Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 1108 journals)
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    - AGRICULTURE (794 journals)
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    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

Showing 1 - 58 of 58 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat and Muscle Biology     Open Access  
Media Peternakan     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
University of Sindh Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.25
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1806-2636 - ISSN (Online) 1807-8672
Published by SciELO Homepage  [910 journals]
  • Salinity and prey concentration on larviculture of killifish Hypsolebias
           radiseriatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance of Hypsolebias radiseriatus larvae to different salinities, and the effects of different prey concentrations and water salinities on the larviculture of this species. Salinity tolerance was tested by subjecting newly-hatched larvae to 96 hours of osmotic shock testing (experiment I) and gradual acclimatization (experiment II) of the following salinities: freshwater (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8 g of salt L-1. A third experiment (experiment III) evaluated three water salinities (S0 - freshwater, S2 - 2 g of salt L-1 and S4 - 4 g of salt L-1) and three initial daily prey concentrations (100, 300 and 500 artemia nauplii larva-1). In experiments I and II, survival was only influenced by the salinity of 8 g of salt L-1 (p < 0.01). After 35 days, weight was only influenced by prey concentration (p < 0.05), with the highest value being with 500 artemia nauplii larva-1. The lowest survival was for 4 g of salt L-1 and for 100 artemia nauplii larva-1. H. radiseriatus larviculture can be carried out in salinity of up to 2 g of salt L-1 and initial daily prey concentrations with 500 artemia nauplii larva-1.
       
  • Establishment of Brachiaria cultivars in the soil-climatic conditions of
           the Brazilian semi-arid region

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This study aimed was the establishment of the genus Brachiaria in the Brazilian semi-arid region. The experiment was conducted from April to June 2016, as a randomized-block experimental design with five treatments and four replicates. Treatments were represented by five Brachiaria cultivars, namely, Marandu, Paiaguás, Piatã, Xaraés and Basilisk. Morphogenetic (leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate e stem elongation rate) and structural characteristics (final leaf length, tiller population density e number of leaves per tiller, forage mass, leaf blade mass, stem mass, senescent material mass and leaf:stem ratio) of the forage cultivars were evaluated. Canopy height fitted a linear regression model (P<0,05), with estimated daily increases of 0.50, 0.53, 0.53, 0.54 and 0.56 cm for cvs Basilisk, Marandu, Paiaguás, Piatã and Xaraés, respectively. The number of live leaves in cvs Basilisk and Paiaguás increased linearly (p < 0.05), by 4.3 and 2.8 leaves per tiller, respectively, during the 60-day period. The recommended height at which the growth of Brachiaria cultivars should be interrupted is upon reaching 25 to 35 cm. In the soil-climatic conditions of the Brazilian semi-arid region, the Brachiaria cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Paiaguás, Piatã and Xaraés are established at 75 days after sowing, which is the recommended time for performing the first harvest or lenient grazing to stimulate tillering.
       
  • Investigation of different levels of cholecalciferol and its metabolite in
           calcium and phosphorus deficient diets on growth performance, tibia bone
           ash and development of tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This experiment was conducted to examine the effects of 1-α(OH)D3 alone or in combination with different levels of cholecalciferol on performance, and tibia parameters of one-d-old male broilers fed a tibial dyschondroplasia (TD)-inducing diet. A total of three hundred male broilers were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups with 4 replicates. The dietary treatments consisted of TD inducing diet, TD inducing diet supplemented with 5 μg per kg of 1-α(OH)D3; TD inducing diet supplemented with 5 μg per kg of 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500; 3,000 or 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. At 42 d of age, broiler chickens fed diets containing 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet had higher body weight (p < 0.05). In the complete experimental period the best FCR and the highest daily weight gain were obtained in broilers supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. Broilers supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet had significantly lower incidence and severity of TD in comparison with other groups. In conclusion, the results indicated that the supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 in combination of 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet could maximize tibia bone ash, performance and prevent TD in broilers fed TD inducing diet.
       
