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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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Oksident
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2687-2749
Published by Uludağ University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • The Influence of Solomon Schechter on Conservative Judaism in the Context
           of Historical Interpretation

    • Authors: Mustafa ŞAHİN; Mahmut SALİHOĞLU
      Abstract: Solomon Schechter (1849-1915) is undoubtedly the main figure that left a mark in the history of Conservative Judaism, which started to evolve into an institutional structure, centered in America, from the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. His institutional contributions to Conservative Judaism through the Jewish Theological Seminary (1886), which was established to train rabbis to address modern Jewish communities in America, and the United Synagogue of America (1913), which is his own legacy, are of indisputable importance. In addition, it is possible to find traces of Schechter's thoughts in the background of the religious approach that the movement continues to adopt today. In the article, the views of Schechter, who actively participated in the Conservative movement in the early period, on Tanakh, tradition and halakha and his view on the issue of authority and change in religion in the context of the Catholic Israel principle and its reflection on the movement will all be examined. In the study, it has been tried to determine the effect of Schechter on the basic ideology of the movement and the nature of the Conservative identity that he tried to reveal in the context of his approach to the Reformist and Orthodox stance.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • An Evaluation of the Imitation of the Divinity of Jesus Christ and Its
           Reflections in Medieval Christianity

    • Authors: Zekiye SÖNMEZ
      Abstract: Jesus Christ has been widely discussed in Christianity in terms of his identity, personality, and position, and this has led to the emergence of a branch of science called Christology. Jesus has been seen as different from others because of his birth, earthly actions, and death on the cross. Because of these differences, the subject that he is not a mere human being but can also be God has been one of the most preoccupying issues for Christians. In addition, Christians have discussed the issue of how to model or imitate him as a human or God. In this context, Paul, who is accepted as the founder of today’s Christianity, has been the initiator of the “Imitatio Christi” issue in Christianity with the words “As I imitate Christ, you also imitate me.” The imitation or follow-up of Christ has been a subject discussed in the Christian world since him. The article discusses the imitation of the divinity of Jesus Christ and its reflections in the medieval Christian world.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Evaluations of Karaite Scholar Jacob al-Qirqisânî on Torah
           Translations

    • Authors: Fatıma Betül TAŞ
      Abstract: Rabbanites and Karaites, the leading Jewish sects of the Middle Ages, criticize each other on various religious issues. The main objection of the Karaites is that the Mishnah and Talmud, considered the Oral Torah by Rabbinic Jews, are the products of revelation. One of the important representatives of this movement is Jacob al-Qirqisânî, who lived in Baghdad in the 10th century. His book Kitâb al-Anwâr wal-Marâqib is the most voluminous Karaite work that has survived to the present day. In this work, al-Qirqisânî gives valuable information about Jewish sects chronologically and criticizes them from different perspectives. One of the main agendas of the work is to reveal the anti-religious issues in the beliefs and practices of the Rabbanites, who are the opponents of Karaites. One of the criticisms of al-Qirqisânî is the views on the Torah and its translations in the Rabbanite sources. Rabbinic thoughts about the Septuagint, Targum Onkelos, and Targum Jonathan are discussed in this framework. Criticizing the narrations in Christian and Rabbanite sources regarding the process of inscribing the Septuagint, al-Qirqisânî opposes the claims of the Rabbis that alterations were made in the Septuagint with the inspiration of God and described this as a defect in their belief in God. Al-Qirqisânî pointed out the translation errors in Targum Onkelos and Targum Jonathan, reacted against the Rabbanites’ glorification of these translations, and opposed the use of Targum Onkelos in the liturgy together with the Torah. This article examines the narratives in Kitâb al-Anwâr by comparing them with the information in the Rabbanite literature and the translations of the Torah. Besides, it reveals the Islamic ideas that influenced al-Qirqisânî.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Abraham ibn Daud’s Defense of Torah Against Criticism of Abrogation and
           Falsification by Ibn Hazm

    • Authors: Yasin MERAL
      Abstract: Abraham ibn Daud (d. 1180) was one of the leading Jewish scholars of Spain. The Spanish lands witnessed wars among Almoravids, Almohads, and Christian kingdoms during his lifetime. Ibn Daud defended Judaism against the criticism leveled against Judaism by Muslims and Christians. Apart from this, Ibn Daud also responded to the criticism of the Karaite Jews against the Rabbinic Jews. Ibn Daud wrote two main works in defense of Judaism, one on faith and the other on the authenticity of the Rabbinic tradition. One of them is al-ʿAḳīdetu'r-Rāfiʿa, which he wrote in Arabic, and the other is Sefer ha-Qabbalah, which he wrote in Hebrew. Sefer ha-Qabbalah, written against the criticisms of the Karaites, tries to prove that Rabbinic Judaism came uninterruptedly from Moses. Ibn Daud, known as the first Aristotelian Jewish thinker, tries to show the superiority of Jewish belief in the light of Aristotelian philosophy in his main work entitled al-ʿAḳīdetu'r-Rāfiʿa. In this work, the author replies to the Muslim claims of abrogation and falsification. This article examines Ibn Daud’s answers about abrogation and falsification. While doing this, it tries to determine the possible sources of Ibn Daud and the works from which he benefited. This article also attempts to answer which Muslim author Ibn Daud read the claims about abrogation and falsification.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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