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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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Laisvalaikio Tyrimai
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2345-0339
Published by Lithuanian Sports University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Expression of leadership in sports organizations: attitude of managers and
           employees of Lithuanian sports organizations

    • Authors: Skaistė Drupė
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. It is observed that leadership and its expression in various different environments are constantly updated. It is actively researched, empowered by it, learned, and efforts are made to understand how leadership emerges and develops (Damkuvienė et al. 2019). These needs do not bypass the sports sector, whose organizations operate in conditions of complete uncertainty in the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In such a context, leadership becomes an important condition for the effective operation and development of a sports organization. The problem under consideration and the level of its research. The phenomenon of leadership has been studied by scientists (Andriani, Kesumawati, and Kristiawan 2018; Budrienė, Vaitiekienė, and Vaitiekus 2019; Damkuvienė et al. 2019; Hartley 2018; Holmes et al. 2021; Kulshreshtha and Sharma 2021; Miles and Scott 2019). The issue of leadership has been examined exclusively in the sports sector (Ajeigbe, Owolabi, and Alasinrin 2021; Hutchens et al. 2020; Macquet and Stanton 2021; Martinez-Moreno, Cavas-Garcia, and Diaz-Suarez 2021; Megheirkouni 2017; Sabaliauskas 2017; Stewart et al. . 2020). Most of the time, research on the expression of leadership chooses to apply quantitative methods, which prevents a deeper experience of both managers of sports organizations and their subordinates in the field of leadership. Therefore, this article aims to refine and present insights based on qualitative research in the field of leadership communication. The goal is to evaluate the expression of leadership in sports organizations after examining the theoretical assumptions of leadership. Tasks: To reveal the theoretical assumptions of expression of leadership in sports organizations; Determine the characteristic and desirable qualities of a leader of a sports organization; To refine the leadership functions in sports organizations; To identify obstacles limiting leadership in sports organizations and to reveal the potential for strengthening leadership. Methods. Results. Quantitatively, the expression of leadership in sports organizations is evaluated in various aspects, but there is a lack of qualitative research in this area. This circumstance prompted the choice of a qualitative strategy for the study of leadership expressions in sports organizations. The qualitative strategy is applied in accordance with the following methodological provisions: social reality is perceived and interpreted individually; each individual actively creates reality based on personal experience; social reality is different for different individuals, but it is shared through interaction with other individuals (Damkuvienė et al., 2019, p. 40). The block of questions for the assessment of leadership expression is formulated according to Winston's (2004) insights about leadership expression. Conclusions. Summarizing the results of the empirical study of the expression of leadership in sports organizations, it can be stated that the ideal leader in a sports organization is usually associated with focus, motivation, connections with sports, and flexibility. In the opinion of most of the representatives of the sports sector, existing leaders are characterized by motivation, flexibility, activity, and sharing of responsibilities. Leaders in sports organizations usually perform functions of planning, task allocation, control and monitoring, and organization, which traditionally fall within the content of the concept of leadership. It has been determined that there is potential for improving leadership in the country's sports organizations. Keywords: leader, transformational leadership, shared leadership, sport, motivation.
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v2i20.1299
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 20 (2022)
  • Correlation of Indicators Regarding Problematic Internet Use, Physical
           Activity, and Psychological Health of High School Students

