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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
Showing 601 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista de Estudos Constitucionais, Hermenêutica e Teoria do Direito     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Revista de Filosofía (Madrid)     Open Access  
Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Costa Rica     Open Access  
Revista de Filosofía Open Insight     Open Access  
Revista de Filosofía y Teoría Política     Open Access  
Revista de Humanidades     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia     Open Access  
Revista Diacrítica     Open Access  
Revista Dialectus     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Espaço Teológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Eletrônica Ludus Scientiae     Open Access  
Revista Enciclopédia     Open Access  
Revista Epistemologias do Sul     Open Access  
Revista Española de Filosofía Medieval     Open Access  
Revista Filosofía UIS     Open Access  
Revista Fragmentos de Cultura : Revista Interdisciplinar de Ciências Humanas     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Derechos Humanos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Perspectiva Filosófica     Open Access  
Revista Poiesis     Open Access  
Revista PRAXIS     Open Access  
Revista SURES     Open Access  
Revue d’études benthamiennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Philosophique de Louvain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Rhuthmos     Open Access  
Rivista di estetica     Open Access  
Rivista di storia della filosofia     Full-text available via subscription  
Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia     Open Access  
Rivista Italiana di Filosofia Analitica Junior     Open Access  
Roczniki Filozoficzne     Full-text available via subscription  
Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ruch Filozoficzny     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Philosophy     Open Access  
Russell : the Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Russian Studies in Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription  
S : Journal of the Circle for Lacanian Ideology Critique     Open Access  
Saberes y Prácticas : Revista de Filosofía y Educación     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Sapientia     Open Access  
Sartre Studies International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Schutzian Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Science & Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science et Esprit     Open Access  
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scrinium : Journal of Patrology and Critical Hagiography     Open Access  
Semina Scientiarum     Open Access  
Semiotics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Siegel Institute Ethics Research Scholars     Open Access  
Siegel Institute Journal of Applied Ethics     Open Access  
Sign Systems Studies     Open Access  
Signos Filosóficos     Open Access  
Simone de Beauvoir Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Sincronía     Open Access  
Síntese : Revista de Filosofia     Partially Free  
Slagmark - Tidsskrift for idéhistorie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Social Epistemology: A Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Imaginaries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Social Philosophy Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Social Psychology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Società degli individui     Full-text available via subscription  
Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SOCRATES     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sophia : An African Journal of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sophía : Colección de Filosofía de la Educación     Open Access  
South African Journal of Bioethics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Philosophy = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Wysbegeerte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Southwest Philosophy Review     Full-text available via subscription  
SPICE : Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices & Ethic     Open Access  
Spontaneous Generations : A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Studi di Estetica     Open Access  
Studia Humana     Open Access  
Studia Logica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studia Neoaristotelica     Full-text available via subscription  
Studia Phaenomenologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studia Philosophica Estonica     Open Access  
Studia Poliana     Full-text available via subscription  
Studia z Historii Filozofii     Open Access  
Studia z Kognitywistyki i Filozofii Umysłu     Open Access  
Studier i Pædagogisk Filosofi     Open Access  
Studies in Christian-Jewish Relations     Open Access  
Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Studies in Philology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SubStance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Suhuf     Open Access  
Symposion : Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Symposium : Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis (La Plata)     Open Access  
Tadris : Islamic Education Journal     Open Access  
Tajdida : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Gerakan Muhammadiyah     Open Access  
Teaching Ethics     Full-text available via subscription  
Teaching Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Techné : Research in Philosophy and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Temporal : Prática e Pensamento Contemporâneos     Open Access  
Temporalités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teoliterária : Revista Brasileira de Literaturas e Teologias     Open Access  
Teologia i Moralność     Open Access  
Teosofi : Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teosofia : Indonesian Journal of Islamic Mysticism     Open Access  
Terrains / Théories     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Acorn     Full-text available via subscription  
The Biblical Annals     Open Access  
The Chesterton Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The Chesterton Review em Português     Full-text available via subscription  
The Chesterton Review en Español     Full-text available via subscription  
The Chesterton Review en Français     Full-text available via subscription  
The Chesterton Review in Italiano     Full-text available via subscription  
The CLR James Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
The Heythrop Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
The Islamic Culture     Open Access  
The Leibniz Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Lonergan Review     Full-text available via subscription  
The Monist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Owl of Minerva     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Person and the Challenges. The Journal of Theology, Education, Canon Law and Social Studies Inspired by Pope John Paul II     Open Access  
The Philosophers' Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
The Philosophical Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Pluralist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Southern Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thémata. Revista de Filosofía     Open Access  
TheoLogica : An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theoria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
THEORIA : An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Theoria and Praxis : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Think     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Thought : A Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thought and Practice : A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya     Open Access  
Tijdschrift voor Filosofie     Full-text available via subscription  
Tópicos, Revista de Filosofía     Open Access  
Tópicos. Revista de Filosofía de Santa Fe     Open Access  
Topoi     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tradition and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Trans/Form/Ação - Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Tsaqafah : Jurnal Peradaban Islam     Open Access  
ULUM : Journal of Religious Inquiries     Open Access  
Universidad de La Habana     Open Access  
Universitas : Revista de Filosofía, Derecho y Política     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Universitas Philosophica     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACHS     Open Access  
Utilitas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Utopian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Veritas : Revista de Filosofí­a y Teología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Via Spiritus : Revista de História da Espiritualidade e do Sentimento Religioso     Open Access  
Vincentian Heritage Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visnyk of NTUU - Philosophy. Psychology. Pedagogics     Open Access  
Voluntaristics Review     Open Access  
Wacana : Journal of the Humanities of Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Whiteness and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice / Recueil annuel de Windsor d'accès à la justice     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ethik und Moralphilosophie : Journal for Ethics and Moral Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Kulturphilosophie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Zeitschrift für Medien- und Kulturforschung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Zeitschrift für philosophische Literatur     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Zeszyty Naukowe Centrum Badań im. Edyty Stein     Open Access  
Zibaldone : Estudios Italianos     Open Access  
Τέλος : Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Utilitaristas     Open Access  
Гуманітарний вісник Запорізької державної інженерної академії     Open Access  
Філософія та політологія в контексті сучасної культури (Philosophy and Political Science in the Context of Modern Culture)     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
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Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.479
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1386-7423 - ISSN (Online) 1572-8633
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Maternal epigenetic responsibility: what can we learn from the
           pandemic'

