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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
Showing 601 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted by number of followers
Analítica     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Modern Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Philosophy and Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Whiteness and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Sociology and Theory of Religion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Laisvalaikio Tyrimai     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culture and Dialogue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gnosis : Journal of Gnostic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ajatus : Suomen Filosofisen Yhdistyksen vuosikirja     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universitas : Revista de Filosofía, Derecho y Política     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ethics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aesthetic Investigations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Ethik und Moralphilosophie : Journal for Ethics and Moral Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Problema Anuario de Filosofía y Teoría del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agora: papeles de Filosofía     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ANFUSINA : Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TheoLogica : An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Philosophia : Revista de Filosofía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of East Asian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Islamic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clotho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
An-Nisbah : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Fikra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Nietzsche     Open Access  
Bergsoniana     Open Access  
Histoire Épistémologie Langage     Open Access  
Ancient Philosophy Today     Hybrid Journal  
Endowment Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Danish Yearbook of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for Continental Philosophy of Religion     Full-text available via subscription  
Simone de Beauvoir Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Divination and Prognostication     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Urdu Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Values Education / Değerler Eğitimi Dergisi     Open Access  
Conciencia     Open Access  
Correspondences : Journal for the Study of Esotericism     Open Access  
Resonancias : Revista de Filosofía     Open Access  
Res Humanitariae     Open Access  
Humanidades em diálogo     Open Access  
Discurso     Open Access  
Cadernos de Filosofia Alemã : Crítica e Modernidade     Open Access  
Cadernos de Ética e Filosofia Política     Open Access  
Cadernos Espinosanos     Open Access  
Studies in Christian-Jewish Relations     Open Access  
Dianoia     Open Access  
Saberes y Prácticas : Revista de Filosofía y Educación     Open Access  
Ciência & Trópico     Open Access  
Філософія та політологія в контексті сучасної культури (Philosophy and Political Science in the Context of Modern Culture)     Open Access  
Etcétera : Revista del Área de Ciencias Sociales del CIFFyH     Open Access  
Jurnal Konseling Gusjigang     Open Access  
Science et Esprit     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Journal of Educational Thought / Revue de la Pensée Educative     Full-text available via subscription  
Auslegung : A Journal of Philosophy     Open Access  
PhaenEx     Open Access  
International Journal of Philosophy & Social Values     Open Access  
Convivium : Revista de Filosophia     Open Access  
Aurora : papeles del Seminario María Zambrano     Open Access  
Astrolabio     Open Access  
IJIBE (International Journal of Islamic Business Ethics)     Open Access  
International Gramsci Journal     Open Access  
Andrews University Seminary Student Journal     Open Access  
SPICE : Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices & Ethic     Open Access  
Patristica et Mediævalia     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Filosofía     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Philosophy     Open Access  
Revista Fragmentos de Cultura : Revista Interdisciplinar de Ciências Humanas     Open Access  
Temporal : Prática e Pensamento Contemporâneos     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Filosofia da Religião     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Bioética     Open Access  
Ítaca     Open Access  
Analytica : Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Anais de Filosofia Clássica     Open Access  
AL-Qadissiya Magzine for Human Sciences     Open Access  
Oksident     Open Access  
Diferencia(s)     Open Access  
Philosophical Inquiry in Education     Open Access  
Τέλος : Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Utilitaristas     Open Access  
Frónesis     Open Access  
Sapientia     Open Access  
Discusiones Filosóficas     Open Access  
Universidad de La Habana     Open Access  
Anais Eletrônicos do Congresso Epistemologias do Sul     Open Access  
Revista SURES     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Ludus Scientiae     Open Access  
Revista Epistemologias do Sul     Open Access  
Cracow Indological Studies     Open Access  
Australasian Philosophical Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Jus Cogens : A Critical Journal of Philosophy of Law and Politics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Dharma Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Humanistic Management Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Via Spiritus : Revista de História da Espiritualidade e do Sentimento Religioso     Open Access  
Filosofia. Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto     Open Access  
Civitas Augustiniana     Open Access  
Revista Binacional Brasil - Argentina: Diálogo entre as ciências     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Kantianos     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate Studies Review     Open Access  
HiN : Alexander von Humboldt im Netz. Internationale Zeitschrift für Humboldt-Studien     Open Access  
Dios y el Hombre     Open Access  
Bulletin of Yaroslav Mudryi NLU : Series : Philosophy, philosophy of law, political science, sociology     Open Access  
Sincronía     Open Access  
Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía del Derecho     Open Access  
Journal of Analytic Divinity     Open Access  
Cahiers de Philosophie de l’Université de Caen     Open Access  
Heroism Science     Open Access  
FOKUS : Jurnal Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
BELAJEA : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
AJIS : Academic Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
The Islamic Culture     Open Access  
Zeszyty Naukowe Centrum Badań im. Edyty Stein     Open Access  
Teologia i Moralność     Open Access  
Studia z Kognitywistyki i Filozofii Umysłu     Open Access  
Filozofia Publiczna i Edukacja Demokratyczna     Open Access  
Bohemistyka     Open Access  
Ethics in Progress     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Filosofía Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Norsk filosofisk tidsskrift     Open Access  
Kirke og Kultur     Full-text available via subscription  
Problemos     Open Access  
Global Forum on Arts and Christian Faith     Open Access  
Gogoa     Open Access  
Lato Sensu : Revue de la Société de philosophie des sciences     Open Access  
Mutatis Mutandis : Revista Internacional de Filosofía     Open Access  
Ruch Filozoficzny     Open Access  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
Les Cahiers philosophiques de Strasbourg     Open Access  
Philosophie antique : Problèmes, Renaissances, Usages     Full-text available via subscription  
Studi di Estetica     Open Access  
Hic Rhodus : Crisis capitalista, polémica y controversias     Open Access  
El Banquete de los Dioses     Open Access  
Psocial : Revista de Investigación en Psicología Social     Open Access  
Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice / Recueil annuel de Windsor d'accès à la justice     Open Access  
Éthique en éducation et en formation : Les Dossiers du GREE     Open Access  
Mizar : Costellazione di pensieri     Open Access  
Revista Poiesis     Open Access  
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Marwah : Jurnal Perempuan, Agama dan Jender     Open Access  
FALAH : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access  
Mises : Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy, Law and Economics     Open Access  
ULUM : Journal of Religious Inquiries     Open Access  
Voluntaristics Review     Open Access  
Scrinium : Journal of Patrology and Critical Hagiography     Open Access  
Idéias     Open Access  
Diakrisis Yearbook of Theology and Philosophy     Open Access  
The Biblical Annals     Open Access  
Jurnal Living Hadis     Open Access  
Epistemología e Historia de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Kader     Open Access  
Metaphysics     Open Access  
Griot : Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Kontemplasi : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin     Open Access  
Jurnal Dinamika Penelitian : Media Komunikasi Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Medical Ethics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.618
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 32  
 
