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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
Showing 201 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically
Estudos Nietzsche     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Etcétera : Revista del Área de Ciencias Sociales del CIFFyH     Open Access  
Ethical Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Ethics & Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ethics in Progress     Open Access  
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Éthique en éducation et en formation : Les Dossiers du GREE     Open Access  
Éthique publique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethische Perspectieven     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Etikk i praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études phénoménologiques : Phenomenological Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Études Platoniciennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Islamic Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History     Open Access  
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Faith and Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
FALAH : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access  
Feminist Philosophy Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Fichte-Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Film-Philosophy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Filosofia e Educação     Open Access  
Filosofia Theoretica : Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Filosofia Unisinos     Open Access  
Filosofia. Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto     Open Access  
Filozofia Chrześcijańska     Open Access  
Filozofia Publiczna i Edukacja Demokratyczna     Open Access  
Filozofija i društvo / Philosophy and Society     Open Access  
FLEKS : Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FOKUS : Jurnal Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Folios     Open Access  
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Forum Philosophicum     Full-text available via subscription  
Franciscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Franciscanum. Revista de las ciencias del espíritu     Open Access  
Frónesis     Open Access  
Funes. Journal of Narratives and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Gestalt Theory. An International Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Forum on Arts and Christian Faith     Open Access  
Gnosis : Journal of Gnostic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gogoa     Open Access  
Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Grafía     Open Access  
Granì     Open Access  
Grazer Philosophische Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Griot : Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Grotiana     Hybrid Journal  
GSTF Journal of General Philosophy (JPhilo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Review of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Heidegger Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Heroism Science     Open Access  
Hic Rhodus : Crisis capitalista, polémica y controversias     Open Access  
HiN : Alexander von Humboldt im Netz. Internationale Zeitschrift für Humboldt-Studien     Open Access  
Histoire Épistémologie Langage     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
History and Philosophy of Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
History of Communism in Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hobbes Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
HOPOS : The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Horizonte : Revista de Estudos de Teologia e Ciências da Religião     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Horyzonty Wychowania     Open Access  
HTS Theological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Humanidades em diálogo     Open Access  
Humanidades Médicas     Open Access  
Humanist Studies & the Digital Age     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Humanistic Management Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Hume Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Husserl Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Idealistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Idéias     Open Access  
Ignis (Revista de estudiantes)     Open Access  
IJIBE (International Journal of Islamic Business Ethics)     Open Access  
Ijtimaiyya : Jurnal Pengembangan Masyarakat Islam     Open Access  
Ikonomika : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access  
Impact : The Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain     Free   (Followers: 5)
Informal Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ingenium. Revista Electrónica de Pensamiento Moderno y Metodología en Historia de la Ideas     Open Access  
Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Inquiry : Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Intellèctus     Open Access  
Interações : Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
Interespe. Interdisciplinaridade e Espiritualidade na Educação     Open Access  
International Gramsci Journal     Open Access  
International Journal for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
International Journal for the Study of Skepticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Transformative Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Divination and Prognostication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ethics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Philosophy & Social Values     Open Access  
International Journal of Philosophy and Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Philosophy Study     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Social Quality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Platonic Tradition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Zakat     Open Access  
International Journal of Žižek Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Philosophical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Studies in Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Studies in Philosophy Monograph Series     Full-text available via subscription  
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Iqtishoduna : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
Isegoría     Open Access  
Islamic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía del Derecho     Open Access  
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access  
Ítaca     Open Access  
Itinera     Open Access  
Ius Humani: Revista de derecho     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
JOHME : Journal of Holistic Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal for Continental Philosophy of Religion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Peace and Justice Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Aesthetic Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Analytic Divinity     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Hermeneutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Business Ethics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Catalan Intellectual History     Open Access  
Journal of Catholic Social Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chinese Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Critical Realism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Dharma Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of East Asian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Educational Thought / Revue de la Pensée Educative     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Friends of Lutheran Archives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Global Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Graduate Studies Review     Open Access  
Journal of Humanistic Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Humanities of Valparaiso     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Islamic Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Islamic Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Japanese Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Literature and Trauma Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Media Ethics : Exploring Questions of Media Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Modern Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Moral Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Nietzsche Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Philosophical investigations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Philosophical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Philosophical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Philosophy in Schools     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Philosophy, Culture and Religion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Political Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Journal of Religion and Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Religion and Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Scottish Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Speculative Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Philosophical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the History of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Journal of the Philosophy of Games     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Philosophy of History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Sociology and Theory of Religion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Urdu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Values Education / Değerler Eğitimi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of World Philosophies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Juris (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah)     Open Access  
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Jurnal Dinamika Penelitian : Media Komunikasi Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (Journal of Islamic Economics and Business)     Open Access  
Jurnal Filsafat     Open Access  
Jurnal Konseling Gusjigang     Open Access  
Jurnal Living Hadis     Open Access  