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the construction of maternal responsibility in transgenerational epigenetics and its implications for pregnant women. Transgenerational epigenetics is suggesting a link between maternal behaviour and lifestyle during pregnancy and the subsequent well-being of their children. For example, poor prenatal diet and exposure to maternal distress during pregnancy are linked to epigenetic changes, which may cause health problems in the offspring. In this field, the uterus is seen as a micro-environment in which new generations can take shape. Because epigenetics concerns how gene expression is influenced by the social realm, including a range of environmental conditions such as stress, diet, smoking, exercise, exposure to chemicals, pollution, and environmental hazards, the research findings in this area have direct policy relevance. For policy makers, rather than controlling this complex range of determinants of health, isolating and targeting maternal body and responsibilising mothers for the control of this micro-environment might seem feasible. Yet, examining the maternal body in isolation as a powerful environment to shape the health of next generations not only responsibilises women for the environment that they cannot control but also makes them a target for intrusive and potentially exploitative biomedical interventions. Even though ‘social factors’ are increasingly considered in epigenetics writing, the phrase is usually taken as self-explanatory without much elaboration. Drawing on the Covid-19 pandemic, this paper moves the current debate forward by providing consolidated examples of how individuals, including pregnant women, have little control over their environment and lifestyle. As evidenced by the pandemic’s disproportionate effects on people with low socioeconomic or poor health status, some pregnant women bore considerable physical and psychological stress which combined with other stress factors such as domestic violence.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • Intergenerational contract in Ageing Democracies: sustainable Welfare
           Systems and the interests of future generations

