disappearance) and the lowest pH (4.03) compared to the other fiber sources (P< 0.001) and yielded the lowest BCFA concentration (1.89 mM, P< 0.001). Results suggest that fermentation of resistant starch, potato starch, and β-glucan produced higher SCFA concentrations, while pectin resulted in a decreased pH of fermentation solution.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.299
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-8 Effect of Feeding Levucell SB® 10 Titan Advantage and YANG on
           Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal VFA of Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Tran H; Shields M, Arentson R, et al.
      Pages: 177 - 178
      Abstract: A total of 496 weaned pigs (19 ± 1 d of age) were used in a 3-phase feeding program to evaluate effects of Levucell SB 10 Titan Advantage, a live yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (LEV; Elanco) and a non-viable yeast product (YANG; Elanco) on performance, complete blood count (CBC), and fecal VFA of nursery pigs. Pigs were blocked by weaning BW and gender and allotted to 44 pens (11–12 pigs/pen) which was assigned to one of 4 dietary treatments (11 pens/treatment). The study was designed as 2 x 2 factorial with LEV and YANG. Pigs were fed to meet or exceed nutrient requirements (NRC, 2012). Blood (d 10 and 22) and fecal samples (d 22) were collected from one pig per pen for CBC and VFA analyses. During d 0–7, feeding LEV or YANG alone improved (P < 0.05) G:F by 20% and 12%, respectively. There was a tendency of LEV*YANG interaction (P < 0.10) where feeding LEV increased (P < 0.05) BW and ADG compared to the control (CON). During d 0–14, feeding YANG with LEV reduced (P < 0.05) BW, ADG, and G:F compared to feeding YANG or LEV alone. Pigs fed LEV had an improved G:F compared to pigs fed CON or YANG with LEV (P < 0.05). During d 21–42, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) for a LEV*YANG effect where pigs fed CON had a lower G:F compared to other treatments. Overall, feeding LEV alone increased (P < 0.01) G:F (2.4%) and numerically increased final BW (0.60 kg) compared to CON. LEV tended to increase blood lymphocytes (P = 0.11) and increased platelets and platelet hematocrit (P < 0.05) compared to CON. There were no differences in fecal VFA measures. The results of this study indicate that feeding LEV increased G:F of nursery pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.300
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-10 The Effect of a Dacitic (rhyolitic) Tuff Breccia, a Hydrated
           Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate (HSCAS), Inclusion in Corn-soybean Meal
           Diets on Growth Performance of Individually Housed Grower Pigs
    • Authors: Chevalier T; Ferrel J, Lindemann M.
      Pages: 178 - 178
      Abstract: Crossbred pigs (24 barrows and 24 gilts; BW 35.59±0.24 kg) were blocked by body weight, sex, and allotted in a randomized complete block design to 3 dietary treatments: 1) Control [CON], 2) CON+0.25%, and 3) CON+0.50% inclusion of a dacitic tuff breccia (DTB) to evaluate effects on growth performance. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (2012) requirement estimates and fed for 2 phases (d0-14=PHS_1 and d14-28=PHS_2). Diets were limit fed based on metabolic body weight (3.5 x maintenance ME needs [3.5 × 106 Kcal ME/kg BW0.75]). Pigs were weighed weekly and feed allowance adjusted accordingly. In PHS_1, a tendency for a sex difference, gilt vs. barrow, respectively, for ADG (4.92%; 0.913 vs. 0.870 kg; P=0.10) and G:F (4.14%; 0.528 vs. 0.507; P=0.06) existed. The responses to treatments 1–3, respectively, for ADG (0.877, 0.900, and 0.896 kg; linear P=0.54) and G:F (0.510, 0.522, 0.521; linear P=0.46) were numerically greater. In PHS_2, sex differences, gilt vs. barrow, respectively, for ADG (5.67%; 0.946 vs. 0.895 kg; P=0.05) and G:F (7.98%; 0.460 vs. 0.426; P< 0.01) existed. The numerical responses to treatments 1–3, respectively, for ADG (0.912, 0.944 and 0.905 kg; P=0.41) and G:F (0.439, 0.446, 0.444; linear P=0.70) continued. A tendency for a quadratic response in ADFI (P=0.06) existed because feed allowance increased with increasing weekly BW for treatments 2 and 3. Overall, sex differences, gilt vs. barrow, respectively, for ADG (5.30%; 0.929 vs. 0.882 kg; P< 0.05) and G:F (6.23%; 0.491 vs. 0.462; P< 0.01) occurred. Numerical responses to treatments 1–3, respectively, for ADG (0.895, 0.921 and 0.900 kg, P=0.32) and G:F (0.471, 0.480, 0.479; linear P=0.50) occurred. Additionally, the response to DTB appeared to be higher in barrows.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.301
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-12 Evaluation of the Effect of Benzoic Acid with or Without a Direct
           
    • Authors: Humphrey D; Bergstrom J, Calvo E, et al.
