Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 1108 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (794 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (131 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (32 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

Showing 1 - 58 of 58 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat and Muscle Biology     Open Access  
Media Peternakan     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
University of Sindh Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2055-0391
Published by BMC (Biomed Central) Homepage  [313 journals]
  • Sequence variation of necdin gene in Bovidae

    • Abstract: Background Necdin (NDN), a member of the melanoma antigen family showing imprinted pattern of expression, has been implicated as causing Prader-Willi symptoms, and known to participate in cellular growth, cellular migration and differentiation. The region where NDN is located has been associated to QTLs affecting reproduction and early growth in cattle, but location and functional analysis of the molecular mechanisms have not been established. Methods Here we report the sequence variation of the entire coding sequence from 72 samples of cattle, yak, buffalo, goat and sheep, and discuss its variation in Bovidae. Median-joining network analysis was used to analyze the variation found in the species. Synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates were determined for the analysis of all the polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis were carried out among the species of Bovidae to reconstruct their relationships. Results From the phylogenetic analysis with the consensus sequences of the studied Bovidae species, we found that only 11 of the 26 nucleotide changes that differentiate them produced amino acid changes. All the SNPs found in the cattle breeds were novel and showed similar percentages of nucleotides with non-synonymous substitutions at the N-terminal, MHD and C-terminal (12.3, 12.8 and 12.5%, respectively), and were much higher than the percentage of synonymous substitutions (2.5, 2.6 and 4.9%, respectively). Three mutations in cattle and one in sheep, detected in heterozygous individuals were predicted to be deleterious. Additionally, the analysis of the biochemical characteristics in the most common form of the proteins in each species show very little difference in molecular weight, pI, net charge, instability index, aliphatic index and GRAVY (Table 4) in the Bovidae species, except for sheep, which had a higher molecular weight, instability index and GRAVY. Conclusions There is sufficient variation in this gene within and among the studied species, and because NDN carry key functions in the organism, it can have effects in economically important traits in the production of these species. NDN sequence is phylogenetically informative in this group, thus we propose this gene as a phylogenetic marker to study the evolution and conservation in Bovidae.
      PubDate: 2018-12-20
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with milk
           yield in Argentinean Holstein and Holstein x Jersey cows

    • Abstract: Background Research on loci influencing milk production traits of dairy cattle is one of the main topics of investigation in livestock. Many genomic regions and polymorphisms associated with dairy production have been reported worldwide. In this context, the purpose of this study was to identify candidate loci associated with milk yield in Argentinean dairy cattle. A database of candidate genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for milk production and composition was developed. Thirty-nine SNPs belonging to 22 candidate genes were genotyped on 1643 animals (Holstein and Holstein x Jersey). The genotypes obtained were subjected to association studies considering the whole population and discriminating the population by Holstein breed percentage. Phenotypic data consisted of milk production values recorded during the first lactation of 1156 Holstein and 462 Holstein x Jersey cows from 18 dairy farms located in the central dairy area of Argentina. From these records, 305-day cumulative milk production values were predicted. Results Eight SNPs (rs43375517, rs29004488, rs132812135, rs137651874, rs109191047, rs135164815, rs43706485, and rs41255693), located on six Bos taurus autosomes (BTA4, BTA6, BTA19, BTA20, BTA22, and BTA26), showed suggestive associations with 305-day cumulative milk production (under Benjamini-Hochberg procedure with a false discovery rate of 0.1). Two of those SNPs (rs43375517 and rs135164815) were significantly associated with milk production (Bonferroni adjusted p-values < 0.05) when considering the Holstein population. Conclusions The results obtained are consistent with previously reported associations in other Holstein populations. Furthermore, the SNPs found to influence bovine milk production in this study may be used as possible candidate SNPs for marker-assisted selection programs in Argentinean dairy cattle.
      PubDate: 2018-12-12
       
  • Effects of weaning and castration ages on growth performance, blood
           metabolites, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