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 0306-6800 - ISSN (Online) 1473-4257
Published by BMJ Publishing Group Homepage  [62 journals]
  • Correction: Medically assisted gender affirmation: when children and
           parents disagree

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Dubin S, Lane M, Morrison S, et al. Medically assisted gender affirmation: when children and parents disagree. J Med Ethics 2020; 46:295–299. doi:10.1136/medethics-2019-105567The article has been corrected since it was published online.One sentence discussing the following paper was removed because it didn't accurately describe the paper’s findings: Ryan C, Huebner D, Diaz RM, et al. Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics 2009;123(1):346–52.An additional citation of this paper was removed on page 297.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2019-105567corr1
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Concise argument: impact and pandemic reasonableness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: McMillan; J.
      Pages: 577 - 578
      Abstract: The editors of the JME are grateful to its authors, reviewers and readers for their efforts and attention to the important and novel ethical challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. These efforts meant that the journal published a number of high quality articles analysing these issues and it has shaped subsequent discussions and debate in exactly the way that we strive for. Ultimately, outcomes such as impact, readership and contributing to knowledge are what matters most for a journal, but the imperfect metrics that journal performance is measured against matter too. So, the editors of the JME would also like to thank our authors, reviewers and readers for helping the JME score 5.9 in the most recent Clarivate Impact Factor (IF) rating. While that is not the highest IF in bioethics, it is worth mentioning that the highest citing paper from the bioethics journal with the highest IF, would have...
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/jme-2022-108560
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Ethics of digital twins: four challenges