      Pages: 178 - 179
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine if benzoic acid in combination of a direct fed microbial could improve grow-finish performance in swine. Three hundred and twenty (DNA 600 X 241, DNA Genetics, Columbus, NE) barrows and gilts were used to evaluate the effect of benzoic acid (BA; VevoVitall, DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ) with or without a direct fed microbial (DFM; PureGro, DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ) on the growth performance of pigs from approximately 35 to 125 kg. Pigs were sorted by sex, randomly placed into complete blocks, and equalized by weight (40 pens total). Pigs were fed a common diet for 11 days. Following acclimation, pens were assigned to one of four dietary treatments: standard commercial (PC), 85% PC SID lysine and lowered crude protein (NC), PC plus BA (BA at 0.3% inclusion), and PC plus BA and DFM (BA+DFM at 0.3 and 0.025% inclusion, respectively). Ultrasound was conducted to evaluate body composition on day 81. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS with pen as the experimental unit. Results were considered significant at P≤0.05 and a trend at P >0.05 and P≤0.10. Pigs fed BA had increased ADG compared to pigs fed PC (1.11 vs. 1.07 kg/d, P=0.02) and NC (1.11 vs. 1.07 kg/d, P=0.01), and similar ADG compared to pigs fed BA+DFM (1.11 vs. 1.09, P=0.21). G:F in pigs fed BA tended to be higher compared to pigs fed NC (0.175 vs. 0.172, P=0.06), and similar compared to pigs fed PC (0.175 vs. 0.176, P=0.51) and BA+DFM (0.175 vs. 0.174, P=0.73). There was a tendency in therapeutic intervention frequency across treatments (P=0.07). In conclusion, reducing lysine and crude protein levels resulted in poorer feed efficiency and BA resulted in increased gain in growing and finishing pigs from approximately 35 to 125 kg.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.302
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-19 Flavors and Sweeteners in Nursery Pig Diets Increased Intake and
           Reduced Soft Feces in the First Weeks After Weaning
    • Authors: Perez-Palencia J; Chen X, Lv J, et al.