    • Abstract: Background Recently, as production costs have been increasing owing to rising feed prices worldwide, shortening the age of slaughter has been recognized as a way to increase farm income. In Korea, the raising period for Hanwoo steers is over 31 months with the delay of weaning and castration stated as one of the reasons for the increase in the raising period. Thus far, studies on age of weaning and castration have been conducted individually, and there have been no studies on the combined effects of weaning and castration ages on the growth performance and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers. Methods Weaning ages were calculated at 80 or 130 days of age, and castration ages were calculated at 90 days and 180 days of age. Calves were allocated to one of the four treatment groups: W80C90 (weaning at 80 days of age and castration at 90 days of age), W80C180, W130C90, and W130C180. Results For the entire experimental period, weaning and castration ages did not significantly affect growth performance of Hanwoo steers. In addition, weaning and castration ages did not affect the overall yield and quality traits of carcass in Hanwoo steers. Conclusion Weaning and castration ages had small effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers. Therefore, the early weaning and castration ages are recommended to reduce the slaughter age without any negative effects on meat quality grade.
      PubDate: 2018-12-08
       
  • Comparative evaluation of ultrasonography with clinical respiratory score
           in diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases in weaned dairy buffalo
           and cattle calves

    • Abstract: Background Respiratory troubles have economic impacts in countries where livestock industry is an important segment of the agricultural sector, as well as these problems may cause significant economic losses for bovine producers. Various practical methods are used to assess diseases that affect the bovine respiratory system. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive tool that has been used frequently in diagnosis of various animal diseases. The present study was designed to establish whether thoracic ultrasonography is a diagnostic tool for detection of respiratory troubles in weaned buffalo and cattle calves, as well as to assess its prognostic value in comparison with clinical respiratory scores. Thirty five (15 buffalo and 20 cattle) calves were included. Twelve (6 buffalo and 6 cattle) clinically healthy calves were enrolled as controls. Results Based on physical examinations, clinical respiratory scores (CRS), ultrasound lung scores (ULS) and postmortem findings, animals were classified into 4 groups as pulmonary emphysema (n = 8), interstitial pulmonary syndrome (n = 7), bronchopneumonia (n = 12), and pleurisy (n = 8). The mean values of CRS and ULS were significantly higher in diseased calves (P < 0.01). In calves with pulmonary emphysema and interstitial syndrome, thoracic ultrasonography revealed numerous comet-tail artifacts, which varied in numbers and imaging features. Furthermore, variable degrees of pulmonary consolidation with alveolograms and bronchograms were noticed in bronchopneumonic calves. In addition, thick irregular or fragmented pleura with pleural effusions and fibrin shreds were imaged in calves with pleurisy. A weak correlation was calculated between CRS and ULS (r = 0.55, P < 0.01). Hematologically, the counts of white blood cells, activities of aspartate aminotransferase and partial tensions of carbon dioxide were significantly increased in all diseased groups. Serum concentrations of total globulins were higher in claves with bronchopneumonia (P < 0.05). The partial tension of oxygen was decreased in all diseased calves (P < 0.05). Conclusions Thoracic ultrasonography is a diagnostic tool for various lung troubles and assessment the grade and severity of pulmonary diseases, as well as it can be used as a follow-up tool for evaluating the prognosis of respiratory troubles and monitoring the efficacy of therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-12-03
       
  • Protective effect of soursop ( Annona muricata linn.) juice on oxidative
           stress in heat stressed rabbits

