Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
 Showing 601 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically Revista de Estudios Kantianos Revista de Estudos Constitucionais, Hermenêutica e Teoria do Direito       (Followers: 1) Revista de Filosofia Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Costa Rica Revista de Filosofía Open Insight Revista de Filosofía y Teoría Política Revista de Humanidades Revista de la Academia Revista Diacrítica Revista Dialectus Revista Eletrônica Espaço Teológico       (Followers: 1) Revista Eletrônica Ludus Scientiae Revista Enciclopédia Revista Epistemologias do Sul Revista Española de Filosofía Medieval Revista Filosofía UIS Revista Fragmentos de Cultura : Revista Interdisciplinar de Ciências Humanas Revista Latinoamericana de Derechos Humanos       (Followers: 2) Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofía       (Followers: 1) Revista Perspectiva Filosófica Revista Poiesis Revista PRAXIS Revista SURES Revue d’études benthamiennes       (Followers: 1) Revue Philosophique de Louvain       (Followers: 1) Rhuthmos Rivista di estetica Rivista di storia della filosofia Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia Rivista Italiana di Filosofia Analitica Junior Roczniki Filozoficzne Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplements       (Followers: 4) Ruch Filozoficzny RUDN Journal of Philosophy Russell : the Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies       (Followers: 3) Russian Studies in Philosophy S : Journal of the Circle for Lacanian Ideology Critique Saberes y Prácticas : Revista de Filosofía y Educación SAINSTIS Sapientia Sartre Studies International       (Followers: 2) Schutzian Research Science & Philosophy       (Followers: 2) Science et Esprit Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science       (Followers: 1) Scrinium : Journal of Patrology and Critical Hagiography Semina Scientiarum Semiotics       (Followers: 1) Siegel Institute Ethics Research Scholars Siegel Institute Journal of Applied Ethics Sign Systems Studies Signos Filosóficos Simone de Beauvoir Studies Sincronía Síntese : Revista de Filosofia Slagmark - Tidsskrift for idéhistorie       (Followers: 3) Social Epistemology: A Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Policy       (Followers: 13) Social Imaginaries       (Followers: 1) Social Philosophy and Policy       (Followers: 25) Social Philosophy Today       (Followers: 3) Social Psychology and Society       (Followers: 2) Social Theory and Practice       (Followers: 8) Società degli individui Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology       (Followers: 2) SOCRATES       (Followers: 5) Sophia : An African Journal of Philosophy       (Followers: 1) Sophía : Colección de Filosofía de la Educación South African Journal of Bioethics and Law       (Followers: 1) South African Journal of Philosophy = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Wysbegeerte       (Followers: 4) Southwest Philosophy Review SPICE : Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices & Ethic Spontaneous Generations : A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science       (Followers: 3) Studi di Estetica Studia Humana Studia Logica       (Followers: 3) Studia Neoaristotelica Studia Phaenomenologica       (Followers: 1) Studia Philosophica Estonica Studia Poliana Studia z Historii Filozofii Studia z Kognitywistyki i Filozofii Umysłu Studier i Pædagogisk Filosofi Studies in Christian-Jewish Relations Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric       (Followers: 7) Studies in Philology       (Followers: 3) SubStance       (Followers: 7) Suhuf Symposion : Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences Symposium : Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy Synthesis (La Plata) Tadris : Islamic Education Journal Tajdida : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Gerakan Muhammadiyah Teaching Ethics Teaching Philosophy       (Followers: 1) Techné : Research in Philosophy and Technology       (Followers: 1) Temporal : Prática e Pensamento Contemporâneos Temporalités       (Followers: 1) Teoliterária : Revista Brasileira de Literaturas e Teologias Teologia i Moralność Teosofi : Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam       (Followers: 1) Teosofia : Indonesian Journal of Islamic Mysticism Terrains / Théories       (Followers: 1) The Acorn The Biblical Annals The Chesterton Review       (Followers: 2) The Chesterton Review em Português The Chesterton Review en Español The Chesterton Review en Français The Chesterton Review in Italiano The CLR James Journal The Heythrop Journal       (Followers: 21) The Islamic Culture The Leibniz Review       (Followers: 1) The Lonergan Review The Monist       (Followers: 9) The Owl of Minerva       (Followers: 1) The Person and the Challenges. The Journal of Theology, Education, Canon Law and Social Studies Inspired by Pope John Paul II The Philosophers' Magazine       (Followers: 5) The Philosophical Forum       (Followers: 4) The Pluralist       (Followers: 3) The Southern Journal of Philosophy       (Followers: 6) Thémata. Revista de Filosofía TheoLogica : An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology       (Followers: 1) Theoria       (Followers: 4) THEORIA : An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science       (Followers: 1) Theoria and Praxis : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Thought       (Followers: 3) Think       (Followers: 6) Thought : A Journal of Philosophy       (Followers: 6) Thought and Practice : A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya Tijdschrift voor Filosofie Tópicos, Revista de Filosofía Tópicos. Revista de Filosofía de Santa Fe Topoi       (Followers: 3) Tradition and Discovery Trans/Form/Ação - Revista de Filosofia Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society       (Followers: 4) Tsaqafah : Jurnal Peradaban Islam ULUM : Journal of Religious Inquiries Universidad de La Habana Universitas : Revista de Filosofía, Derecho y Política       (Followers: 2) Universitas Philosophica Unoesc & Ciência - ACHS Utilitas       (Followers: 11) Utopian Studies       (Followers: 3) Veritas : Revista de Filosofí­a y Teología       (Followers: 1) Via Spiritus : Revista de História da Espiritualidade e do Sentimento Religioso Vincentian Heritage Journal       (Followers: 1) Visnyk of NTUU - Philosophy. Psychology. Pedagogics Voluntaristics Review Wacana : Journal of the Humanities of Indonesia       (Followers: 1) Whiteness and Education       (Followers: 2) Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice / Recueil annuel de Windsor d'accès à la justice Zeitschrift für Ethik und Moralphilosophie : Journal for Ethics and Moral Philosophy       (Followers: 1) Zeitschrift für Kulturphilosophie       (Followers: 4) Zeitschrift für Medien- und Kulturforschung       (Followers: 3) Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung       (Followers: 6) Zeitschrift für philosophische Literatur       (Followers: 2) Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte       (Followers: 5) Zeszyty Naukowe Centrum Badań im. Edyty Stein Zibaldone : Estudios Italianos Τέλος : Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Utilitaristas Гуманітарний вісник Запорізької державної інженерної академії Філософія та політологія в контексті сучасної культури (Philosophy and Political Science in the Context of Modern Culture)
Similar Journals
 Linguistics and PhilosophyJournal Prestige (SJR): 1.429 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 22      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1573-0549 - ISSN (Online) 0165-0157 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Force and Choice