      Pages: 179 - 180
      Abstract: The stressful events associated with weaning predispose piglets to reduced feed intake, which in concert with immature digestive and immune systems, results in increased incidences of diarrhea and poor performance. Flavors and sweeteners can be used in diets for young pigs as a means of attracting them to dry feed and increase their feed intake and performance after weaning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of flavors and sweeteners and their combination on growth performance and post-weaning gut health of nursery pigs. A total of 1,144 weaned pigs (initial BW 6.61 ± 0.2 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design and assigned to one of four dietary treatments, with 11 replicates (pens) of 26 piglets per pen. Dietary treatments were 1) Control: standard 4-phase nursery feeding program; 2) Sweetener: control plus sweetener (0.015%); 3) Flavor: control plus flavoring (0.05%); 4) Combination: control plus sweetener and flavoring. Experimental diets were provided at a budget of 0.9, 3.4, 4.5, and 24 kg/pig in Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A common phase 5 diet was provided ad libitum until d56 after weaning. Feed disappearance and body weight were measured every other week. A pen fecal score assessment was performed at d4, 7, 10, and 14 after weaning. Overall, there were no differences among dietary treatments for growth performance. However, during the first two weeks post-weaning pigs fed diets containing flavors and sweeteners had a greater (P = 0.097) ADFI than control pigs. On d14, pigs fed diets containing flavors and sweeteners had less incidence of soft and watery feces (χ2 < 0.05) compared to control pigs. This study provides evidence that dietary inclusion of flavors and sweeteners has important benefits to the overall health of nursery pigs likely related to feed intake in the period immediately after weaning.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.303
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-17 Effects of Trace Mineral Source and Level on Growth Performance
           and Carcass Characteristics of Grow-finish Pigs
    • Authors: Cemin H; Swalla L, Pietig J, et al.
      Pages: 180 - 180
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of trace mineral source and level for grow-finish pigs. In Exp. 1, 2,168 pigs (initial BW = 23.0 kg) were used in a 117-d trial. There were 5 treatments based on inorganic (sulfates and oxides) or organic (Alltech Bioplex, Lexington, KY) minerals supplemented at different levels as follows: 1) Industry inorganic (120 mg/kg Zn, 100 mg/kg Fe, 40 mg/kg Mn, 10 mg/kg Cu); 2) 100% NRC inorganic (60 mg/kg Zn, 60 mg/kg Fe, 2.2 mg/kg Mn, 4 mg/kg Cu); 3) 33% NRC organic (20 mg/kg Zn, 20 mg/kg Fe, 0.7 mg/kg Mn, 1.3 mg/kg Cu); 4) 66% NRC organic (40 mg/kg Zn, 40 mg/kg Fe, 1.5 mg/kg Mn, 2.6 mg/kg Cu); and 5) 100% NRC organic (60 mg/kg Zn, 60 mg/kg Fe, 2.2 mg/kg Mn, 4 mg/kg Cu). Selenium level was 0.30 mg/kg for all treatments. Treatment 1 had 14 replicates and the other treatments had 18 replicates. Pigs were weighed approximately every three weeks and carcass data was collected at the end of the trial. Data was analyzed with SAS MIXED procedure. There was no evidence for differences (P > 0.10) for overall ADG, ADFI, G:F, and final BW. Pigs fed 66% NRC organic had the highest (P < 0.05) percentage lean and loin depth. In Exp. 2, 1,188 pigs (initial BW = 25.9 kg) were used in a 120-d trial with two treatments: 1) Industry inorganic and 2) 66% NRC organic, with the same mineral levels as Exp. 1 and 24 replicates per treatment. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in growth performance. Similar to Exp. 1, pigs fed 66% NRC organic had higher (P < 0.05) percentage lean and loin depth. In conclusion, lower levels of organic trace minerals resulted in improved carcass characteristics without compromising growth performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.304
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV18 Effects of Added Zn Level on Growth Performance and Hemoglobin of
           Nursery Pigs
    • Authors: Cemin H; Swalla L, Pietig J, et al.