    • Abstract: Background Preventing oxidative stress in heat stressed animals may be possible by increasing antioxidant defence via exogenous administration of antioxidant substrate and/or its precursors. The study aimed to investigate the effect of Soursop juice in mitigating oxidative stress induced by heat stress in rabbit. Methods Sixty mixed breed rabbit bucks aged 12–18 months old with the average weight of 1826 ± 8.35 g/rabbit, randomly allotted to experimental treatments of four replicates each, in a completely randomized design during high-temperature humidity index in Ado Ekiti, Southwest Nigeria. Soursop juice (SSJ) was administered via oral drenched daily per kg body weight (BW), to designated treatment 1 to 5; 0.55 mlkg−1BW distilled water (control), 0.55 mlkg−1BW SSJ, 1.11 mlkg−1BW SSJ, 1.67 mlkg−1BW SSJ and 2.22 mlkg−1BW SSJ, respectively. Fastened blood samples were collected at days 28 and 56, and assay for serum protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation using standard procedures. Result Result revealed that SSJ demonstrated hypocholesterolemic effect in a dose-dependent manner throughout the study. Effect of chronic administration of SSJ to heat stressed rabbits proved beneficial, as SSJ reduced serum lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant activity over 8 weeks. Conclusion Administration of soursop juice to heat-stressed bucks at 2.22 mlkg−1BW offered optimum antioxidant defense against oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2018-11-16
       
  • In vitro rumen fermentation kinetics, metabolite production, methane and
           substrate degradability of polyphenol rich plant leaves and their
           component complete feed blocks

    • Abstract: Background This experiment aimed at assessing polyphenol-rich plant biomass to use in complete feed making for the feeding of ruminants. Methods An in vitro ruminal evaluation of complete blocks (CFB) with (Acacia nilotica, Ziziphus nummularia leaves) and without (Vigna sinensis hay) polyphenol rich plant leaves was conducted by applying Menke’s in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique. A total of six substrates, viz. three forages and three CFBs were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation in glass syringes to assess gas and methane production, substrate degradability, and rumen fermentation metabolites. Results Total polyphenol content (g/Kg) was 163 in A. nilotica compared to 52.5 in Z. nummularia with a contrasting difference in tannin fractions, higher hydrolysable tannins (HT) in the former (140.1 vs 2.8) and higher condensed (CT) tannins in the later (28.3 vs 7.9). The potential gas production was lower with a higher lag phase (L) in CT containing Z. nummularia and the component feed block. A. nilotica alone and as a constituent of CFB produced higher total gas but with lower methane while the partitioning factor (PF) was higher in Z. nummularia and its CFB. Substrate digestibility (both DM and OM) was lower (P < 0.001) in Z. nummularia compared to other forages and CFBs. The fermentation metabolites showed a different pattern for forages and their CFBs. The forages showed higher TCA precipitable N and lower acetate: propionate ratio in Z. nummularia while the related trend was found in CFB with V. sinensis. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was higher (P < 0.001) in A. nilotica leaves than V. sinensis hay and Z. nummularia leaves. It has implication on widening the forage resources and providing opportunity to use forage biomass rich in polyphenolic constituents in judicious proportion for reducing methane and enhancing green livestock production. Conclusion Above all, higher substrate degradability, propionate production, lower methanogenesis in CFB with A. nilotica leaves may be considered useful. Nevertheless, CFB with Z. nummularia also proved its usefulness with higher TCA precipitable N and PF. It has implication on widening the forage resources and providing opportunity to use polyphenol-rich forage biomass for reducing methane and enhancing green livestock production.
      PubDate: 2018-11-09
       
  • In vitro evaluation of nano zinc oxide (nZnO) on mitigation of gaseous
           emissions

    • Abstract: Background Enteric methane (CH4) accounts for about 70% of total CH4 emissions from the ruminant animals. Researchers are exploring ways to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions from ruminants. Recently, nano zinc oxide (nZnO) has shown potential in reducing CH4 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production from the liquid manure under anaerobic storage conditions. Four different levels of nZnO and two types of feed were mixed with rumen fluid to investigate the efficacy of nZnO in mitigating gaseous production. Methods All experiments with four replicates were conducted in batches in 250 mL glass bottles paired with the ANKOMRF wireless gas production monitoring system. Gas production was monitored continuously for 72 h at a constant temperature of 39 ± 1 °C in a water bath. Headspace gas samples were collected using gas-tight syringes from the Tedlar bags connected to the glass bottles and analyzed for greenhouse gases (CH4 and carbon dioxide-CO2) and H2S concentrations. CH4 and CO2 gas concentrations were analyzed using an SRI-8610 Gas Chromatograph and H2S concentrations were measured using a Jerome 631X meter. At the same time, substrate (i.e. mixed rumen fluid+ NP treatment+ feed composite) samples were collected from the glass bottles at the beginning and at the end of an experiment for bacterial counts, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) analysis. Results Compared to the control treatment the H2S and GHGs concentration reduction after 72 h of the tested nZnO levels varied between 4.89 to 53.65%. Additionally, 0.47 to 22.21% microbial population reduction was observed from the applied nZnO treatments. Application of nZnO at a rate of 1000 μg g− 1 have exhibited the highest amount of concentration reductions for all three gases and microbial population. Conclusion Results suggest that both 500 and 1000 μg g− 1 nZnO application levels have the potential to reduce GHG and H2S concentrations.
      PubDate: 2018-11-09
       
