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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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SPICE : Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices & Ethic
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2474-6622
Published by U of Pennsylvania Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Platform Injustice: Material Imbalances and Epistemic Injustice on Digital
           Discursive Platforms

    • Authors: Sahaj Singh
      Abstract: In this paper, I argue that the existence of material power imbalances in systems of discourse represents a novel concern in the literature on epistemic injustice. This epistemic injustice, which I call Platform Injustice, arises from the undue assertion of agency over the background features of a system of discourse, in order to manipulate, diminish, or magnify the vocalization and reception of speech-acts. First, I demonstrate the unprecedented nature of platform control as an epistemic wrong. Next, I identify case studies of platform injustice in modern social media. Then, I situate platform injustice within Dotson’s typology of epistemic injustices; so, I can finally, identify paths to achieving platform justice and an epistemology of liberation.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 08:46:47 PDT
       
  • Political Partisanship, Extreme Polarization and Youth Voter Turnout in
           2020

    • Authors: Vinay Khosla
      Abstract: The 2010s saw a rapid increase in political partisanship and subsequent extreme polarization in the United States and its political institutions and systems. Additionally, political apathy among young adult and teenage voters has long been beleaguered as a source of low voter turnout in the United States, at least comparatively when considering other developed democracies. Considering these points, this research paper seeks to identify whether rising political partisanship and extreme polarization affect the disillusionment of teenage voters in the political process of voting; do these phenomena discourage eligible teenagers from exercising their right to vote' Previous research on the effect of extreme polarization and partisanship on voting trends focuses on the voting eligible population (VEP) as a whole, with no studies concerning the teenage (18-19) voting demographic specifically. The vast majority of such studies have concluded that increases in the aforementioned phenomena are correlated with higher voter turnout, suggesting possible causation. In conducting subject interviews with fifteen eligible teenagers who voted in the 2020 presidential election, content and correlational analyses were used to identify whether this trend was similarly present among youth voters. The resulting study found that, in line with the VEP as a whole, teenage voters cited an increased likelihood to vote as a result of increasing partisanship and polarization within the political climate, suggesting a positive correlation. Positive statistical correlations were noted between the perceived levels of polarization and the phenomenon’s influence on the likelihood to vote, as well as between partisanship and the same effect. The results of this research imply that voter turnout efforts have no cause to especially focus on youth voters in regard to polarization. Instead, charged political climates will increase youth turnout as they do with the VEP as a whole, suggesting that as polarization persists in the United States, there will be a concurrent increased political engagement among youth voters.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 08:46:44 PDT
       
  • Investigating Host Countries’ Refugee-Related Policies and Its Effect on
           Lived Experiences of Rohingya Refugees

    • Authors: Nichanun Puapattanakajorn
      Abstract: Rohingya refugees are one of the most discriminated against and vulnerable populations in the world. As a consequence of being persecuted in their homeland by the Myanmar government, many Rohingya have fled their homes to seek refuge in neighboring countries. However, the acceptance of Rohingya refugees has varied in different locations, resulting in the subpar treatment of the refugees. This paper explores how the host state government’s policy and stance on migrants and migrant protection within a country influences the level of violence faced by Rohingya refugees residing in their country. The host states chosen for the study include Bangladesh, Malaysia, and India. The two main types of violence Rohingya refugees face residing in the host states include: (1) state-inflicted violence such as through detention centers and police harassment; and (2) policies, or the lack thereof, that facilitate the occurrence of violence such as human trafficking and inhumane living conditions. The paper exposes how the international community and host countries’ soft stance towards supporting Rohingya refugees and lack of harsh condemnation towards Myanmar has shaped the violent experiences of Rohingya refugees.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 08:46:41 PDT
       
  • For the Economy or for Security' Using 5G to Explain Federal
           Intervention in US-China Technological Competition

    • Authors: Will Matheson
      Abstract: The United States under the Trump administration shifted federal policy toward greater state intervention in the technology innovation economy in response to perceived advances in this space by the People’s Republic of China (PRC). This shift is noteworthy given the free-market orthodoxy that traditionally defines US politics and has persisted despite similar perceptions of competition from more state-driven economies in the past (e.g., Japan in the 1980s). This paper seeks to understand why this shift in American economic orthodoxy appears to be occurring now, in reaction to Chinese technological innovation. It does so by beginning to investigate the motivations for shifting US federal 5G policy. It evaluates two explanations for the shift: that the economic relationship with China and broader domestic backlash to globalization have initiated a genuine shift in economic thinking toward industrial policy, or that perceptions of great power competition with the PRC create a national security impetus for intervention in the technology space that supersedes economic orthodoxy. While both trends likely play a role in the shift in federal innovation strategy, I find that the national security dimension of the US-China relationship plays the most significant role in shaping this federal policy change.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 08:46:39 PDT
       