      Pages: 181 - 181
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of added Zn level on growth performance and hemoglobin of nursery pigs. A total of 673 pigs (initial BW = 6.0 kg) were used in a 45-d trial. There were 3 treatments based on added Zn level: 100, 2,000, or 3,000 mg/kg from Zn oxide. Experimental diets were fed for 21 d. After that, pigs were fed a common corn and soybean meal-based diet with 100 mg/kg added Zn for 24 d. There were 8 replicates per treatment. Pigs were weighed approximately every 10 d to evaluate growth performance, and blood samples were collected for hemoglobin analysis. Data was analyzed with SAS MIXED procedure. From d 0 to 10, there was a linear improvement (P < 0.05) in ADG, ADFI, and G:F with increasing Zn level. From d 10 to 21, increasing Zn level resulted in higher ADFI (linear, P = 0.009). However, there was no difference (P > 0.10) in ADG and G:F. From d 0 to 21, pigs fed increasing added Zn had improved (linear, P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI. From d 21 to 45, pigs previously fed high levels of added Zn had higher ADFI (linear, P = 0.023), but there was no evidence for differences (P > 0.10) for ADG and G:F. Overall (d 0 to 45), pigs fed increasing added Zn levels had improved (linear, P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and final BW. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed for hemoglobin on d 10 and 45, with no differences (P > 0.10) observed on d 21. In summary, pigs fed high levels of added Zn presented improved growth performance. Although the response was linear in nature, the differences between pigs fed 2,000 or 3,000 mg/kg Zn were minimal for the response variables evaluated.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.374
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-14 Influence of Feed Grade Amino Acid Inclusion Level in Late Nursery
           and Grower Diets Fed to Pigs from 10 to 35 Kg
    • Authors: Williams H; Tokach M, Woodworth J, et al.
      Pages: 181 - 182
      Abstract: A total of 912 pigs (PIC TR4 × (Fast LW × PIC L02)) were used in a 43-d trial to evaluate the influence of feed grade amino acid levels in late nursery and grower diets containing 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance. Pigs were randomly assigned to pens (19 pigs per pen) and pens were randomly allotted in weight blocks to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 12 pens per treatment. Treatment diets were fed in 2 phases from 10 to 19.5 kg and 19.5 to 35 kg with digestible lysine at 1.31 and 1.15%, respectively). Predetermined orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate linear or quadratic effects based on percentage of digestible lysine from intact protein versus feed grade lysine. Dietary treatments contained low, medium, high, or very high levels of feed grade amino acids with L-lysine added at 0.25, 0.40, 0.55, and 0.70% of the diet, respectively, with all other amino acids added as needed to meet minimum ratios relative to lysine (60% Ile; 58% Met and Cys; 65% Thr; 19% Trp; 72% Val). Overall, from d 0 to 43, there was an increase (quadratic, P< 0.020) in average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with pigs fed increasing levels of feed grade amino acids having the greatest gain and feed intake at the medium and high inclusion of feed grade amino acids, respectively. For overall gain:feed (G:F), pigs fed the medium level of feed grade amino acids had improved G:F (P=0.002) compared to pigs fed the high and very high feed grade amino acids with the pigs fed the low feed grade amino acids intermediate. In summary, feeding pigs medium levels of feed grade amino acids resulted in increased ADG and G:F during the late nursery and grower period.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.305
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-15 Influence of Particle Size of Enogen Feed Corn and Conventional
           Yellow Dent Corn on Lactating Sow Performance
    • Authors: Williams H; Tokach M, Woodworth J, et al.
      Pages: 182 - 183
      Abstract: A total of 107 sows (Line 241; DNA, Columbus, NE) across 4 batch farrowing groups were used to evaluate the effects of corn source and particle size on sow and litter performance. Treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial with main effects of corn source (Enogen® Feed corn (Syngenta Seeds, Downers Grove, IL) or conventional yellow dent corn) and ground corn particle size (600 or 900 µm). Sows were blocked by parity and BW upon arrival to the farrowing house. There were approximately 27 sows per treatment, sow was considered the experimental unit, dietary treatment was a fixed effect, and sow group and block were used as random effects. Main effects of corn source and particle size as well as their interactions were tested. From farrowing to weaning, there was a tendency for a source×particle size interaction (P=0.065) for sow BW change. Sows fed 900 µm Enogen Feed corn had decreased BW loss compared to sows fed other treatments which were similar in BW loss. There was a source×particle size interaction (P=0.048) for lactation ADFI with sows fed 900 µm conventional yellow dent corn having lower feed intake than the sows fed 600 µm conventional yellow dent corn, whereas sows fed 900 µm Enogen Feed corn had greater feed intake compared to the sows fed 600 µm Enogen Feed corn. There was a tendency for a particle size main effect (P<0.10) for litter ADG (2,849 vs 2,635 g/d) and total litter gain (45.7 vs 42.3 kg), with sows fed corn ground to 600 µm having increased litter ADG and total litter gain compared to sows fed corn ground to 900 µm. In summary, there were few differences in sow or litter characteristics among corn sources. Reducing particle size of both corn sources tended to increase litter ADG and weaning weights.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.306
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-16 Evaluation of Nutritional Strategies to Reduce Growth Rate of Pigs
           Beyond 90-kg Body Weight
    • Authors: Rao Z; Gebhardt J, Tokach M, et al.