Abstract: Abstract Some utterances of imperative clauses have directive force—they impose obligations. Others have permissive force—they extend permissions. The dominant view is that this difference in force is not accompanied by a difference in semantic content. Drawing on data involving free choice items in imperatives, I argue that the dominant view is incorrect.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Assessing alternatives: the case of the presumptive future in Italian

Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we study the distribution and interpretation of a non-temporal use of the future tense in Italian, called ‘presumptive’ or ‘epistemic’, which we label here PF. We first distinguish PF from its closest modal relatives, namely epistemic necessity/possibility/likelihood modals, as well as weak necessity modals. We then propose an account of PF in declaratives and interrogatives that treats it as a special comparative subjective likelihood modal, and test its empirical predictions. A theoretical lesson drawn from this detailed study of the semantics of PF is that semantics needs sharpened theoretical tools to be able to capture the fine-grained distinctions languages make when it comes to signaling modulated epistemic commitment to a proposition.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Musical meaning within Super Semantics

Abstract: As part of a recent attempt to extend the methods of formal semantics beyond language (‘Super Semantics’), it has been claimed that music has an abstract truth-conditional semantics, albeit one that has more in common with iconic semantics than with standard compositional semantics (Schlenker 2017, 2019a, b). After summarizing this approach and addressing a common objection (here due to Leonard Bernstein), we argue that music semantics should be enriched in three directions by incorporating insights of other areas of Super Semantics. First, it has been claimed by Abusch 2013 that visual narratives make use of discourse referents akin to those we find in language. We argue that a similar conclusion extends to music, and we highlight it by investigating ways in which orchestration and dance may make cross-referential dependencies more explicit. Second, we show that by bringing music semantics closer to the semantics of visual narratives, we can give an account of the semantics of mixed visual and musical sequences. Third, it has been claimed that co-speech gestures trigger characteristic conditionalized presuppositions, called ‘cosuppositions’, and that their semantic status derives from their parasitic character relative to words (Schlenker 2018a, b). We argue that the same conclusion extends to some instances of film and cartoon music: it may trigger cosuppositions that can be revealed by embedding film excerpts or gifs in sentences so as to test presupposition projection. We further argue that under special discourse conditions (pertaining to certain Questions under Discussion), pro-speech gestures and pro-speech music alike can trigger cosuppositions as well. These results suggest that new insights can be gained not just by extending the methods of semantics to new objects, but also by drawing new connections among them.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Probabilistic semantics for epistemic modals: Normality assumptions,
conditional epistemic spaces and the strength of must and might

Abstract: Abstract The epistemic modal auxiliaries must and might are vehicles for expressing the force with which a proposition follows from some body of evidence or information. Standard approaches model these operators using quantificational modal logic, but probabilistic approaches are becoming increasingly influential. According to a traditional view, must is a maximally strong epistemic operator and might is a bare possibility one. A competing account—popular amongst proponents of a probabilisitic turn—says that, given a body of evidence, must $$\phi$$ entails that $$Pr(\phi )$$ is high but non-maximal and might $$\phi$$ that $$Pr(\phi )$$ is significantly greater than 0. Drawing on several observations concerning the behavior of must, might and similar epistemic operators in evidential contexts, deductive inferences, downplaying and retractions scenarios, and expressions of epistemic tension, I argue that those two influential accounts have systematic descriptive shortcomings. To better make sense of their complex behavior, I propose instead a broadly Kratzerian account according to which must $$\phi$$ entails that $$Pr(\phi ) = 1$$ and might $$\phi$$ that $$Pr(\phi ) > 0$$ , given a body of evidence and a set of normality assumptions about the world. From this perspective, must and might are vehicles for expressing a common mode of reasoning whereby we draw inferences from specific bits of evidence against a rich set of background assumptions—some of which we represent as defeasible—which capture our general expectations about the world. I will show that the predictions of this Kratzerian account can be substantially refined once it is combined with a specific yet independently motivated ‘grammatical’ approach to the computation of scalar implicatures. Finally, I discuss some implications of these results for more general discussions concerning the empirical and theoretical motivation to adopt a probabilisitic semantic framework.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Bare singulars and singularity in Turkish