  • Mask-wearing and Trustworthiness in a Modified Investment Game: A Pilot
           Study

    • Authors: Noah Ryan et al.
      Abstract: Since the early days of the COVID-19 Pandemic, face masks have emerged as a flashpoint of controversy in public discourse. While most Americans appreciate the public health importance of mask-wearing, some view masks as an unwanted imposition; some still, an affront to deep-seated values of individual liberty. In this paper, we present the results of an experiment aimed at assessing what effects, if any, face mask usage has on perceptions of an individual’s trustworthiness. While previous studies have used images of masked faces to elicit survey responses, this experiment used self-reported mask usage as a primer in a modified investment game to assess potential relations between mask usage and perceived trustworthiness. We find evidence to suggest individuals who report wearing masks more frequently are trusted more than individuals who report seldom wearing masks. Given the importance of trust between often-masked medical professionals and the public in the setting of infectious disease outbreaks, we believe the findings of this experiment may prove fruitful in elucidating the effects of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage on perceptions of trustworthiness.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 08:46:36 PDT
       
  • A Letter from the Editor

    • Authors: Andrew Liu
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 08:46:33 PDT
       
  • How Personally Relevant Cases of COVID-19 Influence Individuals’ Level
           of Concern towards the Virus

    • Authors: Timothy J. Nicklas
      Abstract: This paper presents the findings of a statistical analysis exploring the ways in which personally relevant cases of COVID-19 influence an individual's level of concern towards the virus. The analysis makes use of public opinion data collected throughout the pandemic by a market research company called Ipsos. This study conducts an OLS regression analysis using three different samples of data from three distinct periods of time during the pandemic. The paper addresses each component of the study's deductive approach, outlining everything from the initial hypothesis to the conclusions and broader implications. Ultimately, this study does show evidence that an individual's personal experience with COVID-19 influences their attitudes towards the virus. This is consistent with the findings of previous psychological research that has explored how personally salient information affects humans' attitudes and beliefs.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Apr 2021 21:36:57 PDT
       
  • Extended Minds: The Externalization and Expansion of Human Minds Beyond
           the Body

    • Authors: Dmitri Wolfe
      Abstract: Despite the commonly accepted notion that the mind is inseparable from the body, the extended mind hypothesis claims human minds can become linked with the world around us. Through various avenues such as spoken and written language, humans may use non-biological means to allow the mind to store, access, and communicate information in extended capacities not otherwise possible. Though the extended minds hypothesis may be viewed as a result of advancing technology, it makes up only a small part of the way in which externalization may occur. Everyday life is full of examples of extended minds, from computers and phones to billboards and books. There is much debate among philosophers over the acceptance of the hypothesis, but in this paper, I will explore some of the most relevant arguments and aim to show why I hold the extended minds hypothesis to be true.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Apr 2021 21:36:56 PDT
       
  • Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense of Limitarianism

    • Authors: Timothy J. Nicklas
      Abstract: This paper critically evaluates the argument put forth by the philosopher Ingrid Robeyns in her work entitled What, if Anything, is Wrong with Extreme Wealth. Robeyns holds the Chair Ethics of Institutions at Utrecht University, and her academic research focuses on issues pertaining to contemporary political philosophy and applied ethics. In her aforementioned publication, Robeyns defends the political theory called limitarianism, which holds that there should be an upper limit to the amount of income that an individual can hold. Limitarianism, like many other political philosophies, presents a view of how resources ought to be distributed in society based, in part, on certain ethical principles. Robeyns explicitly outlines two arguments in support of limitarianism as a political philosophy: (1) by eliminating excess wealth, limitarianism prevents the super-rich from undermining political equality and (2) by redistributing this excess wealth, there will be more resources available to address any urgent unmet needs or collective action problems in society. This paper carefully reviews and ultimately rejects Robeyns’ defense of limitarianism as a theory of political philosophy. This paper sets out to highlight both the flaws in the basic premises of limitarianism as a theory as well as the shortcomings of the specific arguments that Robeyns’ constructs in support of the theory itself.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Apr 2021 21:36:54 PDT
       