  • High-energy diet does not overcome the negative impact of conjugated
           linoleic acid on young broiler performance

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in diets with different energy levels in broiler performance. Birds were offered a starter (1-21 d), grower (22-35 d) and finisher (36-42 d) diets; wherein soybean oil was replaced by CLA. The study consisted of a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with two CLA levels (0 and 1%) and three energy levels (3050, 3100 and 3150 ME kg-1 diet). During the grower and finisher periods, birds were fed diets with same energy level and CLA supplementation was maintained the same. Growth performance was assessed weekly, and carcass and cuts yield were assessed at 42d. Interaction effect of CLA by energy level was observed in broiler performance and carcass yield throughout the study (p > 0.05). During the overall period (1-42 d) broiler performance was not affected by CLA (p > 0.05).However, CLA supplementation (1%) decreased weight gain (p < 0.05) at 21d, regardless of energy level, with no effects on feed intake and feed conversation rate (p > 0.05). The increase in dietary energy was not able to compensate the negative effect on growth performance of broilers supplemented with 1% CLA at the starter period.
       
  • The effect of various heat-treatment methods on colostrum quality, health
           and performance of dairy calves

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. To investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum at different duration on the health and performance, 48 Holstein calves were enrolled randomly into four treatment groups before first feeding and consumed untreated colostrum (H0, n = 12), heat-treated colostrum at 60ºC for 30 min. (H30, n = 12), heat-treated colostrum at 60ºC for 60 min. (H60, n = 12) and heat-treated colostrum at 60ºC for 90 min. (H90, n = 12). Blood samples were collected for analyses of IgG and protein profile at 0, 6, and 24h of age. The colostrum sample from treated and untreated batches and feces sample from each calf also were taken. The results showed heat-treatment of colostrum at 60ºC for 60 (p = 0.03) and 90 min. (p = 0.01) reduced total bacterial count, while colostral IgG concentration maintained up to 60 min. Serum total protein (p = 0.02), IgG concentrations (p = 0.03), and apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (p = 0.02) were significantly greater at 6 and 24h in calves that were fed heat-treated colostrum (H90) compared to calves fed unheated colostrum (H0). General health status of calves that were received heat-treated colostrum was better and the prevalence of diarrhea-induced pathogens was lower than calves were fed unheated colostrum. In conclusion, the consumption of heat-treated colostrum had a positive effect on health, growth characteristics, and performance of calves during the suckling period.
       
  • Native and introduced forage cacti in Saanen dairy goat diets

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This study aimed to assess the nutrient intake and milk production of dairy goats fed with total mixed rations with different species of forage cacti. Five pluriparous Saanen goats (50 ± 4 kg) at nine weeks of lactation were allocated in a Latin square (5 x 5) with five diets and five periods. Each period was composed of 10 days for adaptation and seven days for collection. The treatments were composed of 473.0 to 501.0 g kg-1 of forage cacti: xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei), mandacaru (Cereus jamacaru), facheiro (Pilosocereus chrysostele), cactus cladodes cv. miúda (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm-Dyck) and cactus cladodes cv. orelha de elefante mexicana (Opuntia stricta); plus sabiá hay (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) (188.0 to 198.0 g kg-1) and concentrate (311.0 to 329.0 g kg-1). The intake of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates, and water intake through diet components were unaffected by experimental diets. For milk production and feed efficiency, no difference was observed among the diets. All diets containing different species of forage cacti can be used for dairy goats feed.
       
  • Characterization and effects of DDG on the intake and digestibility of
           finishing bulls in feedlots

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to characterize four corn and sorghum co-products (DDG) in terms of their protein and carbohydrate fractions; we also evaluated the effects of substituting the protein source of the conventional supplement by DDG on consumption and nutrient digestibility in confined finishing cattle. Thirty-six male Nellore cattle with a mean age of 24 months were used. The treatments were: FA: concentrate with corn as an energy source and cottonseed meal as a protein source; DDG50: concentrate with a 50% substitution of the FA protein source by DDG; DDG100: concentrate with 100% substitution of the FA protein source by DDG. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments and three replicates (pens) containing four animals per pen. We found that the use of DDG in the finishing phase did not interfere with the animals’ food intake or the digestibility of the nutrients (p > 0.05). Nutrients were used by the animals; therefore, DDGs may be viable substitutes of cottonseed meal. We conclude that the bromatological composition of this co-product is influenced a lot during processing; therefore, the nutritional values of this co-product present in the composition tables may not be true.
       