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Journal of Philosophical Logic
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.886
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-0433 - ISSN (Online) 0022-3611
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • From Epistemic Norms to Logical Rules: Epistemic Models for Logical
           Expressivists

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper I construct a system of semantics for classical and intuitionistic propositional logic based on epistemic norms governing belief expansion. Working in the AGM-framework of belief change, I give a generalisation of Gärdenfors’ notion of belief systems which can be defined without reference to a logical consequence operator by using a version of the Ramsey Test. These belief expansion systems can then be used to define epistemic models which are sound and complete for either classical or intuitionistic propositional logic depending on which of the two notions of epistemic validity, identified by Levi and Arló-Costa, is used. Finally, I offer a discussion on how these results can be understood as providing a model theory within the framework of logical expressivism.
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
       
  • A Step Towards Absolute Versions of Metamathematical Results

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      Abstract: There is a well-known gap between metamathematical theorems and their philosophical interpretations. Take Tarski’s Theorem. According to its prevalent interpretation, the collection of all arithmetical truths is not arithmetically definable. However, the underlying metamathematical theorem merely establishes the arithmetical undefinability of a set of specific Gödel codes of certain artefactual entities, such as infix strings, which are true in the standard model. That is, as opposed to its philosophical reading, the metamathematical theorem is formulated (and proved) relative to a specific choice of the Gödel numbering and the notation system. A similar observation applies to Gödel’s and Church’s theorems, which are commonly taken to impose severe limitations on what can be proved and computed using the resources of certain formalisms. The philosophical force of these limitative results heavily relies on the belief that these theorems do not depend on contingencies regarding the underlying formalisation choices. The main aim of this paper is to provide metamathematical facts which support this belief. While employing a fixed notation system, I showed in previous work (Review of Symbolic Logic, 2021, 14(1):51–84) how to abstract away from the choice of the Gödel numbering. In the present paper, I extend this work by establishing versions of Tarski’s, Gödel’s and Church’s theorems which are invariant regarding both the notation system and the numbering. This paper thus provides a further step towards absolute versions of metamathematical results which do not rely on contingent formalisation choices.
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
       
  • Mathematical Modality: An Investigation in Higher-order Logic

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      Abstract: Abstract An increasing amount of contemporary philosophy of mathematics posits, and theorizes in terms of special kinds of mathematical modality. The goal of this paper is to bring recent work on higher-order metaphysics to bear on the investigation of these modalities. The main focus of the paper will be views that posit mathematical contingency or indeterminacy about statements that concern the ‘width’ of the set theoretic universe, such as Cantor’s continuum hypothesis. Within a higher-order framework I show that contingency about the width of the set-theoretic universe refutes two orthodoxies concerning the structure of modal reality: the view that the broadest necessity has a logic of S5, and the ‘Leibniz biconditionals’ stating that what is possible, in the broadest sense of possible, is what is true in some possible world. Nonetheless, I suggest that the underlying picture of modal set-theory is coherent and has attractions.
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
       
  • Reasoning about Dependence, Preference and Coalitional Power

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a logic of preference and functional dependence (LPFD) and its hybrid extension (HLPFD), both of whose sound and strongly complete axiomatization are provided. The decidability of LPFD is also proved. The application of LPFD and HLPFD to modelling cooperative games in strategic form is explored. The resulted framework provides a unified view on Nash equilibrium, Pareto optimality and the core. The philosophical relevance of these game-theoretical notions to discussions of collective agency is made explicit. Some key connections with other logics are also revealed, for example, the coalition logic, the logic of functional dependence and the logic of ceteris paribus preference.
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
       