  • Long non-coding RNA: its evolutionary relics and biological implications
           in mammals: a review

    • Abstract: The central dogma of gene expression propounds that DNA is transcribed to mRNA and finally gets translated into protein. Only 2–3% of the genomic DNA is transcribed to protein-coding mRNA. Interestingly, only a further minuscule part of genomic DNA encodes for long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are characteristically more than 200 nucleotides long and can be transcribed from both protein-coding (e.g. H19 and TUG1) as well as non-coding DNA by RNA polymerase II. The lncRNAs do not have open reading frames (with some exceptions), 3`-untranslated regions (3’-UTRs) and necessarily these RNAs lack any translation-termination regions, however, these can be spliced, capped and polyadenylated as mRNA molecules. The flexibility of lncRNAs confers them specific 3D-conformations that eventually enable the lncRNAs to interact with proteins, DNA or other RNA molecules via base pairing or by forming networks. The lncRNAs play a major role in gene regulation, cell differentiation, cancer cell invasion and metastasis and chromatin remodeling. Deregulation of lncRNA is also responsible for numerous diseases in mammals. Various studies have revealed their significance as biomarkers for prognosis and diagnosis of cancer. The aim of this review is to overview the salient features, evolution, biogenesis and biological importance of these molecules in the mammalian system.
      PubDate: 2018-10-25
       
  • Gliricidia leaf meal and multi-enzyme in rabbits diet: effect on
           performance, blood indices, serum metabolites and antioxidant status

    • Abstract: Background Following the ban on the importation of import-dependent fed ingredients in most developing countries, the need to look inward for local content is now compelling. Thus, leaf meals that have phytogenic additive potentials are envisaged will be a viable feed ingredient in rabbit diets. Methods The effect of dietary inclusion of gliricidia leaf meal (GLM) with or without multi-enzyme (E) supplementation in rabbits was investigated using ninety-six 35-day old rabbits of crossbreed (Newzealand and Chinchilla). One basal diet that met the requirements of growing rabbit was formulated (Diet 1). Thereafter, another two diets were formulated to contain 15% GLM and 15% GLM plus multi-enzyme at 1 g/kg and designated as diets 2 and 3 respectively. The rabbits were randomly distributed into the 3 diets (32 rabbits/treatment; 4 rabbits/replicate) and fed their respective experimental diets for 8 weeks. Results The body weight and daily weight gain of the rabbits fed on GLM free diet and those on GLM-based diets (diets 1 and 2) were similar at finishing period of 63–91 day but have lower (P < 0.01) values than those rabbits fed GLM + E based diet (diet 3) at finishing period (63–91 days) and whole fattening period (35-91 days). The apparent dry matter and crude protein digestibility of rabbits fed control diet and those fed 15% GLM based diet were lower (P < 0.05) than those fed 15% GLM + E-based diet. Triglycerides concentration of rabbits fed 15% GLM-based diet without enzyme addition were lower (P < 0.05) than those observed for rabbits on the rest test diets. Cholesterol and Low-Density Lipoprotein levels of rabbits fed 15% GLM and 15% GLM + E-based diets were lower (P < 0.05) than those fed the GLM free diet. The superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of rabbits fed the GLM free diet (diet 1) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those fed the 15%GLM and 15% GLM + E-based diets. Conclusion Dietary inclusion of GLM at 15% of the diet did not have a negative effect on the rabbits postweaning period (35–63 days) but will require multi-enzyme supplementation to enhance growth indices at finishing period (63–91 day) without precipitating negative effect on the rabbits’ health status.
      PubDate: 2018-10-06
       