  • The effect of diets supplemented with Coriandrum sativum seeds on carcass
           performance, immune system, blood metabolites, rumen parameters and meat
           quality of lambs

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. A trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on carcass performance, immune system, blood metabolites, rumen parameters and meat quality of Lambs. 16 Sanjabi lambs of 27 ± 5.1 kg during post-weaning (97 d of age) period were randomly selected. Four diets including 0, 1, 3, and 5% coriander seeds, replaced by Alfa alfa in the diet, were considered. A 30:70 alfalfa hay: concentrate diet for a period of time (97 to 187 d of age) was used. The results showed that feed intake was significantly increased by adding coriander seeds, linearly. There was no significant difference for apparent digestibility of crude protein, crude fat, neutral and acidic detergent fiber, crude ash, rumen fluid pH and ammonia nitrogen at 0, 2 and 4 h after feeding, Meat dry matter, ash, crude protein and fat, and the meat’s fatty acid profile (p > 0.05). Dietary coriander seeds had a significant effect on neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophil’s (in days 7 and 14 of trial) and blood metabolites at the middle of trial. Obtained results suggested that supplementation of coriander seed may have limited effects on nutrient digestibility, ruminal parameters, meat quality, blood cells and metabolites.
       
  • Inclusion of broken rice in meat-quail diets at different ages

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of 50% broken rice (BR) in diets for meat quail from 1 to 35 days old, starting at different ages. A total of 875 mixed quail were allocated to five treatments in a completely randomized design with five replicates of 35 birds. The treatments consisted of a maize- and soybean meal-based control diet and four other similar diets in which the inclusion of 50% BR was started at different ages, namely, 1st, 8th, 15th and 22nd days. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated weekly. At 35 days, 10 quail per plot were weighed and selected to be slaughtered for evaluations of live weight, carcass yield and gizzard yield. Lastly, a study of economic viability was carried out. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was detected for the performance parameters, live weight or carcass yield, but a higher gizzard yield was found (p < 0.05) in the treatment without BR. The inclusion of BR from the first day of life provided better economic viability. Diets with a maximum inclusion of 50% BR can be formulated for meat quail at any age.
       
  • Quality of Apis mellifera honey after being used in the feeding of
           jandaira stingless bees (Melipona subnitida)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical quality and bioactive compounds of Apis mellifera honey as well as the alterations in the quality of A. mellifera honey after being used in the feeding of Melipona subnitida colonies. A. mellifera honeys were collected in apiaries, homogenised and used as feed for M. subnitida bees for 30 days. Every five days, honey samples were collected and evaluated for physicochemical characteristics and bioactive compounds. The treatments consisted of natural honeys of A. mellifera and M. subnitida and honey of M. subnitida bee after being fed with A. mellifera honey (modified honey). M. subnitida bees, when fed with honey from A. mellifera, modified some of its characteristics, such as moisture, reducing sugars, diastase activity, colour and flavonoid content. Natural and modified honeys of A. mellifera were similar to each other and different from M. subnitida honey in terms of minerals, free acidity, electrical conductivity, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Treatments were similar in terms of sucrose, insoluble matter, hydroxymethylfurfural and water activity. In general, the quality attributes of the modified honey were closer to the honey of A. mellifera than to the natural M. subnitida honey.
       
  • Impact of filament denier on functional performance of microfiber in
           situ
    bags

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. In situ bags made from microfiber fabrics have a greater surface area and filtration efficiency that retains the fine particles and reduce the variation in the results. Also, it is more durable than that made from traditional fabrics. This work aimed to study the effect of filament denier on the performance of in situ bags. Two polyester microfilaments with 0.4 and 0.7 deniers were used in manufacturing of four fabrics. Physical and mechanical properties of manufactured fabrics were measured before and after incubation to show the efficiency of the manufactured samples. In vitro trail was conducted to estimate ruminal degradability after 24 and 48 hours for three feedstuffs using three cannulated rams as replicates. The mechanical properties of manufactured in situ bags were significantly affected with both denier per filament and weft densities. According to the statistical analysis of radar chart, sample 2 remarked the highest value which achieved the acceptable ruminal dry matter disappearance compared with Ankom bags in different incubation times.
       
  • The effects of feeding graded levels of whole cottonseed on semen
           characteristics and testicular profiles of Red Sokoto Bucks