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      Abstract: Abstract As the assumptions of perpetual economic and population growth no longer stand, the welfare systems built on such promises are in peril. Policymakers must reallocate the responsibility for providing care between generations. Democratic theories can help establish procedures for finding solutions, particularly in ageing democratic countries. By analysing existing representative and deliberative democratic theories, this paper explores how the interests of future generations could be included in such procedures. A hypothetical social health insurance scheme with the pay-as-you-go financial arrangement is selected as an illustrative case. This paper argues that due to the intrinsic bias towards the current generation, both representative and deliberative democratic health policymaking are limited in making decisions that account for future generations. Instead, their interests could be at best represented by benevolent representatives.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
       
  • The limitations of liberal reproductive autonomy

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      Abstract: Abstract The common liberal understanding of reproductive autonomy – characterized by free choice and a principle of non-interference – serves as a useful way to analyse the normative appeal of having certain choices open to people in the reproductive realm, especially for issues like abortion rights. However, this liberal reading of reproductive autonomy only offers us a limited ethical understanding of what is at stake in many kinds of reproductive choices, particularly when it comes to different uses of reproductive technologies and third-party reproduction. This is because the liberal framework does not fully capture who benefits from which reproductive options, the extent of the risks and harms involved in various reproductive interventions, and the reasons for why people are driven to make certain reproductive choices.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
       
  • Ethico-Political aspects of clinical judgment in opportunistic screening
           for cognitive impairment: Arendtian and aristotelian perspectives

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      Abstract: Abstract This article examines a population-based opportunistic screening practice for cognitive impairment that takes place at a hospital in Sweden. At the hospital, there is a routine in place that stipulates that all patients over the age of 65 who are admitted to the ward will be offered testing for cognitive impairment, unless they have been tested within the last six months or have been diagnosed with any form of cognitive impairment. However, our analysis shows that this routine is not universally and mechanically applied. Rather, the health care professionals have developed and use an ethico-political judgment, concerning, for example, whom to test, when to offer the tests, and how to explain and perform them. This article explores the role and practice of this form of judgment, emphasising its political and ethical nature. The analysis is based on qualitative interviews with professionals and patients, and draws on the theories of Aristotle and Hannah Arendt.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
       
  • Possibilities and paradoxes in medicine: love of order, loveless order and
           the order of love

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      Abstract: Abstract We have a desire to discover and create order, and our constitution, including our rational faculties, indicates that we are predisposed for such productivity. This affinity for order and the establishment of order is fundamental to humans and naturally also leaves its mark on the medical discipline. When this profession is made subject to criticism, frequently in terms of well-used reproofs such as reductionism, reification and de-humanisation, this systematising productivity is invariably involved in some way or other. It is, however, problematic that we rarely delve deeper and ask what order means, or reflect on its underlying, omnipresent and self-evident role. In order to approach this challenge, we initially and briefly place order in a conceptual and historical context. In what follows, we examine order explicitly, i.e. made an object of study, by taking a closer look at extensive multidisciplinary efforts to uncover the secrets of all its facets. Here we also try to identify some systems of order in medical science, including methodological and procedural order, which are indispensable as well as a source of problems. In the sections that follow, order is not defined as an explicit object of study, but comes to light in some exploratory and philosophising projects based on physics, mathematics and phenomenology . Each of these lets order and that which is ordered emerge in ways that may also shed light on opportunities and paradoxes in the medical domain. Key themes here include the Gordian knot of psyche – soma, the order of disorder and the patient as Other.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • Solidarity and Public Health