      Pages: 183 - 184
      Abstract: A total of 356 pigs (241×600; DNA; Columbus, NE; initially 89.0 kg) were used in a 44-d trial to evaluate nutritional strategies to reduce growth rate. Three diets [control, Lys-deficient, and corn (98% corn and 2% vitamins and minerals)] were arranged into 4 nutritional strategies. The three diets contained 0.70, 0.50, and 0.18% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, respectively, with all nutrients other than amino acids above requirement estimates. From d 0 to 28, pens received one of two diets (control or Lys-deficient). On d 28, pens either remained on their previous treatment or were fed the corn diet from d 28 to 44. Pens were assigned to nutritional strategies in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight (BW) with 18 pens/treatment from d 0 to 28 and 9 pens/treatment from d 28 to 44. From d 0 to 28, pigs fed the Lys-deficient diet had decreased (P< 0.001) ADG, G:F, and d 28 BW compared to pigs fed the control diet. From d 28 to 44, pigs fed the corn diet had decreased (P< 0.05) ADG and G:F compared to pigs fed the control or Lys-deficient diets. Pigs fed the Lys-deficient diet for 44 days had decreased (P< 0.05) ADG and G:F compared to pigs fed the control diet for 44 days. From d 0 to 44, pigs fed the Lys-deficient diet then corn diet had decreased (P< 0.05) ADG, final BW, and G:F compared to all other treatments. Pigs fed the Lys-deficient diet for 44-d and pigs fed the control diet then corn diet had decreased (P< 0.05) ADG, G:F, and final BW compared to pigs fed the control diet for 44-d. In summary, feeding strategies with lysine deficient diets allow producers to slow growth rate of finishing pigs; however, feed efficiency is also impaired.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.307
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-9 A Multistate Evaluation of an Additional Iron Injection
           Administered to Piglets Before Weaning
    • Authors: Chevalier T; Adeola O, Carter S, et al.
      Pages: 184 - 185
      Abstract: A cooperative study utilizing 514 weanling pigs from 7 experiment stations was conducted to determine the effects of an additional iron injection administered to piglets before weaning on growth performance and hematological measures. All pigs received an initial iron injection at the time of processing postfarrowing. At each station, pigs were assigned to either the control or an added-injection treatment by pairing two same-sex pigs with a BW difference ≤ 0.453 kg within a litter. One pig within each pair received the additional iron injection (same dose received at processing) 3 to 5 days preweaning. Once weaned, both the control and added-injection group received common station-specific nursery diets. Body weight was recorded weekly by all stations. Blood samples were also collected at second injection, weaning, 14 and 28 days postweaning by 3 of the 7 stations. All data were subjected to ANOVA with the model containing the terms treatment, station, and treatment by station interaction. Average daily gain (Table 1) was greater for the added-injection group during d 0 to 14 (212.5 vs. 202.6 g, P = 0.03) which resulted in an increase in d 14 BW (P = 0.05). Although there was no treatment effect for overall ADG (d -4 to d 28), the tendency for a treatment by station interaction (P = 0.09) illustrated both responsive and nonresponsive stations, indicating that iron status was not the most limiting factor for growth at all stations. Hemoglobin concentration was greater (P < 0.0001) for the added-injection group at weaning and d 14 postweaning. In conclusion, an additional iron injection administered before weaning may lead to early success in the nursery resulting in a heavier BW in subsequent periods; however, the beneficial effects of an additional iron injection are likely dependent on herd status and characteristics.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.308
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-13 Cell Wall Bound Ferulic and Coumaric Acids in Diets Based on Corn
           and Soybean Meal or Corn, Soybean Meal, and Distiller Dried Grains with
           Solubles Are Poorly Fermented in the Intestinal Tract of Pigs
    • Authors: Castaneda J; Stein H.