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Braun; M.
      Pages: 579 - 580
      Abstract: In the article ‘Represent Me: Please! Towards an Ethics of Digital Twins in Medicine’, I analysed and tried to better understand the main ethical challenges associated with Digital Twins (DT). For those who are just entering the debate with this article: DT is a metaphor for a bundle of artificial intelligence (AI) driven simulation technologies that constantly, in real time and ad personam simulate single or multiple parts of the body and make predictions about future health states based on these simulations. My argument addresses the need to look at the breadth of challenges through a perspective of representation. From such a take, key consequences can be drawn for the further development of such technologies, the required means of control and not least the way to think about the interaction between humans and ‘their’ simulations. I am very grateful for the subsequent suggestions, criticisms and further arguments, which have...
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2021-107675
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Machine learning in medicine: should the pursuit of enhanced
           interpretability be abandoned'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yoon, C. H; Torrance, R, Scheinerman, N.
      Pages: 581 - 585
      Abstract: We argue why interpretability should have primacy alongside empiricism for several reasons: first, if machine learning (ML) models are beginning to render some of the high-risk healthcare decisions instead of clinicians, these models pose a novel medicolegal and ethical frontier that is incompletely addressed by current methods of appraising medical interventions like pharmacological therapies; second, a number of judicial precedents underpinning medical liability and negligence are compromised when ‘autonomous’ ML recommendations are considered to be en par with human instruction in specific contexts; third, explainable algorithms may be more amenable to the ascertainment and minimisation of biases, with repercussions for racial equity as well as scientific reproducibility and generalisability. We conclude with some reasons for the ineludible importance of interpretability, such as the establishment of trust, in overcoming perhaps the most difficult challenge ML will face in a high-stakes environment like healthcare: professional and public acceptance.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2020-107102
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Do coronavirus vaccine challenge trials have a distinctive
           generalisability problem'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eyal, N; Gerhard, T.
      Pages: 586 - 589
      Abstract: Notwithstanding the success of conventional field trials for vaccines against COVID-19, human challenge trials (HCTs) that could obtain more information about these and about other vaccines and further strategies against it are about to start in the UK. One critique of COVID-19 HCTs is their distinct paucity of information on crucial population groups. For safety reasons, these HCTs will exclude candidate participants of advanced age or with comorbidities that worsen COVID-19, yet a vaccine should (perhaps especially) protect such populations. We turn this cliché on its head. The truth is that either an HCT or a field trial has intrinsic generalisability limitations, that an HCT can expedite protection of high-risk participants even without challenging them with the virus, and that an important route to obtaining results generalisable to high-risk groups under either strategy is facilitated by HCTs.
      Keywords: COVID-19
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2020-107109
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Two kinds of embryo research: four case examples

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Savulescu, J; Labude, M, Barcellona, C, Huang, Z, Leverentz, M. K, Xafis, V, Lysaght, T.
      Pages: 590 - 596
      Abstract: There are ethical obligations to conduct research that contributes to generalisable knowledge and improves reproductive health, and this should include embryo research in jurisdictions where it is permitted. Often, the controversial nature of embryo research can alarm ethics committee members, which can unnecessarily delay important research that can potentially improve fertility for patients and society. Such delay is ethically unjustified. Moreover, countries such as the UK, Australia and Singapore have legislation which unnecessarily captures low-risk research, such as observational research, in an often cumbersome and protracted review process. Such countries should revise such legislation to better facilitate low-risk embryo research.We introduce a philosophical distinction to help decision-makers more efficiently identify higher risk embryo research from that which presents no more risks to persons than other types of tissue research. That distinction is between future person embryo research and non-future person embryo research. We apply this distinction to four examples of embryo research that might be presented to ethics committees.Embryo research is most controversial and deserving of detailed scrutiny when it potentially affects a future person. Where it does not, it should generally require less ethical scrutiny. We explore a variety of ways in which research can affect a future person, including by deriving information about that person, and manipulating eggs or sperm before an embryo is created.
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2021-108038
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Future persons, future attributes and potential persons: commentary on
           Savulescu and colleagues