Abstract: Abstract This paper explores the semantics of bare singulars in Turkish, which are unmarked for number in form, as in English, but can behave like both singular and plural terms, unlike in English. While they behave like singular terms as case-marked arguments, they are interpreted number neutrally in non-case-marked argument positions, the existential copular construction, and the predicate position. Previous accounts (Bliss, in Calgary Papers in Linguistics 25:1–65, 2004; Bale et al. in Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) 20:1–15, 2010; Görgülü, in: Semantics of nouns and the specification of number in Turkish, Ph.d. thesis, Simon Fraser University, 2012) propose that Turkish bare singulars denote number neutral sets and that morphologically plural marked nouns denote sets of pluralities only. This approach leads to a symmetric correlation of morphological and semantic (un)markedness. However, in this paper, I defend a strict singular view for bare singulars and show that Turkish actually patterns with English where this correlation is exhibited asymmetrically. I claim that bare singulars in Turkish denote atomic properties and that bare plurals have a number neutral semantics as standardly assumed for English. I argue that the apparent number neutrality of bare singulars in the three cases arises via singular kind reference, which I show to extend to the phenomenon called pseudo-incorporation and a construction that I call kind specification. I argue that pseudo-incorporation occurs in non-case-marked argument positions following Öztürk (Case, referentiality, and phrase structure, Amsterdam, Benjamins, Publishing Company, 2005) and the existential copular construction, whereas kind specification is realized in the predicate position. The different behaviors of bare singulars in Turkish and English stem from the fact that singular kind reference is used more extensively in Turkish than in English. Furthermore, while there are well-known asymmetries between singular and plural kind reference cross-linguistically, Turkish manifests a more restricted distribution for bare plurals than English in the positions where pseudo-incorporation and kind specification are in evidence. I explain this as a blocking effect, specific to Turkish, by singular kind terms on plural kind terms.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• The mental representation of universal quantifiers

Abstract: Abstract A sentence like every circle is blue might be understood in terms of individuals and their properties (e.g., for each thing that is a circle, it is blue) or in terms of a relation between groups (e.g., the blue things include the circles). Relatedly, theorists can specify the contents of universally quantified sentences in first-order or second-order terms. We offer new evidence that this logical first-order vs. second-order distinction corresponds to a psychologically robust individual vs. group distinction that has behavioral repercussions. Participants were shown displays of dots and asked to evaluate sentences with each, every, or all combined with a predicate (e.g., big dot). We find that participants are better at estimating how many things the predicate applied to after evaluating sentences in which universal quantification is indicated with every or all, as opposed to each. We argue that every and all are understood in second-order terms that encourage group representation, while each is understood in first-order terms that encourage individual representation. Since the sentences that participants evaluate are truth-conditionally equivalent, our results also bear on questions concerning how meanings are related to truth-conditions.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Properties of propositional attitude operators

Abstract: Abstract A simple model accounting for semantic properties of propositional attitude operators in negative contexts with no reference to possible worlds is proposed. Verbs occurring in such operators denote relations between individuals and specific sets of sentences (of a given natural language) and their negation is defined as the complement within a specific set of cognitively determined sentences. This approach avoids in particular the problem of intensionality of propositional attitude operators and allows to use many tools from the generalised quantifier theory. In that way the negation giving rise to factive presuppositions and to the neg-raising is defined in a natural way.
PubDate: 2022-07-19

• The semantics of exceptives

Abstract: Abstract This paper gives a uniform account of the meaning of generalizations with explicit exceptions that employ the prepositions “but”, “except”, and “except for”. Our theory is that exceptives depend on generalizations, which can but need not be universal, whose generality they limit, and some of whose exceptions they comment on. Every generalization intrinsically partitions its domain of applicability into regular cases, which are as it says to expect, and exceptions, which are not. A generalization’s exceptions are instances that falsify it if sufficiently prevalent. These two facts underpin the meaning of exceptives as combining a generality claim with an exception claim, giving correct truth conditions for the several ways the three exceptive prepositions are used, and significantly improving on existing semantic accounts in the literature. We support this by analyzing a wide range of examples. The analysis applies whether or not the phrase following the exceptive preposition is a DP, and whether or not the generalization is expressed with a quantifier. We further argue that these exceptive prepositions are synonymous, contrary to the widely held view that a difference in meaning explains their different syntactic distributions.
PubDate: 2022-07-08

• Moving to the rhythm of spring: a case study of the rhythmic structure of
dance