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The present work evaluated the effects of feeding graded levels of whole cottonseed on reproductive parameters of Red Sokoto bucks. Twenty Red Sokoto bucks were used for the experiment. After a 14-day pre-treatment period, bucks were assigned for 90 days to one of four isonitrogeneous treatments: control (diet A); 0 mg kg-1 of total gossypol, (diet B); 15% mg kg-1 of total gossypol, (diet C); 30% mg kg-1 of total gossypol and (diet D); 45% mg kg-1 of total gossypol. The mean percentage sperm gross motility was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in group D (45% WCS) compared to groups C (30% WCS) and A (control) at days 60, 75 and 90. The mean semen pH and reaction time were not significantly (p > 0.05) different among treatment groups. Semen colour of the bucks in the control group was majorly creamy, in group C (30% WCS) and B (15% WCS) creamy to milky and group D (45% WCS) colourless. The mean semen volume was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in groups C and A compared to group D (45% WCS) at days 60, 75 and 90. The mean semen concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in group D (45% WCS) when compared to group A (control) at days 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90. Group A (control) bucks had significantly (p < 0.05) higher percentage live sperm compared to those in group D (45% WCS) at days 45, 60, 75 and 90. Mean Sperm morphological abnormalities including detached head, free tail curved tail and midpiece droplets were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in group D (45%) than in group A (Control) at day 15 (for free tails) and day 90 (for all). Testicular and epididymal sperm reserves were higher in animals supplemented with up to 30% whole cottonseed. In conclusion, feeding bucks above 30% WCS resulted in more deleterious effects on the semen characteristics and testicular profile.
       
  • Milk yield of cows submitted to different levels of olive pomace in the
           diet

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The cultivation of olive trees is expanding in Brazil, mainly in Rio Grande do Sul in order to meet the demand for olive oil, the main product of the industrialization of olives. However, from the extraction, there is a significant generation of waste. This residue has high moisture and an appropriate destination is necessary given its environmental and economic importance. The chemical composition of the residue is similar to other products used in animal feed, such as corn silage or sorghum, in relation to DM, CP and NDF, the differential being high levels of EE and ADL. In order to evaluate the replacement of corn silage by the extraction residue of olive oil (olive pomace), eight Holstein dairy cow, between 90 and 100 days of lactation, were used, making a double Latin square (4x4). Analyzes were made regarding animals, feed and milk product in order to verify the feasibility of the substitution. The inclusion of olive pomace, conserved as silage, to replace corn silage, in the diet of lactating cows up to 15% (dry basis) does not alter milk production, as well as its composition and feed efficiency.
       
  • In vitro methane production from silages based on Cenchrus purpureus mixed
           with Tithonia diversifolia in different proportions

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Climate change (CC) affects food production, mainly those based on livestock systems. Producers must identify adaptation strategies to ensure the production, during periods of drought, and lack of forage. Besides contributing to CC, high emissions of ruminal methane (CH4) are energy loss potentially usable for livestock production. The objective was to estimate in vitro ruminal gas production (RGP) and determine the CH4 emissions from silages. Treatments were made with forage of Cenchrus purpureus mixed with Tithonia diversifolia T1= C.purpureus at 100%; T2= C.purpureus/ T.diversifolia in 33/67 percent ratio; T3= C.purpureus/ T.diversifolia 67/33; and T4= T.diversifolia at 100%. Samples of silages were analyzed, and they were inoculated with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei (T735); then they were fermented in vacuum-sealed bags for 67 days. RGP and CH4 were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 48 hours. Additionally, modeling of CH4 production kinetics was conducted, using different equations. The results indicate that the highest cumulative CH4 production was for T1. This kinetics was represented using the Gompertz model. In conclusion, the inclusion of T.diversifolia to C.purpureus silages contributes to the decrease of methane at the ruminal level, which constitutes an adaptation practice at climate change.
       
  • Sheep and goat feeding behavior profile in grazing systems

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Feeding behavior analysis provides information about the relationships between animals and pastures. Therefore, this review aims to describe some aspects of the feeding behavior profiles of both sheep and goats in grazing systems. The structure of the pasture is a key factor in the feeding behavior of grazing animals. The amount of feed consumed in a given period of time is affected by the number of meals, duration and velocity of swallowing, changes in grazing time, bite rate, bite weight, and quality of ingested forage. The different phenological stages of forage also influence the animals’ strategies to optimize their intake, which consequently changes their behavioral activities. Sheep and goats tend to be more selective than cattle, and young animals are more selective than older animals; this selectivity characteristic is one of the most important aspects to be observed in pasture management. According to the degree of selectivity, the animals will intake forages of higher or lower nutritive quality. In addition, the intensity and distribution of their daily activities (grazing, ruminating, and resting) are influenced by several factors, such as the availability and nutritive value of the pasture, its management, the animal activity in the group, and the predominant climatic conditions of the region.
       