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Erler; A.
      Pages: 597 - 598
      Abstract: Savulescu and colleagues propose a distinction between ‘future person embryo research’ (henceforth FPE research) and ‘non-future person embryo research’ (henceforth, NFPE research), which they hold can help decision-makers more efficiently discriminate between higher risk and lower risk embryo research.1 The authors’ proposed distinction does point to an ethically significant difference between different forms of embryo research, which they illustrate in an enlightening manner using a series of detailed case studies. In the following, I wish to comment, first, on the substance of the authors’ distinction, and second, on the possibility of looking beyond the relatively narrow scope of their argument. A first point concerns the authors’ characterisation of FPE research as including ‘anything which is done to an embryo that will be or could be implanted into a woman’s uterus’. Insofar as they also emphasise the idea of research that can ‘affect’ a future person, this formulation...
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/jme-2022-108526
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Risk stratification: an important tool in the special review of research
           using oocytes and embryos

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Schaefer, G. O; Voo, T. C.
      Pages: 599 - 600
      Abstract: Like all research, embryo research can take a variety of forms, some posing substantially more risks to persons than others. Savulescu et al argue persuasively that regulatory regimes specially designed for sensitive embryo research should differentiate between person-affecting and non-person-affecting embryo research, with substantial scrutiny only warranted for the former.1 Yet if we find Savulescu et al’s argument persuasive, what practical implications would it have' In this commentary, we focus in particular on how such an argument might apply in Singapore, one of the jurisdictions with special regulations for embryo (and oocyte) research. We will summarise the way in which approval for oocyte and embryonic research operates in Singapore, and suggest that Savulesc et al’s distinction requires specification to be useful in such contexts. We propose adopting a risk-stratified framework similar to that employed with Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). This requires a wider view of risks than...
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/jme-2022-108527
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Embryo research: destiny is what counts

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Polyakov, A; Rozen, G.
      Pages: 601 - 602
      Abstract: The paper by Savulescu et al is timely and the concepts illuminated deserve further reflection.1 Reproductive tissue which includes sperm, oocytes and embryos are commonly treated differently to other human tissue, even when the reproductive potential of these has no possibility of being realised. This unnecessary exceptionalism hampers research in human reproduction, disadvantaging patients and delaying life-changing treatments from being incorporated into clinical practice. In jurisdictions where embryo creation is permitted for clinical purposes, such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), supernumerary embryos are routinely discarded once they are no longer required to attempt pregnancy. We contend that research on such embryos, which will never realise their reproductive potential, is not substantially different to any other human tissue research and should not require any additional ethical or regulatory oversight. The only individuals who can possibly be harmed by such research are the tissue providers and their interests, including...
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/jme-2022-108533
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Two dilemmas for medical ethics in the treatment of gender dysphoria in
           youth

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Baron, T; Dierckxsens, G.
      Pages: 603 - 607
      Abstract: Both the diagnosis and medical treatment of gender dysphoria (GD)—particularly in children and adolescents—have been the subject of significant controversy in recent years. In this paper, we outline the means by which GD is diagnosed in children and adolescents, the currently available treatment options, and the bioethical issues these currently raise. In particular, we argue that the families and healthcare providers of children presenting with GD currently face two main ethical dilemmas in decision making regarding treatment: the pathway dilemma and the consent dilemma.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2021-107260
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Civil commitment for opioid misuse: do short-term benefits outweigh
           long-term harms'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Messinger, J. C; Ikeda, D. J, Sarpatwari, A.
      Pages: 608 - 610
      Abstract: In response to a sharp rise in opioid-involved overdose deaths in the USA, states have deployed increasingly aggressive strategies to limit the loss of life, including civil commitment—the forcible detention of individuals whose opioid use presents a clear and convincing danger to themselves or others. While civil commitment often succeeds in providing short-term protection from overdose, emerging evidence suggests that it may be associated with long-term harms, including heightened risk of severe withdrawal, relapse and opioid-involved mortality. To better assess and mitigate these harms, states should collect more robust data on long-term health outcomes, decriminalise proceedings and stays, provide access to medications for opioid use disorder and strengthen post-release coordination of community-based treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2020-107160
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Ethics of digital contact tracing wearables