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      Abstract: Abstract We argue that an unqualified use of the term solidarity in public health is not only equivocal but problematic toward the ends of public health. The term may be deployed normatively by public health advocates to strengthen the bonds among public health practitioners and refer to an ideal society in which the importance of interdependence among members ought to be acknowledged throughout the polity. We propose an important distinction between partisan solidarity and societal solidarity. Because any moralized belief in a vision of a broad societal solidarity will be a contested political ideal, political reality would limit solidarity based on such a vision to partisan solidarity. An idealized vision of societal solidarity is simply not politically feasible in pluralistic, liberal, democratic societies. However, although societal solidarity is unlikely with respect to any particular policy, it might be hoped for with respect to constitutional procedures that provide boundaries for the agon of the political process. We suggest that moralizing assertions of a solidaristic ideal in a pluralistic society might be counterproductive to generating the political support necessary for public health per se and establishing legitimate public health policy. A pragmatic political approach would be for public health advocates to generate sufficient strong political support for those public health policies that are most amenable to the political and social realities of a time and place.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • How to evaluate the quality of an ethical deliberation' A pragmatist
           proposal for evaluation criteria and collaborative research

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      Abstract: Abstract Ethics designates a structured process by which important human values and meanings of life are understood and tackled. Therein, the ability to discuss openly and reflect on (aka deliberation) understandings of moral problems, on solutions to these problems, and to explore what a meaningful resolution could amount to is highly valued. However, the indicators of what constitutes a high-quality ethical deliberation remain vague and unclear. This article proposes and develops a pragmatist approach to evaluate the quality of deliberation. Deliberation features three important moments: (1) broadening and deepening the understanding of the situation, (2) envisioning action scenarios, (3) coming to a judgment based on the comparative evaluation of scenarios. In this paper, we propose seven criteria to evaluate ethical deliberations: (1) collaborative diversity, (2) experiential literacy, (3) organization of experiences, (4) reflective capacity to instrumentalize the experiences of others, (5) interactional creativity, (6) openness of agents, (7) quality of the reformulation of scenarios. These criteria are explained and applied to the three moments of deliberation. Based on these criteria, three kinds of outcomes for deliberations are identified and discussed: good ethical deliberations, partial ethical deliberations, bad ethical deliberations. Our proposal will guide researchers and practitioners interested in the evaluation of the quality of ethical deliberations. It provides a reference tool that allows them to identify the possible limitations of a deliberation and to implement actions aimed at correcting these limitations in order to achieve the desired qualitative objectives.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • Evaluating emotions in medical practice: a critical examination of
           

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      Abstract: Abstract In this article I propose to reframe debates about ideals of emotion in medicine, abandoning the current binary setup of this debate as one between ‘clinical detachment’ and empathy. Inspired by observations from my own field work and drawing on Sky Gross’ anthropological work on rituals of practice as well as Henri Lefebvre’s notion of rhythm, I propose that the normative drive of clinical practice can be better understood through the notion of attunement. In this framework individual types of emotions are not, as such, appropriate or inappropriate, but are evaluated depending on their synchronicity with the specific rhythms of the practice. To set up this proposal, I show how typical arguments about emotions in medicine—what I call emotion-entity focused frameworks—are insufficient. I then draw on ethnographic observations from two orthopaedic departments and interviews with medical practitioners to show (1) how clinical practice is driven by rhythmicity, shaped in the case of orthopaedic surgery by a clinical aim of efficient, controlled intervention, and (2) how clinicians continuously refer to this drive and the flow of rhythms when evaluating inappropriate or problematic emotion. I argue that the use of a rhythm framework rather than ideals of detachment or empathy allows for a sensitivity to the complexity and situation-dependent elements of emotional ideals in clinical practice; and I end by proposing the term ‘attuned concern’—which stresses the importance of regulation and adjustment to circumstances rather than of maintaining a constant distance/involvement—as a more fitting alternative to ‘clinical detachment’.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
       