  • Effect of soybean meal replacement by slow-release urea on ruminal
           parameter, blood metabolites, and microbial protein synthesis in Zel ram

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by slow-release urea on feed intake, ruminal parameters, blood metabolites, dry matter, nutrients digestion, and microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in ram. Rams were used for four 21-day periods. The experimental design was a 4×4 Latin square design. The experiment has consisted of the following four rations: 1) basic diet with soybean meal as a protein source, 2) basic diet with soybean meal plus 0.5 % of DM slow-release urea (SRU), 3) basic diet with soybean meal plus 1 % of DM SRU, and 4) basic diet with soybean meal plus 1.5 % of SRU, respectively. Soybean meal replacement by SRU decreased ruminal ammonia and blood urea. SRU increase in diets significantly increased acetic acid 3 hours after morning feeding, blood glucose, total purine, uric acid excretion, microbial nitrogen, and microbial protein. The results showed that soybean meal replacement by SRU sources had no negative effect on rams performance.
       
  • Bromatological composition and dry matter production of corn hydroponic
           fodder

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The objective was to evaluate sowing density influence on hydroponic corn fodder bromatological composition, harvested in different ages raised on grass mix substrate. The experimental design used was completely randomized with six replications for each treatment, using 2.0 m² plots (1.0 x 2.0 m). The densities were distributed into factorial array (4x4), consisting in four sowing densities (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg m-²) and four cutting ages (10, 15, 20 and 25 days). The dry matter content (DMC) and production (DMP) and crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), Fiber neutral detergent (FND) and ethereal extract (EE) were analyzed each cutting age. In terms of DMP (kg m-²), EE (%) and DMC (kg m-²), it is recommended to use the density 1.0 kg m-² with cutting age of 25 days. Regarding CP (%) the best result was at 15 days of cut and density 2.5 kg m-² and the values for FND (%) and ADF (%) were higher at 25 days at 2.0 kg density 2,0 kg m-². The choice of both best harvesting age and density will depend on what is desired of the nutritional forage (CP, EE, NDF, ADF, DMC and DMP) as well its destination, since very close values were found in all analyzes, regardless of density and age of harvest analyzed.
       
  • Occurrence of visible losses and relationship with corn silage management
           in dairy farms in the State of Paraná

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to relate the occurrence of visible losses in silage (effluent, spoiled top-layer and during feedout) with silage-making practices, physical and chemical characteristics of silage, and milk composition in Brazilian dairy herds. One-hundred and eight silos from 95 farms, in the State of Parana, were visited for data collection. Data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact and Pearson Correlation Test. Effluent loss was higher in silages with the lowest dry matter content. Using unwalled clamp (drive-over piles) silos, neglecting a protection over the plastic film, and unloading silage with a bucket increased the occurrence of top spoilage. Feedout losses were higher in farms where: the crop was harvested with self-propelled machines; the particle size was larger, and the silage density was lower. There was no relationship between visible losses and silage composition or milk composition, except for milk fat content that, unexpectedly, there was a positive correlation with spoiled silage in the top-layer. Silage losses are reduced by adopting good practices during silage production and feedout.
       
  • Agronomic characteristics of the Pennisetum glaucum submitted to
           water and saline stresses

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Agricultural production in semi-arid regions is limited due to water availability. In addition, the water quality available for irrigation is often compromised due to the high salt content present. Millet is a forage species considered tolerant to water deficit and moderately salt tolerant. In view of the above, the objective was to evaluate the growth of millet under water and saline stress associates. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, in a 4x3 factorial scheme, composed of four levels of water replacement, based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc): 25%.ETc, 50%.ETc, 75%.ETc and 100%.ETc and three levels of water salinity (0.03, 2.0 and 4.0 dS m-1). With 25%.ETc independent of salinity, all morphological characteristics of millet were affected, occurring death of plants in the initial growth phase. In the absence of salt and greater availability of water, greater plant growth occurred. With respect to salinity, there was a reduction in the increment of all variables evaluated, with the highest reduction at the highest saline level (4.0 dS m-1). Water and salt stresses, when associated, reduce the growth of millet, since concentrations above 2.0 dS m-1 and less than 50%.ETc compromise its full development, providing declines in yield.
       