  • The Implicative Conditional

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates the implicative conditional, a connective intended to describe the logical behavior of an empirically defined class of natural language conditionals, also named implicative conditionals, which excludes concessive and some other conditionals. The implicative conditional strengthens the strict conditional with the possibility of the antecedent and of the contradictory of the consequent. \({p\Rightarrow q}\) is thus defined as \({\lnot } \Diamond {(p \wedge \lnot q) \wedge } \Diamond {p \wedge } \Diamond {\lnot q}\) . We explore the logical properties of this conditional in a reflexive normal Kripke semantics, provide an axiomatic system and prove it to be sound and complete for our semantics. The implicative conditional validates transitivity and contraposition, which we take to be integral parts of reasoning and communication. But it only validates restricted versions of strengthening the antecedent, right weakening, simplification, and rational monotonicity. Apparent counterexamples to some of these properties are explained as due to contextual factors. Finally, the implicative conditional avoids the paradoxes of material and strict implication, and validates some connexive principles such as Aristotle’s theses and weak Boethius’ thesis, as well as some highly entrenched principles of conditionals, such as conjunction of consequents, disjunction of antecedents, modus ponens, cautious monotonicity and cut.
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
       
  • A Sound and Complete Tableaux Calculus for Reichenbach’s Quantum
           Mechanics Logic

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      Abstract: Abstract In 1944 Hans Reichenbach developed a three-valued propositional logic (RQML) in order to account for certain causal anomalies in quantum mechanics. In this logic, the truth-value indeterminate is assigned to those statements describing physical phenomena that cannot be understood in causal terms. However, Reichenbach did not develop a deductive calculus for this logic. The aim of this paper is to develop such a calculus by means of First Degree Entailment logic (FDE) and to prove it sound and complete with respect to RQML semantics. In Section 1 we explain the main physical and philosophical motivations of RQML. Next, in Sections 2 and 3, respectively, we present RQML and FDE syntax and semantics and explain the relation between both logics. Section 4 introduces \(\varvec{\mathcal {Q}}\) calculus, an FDE-based tableaux calculus for RQML. In Section 5 we prove that \(\varvec{\mathcal {Q}}\) calculus is sound and complete with respect to RQML three-valued semantics. Finally, in Section 6 we consider some of the main advantages of \(\varvec{\mathcal {Q}}\) calculus and we apply it to Reichenbach’s analysis of causal anomalies.
      PubDate: 2023-11-18
       
  • The Liar Paradox and “Meaningless” Revenge

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      Abstract: Abstract A historically popular response to the liar paradox (“this sentence is false”) is to say that the liar sentence is meaningless (or semantically defective, or malfunctions, or…). Unfortunately, like all other supposed solutions to the liar, this approach faces a revenge challenge. Consider the revenge liar sentence, “this sentence is either meaningless or false”. If it is true, then it is either meaningless or false, so not true. And if it is not true, then it can’t be either meaningless or false, so it must be true. Either way, we are back in a paradox. This paper provides a detailed and exhaustive discussion of the options for responding to revenge on behalf of “meaningless” theories. Though I attempt to discuss all of the options fairly, I will ultimately opt for one specific response and discuss some of its challenges. Various technical and logical matters will be discussed throughout the paper, but my focus will be philosophical, throughout. My overall conclusion is that the “meaningless” strategy is at least as well off in the face of revenge as any other approach to the liar and related paradoxes.
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
       