  • Making Biomedical Sciences publications more accessible for machines

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      Abstract: Abstract With the rapidly expanding catalogue of scientific publications, especially within the Biomedical Sciences field, it is becoming increasingly difficult for researchers to search for, read or even interpret emerging scientific findings. PubMed, just one of the current biomedical data repositories, comprises over 33 million citations for biomedical research, and over 2500 publications are added each day. To further strengthen the impact biomedical research, we suggest that there should be more synergy between publications and machines. By bringing machines into the realm of research and publication, we can greatly augment the assessment, investigation and cataloging of the biomedical literary corpus. The effective application of machine-based manuscript assessment and interpretation is now crucial, and potentially stands as the most effective way for researchers to comprehend and process the tsunami of biomedical data and literature. Many biomedical manuscripts are currently published online in poorly searchable document types, with figures and data presented in formats that are partially inaccessible to machine-based approaches. The structure and format of biomedical manuscripts should be adapted to facilitate machine-assisted interrogation of this important literary corpus. In this context, it is important to embrace the concept that biomedical scientists should also write manuscripts that can be read by machines. It is likely that an enhanced human–machine synergy in reading biomedical publications will greatly enhance biomedical data retrieval and reveal novel insights into complex datasets.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Precision medicine and the fragmentation of solidarity (and justice)

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      Abstract: Solidarity is a fundamental social value in many European countries, though its precise practical and theoretical meaning is disputed. In a health care context, I agree with European writers who take solidarity normatively to mean roughly equal access to effective health care for all. That is, solidarity includes a sense of justice. Given that, I will argue that precision medicine represents a potential weakening of solidarity, albeit not a unique weakening. Precision medicine includes 150 targeted cancer therapies (mostly for metastatic cancer), all of which are extraordinarily expensive. Our critical question: Must a commitment to solidarity as defined mean that all these targeted cancer therapies should be guaranteed to all within each country in the European Union, no matter the cost, no matter the degree of effectiveness' Such a commitment would imply that cancer was ethically special, rightfully commandeering unlimited resources. That in itself would undermine solidarity. I offer multiple examples of how current and future dissemination of these targeted cancer drugs threaten a commitment to solidarity. An alternative is to fund more cancer prevention efforts. However, that too proves a threat to solidarity. Solidarity, with or without a sense of justice, is too abstract a notion to address these challenges. Further, we need to accept that we can only hope to achieve “rough justice” and “supple solidarity.” The precise practical meaning of these notions needs to be worked out through a fair and inclusive process of rational democratic deliberation, which is the real and practical foundation of just solidarity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Reconsidering harm in psychiatric manuals within an explicationist
           framework

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      Abstract: Abstract The notion of harm has been a recurring and a significant notion in the characterization of mental disorder. It is present in eminent diagnostic manuals such as DSM and ICD, as well as in the discussion on mental disorders in philosophy of psychiatry. Recent demotion of harm in the definition of mental disorders in DSM-5 shows a general trend towards reducing the significance of harm when thinking about the nature of mental disorders. In this paper, we defend the relevance of the notion of harm in the characterization of mental disorder against some of these attacks. We approach this issue by using the method of conceptual explication pioneered by Rudolf Carnap. Within this framework, we argue that keeping the notion of harm not only helps to discriminate what is pathological from the nonpathological but also prevents potential misuses of psychiatric authority.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Medicine, health and the human side: responsibility in medical practice

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      Abstract: Abstract Throughout history, the world has been concerned with progress in different areas, and Medicine has not been the exception. Nevertheless, has this progress been positive in the sense of entailing benefits' The question emerges considering that through this progress, human beings have been able to modify natural processes. Considering this, the research question is: What is the role that medicine—a human and scientific discipline—must play, and which is the concept of what a human being must have in a world where utilitarianism prevails over non-material benefits' Also, what are the implications of that role and concept on the decision-making about health, notions about humanity and, areas which require responsibility' The rise of artificial procedures which generate life, simultaneously defying time leads to the main objective of this paper: To present ideas on the current perception about the medical practice; in terms of responsibility about the human side of the patient, related to artificial practices. A second objective is to approach a social topic that motivates to reflect on new and recurring practices in the medical field. This topic will be studied from a hermeneutical perspective to establish relations and an interpretative approach between them, through Thiebaut’s work and Tría’s Philosophy of the Limit, considering the concept of human being and considering that there are limits which should be respected. Afterwards, the focus will be on the medical praxis and its sense of responsibility regarding human beings.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Health within illness: The negativity of vulnerability revised