  • Changes in free amino acids and hardness in round of Okinawan delivered
           cow beef during dry- and wet-aging processes

    • Abstract: Background Aging trials are conducted to determine characteristics associated with dry- and wet-aging processes of beef from delivered cows grown in Okinawa, i.e., dams that have finished giving birth (Okinawan delivered cow beef). Changes in free amino acids, hardness, and other factors were analyzed in round of Okinawan delivered cow beef during dry- and wet-aging processes along with a comparison with characteristics of beef imported from Australia. Results Functional amino acids did not increase during both dry- and wet-aging processes. However, proteinogenic amino acids increased significantly (P < 0.05) and hardness tended to decrease during both dry- and wet-aging processes. On comparison between dry- and wet-aging processes by analysis of variance, drip and cooking losses were significantly lower during the dry-aging process than during the wet-aging process. However, there was no significant difference in free amino acids or hardness in this comparison. Conclusion There was no significant difference between dry- and wet-aging methods for all studied variables related to free amino acids or hardness in this study.
      PubDate: 2018-09-25
       
  • Mechanical texture profile of Hanwoo muscles as a function of heating
           temperatures

    • Abstract: Background Cooking temperature and consequently doneness of beef muscles are most important for the palatability and consumer acceptability. Current study assessed the response of mechanical texture of Hanwoo muscles as a function of cooking temperature at different ageing days. Six muscles (Psoas major (PM), Longissimus thoracics (LT), Gluteus medius (GM), Semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF) and Triceps brachii (TB)) were collected from each 10 Hanwoo steers. Warner-Bratzler WB-shear force (WBSF) and texture profile analysis (TPA) texture profiles were determined after 3 or 21 days of chiller, and randomly assigned to four groups; non-cooked, cooked at 55, 70 or 85 °C. Results Toughness of WBSF and TPA hardness of Hanwoo muscles were presence in the order of LT = PM = GM = SM < BF = TB (p < 0.001) for non-cooked raw muscle, and PM < LT = GM = SM < TB=BF (p < 0.001) for cooked meat aged for 3 days. WBSF linearly increased in 3 days aged meats after cooked at a higher temperature (P < 0.05). On the other hand, toughening of the muscles were significantly (P < 0.05) differed at various temperature when muscles were aged for 21 days. WBSF of PM and LT muscles were significantly increased at a higher cooking temperature, while other muscles (i.e., GM, SM, BF, TB) showed the lowest values at 70 °C. In the case of TPA hardness, the effect of cooking temperature was very less in the toughness of the muscle (P > 0.05). Conclusion Taken together, these findings clearly showed that the toughness of the muscle highly depends and varies upon the temperature and ageing of the muscle. Moreover, the effect of cooking temperature was very limited on aged muscles. The results mirror the importance of cooking temperature for objective measurements which ultimately estimate sensory tenderness and other quality traits.
      PubDate: 2018-09-18
       
  • Correction to: Changes in free amino acid content and hardness of beef
           while dry-aging with Mucor flavus

    • Abstract: Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that the modifications they requested to the data in Tables 1, 2 and 3 were incorrectly implemented due to a misunderstanding in mark-ups. Also, the titles of the tables should be modified as follows:
      PubDate: 2018-09-14
       