Abstract: The specific goal of the article is to investigate the principles governing the perception of rhythmic structure in dance and music—taken separately and together—on the basis of a case study. I take as a starting point Lerdahl and Jackendoff’s (A generative theory of tonal music. MIT Press, 1983) conception of musical rhythm as the interaction between grouping and meter, and I examine to what extent it can apply to dance. Then, I explore how the rhythmical structures of music and dance interact in a single event. I conclude that dance and music perception largely share the same abstract system, and the differences in the properties of their structure derives from the different (visual vs. auditory) modalities in which they are perceived; their modality difference also affects the perceived structure resulting from their combination in dance-music events. The exploration is guided by a detailed examination of the opening of Stravinsky’s Augurs of Spring (1913) as choreographed by Nijinsky (1913), Béjart (1970) and Bausch (1975). By comparing these minimal pairs of dance-music events, I adapt the formal methodology of linguistics to other cognitive systems. The general goal of the article is to shed further light on the organizational principles of mental representations by comparing several cognitive systems in order to distinguish between general cognitive properties and modality-specific or domain-specific properties.
PubDate: 2022-07-07

• Counterfactuals, hyperintensionality and Hurford disjunctions

Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates propositional hyperintensionality in counterfactuals. It starts with a scenario describing two children playing on a seesaw and studies the truth-value predictions for counterfactuals by four different semantic theories. The theories in question are Kit Fine’s truthmaker semantics, Luis Alonso-Ovalle’s alternative semantics, inquisitive semantics and Paolo Santorio’s syntactic truthmaker semantics. These predictions suggest that the theories that distinguish more of a given set of intensionally equivalent sentences (Fine and Alonso-Ovalle’s) fare better than those that do not (inquisitive semantics and Santorio’s). Then we investigate how inquisitive semantics and Santorio can respond to these results. They can respond to them by helping themselves to considerations from Hurford disjunctions, disjunctions whose disjuncts stand in an entailment relation to one another. I argue that considerations from Hurford disjunctions are ad hoc modifications to less fine-grained theories to predict the expected results and they are not independently motivated. I conclude that the scenarios suggest a need for more fine-grained theories of sentential meaning in general.
PubDate: 2022-06-28

• Default meanings: language’s logical connectives between
comprehension and reasoning

Abstract: Abstract Language employs various coordinators to connect propositions, a subset of which are “logical” in nature and thus analogous to the truth operators of formal logic. We here focus on two linguistic connectives and their negations: conjunction and and (inclusive) disjunction or. Linguistic connectives exhibit a truth-conditional component as part of their meaning (their semantics), but their use in context can give rise to various implicatures and presuppositions (the domain of pragmatics) as well as to inferences that go beyond semantic/pragmatic properties (the result of reasoning processes). We provide a comprehensive review of the role of the logical connectives in language and argue that three sets of factors—semantic, pragmatic, and those related to reasoning—are separate and separable, though some details may differ cross-linguistically. As a way to showcase the argument, we present two experiments in language comprehension in Spanish wherein pragmatic content was minimised and reasoning processes neutered, thus potentially highlighting what might be the default meanings of the connectives under study. In Experiment 1 we show that the conjunctive reading of inclusive disjunction is available in positive contexts other than in syntactically intricate cases such as downward entailing and free choice contexts, contrary to what has been claimed in the literature. In Experiment 2 we show that negated conjunctions and disjunctions in Spanish can easily receive the same interpretation when contrasted against the same context and, moreover, that these interpretations match those available in English, despite claims from the literature that linguistic connectives and local negation interact differently in English and Romance languages.
PubDate: 2022-06-20

• Descriptive As Ifs

Abstract: Abstract This is the first part of a larger project that aims to develop a cross-categorical semantic account of a broad range of as if constructions in English. In this paper, we focus on descriptive uses of as if with regular truth-conditional content. The core proposal is that as if-phrases contribute hypothetical (if-like) and comparative (as-like) properties of situations, which are instantiated by an event, state, or larger situation when it resembles in some relevant respect its counterparts in selected stereotypical worlds described by the clause embedded under as if. We motivate and develop this situation-semantic analysis in detail for examples like Pedro danced as if he was possessed by demons where the modifying as if-adjunct is used to inferentially convey the manner of a reported activity. We extend this analysis to as if-complements of perception verbs in reports like The soup tastes as if it contains fish sauce, offering an alternative to conceptually problematic approaches that assimilate such perceptual resemblance reports to propositional attitude ascriptions. We also examine the predicative function of as if in examples like The state of the house is as if a tornado passed through it where the as if-phrase denotes a hypothetical comparative property of the nominal subject.
PubDate: 2022-06-13