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper attempts to philosophically articulate empirical evidence on the positive effects of illness within the wider context of a discussion of the positive aspects of vulnerability. The conventional understanding holds that to be vulnerable is to be open to harms and wrongs; it is to be fragile, defenseless, and of compromised autonomy. In this paper, we challenge the assumption that vulnerability consists of nothing but powerlessness and dependence on others. This paper attempts to: (1) outline the theoretical conceptualisation of the positive aspects of coping with illness, while simultaneously showing how these findings provide empirical support for some classical philosophical ideas; (2) influence a change in the manners in which the ill are usually perceived (as weak, dependent, robbed of a good life) and (3) point to the importance of modernising the prevalent biomedical conception of illness with the subjective dimension of health. Biomedical understanding of illness focuses on the vulnerable experience of the sufferer, suggesting the importance of philosophical additions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Mandatory vaccination and the ‘seat belt analogy’ argument: a critical
           analysis in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic

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      Abstract: Abstract The seat belt analogy argument is aimed at furthering the success of coercive vaccination efforts on the basis that the latter is similar to compulsory use of seat belts. However, this article demonstrated that this argument does not work so well in practice due to several reasons. The possibility of saving resources in health care does not usually apply in our societies, and the paternalist mentality that contributed to the implementation of seat belt–wearing obligation was predominant 30 years ago, but it does not apply at this moment. Furthermore, the risk/benefit analysis is totally different in both scenarios. In the case of seat belts, there is no way to discriminate between the users. In the case of vaccines, individuals present with unique circumstances that may differ substantially from those of another and might be foreseen a priori. This means that an analysis must be performed individually before vaccination is imposed. Finally, one must keep in mind that seat belts are often the only way in which we can protect third parties against a tragic hit by the occupant of another vehicle and are very efficient tools for this purpose. Vaccines, in contrast, do not always create sterilising immunity and are definitely not the only way by which we can avoid spreading a virus; immunity certificates, isolation, or even confinement may also serve as viable methods to achieve this purpose.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of major depression:
           a synthesis of phenomenological explanations

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      Abstract: Abstract Psychedelic-assisted Psychotherapy (PAP) combines the use of psychedelic compounds, such as psilocybin, with psychotherapy. PAP has shown some promise as a novel treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and empirical research suggests that its efficacy turns on the altered states induced by psychedelic compounds. In this paper we draw on the literature of phenomenology to explain the therapeutic potential of psychedelic experiences. Svenaeus characterises mental illness as a form of suffering that entails three distinct but related experiences of alienation or “unhomelike being-in-the-world”: (1) illness suffering, which relates to embodiment; (2) existential suffering, which relates to self-narratives, and (3) political suffering, which relates to social relationships. Ratcliffe further characterises the experience of MDD in phenomenological terms as a loss of pre-intentional possibility that manifests as excessive noematic feeling in the experience of embodiment, restrictive narratives in the construction of self, and disconnectedness in experience of the social world. We contend that PAP ameliorates the suffering associated with MDD by inducing and consolidating a state of broadened pre-intentional possibility—one that entails sudden, profound and enduring changes in embodiment, self-narratives, and social experience. We argue further that this phenomenological account is consistent with a bio-psycho-social model of mental health and illness, and we frame it as an argument supporting the plausibility of recent claims about treatment success. This helps to justify ongoing future empirical research in this setting.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The significance of the distinction between “having a life” vs.
           “being alive” in end-of-life care