      Pages: 185 - 186
      Abstract: Phenolic acids are bound to cell wall polymers in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and contribute to the low digestibility of fiber in corn-based ingredients. Phenolic acids link arabinoxylans to lignin and may substitute sidechains of arabinoxylans, which precludes fermentation. To develop enzymes to aid in separating phenolic acids from arabinoxylans, the natural fermentation of phenolic acid in the intestinal tract of pigs needs to be known. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that phenolic acids are poorly fermented by pigs. A corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet and a corn-SBM-DDGS diet were fed to 24 pigs (initial body weight: 61.71 ± 5.39 kg) in a randomized complete block design with 4 blocks and a total of 12 pigs per diet. Diets were fed for 22 d; feces were collected during the last 5d. Concentrations of phenolic acids were analyzed in diets and feces using reversed phase ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED of SAS with pig as the experimental unit. Results indicated that concentrations of bound phenolic acids were greater (P < 0.05) in feces from pigs fed the corn-SBM-DDGS diet than from pigs fed the corn-SBM diet (Table 1). Disappearance (%) of free coumaric acid and bound ferulic acid in the intestinal tract of pigs was not different between the 2 diets. In contrast, disappearance of bound coumaric acid was greater (P < 0.05) from the corn-SBM diet than from the corn-SBM-DDGS diet, but disappearance of bound ferulic acid and bound coumaric acid was less than 50% confirming that phenolic acids may hinder fermentation. In conclusion, ferulic acid and coumaric acid appear to be barriers for fermentation of arabinoxylans in pigs and enzymes that release phenolic acids may be needed to increase fermentation of corn fiber.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.309
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-20 Impact of High Protein Dried Distiller Grains and Soybean Meal
           Inclusion Level on Grow-finish Pig Performance and Carcass Traits
    • Authors: Clizer D; De Jong J, Cline P, et al.
      Pages: 186 - 187
      Abstract: High protein dried distiller grains are a novel protein source for commercial swine diets. Questions related to how concentrations of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) in corn protein sources affect pig performance remain. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) grow-finish experiment was conducted at the South Dakota State University Commercial Research Facility using NexPro® protein ingredient (HPDDG) to determine the performance response of grow-finish pigs fed corrected levels of BCAA through soybean meal (SBM) or synthetic amino acids (SAA). Pigs (n = 1,170; 59.5 ± 0.48 kg) were used in a 79-d study (9 replicates per treatment). Pens of pigs were allotted to one of five dietary treatments which consisted of 1) corn-SBM diet, 2) HPDDG not corrected for BCAA levels or HPDDG corrected for BCAA levels through additions of 3) SBM, 4) 50% SBM and 50% SAA blend or 5) SAA only. The HPDDG were included in diets at 15% in phase 1 and 10% in phases 2 and 3. Additions of SAA were included to maintain a SID Ile:Lys of 65% and SID Val:Lys of 75% for BCAA corrected diets. Data was analyzed as a RCBD, pair-wise comparisons and single degree of freedom orthogonal polynomials (BCAA corrected only) were used to evaluate treatment responses, and pen served as the experimental unit for all analyses. Reducing SBM in BCAA corrected diets decreased cumulative ADG and G:F (linear; P < 0.05). Decreasing SBM in BCAA corrected diets tended to decrease (linear; P = 0.09) standardized fat-free lean but increase (linear; P = 0.07) dressing percent and back fat depth (quadratic; P = 0.08) while not impacting hot carcass weight (P > 0.14). This data indicates HPDDG is a suitable feedstuff for grow-finish swine diets at low inclusion levels due to minimal impact on performance and carcass characteristics. Correction of BCAA levels through SBM inclusion provided an improved performance response compared to SAA only.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.310
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-21 Impact of Increasing Standardized Ileal Digestible valine:lysine
           in Diets Containing 30% Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Early
           Grow-finish Pig Performance
    • Authors: Clizer D; Samuel R, Cline P.