• Metalinguistic disputes, semantic decomposition, and externalism

Abstract: Abstract In componential analysis, word meanings are (partly) decomposed into other meanings, and semantic and syntactic markers. Although a theory of word meaning based on such semantic decompositions remains compatible with the linguistic labor division thesis, it is not compatible with Kripke/Putnam-style indexical externalism. Instead of abandoning indexical externalism, a Separation Thesis is defended according to which lexical meaning need not enter the truth-conditional content of an utterance. Lexical meaning reflects beliefs about word meaning shared in a speaker community, and these may rest on possibly erroneous world-level theories. It is argued that this type of lexical meaning is indispensable for explaining word composition processes and the rationality of metalinguistic disputes.
PubDate: 2022-06-07

• Dependent plurals and three levels of multiplicity

Abstract: Abstract The paper focuses on the semantics of distributivity, grammatical number, and cardinality predicates (numerals and modifiers like several). I argue that constructions involving so-called ‘dependent plurals’, i.e. plurals lacking cardinality predicates occurring in the scope of certain quantificational items such as all and most (e.g. All the girls were wearing hats), pose a challenge to familiar semantic frameworks that distinguish between two sources of multiplicity: mereological plurality and distributive quantification. I argue that dependent plural readings should be analysed as distinct both from cumulative readings and distributive readings, in the classical sense. I demonstrate how this can be accomplished in a semantic framework where expressions are evaluated relative to sets of assignments, or plural info states (van den Berg, in Stokhof and Torenvliet (eds) Proceedings of the 7th Amsterdam Colloquium, ILLC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1990, in Dekker and Stokhof (eds) Proceedings of the 9th Amsterdam Colloquium, ILLC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1994, Some aspects of the Internal Structure of Discourse. The Dynamics of Nominal Anaphora. PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam, 1996). The specific formal implementation is based on a modified version of Brasoveanu’s (Structured nominal and modal reference. PhD thesis, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2007, Linguist Philos 31(2):129–209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10988-008-9035-0, 2008) Plural Compositional DRT. In this framework we are able to distinguish between two types of distributivity: weak distributivity across the assignments in a single plural info state and strong distributivity across multiple info states. I argue that both of these types of distributivity play a role in the semantics of natural language, accounting for the contrasting properties of ‘singular quantifiers’, such as each and every, and ‘plural quantifiers’, such as all and most. The contrasting properties of bare plurals and plurals involving cardinality modifiers are analysed in terms of the distinction between state-level and assignment-level (mereological) plurality.
PubDate: 2022-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10988-021-09330-1

• How to theorize about subjective language: a lesson from ‘de
re’