  • Morphogenic and structural characteristics of Panicum cultivars during the
           establishment period in the Brazilian Northeast

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of six Panicum maximum cultivars during the establishment period. A completely randomized block design with four replicates and six treatments (Tamani, Mombaça, Massai, Tanzania, Aruana and Zuri cultivars) was used. Morphogenic (leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate e stem elongation rate), structural (final leaf length, tiller population density e number of leaves per tiller) and productive (forage mass, leaf blade mass, stem mass, senescent material mass and leaf:stem ratio) characteristics were evaluated. There was no difference (p > 0.05) between the cultivars in terms of the number of live leaves per tiller (2.95 leaves/tiller). Mombaça cultivar had (p < 0.05) higher canopy height (50.64 cm) compared with other cultivars. The highest (p < 0.05) tiller population density was observed in Tamani (235.90 tillers m-2) and Massai (201.60 tillers m-2) cultivars. Leaf lifespan (54.18 days), phyllochron (17.40 days/leaf) and leaf senescence rate (0.87 cm tiller day-1) were not different (p > 0.05) between cultivars. However, leaf appearance rate was higher (p < 0.05) in Tanzania (0.07 leaves tiller day-1) than in Aruana cultivar (0.05 leaves tiller day-1). Leaf blade mass was higher (p < 0.05) in Mombaça cultivar (1518.31 kg DM ha-1), whereas Massai showed higher (p < 0.05) leaf:stem ratio (9.25). Panicum cultivars Tamani, Tanzania and Massai establishment after 75 days, while the other cultivars establish at 105 days of sowing in the Brazilian Northeast.
       
  • Flaxseed oil and clove leaf essential oil in Zebrafish diet (Danio
           rerio
    )

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Flaxseed oil is recognized as the plant source richest in α-linolenic acid, whereas clove leaf essential oil has a strong antioxidant capacity. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant capacity of diets containing a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and clove leaf essential oil (CLEO), as well as to use zebrafish (Danio rerio) to assess their effect on the animals’ growth. Fifty days after hatching, a total of 420 male specimens (0.29 ± 0.04 g) were divided into seven groups for each diet and fed for 55 days to be used, with the diets being: control, absent FO and CLEO; 3% FO + 0.5% CLEO; 3% FO + 1% CLEO; 6% FO + 0.5% CLEO; 6% FO + 1% CLEO; 9% FO + 0.5% CLEO and 9% FO + 1% CLEO. Antioxidant activity was determined through DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) tests, showing interaction effect between factors (FO x CLEO, p < 0.05); the diets containing 1% combined with 3, 6 or 9% of FO presented means higher than those of the 0.5% diets. No mortality was observed during the experiment. For final weight and weight gain, there was no interaction effect (p > 0.05), only isolated effect for FO, with the fish fed 6 and 9% diets having the best results. Final total length and specific growth rates showed interaction effect (p < 0.05). As for specific growth rates, the best response was that of the diet with 6% FO and 0.5% CLEO. Final length showed increase with FO levels, even when there was association with 0.5 or 1% of CLEO. Therefore, combined use of 9% of FL with 0.5% of CLEO is recommended for zebrafish.
       
  • Relationship between the level and the action period of fiber in diets to
           laying hens

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the level of fiber and its action period in diets to laying hens on performance and egg quality. 180 Hisex white hens (65 weeks-old) were randomly allocated to 3 groups of 60 birds each, comprising 10 replicates of six birds per treatment. The experimental design was factorial scheme considering three levels of fiber (2.50, 4.87 and 7.24%) in birds’ diets, and three action periods of this fiber (short - 21 days, medium - 56 days, and long - 105 days) in the feed. The estimates of treatments were firstly subjected to ANOVA and a subsequent Tukey test at 5%. Birds fed diets with moderate levels of fiber (4.87%) presented better (p < 0.05) performance. High levels of fiber caused a significant reduction in performance. Birds fed diets with low and moderate levels of fiber produced eggs with better (p < 0.05) quality. High levels of fiber caused a significant reduction in egg quality. The exposure of birds to diets with fiber for long-term caused a negative effect (p < 0.05) on performance, egg weight and percentage of its main structures, albumen height, yolk height, eggshell thickness, and the specific gravity.
       
  • Spineless cactus varieties resistant to carmine cochineal (Dactylopius
           sp.) on the composition and sensory properties of goat milk

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The physical-chemical characteristics and sensory attributes of milk are variable. This study aimed to evaluate how spineless cactus varieties resistant to carmine cochineal (Dactylopius sp.) influences the composition and sensory characteristics of goat milk. Twelve lactating goats with body weights of 51.35 ± 3.75 kg were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square, with three simultaneous squares composed of four animals, four periods, and four experimental diets: Control - goats fed tifton grass hay and concentrate; SCOE - goats fed the Orelha-de-elefante spineless cactus, tifton hay, and concentrate; SCB - goats fed the Baiana spineless cactus, tifton hay, and concentrate; SCM - goats fed the Miúda spineless cactus, tifton hay, and concentrate. The levels of protein and non-greasy solids and the sensory attributes of the milk (odor, butter flavor, and global acceptance) did not differ between the treatments (p > 0.05). The lipid content of the milk was reduced in the SCOE treatment compared to the control (p = 0.0014). The milk obtained from animals fed the SCOE and SCM treatments had a stronger flavor (p < 0.05). These results suggest that varieties of spineless cactus resistant to carmine cochineal can be used as goat feed without affecting milk production or global acceptance.
       