      Pages: 187 - 187
      Abstract: Minimal research has investigated the valine (Val) requirement in grow-finish pig diets, especially when diets contain dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS). Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val:lysine (Lys) requirement in diets containing 30% DDGS. A total of 2,430 pigs (39.4 ± 0.21 kg) were used in a 28-d trial (15 replicates per treatment). Pens were randomly allotted within block to one of six dietary treatments: 30% DDGS diets with a SID Val:Lys ratio of 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80% or a corn-soybean meal diet (CS). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block, pair-wise comparisons and single degree of freedom orthogonal polynomials (DDGS diets only) were used to evaluate treatment responses, and pen was the experimental unit. Straight broken line (SBL) and quadratic broken line (QBL) regression analysis was used to estimate the SID Val requirement. Increasing SID Val:Lys up to 70% in 30% DDGS increased final BW, ADG and G:F (quadratic; P < 0.001), while increasing SID Val:Lys up to 75% in DDGS diets increased ADFI (quadratic; P < 0.001) Pigs fed CS had greater (P < 0.032) ADG, G:F, and ADFI compared to diets containing 30% DDGS except for cumulative ADFI of pigs receiving diets with 75% SID Val:Lys (P = 0.167). The SBL analysis estimated SID Val:Lys requirement at 66.4, 65.4, and 68.0% for ADG, ADFI, and G:F of pigs from 39.4 to 52.9 kg of body weight (BW) and 66.8, 65.7, and 70.4% for the pigs between the BW of 52.9 and 66.4 kg. The QBL analysis revealed a similar SID Val:Leucine ratio of 52.2% for G:F in both periods. This data suggests a SID Val:Lys requirement of 66.6% in diets containing 30% DDGS for pigs between the BW of 39.4 to 66.4 kg. Increasing the SID Val:Lys ratio in 30% DDGS diets did not improve performance congruent to CS fed pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.311
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSIV-11 Effects of Phytogenic Feed Additives on Growth Performance Traits
           of Finishing Swine
    • Authors: Xue P; Giesting D, Newcomb M, et al.
      Pages: 187 - 188
      Abstract: This study was conducted at a commercial research facility and utilized 1,092 finishing pigs (PIC® 337 × Camborough®) in a RCBD with 3 dietary treatments to determine the effects of commercially available phytogenic feed additives on growth performance traits in finishing swine for the last 35 d prior to marketing. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) Control; 2) Aromex Pro® (AP; Delacon) fed at 0.01%; and 3) Ambitine® (AM; PMI) fed at 0.1%. Pens with 13 pigs/pen and 0.66 m2/pig were randomly allotted to treatments on the basis of live weight and gender. Pigs had ad libitum access to corn-soy diets that met or exceeded the pig’s requirements (NRC, 2012). Aromex Pro® and Ambitine® were added to the diets at the expense of corn. Dietary treatments started on day 0 (BW = 97.7 kg; SEM = 1.04) and were fed throughout the 35 d trial period. On d 21, the two heaviest pigs per pen were marketed, while the remaining pigs in each pen were marketed on d 35. Pigs and feeders were weighed on d 0, 21, and 35. Data were analyzed by using PROC MIXED of SAS® version 9.4, and pen was the experimental unit. The model included the fixed effect of treatment and random effect of replicate. Pre-planned orthogonal contrasts were used to compare AP vs. Control and AM vs. Control. Feeding AP or AM for the last 35 d in finishing both improved (P < 0.05) ADG by 4%, ADFI by 3% and final BW by 1.6 kg over Control, but did not change feed to gain or mortality. These data demonstrate that phytogenic feed additives can improve growth performance traits in finishing swine.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.312
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • Comparison of Corn Ethanol Co-products from Brazil and USA Apparent and
           Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Pigs
    • Authors: Paula V; Milani N, Azevedo C, et al.