  • Comparison of the methods for platelet rich plasma preparation in horses

    • Abstract: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is popularly used in the horse industry to enhance regeneration of tissue injury that has limitation of blood supply. This study aimed to compare the methods for platelet rich plasma preparation since they has not been established yet. Blood was collected from six horses and platelets were concentrated by three different methods (2-step centrifugation, separated centrifugation and separated centrifugation using histopaque). Concentrated blood was analyzed using Advia hematology systems. In the result, separated centrifugation with histopaque showed the significantly lower number of red blood cells than other groups. The 2-step centrifugation showed the significantly higher number of white blood cells than other groups, while it contained the highest concentration of red blood cells among three groups. In the 2-step centrifugation, separated centrifugation and separated centrifugation with histopaque, platelets were concentrated 4.5, 5.3 and 5.6 times, respectively. And no significant difference of the platelet concentration between the three groups was found. This study demonstrated that separated centrifugation using histopaque was the best method for platelet rich plasma preparation because of the proper amount of platelets and the separation of red blood cells from platelet rich plasma.
      PubDate: 2018-08-18
       
  • Changes in free amino acid content and hardness of beef while dry-aging
           with Mucor flavus

    • Abstract: Background A mold strain thought to be suitable for dry-aging process was isolated. The information about the scientific aspects of molds related to dry-aging beef is scarce. We, therefore, conducted aging trials to determine the characteristics of the isolated mold strain associated with dry-aging process. Specifically, during the dry-aging of beef with the mold strain, the changes in the free amino acid content, hardness, productive loss, drip and cooking loss were analyzed. These characteristics were compared with those obtained while dry-aging in the absence of a mold. Results The isolated mold strain was identified as Mucor flavus. The free amino acid content in the mold-aging beef decreased or remained constant during the aging process. However, that in the trimming sections of the beef dramatically increased in the presence of mold. In addition, hardness of mold-aging beef gradually decreased during the aging process and finally decreased significantly. Conclusion Amino acids such as GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), proline, and aspartic acid were produced by our mold strain, M. flavus during its growth on beef meat, and the mold conferred savory odors to the dry-aged beef.
      PubDate: 2018-07-26
       
  • Examination of the xanthosine response on gene expression of mammary
           epithelial cells using RNA-seq technology

    • Abstract: Background Xanthosine treatment has been previously reported to increase mammary stem cell population and milk production in cattle and goats. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the increase in stem cell population and milk production remain unclear. Methods Primiparous Beetal goats were assigned to the study. Five days post-partum, one mammary gland of each goat was infused with xanthosine (TRT) twice daily (2×) for 3 days consecutively, and the other gland served as a control (CON). Milk samples from the TRT and CON glands were collected on the 10th day after the last xanthosine infusion and the total RNA was isolated from milk fat globules (MEGs). Total RNA in MFGs was mainly derived from the milk epithelial cells (MECs) as evidenced by expression of milk synthesis genes. Significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) terms using PANTHER and gene networks were generated using STRING db. Results Preliminary analysis indicated that each individual goat responded to xanthosine treatment differently, with this trend being correlated with specific DEGs within the same animal’s mammary gland. Several pathways are impacted by these DEGs, including cell communication, cell proliferation and anti-microbials. Conclusions This study provides valuable insights into transcriptomic changes in milk producing epithelial cells in response to xanthosine treatment. Further characterization of DEGs identified in this study is likely to delineate the molecular mechanisms of increased milk production and stem or progenitor cell population by the xanthosine treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-07-13
       
  • Correction to: Physicochemical properties of M. longissimus dorsi of
           Korean native pigs

    • Abstract: Upon publication of this article [1], it was noticed that during typesetting, the words ‘Breeds’ and ‘Items’ were accidentally placed next to each other in Table 1, whereas they should be discrete. Please see below the correct Table 1.
      PubDate: 2018-06-22
       
  • Dietary manipulation: a sustainable way to mitigate methane emissions from
           ruminants

    • Abstract: Methane emission from the enteric fermentation of ruminant livestock is a main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and a major concern for global warming. Methane emission is also associated with dietary energy lose; hence, reduce feed efficiency. Due to the negative environmental impacts, methane mitigation has come forward in last few decades. To date numerous efforts were made in order to reduce methane emission from ruminants. No table mitigation approaches are rumen manipulation, alteration of rumen fermentation, modification of rumen microbial biodiversity by different means and rarely by animal manipulations. However, a comprehensive exploration for a sustainable methane mitigation approach is still lacking. Dietary modification is directly linked to changes in the rumen fermentation pattern and types of end products. Studies showed that changing fermentation pattern is one of the most effective ways of methane abatement. Desirable dietary changes provide two fold benefits i.e. improve production and reduce GHG emissions. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss biology of methane emission from ruminants and its mitigation through dietary manipulation.
      PubDate: 2018-06-18
       