Abstract: Abstract Subjective language has attracted substantial attention in the recent literature in formal semantics and philosophy of language (see overviews in MacFarlane in Assessment sensitivity: relative truth and its applications, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014; van Wijnbergen-Huitink, in Meier, and van Wijnbergen-Huitink (eds) Subjective meaning: alternatives to relativism, De Gruyter, Berlin, pp 1–19, 2016; Lasersohn in Subjectivity and perspective in truth-theoretic semantics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2017; Vardomskaya in Sources of subjectivity, Ph.D. thesis, University of Chicago, IL, 2018; Zakkou in Faultless disagreement: a defense of contextualism in the realm of personal taste, Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt a. M., 2019b). Most current theories argue that Subjective Predicates (SPs), which express matters of opinion, semantically differ from ordinary predicates, which express matters of fact. We will call this view “SP exceptionalism”. This paper addresses SP exceptionalism by scrutinizing the behavior of SPs in attitude reports, which, as we will argue, significantly constrains the space of analytical options and rules out some of the existing theories. As first noticed by Stephenson (Linguist Philos 30(4):487–525, 2007a; Towards a theory of subjective meaning, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2007b), the most prominent reading of embedded SPs is one where they talk about the attitude holder’s subjective judgment. As is remarked sometimes (Sæbø in Linguist Philos 32(4):327–352, 2009; Pearson in J Semant 30(1):103–154, 2013a), this reading is not the only one: embedded SPs may also talk about someone else’s, non-local, judgment. We concentrate specifically on such cases and show that non-local judgment is possible if and only if SPs are used within a DP that is outside main predicate position and that entire DP is read de re. We demonstrate that the behavior of SPs in attitude reports does not differ from that of ordinary predicates: it follows from general constraints on intersective modification and intensional quantification (Farkas in Szabolcsi (ed) Ways of scope taking, Springer, Dordrecht, pp 183–215, 1997; Musan in On the temporal interpretation of noun phrases, Garland, New York, 1997; Percus in Nat Lang Semant 8(3):173–229, 2000; Keshet in Good intensions: paving two roads to a theory of the de re/de dicto distinction, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2008). We argue that this unexceptional behavior of SPs in fact has unexpected consequences for SP exceptionalism. Precisely because SPs have been argued to be semantically different from ordinary predicates, not all theories correctly predict these less-studied data: some overgenerate (e.g. Stephenson 2007a, b; Stojanovic in Linguist Philos 30(6):691–706, 2007; Sæbø 2009) and some undergenerate (e.g. McCready in McNally, and Puig-Waldmüller (ed) Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung, vol 11, pp 433–447, 2007; Pearson 2013a). Out of the currently available theories, only relativist accounts (Lasersohn in Linguist Philos 28(6):643–686, 2005; MacFarlane 2014; Bylinina in J Semant 34(2), 291–331, 2017; Coppock in Linguist Philos 41(2):125–164, 2018) predict the right interpretation, and only that interpretation. We thus present a novel empirical argument for relativism, and, more generally, formulate a constraint that has to be taken into consideration by any view that advocates SP exceptionalism.
PubDate: 2022-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10988-021-09331-0

• A graph model for probabilities of nested conditionals

Abstract: Abstract We define a model for computing probabilities of right-nested conditionals in terms of graphs representing Markov chains. This is an extension of the model for simple conditionals from Wójtowicz and Wójtowicz (Erkenntnis, 1–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10670-019-00144-z, 2019). The model makes it possible to give a formal yet simple description of different interpretations of right-nested conditionals and to compute their probabilities in a mathematically rigorous way. In this study we focus on the problem of the probabilities of conditionals; we do not discuss questions concerning logical and metalogical issues such as setting up an axiomatic framework, inference rules, defining semantics, proving completeness, soundness etc. Our theory is motivated by the possible-worlds approach (the direct formal inspiration is the Stalnaker Bernoulli models); however, our model is generally more flexible. In the paper we focus on right-nested conditionals, discussing them in detail. The graph model makes it possible to account in a unified way for both shallow and deep interpretations of right-nested conditionals (the former being typical of Stalnaker Bernoulli spaces, the latter of McGee’s and Kaufmann’s causal Stalnaker Bernoulli models). In particular, we discuss the status of the Import-Export Principle and PCCP. We briefly discuss some methodological constraints on admissible models and analyze our model with respect to them. The study also illustrates the general problem of finding formal explications of philosophically important notions and applying mathematical methods in analyzing philosophical issues.
PubDate: 2022-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10988-021-09324-z