      Pages: 188 - 189
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of a corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from USA (UDG), a corn bran with solubles from Brazil (CBS) and high protein corn distillers dried grains from USA and Brazil (UHP and BHP), in growing pigs. Fifty crossbred barrows (46.2±5.3kg) were fed a semi-purified N-free diet, used to determine endogenous N losses, or four diets composed of 40% of each ingredient, as the only source of N, substituting for cornstarch in N-free diet. Animals were fed at 2.8 x maintenance (110 kcal of DE per kg of BW0.75) for 9 d and on the 10th d were euthanized for ileal digesta collection. TiO2 was used as an indigestible marker (0.3%) for digestibility calculations. A randomized block design was used, with 10 replicates, using the pig as the experimental unit, and results submitted to orthogonal contrast test. The CBS, UDG, BHP and UHP contained (as-fed basis) 13.9, 25.8, 42.9 and 34.9% CP; 9.0, 6.4, 10.3 and 7.3% EE; 40.8, 40.2, 32.7 and 47.5% NDF; 4.51, 4.53, 5.30 and 4.90 Mcal/kg GE; and 0.40, 0.73, 1.37 and 1.00% Lys, respectively. The AID of CP, Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Thr and Val; and the SID of His, Leu, Lys, and Val of BHP were 8 to 36% greater (P < 0.05) than those from UHP. The AID of CP, Arg, Ileu, Leu, Phe, Thr, and Trp; and SID of CP, Arg, Phe, and Thr of UDG were 9 to 45% greater (P < 0.05) than those of CBS. In conclusion, BHP had a greater digestibility of most AA than UHP, while the CBS evaluated had lower nutritional value than the UDG source.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skab054.313
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. Supplement_1 (2021)
       
  • PSV-22 Nutrient Digestibility of Deactivated Soybean and Soybean Extruded
           at Different Temperatures by Weanling Pigs
    • Authors: Milani N; Paula V, Azevedo C, et al.
      Pages: 189 - 190
      Abstract: The apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID) of AA and CP and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, CP, NDF, and ADF of deactivated soybean (DS) and raw soybean (RS) extruded at 82°C (RS82), 122°C (RS122) and 137°C (RS137) were evaluated. RS was extruded mixed with corn starch (396.5g/kg RS and 603.5g/kg corn starch) in a single-screw extruder (MEX 250, Manzoni, Campinas, Brazil). Thirty-six barrows (7.26±0.94 kg BW) were fed a nitrogen free (N-free) diet, or four diets composed of 30% of each ingredient, as the only source of N, substituting for starch in N-free diet. Pigs were fed at 2.8 x maintenance (2.8 x 106 kcal digestible energy/kg BW0.75) for 10 days (5 d adaptation and 5 d feces collection), and on day 11 piglets were euthanized for ileal digesta collection. A randomized block design was used, with 8 replicates, using the pig as the experimental unit. ANOVA was performed and means were separated using Tukey test (5%). Increasing extrusion temperatures reduced trypsin inhibitors concentrations, from 29.47 in RS to 4.92, 2.24, and 1.48 mg/g CP in RS82, RS122, and RS137, respectively, and 1.39 mg/g CP was verified in DS. The AID and SID of CP and AA, as the ATTD of CP of RS122, RS137 and DS were similar (P >0.05), but 10–62%