  • Analysis of protein-protein interaction network based on transcriptome
           profiling of ovine granulosa cells identifies candidate genes in cyclic
           recruitment of ovarian follicles

    • Abstract: After pubertal, cohort of small antral follicles enters to gonadotrophin-sensitive development, called recruited follicles. This study was aimed to identify candidate genes in follicular cyclic recruitment via analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ovine granulosa cells of small antral follicles between follicular and luteal phases were accumulated among gene/protein symbols of the Ensembl annotation. Following directed graphs, PTPN6 and FYN have the highest indegree and outdegree, respectively. Since, these hubs being up-regulated in ovine granulosa cells of small antral follicles during the follicular phase, it represents an accumulation of blood immune cells in follicular phase in comparison with luteal phase. By contrast, the up-regulated hubs in the luteal phase including CDK1, INSRR and TOP2A which stimulated DNA replication and proliferation of granulosa cells, they known as candidate genes of the cyclic recruitment.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
       
  • Dietary spray-dried plasma improves intestinal morphology of mated female
           mice under stress condition

    • Abstract: Background Stress causes inflammation that impairs intestinal barrier function. Dietary spray-dried plasma (SDP) has recognized anti-inflammatory effects and improvement of gut barrier function. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary SDP on intestinal morphology of mated female mice under stress condition. Results Villus height, width, and area of small intestines were low on gestation day (GD) 3 or 4 under stress conditions, and higher later (Time, P < 0.05). Crypt depth of colon was low on GD 4 and higher later (Time, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the SDP treatments improved (P < 0.05) intestinal morphology, indicated by increased villus height, villus width, villus area, and ratio between villus height and crypt depth of small intestines and crypt depth of colon, and by decreased crypt depth of small intestines, compared with the control diet. The SDP treatments also increased (P < 0.05) the number of goblet cells in intestines compared with the control diet. There were no differences between different levels of SDP. Conclusion Dietary SDP improves intestinal morphology of mated female mice under stress condition.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
       
  • Dietary addition of a standardized extract of turmeric (TurmaFEED TM )
           improves growth performance and carcass quality of broilers

    • Abstract: Background Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry farming has caused emergence of new pathogenic strains. The situation has warrented the development of safe and alternative growth promoters and immunity enhancers in livestock. Herbal additives in animal and bird feed is a centuries-old practice. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of a standardized formulation of lipophilic turmeric extract containing curcumin and turmerones, (TF-36), as a natural growth promoter poultry feed additive. Methods The study was designed on 180 one-day old chicks, assigned into three groups. Control group (T0) kept on basal diet and supplemented groups T0.5 and T1 fed with 0.5% and 1% TF-36 fortified basal diet for 42 days. Each dietary group consisted of six replicates of ten birds. Body weight, food intake, food conversion ratio, skin colour, blood biochemical analysis and antioxidant status of serum were investigated. Results Body weight improved significantly in T1 with a 10% decrease in FCR as compared to the control. TF-36 supplementation in T1 enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activity significantly (p < 0.05) with a decrease (p < 0.05) in lipid peroxidation. It also caused a slight yellow skin pigmentation without any change in meat color, indicating the bioavailability of curcumin from TF-36. However, no significant change in the concentration of serum creatinine, total protein and liver enzyme activities were observed, indicating the safety. Conclusion In summary, we concluded that TF-36 can be a natural feed additive to improve growth performance in poultry, probably due to the better antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effects contributed by the better bioavailability of curcuminoids and turmerones. Besides, curcuminoids and turmerones were also known to be gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents.
      PubDate: 2018-05-28
       
 
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