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      Abstract: Abstract In end-of-life care discussions, I contend that the distinction between “having a life” vs. “being alive” is an underutilized distinction. This distinction is significant in separating different states of existence conflated by patients, families, and clinicians. In the clinical setting, applying this distinction in end-of-life care discussions aids patients’ and family members’ decision-making by helping them understand that being alive can differ from having a life. Moreover, this distinction helps them decide which state may be the most important to them. After applying this distinction to three complex cases, I respond to the likely objection that “having a life” vs. “being alive” is less accurate and more controversial than other distinctions. I conclude by arguing that “having a life” vs. “being alive” is more accurate and less controversial than distinctions between medically indicated vs. medically inappropriate treatments, personhood, and quantity vs. quality of life.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The Deception of Certainty: how Non-Interpretable Machine Learning
           Outcomes Challenge the Epistemic Authority of Physicians. A
           deliberative-relational Approach

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      Abstract: Abstract Developments in Machine Learning (ML) have attracted attention in a wide range of healthcare fields to improve medical practice and the benefit of patients. Particularly, this should be achieved by providing more or less automated decision recommendations to the treating physician. However, some hopes placed in ML for healthcare seem to be disappointed, at least in part, by a lack of transparency or traceability. Skepticism exists primarily in the fact that the physician, as the person responsible for diagnosis, therapy, and care, has no or insufficient insight into how such recommendations are reached. The following paper aims to make understandable the specificity of the deliberative model of a physician-patient relationship that has been achieved over decades. By outlining the (social-)epistemic and inherently normative relationship between physicians and patients, I want to show how this relationship might be altered by non-traceable ML recommendations. With respect to some healthcare decisions, such changes in deliberative practice may create normatively far-reaching challenges. Therefore, in the future, a differentiation of decision-making situations in healthcare with respect to the necessary depth of insight into the process of outcome generation seems essential.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Cognitive enhancement and authenticity: moving beyond the Impasse

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      Abstract: Abstract In work on the ethics of cognitive enhancement use, there is a pervasive concern that such enhancement will—in some way—make us less authentic (e.g., Bublitz and Merkel 2009; Juth 2011). Attempts to clarify what this concern amounts to and how to respond to it often lead to debates on the nature of the “true self” (e.g., Maslen et al. 2014) and what constitutes “genuine human activity” (e.g., Kass 2003). This paper shows that a new and effective way to make progress on whether certain cases of cognitive enhancement problematically undermine authenticity is to make use of considerations from the separate debate on the nature of authentic emotion. Drawing in particular on Wasserman and Liao (2008), the present paper offers new conditions that can help us assess the impact of cognitive enhancements on authenticity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
       
  • Medicine and machines

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      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11019-022-10080-5
       
  • Evaluating models of consent in changing health research environments

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      Abstract: Abstract While Specific Informed Consent has been the established standard for obtaining consent for medical research for many years, it does not appear suitable for large-scale biobank and health data research. Thus, alternative forms of consent have been suggested, based on a variety of ethical background assumptions. This article identifies five main ethical perspectives at stake. Even though Tiered Consent, Dynamic Consent and Meta Consent are designed to the demands of the self-determination perspective as well as the perspective of research as a public good, they are still also criticized from both perspectives. In addition, criticisms based on concerns of justice, participation and democratic deliberation, and relational concerns have been levelled at each of the models. As all of these perspectives have valid points to make, the task at hand lies in balancing these ethical perspectives. What constitutes an adequate balancing depends on contextual factors. These factors include digital infrastructure and digital literacy, data safety regulation, good scientific and clinical practice, transparent debates on ethically relevant features of research, social inequalities, anti-discrimination laws and practices, trust in health care institutions and recognition of patient preferences, and consensus on unethical research. We argue that the role of context in determining acceptable models of consent puts the ethical importance of models of consent into perspective. Since altering contextual factors can help to live up to the ethical concerns at stake in debates about models of consent, opting for such a shift of focus comes without ethical loss.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11019-022-10074-3
       
 
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