  • Modal Information Logics: Axiomatizations and Decidability

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      Abstract: Abstract The present paper studies formal properties of so-called modal information logics (MILs)—modal logics first proposed in (van Benthem 1996) as a way of using possible-worlds semantics to model a theory of information. They do so by extending the language of propositional logic with a binary modality defined in terms of being the supremum of two states. First proposed in 1996, MILs have been around for some time, yet not much is known: (van Benthem 2017, 2019) pose two central open problems, namely (1) axiomatizing the two basic MILs of suprema on preorders and posets, respectively, and (2) proving (un)decidability. The main results of the first part of this paper are solving these two problems: (1) by providing an axiomatization [with a completeness proof entailing the two logics to be the same], and (2) by proving decidability. In the proof of the latter, an emphasis is put on the method applied as a heuristic for proving decidability ‘via completeness’ for semantically introduced logics; the logics lack the FMP w.r.t. their classes of definition, but not w.r.t. a generalized class. These results are build upon to axiomatize and prove decidable the MILs attained by endowing the language with an ‘informational implication’—in doing so a link is also made to the work of (Buszkowski 2021) on the Lambek Calculus.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
       
  • Subject-Matter and Intensional Operators II: Applications to the Theory of
           Topic-Sensitive Intentional Modals

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      Abstract: Abstract In frameworks in which topic-theoretic considerations—e.g., tracking subject-matter or topic—are given equal importance with veridical considerations, assigning topics to formulae in a satisfactory way is of critical importance. While intuitions are more-or-less solid for extensional formulae in a propositional language, arriving at a compelling account of the subject-matter of intensional formulae, i.e., formulae including intensional operators, is more challenging. This paper continues previous work on modeling topics of intensional formulae in William Parry’s logic of analytic implication, adapting the general techniques to the framework of topic-sensitive intentional modals (TSIMs) championed by Francesco Berto and his collaborators. As illustrations, we introduce variations on Berto and Peter Hawke’s logic of knowability relative to information ( \(\pmb {\textsf{KRI}}\) ), including a refinement sensitive to topic-theoretic distinctions between knowledge and belief and a refinement capable of internalizing its own properties. Finally, subsystems of Aybüke Ozgun and Berto’s logic of plain hyperintensional belief ( \(\pmb {\textsf{PHB}}\) ) are introduced in which fine-grained distinctions in subject-matter are possible.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
       
  • Axiomatizing Rumsfeld Ignorance

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      Abstract: Abstract In a recent paper, Kit Fine presents some striking results concerning the logical properties of (first-order) ignorance, second-order ignorance and Rumsfeld ignorance. However, Rumsfeld ignorance is definable in terms of ignorance, which makes some existing results and the axiomatization problem trivial. A main reason is that the accessibility relations for the implicit knowledge operator contained in the packaged operators of ignorance and Rumsfeld ignorance are the same. In this work, we assume the two accessibility relations to be different so that one of them is an arbitrary subset of the other. This will avoid the definability issue and retain most of the previous validities. The main results are axiomatizations over various proper bi-frame classes. Finally we apply our framework to analyze Fine’s results.
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
       
  • Truth Meets Vagueness. Unifying the Semantic and the Soritical Paradoxes

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      Abstract: Abstract Semantic and soritical paradoxes display remarkable family resemblances. For one thing, several non-classical logics have been independently applied to both kinds of paradoxes. For another, revenge paradoxes and higher-order vagueness—among the most serious problems targeting solutions to semantic and soritical paradoxes—exhibit a rather similar dynamics. Some authors have taken these facts to suggest that truth and vagueness require a unified logical framework, or perhaps that the truth predicate is itself vague. However, a common core of semantic and soritical paradoxes has not been identified yet, and no explanation of their relationships has been provided. Here we aim at filling this lacuna, in the framework of many-valued logics. We provide a unified diagnosis of semantic and soritical paradoxes, identifying their source in a general form of indiscernibility. We then develop our diagnosis into a theory of paradoxicality, which formalizes both semantic and soritical paradoxes as arguments involving specific instances of our generalized indiscernibility principle, and correctly predicts which logics can non-trivially solve them.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
       
  • Logic-Sensitivity and Bitstring Semantics in the Square of Opposition

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper explores the interplay between logic-sensitivity and bitstring semantics in the square of opposition. Bitstring semantics is a combinatorial technique for representing the formulas that appear in a logical diagram, while logic-sensitivity entails that such a diagram may depend, not only on the formulas involved, but also on the logic with respect to which they are interpreted. These two topics have already been studied extensively in logical geometry, and are thus well-understood by themselves. However, the precise details of their interplay turn out to be far more complicated. In particular, the paper describes an elegant and natural interaction between bitstrings and logic-sensitivity, which makes perfect sense when bitstrings are viewed as purely combinatorial entities. However, when we view bitstrings as semantically meaningful entities (which is actually the standard perspective, cf. the term ‘bitstring semantics’!), this interaction does not seem to have a full and equally natural counterpart. The paper describes some attempts to address this situation, but all of them are ultimately found wanting. For now, it thus remains an open problem to capture this interaction between bitstrings and logic-sensitivity from a semantic (rather than merely a combinatorial) perspective.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
       
