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Bergsoniana
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2800-874X
Published by OpenEdition Journals Homepage  [457 journals]
  • Conceptual Thought: Differentiating a Bergsonian Topic

    • Authors: Jan-Ivar Lindén
      Abstract: Bergson tends to see concepts as pragmatic functions, enabling our skilful orientation in the world. This conducts him to search for philosophical alternatives to epistemic strategies founded on conceptual determination. It is here that he introduces intuition, a function later on cherished in quite different philosophical and literary settings. In order to understand the Bergsonian project, it is important not to be misled by the ordinary connotations of the word intuition and see how Bergson develops his topics in a metaphysical context which concerns the relation between life, knowledge, and consciousness. Some questions however arise concerning the Bergsonian way of describing concepts as an equivalent to the fixed, practically important points of orientation in vital perception. It is not evident how we should understand reflective conceptual thinking in this context. Is Bergson's view of concepts perhaps too instrumental' A comparison with the ancient tradition in general and ...
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
       
  • Camera Eyes and Convergence in Creative Evolution

    • Authors: Tano Posteraro
      Abstract: This paper presents an updated argument for Bergson’s theory of evolutionary convergence. Convergence refers to the repeated appearance of like characters, such as the camera-like eye, across distant lineages like snails and spiders, or humans and octopuses. It is an infamously difficult phenomenon to explain by dint of natural selection for chance variations alone. Convergent evolution exacerbates the improbability that chance changes at an insensible scale could be accumulated over generations in order to come together in the composition of a complex eye in one lineage, since it requires that chance variations succeeding each other in a chance order repeatedly arrive together at the same complex result, the eye, across lineages as distant as cephalopods from vertebrates. Bergson’s idea is that convergence is not an accident or anomaly of an otherwise random variational process, but that it rather reveals something important about how evolution works. What it reveals is a deep unit...
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
       
  • Bergson and Technical Creativity

    • Authors: Julius Telivuo
      Abstract: Bergson portrays technics as a central expression of human creativity, but he also describes it as degenerating, mechanistic instrumentality. Can technics be truly creative or is it bound to the mechanistic processes of matter' In this paper, I develop a Bergsonian analysis of technical creativity based on two main reformulations of his ideas. First, I extend the Bergsonian theory of creative emotions presented in The Two Sources of Morality and Religion to technical creativity, as material affectivity. Second, I develop a materialist reading of Bergsonian intuition, based on Deleuze and Guattari’s formulations in A Thousand Plateaus. Through these reformulations, we can indeed find in Bergson’s thought a fruitful ground for an analysis of technical creativity. For this, we need to develop an affective conception of materiality and, in addition, acknowledge the importance of a material context for Bergsonian intuition.
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
       
  • L’élan vital dans la pédagogie de Maria Montessori

    • Authors: Mélanie Weill
      Abstract: Dans son ouvrage-bilan La formation de l’homme, résumant l’entièreté de son œuvre, Montessori désignera le concept d’ « élan vital » comme le « maître » de sa pédagogie. Il peut donc être considéré comme le nœud névralgique autour duquel s’organise sa critique de la pédagogie traditionnelle et l’élaboration de sa propre méthode. La question qui dirige cette étude sur Montessori et Bergson est : comment la notion d’ « élan vital », empruntée au champ philosophique, trouve-t-elle dans le domaine de l’éducation nouvelle, une application pratique ' Par ce transfert, c’est une autre forme d’héritage possible du bergsonisme qui se dessine.
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
       
  • Myth, Insects, and Surrealism: the Influence of Henri Bergson on the
           Writings of Roger Caillois

    • Authors: Donna Roberts
      Abstract: The focus of this text is the influence of Henri Bergson’s ideas concerning instinct, intelligence and myth on the work of Roger Caillois. My aim is to offer a reading of intellectual history which draws Bergson back into the orbit of the French avant-garde in the 1930s. In doing so, I highlight the axiomatic presence of Bergson’s ideas on Caillois’ work, which can be described as the combining of contemporary philosophical, cultural, and social science studies with the surrealist method, most notably exemplified by the unlikely juxtaposition of the study of relations between insect behaviour and the myth-making function in humans. While the historical reception of Bergson’s ideas has largely mapped the waning of his influence in the inter-war period, I wish to present one strong case in which Bergson’s thought continued to have formative influence. It is largely assumed in studies of surrealism that Bergson had been entirely rejected by the movement for political reasons, I argue t...
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
       
  • Bergson’s Legacy among the Avant-Garde: Intuition, Aesthetics, and
           Political Ideology