    • Authors: Mindaugas Jasulaitis, Brigita Miežienė, Arūnas Emeljanovas
      Pages: 10 - 20
      Abstract: With the rise of Internet use and availability, the extent of problematic Internet use (PIU) among high school students is also increasing. The prevention and treatment of this disorder are not clear and raise many questions. The results of studies conducted in other countries show that physical activity (PA) can reduce the prevalence of PIU among adolescents and influence their mental health. The pilot study described in this paper evaluated relationships between PIU, PA, sedentary time (ST) and psychological distress (PD) among Lithuanian high school students. The question arises – what are the correlations between problematic Internet use, physical activity, and psychological health among high school students' The object of work – the relationships between problematic Internet use, physical activity, sedentary time, and psychological distress mong students in the 9th-12th grade of two Lithuanian high schools. The aim of the work – is to assess the correlations between problematic Internet use, physical activity, sedentary time, and psychological distress indicators among 9th-12th grade students. The goals: 1. To estimate levels of problematic Internet use, psychological distress, physical ctivity, and sedentary time difference between genders and all age groups of high school students. 2. To assess the correlation between problematic Internet use, psychological distress and physical activity among high school students. 3. To evaluate correlation between problematic Internet use, sedentary time and psychological distress. Conclusions: 1. Girls are less physically active, spend more time sitting, and experience more psychological distress compared to boys. Internet use does not differ between genders. Age is not associated with problematic Internet use, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary time.2. Only a third of the high school students reached the recommended by World Health Organization level of physical activity. Time spent sitting per day averaged from 7.5 to 8.5 hours for boys and girls. The more physically active students engaged in less problematic Internet use and had lower psychological distress while the more sedentary students exhibited more problematic Internet use and had higher psychological distress. 3. Almost half of the students who were recognized as having highly problematic Internet use also expressed a high level of psychological distress. Keywords: problematic Internet use, moderately-high physical activity, psychological distress.
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v2i20.1300
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 20 (2022)
  • Challenges of non-formal education through sport during the COVID-19

    • Authors: Rokas Nenartavičius, Vilija Fominienė
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. In recent years, in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the traditional education system, including various non-formal education activities, has faced enormous challenges and problems. This pandemic not only claimed millions of lives, but also affected people's daily lives and lifestyles. Most of the economic sectors in Lithuania also encountered various problems. Education, which traditionally carried out educational activities in physical environments, was not an exception and faced the sudden and strict closure of all institutions. In this situation, the application of technology and digital learning practices became the main solutions that helped to ensure the continuity of education and training, including non-formal ones (González, Bonal, 2021). Unfortunately, this decision had a particularly painful impact on organized sports for children and youth (Reece et. al., 2020). This area, of course, faced an even greater challenge than other, more theoretical, subjects, since sport, being a physical, practical and interactive activity, is not easily and simply transferred to an online environment (Iuliano et al., 2021). The problem. The idea of the problem has been increased by the fact that direct social interaction between the coach and the athlete is considered an essential condition in order to supervise the actions performed by the athletes and to ensure the high-quality implementation of the sports program (Emery & Tyreman, 2009). In the context of the pandemic, researchers began to emphasize the changed organization and execution of sports activities (Ratten, 2020; Escamilla-Fajardo et al., 2020), but there is still a lack of research-based data on the characteristics of these activities. In Lithuania, this topic has so far been little studied in the context of school sports. And although the sports activities implemented in sports schools, as state educational institutions, are regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Lithuania and the orders and instructions of the Ministry of Science, Education, Science and Sports, there is no data in the scientific literature about how informal sports education programs were implemented in them during the COVID-19 pandemic' The purpose of the study: To highlight the challenges of non-formal sports education during the Covid-19 pandemic. Research object: Challenges of informal sports education. The results. Research data revealed that the sports activities organized and carried out in sports schools during the COVID-19 pandemic had certain characteristics associated with the challenges experienced by coaches as providers of non-formal sports education programs and the challenges experienced by schoolchildren participating in sports. During the pandemic, the decrease in the motivation of young athletes to play sports, their inability to fulfill the training conditions and the negative influence of the environment in which they train on sports activities became apparent. The coaches, adapting to the changed conditions, were led to search for additional information, invest their own funds in the training process, understand the peculiarities of conducting training remotely, demonstrate their ingenuity while conducting classes, and constantly raise the motivation of athletes. However, when faced with these obstacles, they did not avoid ignoring the existing rules for the organization of sports activities. Keywords: pandemic, sport, non-formal education, coaches, athletes  
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v2i20.1301
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 20 (2022)
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