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Schaefer, G. O; Ballantyne, A.
      Pages: 611 - 615
      Abstract: The success of digital COVID-19 contact tracing requires a strategy that successfully addresses the digital divide—inequitable access to technology such as smartphones. Lack of access both undermines the degree of social benefit achieved by the use of tracing apps, and exacerbates existing social and health inequities because those who lack access are likely to already be disadvantaged. Recently, Singapore has introduced portable tracing wearables (with the same functionality as a contact tracing app) to address the equity gap and promote public health. We argue that governments have an ethical obligation to ensure fair access to the protective benefits of contract tracing during the pandemic and that wearables are an effective way of addressing some important equity issues. The most contentious issues about contact tracing apps have been the potential infringements of privacy and individual liberty, especially where the use of apps or other technology (such as wearables or QR codes) is required for access to certain spaces. Here we argue that wearables, as opposed to apps alone, will make a digital contact tracing mandate more practical and explain some conditions under which such a mandate would be justified. We focus on Singapore as a case study that has recently deployed contact tracing wearables nationally, but also reference debate about wearables in Australia and New Zealand. Our analysis will be relevant to counties trialling similar portable tracing wearables.
      Keywords: COVID-19
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2020-106958
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Medical ethics when moving towards non-anonymous gamete donation: the
           views of donors and recipients

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pinto da Silva, S; de Freitas, C, Silva, S.
      Pages: 616 - 623
      Abstract: Drawing on the views of donors and recipients about anonymity in a country that is experiencing a transition towards non-anonymous gamete donation mandated by the Constitutional Court, we explore how the intersection between rights-based approaches and an empirical framework enhances recommendations for ethical policy and healthcare. Between July 2017 and April 2018, 69 donors and 147 recipients, recruited at the Portuguese Public Bank of Gametes, participated in this cross-sectional study. Position towards anonymity was assessed through an open-ended question in a self-report questionnaire, which was subject to content analysis. Preference for an anonymous donation regime was mentioned by 82.6% of donors and 89.8% of recipients; and all those with children. Instead of the rights-based reasoning used by the Constitutional Court, donors highlighted concerns over future relationships and recipients focused on socioethical values linked with the safeguard of safety, privacy and confidentiality. The remaining participants advocated the choice between anonymity or non-anonymity (double-track policy), invoking respect for their autonomy. The complex, diverse ethical views and reasoning of donors and recipients expand a traditionally dichotomous discussion. Their perspectives challenge the transition towards non-anonymity and international guidelines, raising awareness to the need for their involvement in the design of policies to enable choice according to their values and preferences, and of psychosocial counselling responsive to their socioethical concerns and sensitive to their parental status. Empirical frameworks complement rights-based approaches to uphold justice, fairness and equal respect, and to incorporate utility, beneficence and non-maleficence in policymaking and healthcare in the transition towards non-anonymity.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2020-106947
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Rare diseases in healthcare priority setting: should rarity matter'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Albertsen; A.
      Pages: 624 - 628
      Abstract: Rare diseases pose a particular priority setting problem. The UK gives rare diseases special priority in healthcare priority setting. Effectively, the National Health Service is willing to pay much more to gain a quality-adjusted life-year related to a very rare disease than one related to a more common condition. But should rare diseases receive priority in the allocation of scarce healthcare resources' This article develops and evaluates four arguments in favour of such a priority. These pertain to public values, luck egalitarian distributive justice the epistemic difficulties of obtaining knowledge about rare diseases and the incentives created by a higher willingness to pay. The first is at odds with our knowledge regarding popular opinion. The three other arguments may provide a reason to fund rare diseases generously. However, they are either overinclusive because they would also justify funding for many non-rare diseases or underinclusive in the sense of justifying priority for only some rare diseases. The arguments thus fail to provide a justification that tracks rareness as such.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2020-106978
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Survey of German medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic: attitudes
           toward volunteering versus compulsory service and associated factors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mihatsch, L; von der Linde, M, Knolle, F, Luchting, B, Dimitriadis, K, Heyn, J.
      Pages: 630 - 636
      Abstract: Due to the spread of COVID-19, a key challenge was to reduce potential staff shortages in the healthcare sector. Besides recruiting retired healthcare workers, medical students were considered to support this task. Commitment of medical students in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated using an online survey, with particular focus on their burdens and anxieties. This survey was distributed to students within a 2-week period in April and May 2020. Ultimately, 1241 participants were included in the analysis. During the pandemic, 67.9% (65.3% to 70.5%) of the participants reported that they had volunteered. Furthermore, 88.9% (86.9% to 90.5%) stated that they were against compulsory recruitment in this context. Students who volunteered (committed students) had a significantly lower anxiety index than non-committed students. Additionally, students were more concerned about infecting other patients and relatives than themselves. Higher levels of anxiety were related to lower levels of commitment. A mandatory assignment during the pandemic was rejected by the students and does not seem to be necessary due to the large number of volunteers.
      Keywords: Open access, COVID-19
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2020-107202
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Flawed reasoning on two dilemmas: a commentary on Baron and Dierckxsens
           (2021)