  • Effect of mixture of herbal plants on ruminal fermentation, degradability
           and gas production

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Reducing livestock negative environmental impacts get great interest in last years. So, present study was carried out to determine the effect of adding different levels of mixture of thyme and celery versus salinomycin on ruminal fermentation, gas production, dry, organic matter and fiber degradation. Four experimental treatments were used by in-vitro batch culture technique, as follow: 60% CFM, 40% clover hay (control), control diet + 2.5 gm thyme + 2.5 gm celery kg-1 DM (T1), control diet + 5 gm thyme + 5 gm celery kg-1 DM (T2), control diet + 10 gm thyme + 10 gm celery kg-1 DM (T3), control diet + 0.4 gm Salinomycin kg-1 DM (T4). Ruminal pH value was significantly increased (p < 0.05) with T4 compared with other treatments. While, the T4 recorded the lowest value (p < 0.05) for microbial protein, short chain fatty acids concentrations (SCFA), total gas production, dry matter and organic matter degradability (DMd and OMd) compared with other treatments. Fiber fraction degradability (NDFd and ADFd) appeared no significant variance (p > 0.05) between control and other treatments except for T1 that recorded the lowest value (p < 0.05). It is concluded that mixture of thyme plus celery could be alternate for ionophores in the ruminant diets to enhance ruminal fermentation, reducing gas production without any negative effect on nutrients degradability.
       
  • Digestibility of diets with passion fruit by-product estimated through
           external and internal markers in dairy heifers

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This study examined the influence of the external markers chromium oxide (CO), titanium dioxide (TD), isolated, purified and enriched lignin (LIPE®) and isolated, purified, enriched lignin in nanoparticles (NANOLIPE®) as well as the internal markers indigestible dry matter (iDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) in diets with inclusion of passion fruit by-product for dairy heifers on the estimation of fecal output and nutrient digestibility. Sixteen Holstein × Zebu crossbred heifers at an average live weight of 363 ± 28 kg were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design where they received diets in which Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay was replaced with passion fruit by-product (0, 12, 24 and 36%, as-fed basis). The CO, LIPE®, NANOLIPE® and iNDF markers did not differ from the total collection method (p > 0.05) in the estimation of fecal output and nutrient digestibility. The TD and iDM markers overestimated, while iADF underestimated fecal output. Under the presented conditions, we recommend using the CO, LIPE®, NANOLIPE® and iNDF markers to estimate fecal output and nutrient digestibility in diets with inclusion of passion fruit by-product for dairy heifers.
       
  • Phosphorus supplementation does not affect the intake, digestibility, and
           meat quality of Nellore young bulls fed with high-grain diets

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the effect of phosphorus (P) supplementation on the intake, digestibility, and quality of aged meat from Nellore young bulls fed on high-grain diets finished in feedlot. Forty young bulls (30 months old) with an initial body weight (IBW) of 296 ± 25 kg were used. It was distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. The treatments were: without P supplementation (CO), commercial mineral supplement (CM), and supplementation with dicalcium phosphate (DP) with 2.4, 4.2, or 5.0 g of P per kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. Diets were composed of sugarcane bagasse (200 g kg-1) plus concentrate (800 g kg-1) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The meat quality parameters analyzed were pH, color, cooking losses, shear force, and water-holding capacity. P supplementation did not affect the intake and digestibility of nutrients There was no interaction (p > 0.05%) between diets and the aging time for the meat quality parameters. However, bulls fed with DP exhibited lower pH (5.98) compared to CO and CM (6.19 and 6.14, respectively). The longer aging time increased the cooking losses and intensity of yellow (b*). Under Brazilian conditions, feedlot Nellore cattle fed with high-grain diets do not require additional mineral supplements.
       