  • Logical Multilateralism

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper we will consider the existing notions of bilateralism in the context of proof-theoretic semantics and propose, based on our understanding of bilateralism, an extension to logical multilateralism. This approach differs from what has been proposed under this name before in that we do not consider multiple speech acts as the core of such a theory but rather multiple consequence relations. We will argue that for this aim the most beneficial proof-theoretical realization is to use sequent calculi with multiple sequent arrows satisfying some specific conditions, which we will lay out in this paper. We will unfold our ideas with the help of a case study in logical tetralateralism and present an extension of Almukdad and Nelson’s propositional constructive four-valued logic by unary operations of meaningfulness and nonsensicality. We will argue that in sequent calculi with multiple sequent arrows it is possible to maintain certain features that are desirable if we assume an understanding of the meaning of connectives in the spirit of proof-theoretic semantics. The use of multiple sequent arrows will be justified by the presence of congruentiality-breaking unary connectives.
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
       
  • Abduction as Deductive Saturation: a Proof-Theoretic Inquiry

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      Abstract: Abstract Abductive reasoning involves finding the missing premise of an “unsaturated” deductive inference, thereby selecting a possible explanans for a conclusion based on a set of previously accepted premises. In this paper, we explore abductive reasoning from a structural proof-theory perspective. We present a hybrid sequent calculus for classical propositional logic that uses sequents and antisequents to define a procedure for identifying the set of analytic hypotheses that a rational agent would be expected to select as explanans when presented with an abductive problem. Specifically, we show that this set may not include the deductively minimal hypothesis due to the presence of redundant information. We also establish that the set of all analytic hypotheses exhausts all possible solutions to the given problem. Finally, we propose a deductive criterion for differentiating between the best explanans candidates and other hypotheses.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10992-023-09718-3
       
  • A Minimal Probability Space for Conditionals

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      Abstract: Abstract One of central problems in the theory of conditionals is the construction of a probability space, where conditionals can be interpreted as events and assigned probabilities. The problem has been given a technical formulation by van Fraassen (23), who also discussed in great detail the solution in the form of Stalnaker Bernoulli spaces. These spaces are very complex – they have the cardinality of the continuum, even if the language is finite. A natural question is, therefore, whether a technically simpler (in particular finite) partial construction can be given. In the paper we provide a new solution to the problem. We show how to construct a finite probability space \(\mathrm {S}^\#=\left(\mathrm\Omega^\#,\mathrm\Sigma^\#,\mathrm P^\#\right)\) in which simple conditionals and their Boolean combinations can be interpreted. The structure is minimal in terms of cardinality within a certain, naturally defined class of models – an interesting side-effect is an estimate of the number of non-equivalent propositions in the conditional language. We demand that the structure satisfy certain natural assumptions concerning the logic and semantics of conditionals and also that it satisfy PCCP. The construction can be easily iterated, producing interpretations for conditionals of arbitrary complexity.
      PubDate: 2023-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10992-023-09710-x
       