• Ignorance implicatures of modified numerals

Abstract: Abstract Modified numerals, such as at least three and more than five, are known to sometimes give rise to ignorance inferences. However, there is disagreement in the literature regarding the nature of these inferences, their context dependence, and differences between at least and more than. We present a series of experiments which sheds new light on these issues. Our results show that (a) the ignorance inferences of at least are more robust than those of more than, (b) the presence and strength of the ignorance inferences triggered by both at least and more than depends on the question under discussion (QUD), and (c) whether ignorance inferences are detected in a given experimental setting depends partly on the task that participants are asked to perform (e.g., an acceptability task versus an inference task). We offer an Optimality Theoretic account of these findings. In particular, the task effect is captured by assuming that in performing an acceptability task, participants take the speaker’s perspective in order to determine whether an expression is optimal given a certain epistemic state, while in performing an inference task they take the addressee’s perspective in order to determine what the most likely epistemic state of the speaker is given a certain expression. To execute the latter task in a fully rational manner, participants have to perform higher-order reasoning about alternative expressions the speaker could have used. Under the assumption that participants do not always perform such higher-order reasoning but also often resort to so-called unidirectional optimization, the task effect finds a natural explanation. This also allows us to relate our finding to asymmetries between comprehension and production that have been found in language acquisition.
PubDate: 2022-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10988-021-09336-9

• Bias in semantic and discourse interpretation

Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we show how game theoretic work on conversation combined with a theory of discourse structure provides a framework for studying interpretive bias and how bias affects the production and interpretation of linguistic content. We model the influence of author bias on the discourse content and structure of the author’s linguistic production and interpreter bias on the interpretation of ambiguous or underspecified elements of that content and structure. Interpretive bias is an essential feature of learning and understanding but also something that can be exploited to pervert or subvert the truth. We develop three types of games to understand and to analyze a range of interpretive biases, the factors that contribute to them, and their strategic effects.
PubDate: 2022-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10988-021-09334-x

• Descriptions, pronouns, and uniqueness

Abstract: Abstract Both definite descriptions and pronouns are often anaphoric; that is, part of their interpretation in context depends on prior linguistic material in the discourse. For example: (1) A student walked in. The student sat down. (2) A student walked in. She sat down. One popular view of anaphoric pronouns, the d-type view, is that pronouns like ‘she’ go proxy for definite descriptions like ‘the student who walked in’, which are in turn treated in a classical (neo-) Russellian or (neo-) Fregean fashion. I argue for a novel version of the d-type view in which anaphoric definites are restricted existential quantifiers that presuppose discourse uniqueness, which is uniqueness of discourse referent in the context, rather than uniqueness of object in the world. In other words, the anaphoric definites ‘the student’ and ‘she’ in (1) and (2) presuppose that there is a single object under discussion that is a student who walked in. I further argue that, by contrast, non-anaphoric definites are restricted existential quantifiers that presuppose worldly uniqueness, that is, that there is a unique object in the world that satisfies the descriptive information. The semantics for anaphoric and non-anaphoric definites accounts for the differences in truth conditions in discourses involving the two different types of definites, improving on existing accounts. It is further supported by crosslinguistic data. The semantics is formally implemented in a static system employing quantifier domain restriction in the style of Stanley and Szabo (Mind Lang 15(2–3):219–261, 2000) and extended to account for bridging definites and donkey sentences.
PubDate: 2022-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10988-021-09325-y

• Faultless disagreement without contradiction: expressive-relativism and
predicates of personal taste

Abstract: Abstract In this paper we motivate and develop a new approach to predicates of personal taste within the framework of semantic relativism. Our primary goal is to explain faultless disagreement—the phenomenon where two parties disagree, yet both have uttered something true—which is often thought to arise from the use of predicates of personal taste. We combine semantic relativism with an expressivist semantics to yield a novel hybrid theory which we call Expressive-Relativism. We motivate the theory by rehearsing a famous objection to Relativism from Frege which we interpret as severing the connection between contradiction and disagreement for relativists. Endorsing the objection, we respond by enriching relativism with an expressivist component which explains disagreement over matters of taste as a refusal to share perspectives rather than as resting on contradiction.
PubDate: 2022-05-18
DOI: 10.1007/s10988-022-09353-2

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