  • Babassu mesocarp meal for ewe lambs feeding: In vitro ruminal fermentation
           and in vivo apparent digestibility

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the in vitro fermentation (IVRF) and apparent in vivo digestibility (AIVD) of diets formulated with four inclusion levels of babassu mesocarp meal (BMM) (0.0; 7.5; 15.0 and 22.5%) in ewe lambs. The IVRF test was performed through the "Hohenheim Gas Test" technique, following a randomized complete block design, with four blocks (rumen fluids from four different bovines). Gas production was measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after incubation. For the AIVD trial, 20 ewe lambs were used in a completely randomized design with five replicates. The animals were housed in metabolic cages during the digestibility test. Diets with BMM showed lower fermentation levels than those without BMM. The BMM reduced the gas production per incubation time and dry matter effective degradability (DMED), possibly due to its chemical characteristics, or even to the influence of other factors, such as physical properties. The BMM negatively influenced the AIVD of DM. Thus, it can be stated that, despite being a starch source, BMM reduces ruminal fermentation parameters when included in ruminant diets, negatively interfering with diet digestibility. Therefore, its use should be cautious.
       
  • Nano-selenium and nano-zinc oxide supplementation in syrup on laying area,
           population size and hsp gene expression of honey bees in hot climate

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This study was designed to examine the protective effects of nano-selenium and nano-zinc oxide on queen and workers performance under heat stress condition and gene expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as an index of heat tolerance. Sixty colonies were randomly assigned to five treatments with 12 replicates from June until early September. Sugar syrup (50%) containing no supplement or nano-selenium at levels of 50 and 100 µg L-1 or nano-zinc at levels of 100 and 200 µg L-1 was fed to colonies. Nano-selenium supplementations had no effect, but nano-zinc at level of 100 µg L-1 significantly decreased body malondialdehyde concentration. The highest bee population was seen in nano-zinc at level of 100 µg L-1 and the lowest one in control group. The lowest and the highest body weight, fat and protein deposition was found in group received nano-zinc at level of 100 µg L-1 and control, respectively. The highest gene expression was for group received nano-zinc at level of 100 µg L-1 In group received nano-zinc at level of 100 µg L-1, an increase in hsp70 gene expression was found. In conclusion, nano-zinc oxide at level of 100 µg L-1 could increase queen and worker performance and heat resistance of bees in the hot climate condition.
       
  • Effect of different protocols for estrus synchronization on reproductive
           performance of Santa Inês ewes under Amazon environmental conditions

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different hormonal protocols on the reproductive performance of Santa Inês ewes in Amazon environmental conditions. Twenty-two Santa Inês ewes between 3 and 4 years-old were distributed in a randomized block experimental design, where the treatments consisted of two protocols for estrus synchronization (short and long) with eleven animals each. Data on the occurrence of estrus were described for each protocol. Data of estrus, pregnancy, and prolificity were firstly subjected to ANOVA and a subsequent Tukey’s test. Results were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. The short-term protocol presented an interesting successful rate, where above 70% ewes tested had estrus. The long-term protocol also achieved a high successful rate, where above 80% ewes tested had estrus. However, comparing the protocols, the long-term protocol presented better results of positive estrus and pregnancy rates in ewes. Thus, it can be concluded that both protocols presented satisfactory results regarding estrus manifestation, and prolificity (lambs produced per ewe). However, under Amazon environmental conditions, the long-term protocol presented better results regarding positive manifestation of estrus and pregnancy rate.
       
  • Evaluation of cardiac status, ascites related factors and growth
           performance of five commercial strains of broiler chickens

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of the current study was to evaluate cardiac status, ascites susceptibility, thyroid hormones, some hematological parameters and performance of five commercial broiler strains. Chicks were selected from strains of Cobb, Hubbard, Ross 308, Arbor Acres, and Arian (Iranian commercial broiler strain). Management and nutritional conditions were the same for all strains. Ascites related factors, and growth performance were measured. The highest and lowest, RV weight/live weight at 21 day of age were related to Arian and Ross 308 strains, respectively (p < 0.05). The TV weight, TV weight/live weight and the RV weight/live weight were significantly different between various strains at 49 and 54 days of age (p < 0.05). Strain had no effect on RV/TV. Performance, T3 and T4 hormones, hematological parameters, and mortalities were not significantly different among the strains (p > 0.05). Ascites mortalities in the Ross 308 was zero; however, it had no significant difference with other strains (p > 0.05). It was concluded that, based on performance and physiological status, even though considered broiler strains did not differ significantly because of the same genetic programs probably, but according to the prices and market conditions each can be selected for breeding.
       
 
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