    • Authors: Mark Antliff
      Abstract: In this article I will examine more closely why exactly Bergson’s philosophy of time and intuition proved so compelling to proponents of anarchist ideology, as interpreted by a key group of artists and activists affiliated with the London-based avant-garde movement known as Vorticism (1914-1918). As I demonstrate Bergson’s thought had special appeal among anarchists more generally because his process-oriented philosophy affirmed that movements’ ideological allegiance to notions of immediacy, affinity and prefigurative politics. Bergson’s philosophy enabled these radicals to reconceptualize ideology in terms of human psychology and social interactions, which in turn empowered the Vorticists’ to integrate art and aesthetics into their multivalent critique of the State. More broadly, this recasting of Bergson’s philosophy from an ideological perspective not only serves to distinguished the avant-gardes’ aesthetics from that of Bergson himself, it marks the crucial difference separating...
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
       
  • Two Political Itineraries of European Bergsonism: Georges Sorel and Thomas
           Ernest Hulme

    • Authors: Tommaso Giordani
      Abstract: The article examines, through the case studies of Georges Sorel (1847-1922) and Thomas Ernest Hulme (1883-1917), processes of politicization which Henri Bergson’s philosophy underwent in early 20th century Europe. It begins by outlining the paths that brought the two thinkers to read and endorse Bergson’s philosophy. Despite the fact that the former only really accepted the psychological arguments of the Données while the latter engaged much more with Bergson’s metaphysics, both were drawn to the French philosopher in virtue of the anti-determinist elements present in his thought. But when it came to bring this opposition to determinism to bear on political theory, their paths separated: whereas Sorel incorporated Bergsonian ideas in his revision of Marxism, Hulme found himself unable to erect a political theory on the basis of a metaphysics of flux. This significant difference is explained in generational terms. A Bergsonian cosmology of openness and transformation was seen as an e...
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
       
  • Bergson and the Aesthetics of Early Childhood Education and Care

    • Authors: Liselott Mariett Olsson
      Abstract: Aesthetics has always been a fundamental dimension of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), and it has been treated as a relation between matter and mind in a non-dualist and integrated way. Today, however, this dimension and relation is neglected. and formalist ideas of education, expressed in generalized standards, accountability and neuroscientific explanations, are forced upon educational practice and theory. To counter such neglect, one of Bergson’s major works, Matter and Memory (1988), is in this article used to critically assess abstract formalism as a badly stated problem in the aesthetics of ECEC and it is joined with historical and contemporary pedagogical-aesthetical resources that may be capable of re-activating the aesthetics of ECEC.
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
       
  • Introduction au dossier Bergson et l’éducation

    • Authors: Maria Adriana Camargo Cappello, Bruna Rafaelli
      Abstract: Les deux textes qui composent le présent dossier s'insèrent dans des moments différents du travail de deux chercheuses qui, par des chemins singuliers, sont arrivés à Bergson et aux relations que l'on peut établir entre sa philosophie et certaines conceptions de l'éducation. Plus directement, il s'agit, dans ces recherches, d'explorer et d'expliciter ce qui était si évident et qui était, cependant, resté caché, à savoir, les relations que l'on peut trouver entre, d’un côté, une pensée qui voit dans le temps l'essence même de la transformation de ce qui se conserve et, d’autre côté, une éducation qui considère les sujets et les sociétés comme des existences qui, on peut dire avec les termes même de Bergson, changent, mûrissent et se créent indéfiniment (Bergson 2008, 7). Il s'agit, donc, d'explorer le rapport entre une métaphysique et une pensée de l'éducation qui considèrent les existences dans la durée. En effet, qu'il s'agisse de penser l'éducation esthétique dans la petite enfance...
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
       
  • The Scientific Moment of the Bergsonian Method

    • Authors: Katariina Lipsanen
      Abstract: This paper explores the role of scientific knowledge from the perspective of Henri Bergson’s philosophical method. For Bergson, scientific knowledge plays a key part in philosophy. He presents his philosophical method as having two moments, the first of which is scientific. The scientific moment means exploring existing scientific studies on the subject matter at hand, before engaging in what Bergson calls a “properly philosophical” moment. Following Bergson’s criticism of positivism, we can ask: Are the facts left purely in the hands of the sciences' Are they simply taken as given without any contribution from philosophy' And how is the scientific moment connected to the second and truly philosophical moment of the methodology' I argue that the role of scientific knowledge can be best captured with the help of Bergson’s concept of lines of facts (lignes de faits). The scientific moment forms the necessary positive basis of any philosophical study, and the “lines of facts” illustrat...
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
       
 
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