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      Authors: Ashley; F.
      Pages: 637 - 638
      Abstract: A recent paper by Teresa Baron and Geoffrey Dierckxsens (2021) argues that puberty blockers and hormone therapy should be disallowed before adulthood on prudential and consent-related grounds. This response contends that their argument fails because it is predicated on unsupported premises and misinterpretations of the available evidence. There is no evidence that a large proportion of pubertal and postpubertal youths later discontinue medical transition. Meaningful assent is a viable and commonly accepted alternative to meaningful consent in paediatric bioethics. And finally, the primary purpose of transition-related interventions is to actualise youths’ gendered self-image, not treat an underlying mental illness.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2021-107647
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Defending two dilemmas

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      Authors: Baron, T; Dierckxsens, G.
      Pages: 639 - 640
      Abstract: Ashley’s response to our recent paper argues that a fuller appreciation of the available clinical data, of the rights of children to autonomy, and of the primary purpose of gender-affirming endocrine treatment supports the rejection of both the pathway and consent dilemmas for the treatment of gender dysphoria, as raised in this journal. In this response, we highlight certain misrepresentations of our argument, and defend our conclusions against Ashley’s main objections.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2021-107856
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Values for victims and vectors of disease

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      Authors: Kugelberg; E.
      Pages: 641 - 642
      Abstract: John and Curran have convincingly shown that Scanlonian contractualism is a valuable resource for evaluating pandemic response policies, and that we should reject cost–benefit analysis in favour of a contractualist framework. However, they fail to consider the part of contractualism that Scanlon constructed precisely to deal with the question of when the state can restrict individuals from making choices that are harmful to themselves and others: the value of choice view (VoC). In doing so, they leave it open for opponents of lockdowns to misuse contractualism to justify mistaken policies. This is because the most powerful contractualist objections to locking down are likely to be based on the VoC.When we apply the value of choice view (VoC), we see that a lockdown policy’s justifiability depends on the extent to which particular values of choice are found to be threatened by the policy in question, and what safeguards policy-makers have put in place to increase the value of choice and protect people from the harmful consequences of lockdown. Without the VoC, it is harder to explain why lockdowns, to be non-rejectable, must have certain features. With the VoC, the case for contractualism over cost benefit analysis (CBA) can be made even stronger.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2021-107635
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Costa, cancer and coronavirus: contractualism as a guide to the ethics of
           lockdown

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      Authors: John, S. D; Curran, E. J.
      Pages: 643 - 650
      Abstract: Lockdown measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic involve placing huge burdens on some members of society for the sake of benefiting other members of society. How should we decide when these policies are permissible' Many writers propose we should address this question using cost-benefit analysis (CBA), a broadly consequentialist approach. We argue for an alternative non-consequentialist approach, grounded in contractualist moral theorising. The first section sets up key issues in the ethics of lockdown, and sketches the apparent appeal of addressing these problems in a CBA frame. The second section argues that CBA fundamentally distorts the normative landscape in two ways: first, in principle, it allows very many morally trivial preferences—say, for a coffee—might outweigh morally weighty life-and-death concerns; second, it is insensitive to the core moral distinction between victims and vectors of disease. The third section sketches our non-consequentialist alternative, grounded in Thomas Scanlon’s contractualist moral theory. On this account, the ethics of self-defence implies a strong default presumption in favour of a highly restrictive, universal lockdown policy: we then ask whether there are alternatives to such a policy which are justifiable to all affected parties, paying particular attention to the complaints of those most burdened by policy. In the fourth section, we defend our contractualist approach against the charge that it is impractical or counterintuitive, noting that actual CBAs face similar, or worse, challenges.
      Keywords: Editor's choice, COVID-19
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T01:00:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2020-107103
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 9 (2022)
       
 
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