  • A Basis for AGM Revision in Bayesian Probability Revision

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      Abstract: Abstract In standard Bayesian probability revision, the adoption of full beliefs (propositions with probability 1) is irreversible. Once an agent has full belief in a proposition, no subsequent revision can remove that belief. This is an unrealistic feature, and it also makes probability revision incompatible with belief change theory, which focuses on how the set of full beliefs is modified through both additions and retractions. This problem in probability theory can be solved in a model that (i) lets the codomain of the probability function be a hyperreal-valued rather than the real-valued closed interval [0, 1], and (ii) identifies the full beliefs as the propositions whose probability is either 1 or infinitesimally smaller than 1. In this model, changes in the probability function will result in changes in the set of full beliefs (belief set), which constitutes a submodel that can be conceived as the “tip of the iceberg” within the larger model that also contains beliefs on lower levels of probability. The patterns of change in the set of full beliefs in this modified Bayesian model coincides with the corresponding pattern in a slightly modified version of AGM revision, which is commonly conceived as the gold standard of (dichotomous) belief change. The modification only concerns the marginal case of revision by an inconsistent input sentence. These results show that probability revision and dichotomous belief change can be unified in one and the same framework, or – if we so wish – that belief change theory can be subsumed under a modified version of probability revision that allows for iterated change and for the removal of full beliefs.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10992-023-09716-5
       
  • The Value of the One Value: Exactly True Logic revisited

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper we re-assess the philosophical foundation of Exactly True Logic ( \(\mathcal {ET\!L}\) ), a competing variant of First Degree Entailment ( \(\mathcal {FDE}\) ). In order to do this, we first rebut an argument against it. As the argument appears in an interview with Nuel Belnap himself, one of the fathers of \(\mathcal {FDE}\) , we believe its provenance to be such that it needs to be taken seriously. We submit, however, that the argument ultimately fails, and that \(\mathcal {ET\!L}\) cannot easily be dismissed. We then proceed to give an overview of the research that was inspired by this logic over the last decade, thus providing further motivation for the study of \(\mathcal {ET\!L}\) and, more generally, of \(\mathcal {FDE}\) -related logics that result from semantical analyses alternative to Belnap’s canonical one. We focus, in particular, on philosophical questions that these developments raise.
      PubDate: 2023-08-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10992-023-09711-w
       
  • Quantum Epistemology and Constructivism

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      Abstract: Abstract Constructivist epistemology posits that all truths are knowable. One might ask to what extent constructivism is compatible with naturalized epistemology and knowledge obtained from inference-making using successful scientific theories. If quantum theory correctly describes the structure of the physical world, and if quantum theoretic inferences about which measurement outcomes will be observed with unit probability count as knowledge, we demonstrate that constructivism cannot be upheld. Our derivation is compatible with both intuitionistic and quantum propositional logic. This result is implied by the Frauchiger-Renner theorem, though it is of independent importance as well.
      PubDate: 2023-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10992-023-09717-4
       
  • On the Provable Contradictions of the Connexive Logics C and C3

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      Abstract: Abstract Despite the tendency to be otherwise, some non-classical logics are known to validate formulas that are invalid in classical logic. A subclass of such systems even possesses pairs of a formula and its negation as theorems, without becoming trivial. How should these provable contradictions be understood' The present paper aims to shed light on aspects of this phenomenon by taking as samples the constructive connexive logic C, which is obtained by a simple modification of a system of constructible falsity, namely N4, as well as its non-constructive extension C3. For these systems, various observations concerning provable contradictions are made, using mainly a proof-theoretic approach. The topics covered in this paper include: how new contradictions are found from parts of provable contradictions; how to characterise provable contradictions in C3 that are constructive; how contradictions can be seen from the relative viewpoint of strong implication; and as an appendix an attempt at generating provable contradictions in C3.
      PubDate: 2023-07-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10992-023-09709-4
       
  • Communication Pattern Logic: Epistemic and Topological Views

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      Abstract: Abstract We propose communication pattern logic. A communication pattern describes how processes or agents inform each other, independently of the information content. The full-information protocol in distributed computing is the special case wherein all agents inform each other. We study this protocol in distributed computing models where communication might fail: an agent is certain about the messages it receives, but it may be uncertain about the messages other agents have received. In a dynamic epistemic logic with distributed knowledge and with modalities for communication patterns, the latter are interpreted by updating Kripke models. We propose an axiomatization of communication pattern logic, and we show that collective bisimilarity (comparing models on their distributed knowledge) is preserved when updating models with communication patterns. We can also interpret communication patterns by updating simplicial complexes, a well-known topological framework for distributed computing. We show that the different semantics correspond, and propose collective bisimulation between simplicial complexes.
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10992-023-09713-8
       
 
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