  • Corporate Limitarianism

    • Authors: Karl Meyer
      Abstract: Ingrid Robeyns argues that there is a point at which increasing one’s income no longer increases one’s quality of life. Her argument states that given better uses for this money, namely restoring political equality and meeting urgent needs, it is morally wrong for individuals to have surplus money, which is money beyond that which is needed to live a good life. Therefore, Robeyns argues that surplus money should be taxed at a rate of 100%. The original argument only applies to individuals with excess wealth. However, there is no reason why it should be restricted only to people. In Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, the United States Supreme Court ruled that corporations have free speech rights, building on previous cases that gave corporations protection under the Fourth, Fifth, Seventh, and Fourteenth Amendments. Given that corporations have rights similar to people, should they be held to the same consideration of surplus economic value' Just as Robeyns argues that super-rich individuals have surplus money, so do mega-corporations have wealth beyond their use. I call this argument “corporate limitarianism”. In this paper, I apply Robeyns’ arguments for economic limitarianism, namely the democratic argument and the argument from unmet needs, to corporations. In the case of urgent needs, I also look at the expanded causal role of mega-corporations in creating and contributing to these issues and how it supports the corporate limitarianism argument.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Apr 2021 21:36:53 PDT
       
  • Child Marriage: Characterization as a Noxious Market and Policy-Based
           Responses to Economic Motivations

    • Authors: Curtis Newman
      Abstract: Child marriage is a human rights violation according to various international agreements and human rights conventions. In many countries the practice is outlawed, yet it persists with great incidence in both developed and developing societies. Governments must act to eliminate the practice which (1) results in physical and psychological individual harms for child brides; (2) perpetuates societal harms in the form of entrenched gender inequality and limited economic potential for women and for countries as a whole; (3) thrives on the exploitation of economic and agency vulnerabilities of a social class, namely young girls and women; and (4) threatens the agency and autonomy of market “participants,” thereby characterizing the market in child marriage as a “noxious market,” according to Debra Satz’s framework, in the strongest sense. To best respond to the harms and negative effects of the market, governments need to understand the reasons why the practice persists, even though it is illegal. Among the most cited motivators of child marriage are economic circumstance (i.e., poverty) and dated or unfounded beliefs relating to the economic potential of young girls and women. Governments can address these motivators, and thereby (begin to) eradicate the practice of child marriage, through improvements to and expansion of social welfare programs and through targeted educational initiatives which stress the economic opportunity available to and earnings potential of young girls.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Apr 2021 21:36:51 PDT
       
  • Digital Norms and Their Place in a Tech-Based Future

    • Authors: Joseph M. Squillaro
      Abstract: One impact of the technological revolution has been technology’s effects on social norms and the nudges needed to ensure efficiency and security in today’s “digitally required” world. I define these phenomena as digital norms and they inform interpersonal contact and tech-based choices. This paper looks specifically at norm interactions between Generation X and Generation Z. To test these digital norms and gauge their presence in both generations, this paper outlines a survey experiment of 50 people (25 Gen X and 25 Gen Z) and seeks to extrapolate assumptions on technology while providing policy recommendations. What was found was that civil liberty and morality expectations roll over into the expectations within digital norms. Thus, digital norms, and how we choose to interact with them, can be viewed as a themed social norm which abides by much of the same rules outlined by behavioral economics. They serve as the fundamental underpinning to how technological innovation gets perpetuated and ultimately how tech will facilitate future societal interaction.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Apr 2021 21:36:49 PDT
       
  • A Letter From the Editor

    • Authors: Andrew Liu
      Abstract: Letter from the Editor regarding the Spring 2021 edition
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Apr 2021 21:36:47 PDT
       
  • Lessons to be Learned: The Abuse of Eminent Domain Power for Economic
           Development in Comparative Perspective

    • Authors: Xinxou Zhou
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 17:02:05 PDT
       
  • The History and Reality of the Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics

    • Authors: Kara Zhang
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 17:02:02 PDT
       
  • San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez: Equal Protection
           Doctrinal Evolution and Implications on School Segregation Today

    • Authors: Anthony Chen
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 17:01:58 PDT
       
  • An Ethical Equation of Corporate and Environmental Personhood: The Salmon
           River Commands Rights

    • Authors: Katherine Poole
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 17:01:55 PDT
       
  • A Flawed Case for Inequity Aversion: Revisiting the Criticisms of Binmore
           and Shaked (2010)

    • Authors: Ammar Plumber
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 17:01:51 PDT
       
  • A Letter From The Editor

    • Authors: Jenna Liu
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 17:01:47 PDT
       
  • Towards a Better Understanding of Religious Priming: An Experiment
           Proposal

    • Authors: Leah Hess et al.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2019 13:22:24 PDT
       
 
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