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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2560-9068 - ISSN (Online) 2560-9076
Published by U of Toronto Homepage  [41 journals]
  • Discussion of Suggested Modifications

    • Authors: Izzy Friesen, Joshua Allen, Markus Alliksaar, Amirali Atrli, Hakob Barseghyan, Spenser Borrie, Alessandra Castino, Deivide Garcia da S. Oliveira, Rebecca Muscant, Tessa Ng, Kye Palider, Paul Patton, Gregory Rupik, Ameer Sarwar, G. G. Shan, Jamie Shaw
      Pages: D1 - D32
      Abstract: The paper presents the transcript of the discussions during the first scientonomy workshop that took place on February 25, 2023. The participants discussed and voted on several modifications concerning the scientonomic workflow (Sciento-2019-0007, Sciento-2019-0001, Sciento-2019-0002, Sciento-2019-0003, Sciento-2019-0004, Sciento-2019-0005, Sciento-2019-0006) as well as two modifications concerning the idea of scientificity as an epistemic stance (Sciento-2018-0013) and the respective law of theory demarcation (Sciento-2018-0014).
      PubDate: 2023-12-31
      DOI: 10.33137/js.v5i.42265
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2023)
       
  • Accepting Massive Problems

    • Authors: Alessandra Castino
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: This paper explores the process of the assessment and eventual acceptance of the existence of dark matter by the Western astronomy community in the period between 1930s and 1980s. By applying the framework of theoretical scientonomy, I trace the acceptance of two anomalous phenomena: the high mass-to-light ratio observed in galactic clusters, first documented by Swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky in 1933, and the flat rotation curves of galaxies first observed by American astronomers Vera Rubin and Kent Ford in 1970. I also highlight how the community accepted two second-order propositions stating the inconsistency of these phenomena with the rest of the astronomical mosaic. I show that the acceptance of the existence of dark matter resulted from the acceptance of the existence of these anomalous phenomena and took place between 1982-1985, rather than in the mid-1970s as was previously assumed.
      PubDate: 2023-12-27
      DOI: 10.33137/js.v5i.42257
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2023)
       
  • Dilemma of the First Law

    • Authors: Aayu Pandey
      Pages: 25 - 46
      Abstract: It is unclear whether the first law forbids any conceivable scenarios or whether it is a tautology. This paper examines the first law with the goal of clarifying which scenarios it allows and which ones it forbids. I begin by highlighting a number of problems with the current formulations of the first laws for theories, methods, and questions, as well as the respective rejection theorems. New formulations for these laws and theorems are suggested to ensure their uniformity and the validity of their deductions. Next, I discuss a series of scenarios of theory replacement allowed by the first laws, such as the replacement by negation, the replacement by an answer to a different question, the replacement that involves the rejection of the question, and the replacement by a higher-order proposition. I then consider scenarios that are forbidden by the first law and show that this class only includes cases of rejection without replacement such as instances of element decay. This creates a dilemma. On the one hand, if cases of rejection without replacement are classified as non-scientonomic phenomena, the first law is a tautology. On the other hand, if such cases are classified as scientonomic phenomena, then the first law is not a tautology, but these cases stand as violations of the first law. The paper resolves this dilemma by opting for the former option: cases of rejection without replacement such as element decay due to catastrophic loss of records or destroyed communities are non-scientonomic, and should be considered as outside the scope of our discipline.
      PubDate: 2023-12-28
      DOI: 10.33137/js.v5i.42258
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2023)
       
  • Corpus Linguistics Strategies for Identifying Accepted Theories in Early
           Modern England

    • Authors: G. G. Shan
      Pages: 47 - 71
      Abstract: The paper investigates the applicability of corpus linguistics to the construction of a database of intellectual history.  Working with the Royal Society Corpus (RSC), it presents a series of corpus queries that can aid with computationally identifying potential instances of communal theory acceptance in England during the period of 1665-1800. These queries allowed to identify a set of noun-adjective pairs potentially synonymous with “accepted theory” and retrieve around 1,400 excerpts potentially indicative of instances of communal theory acceptance. The paper also discusses some strategies for identifying the epistemic agent, as well as the RSC’s place within the broader historical context. Finally, I argue that, in addition to exploring corpus linguistics strategies, methodologies for interpreting computationally retrieved data should also be developed.
      PubDate: 2023-12-31
      DOI: 10.33137/js.v5i.42259
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2023)
       
  • Epistemic Actions

    • Authors: Joshua Allen
      Pages: 73 - 91
      Abstract: In a series of publications, Hasok Chang makes the case that activities carried out by epistemic agents form the basis of the scientific enterprise. This paper provides an action-based scientonomic perspective of scientific practice. I define epistemic action as an action of an epistemic agent that involves an epistemic element and highlight the difference between global and local actions. The availability of a local action to an epistemic agent amounts to the agent employing the norm that the local action is permissible/desirable. To unearth the mechanism by which local actions become available to epistemic agents, I derive the local action availability theorem, according to which, a local epistemic action becomes available to an agent only when its permissibility is derivable from a non-empty subset of other elements of the agent’s mosaic, i.e., from that agent’s employed norms and accepted theories. This framework is then applied to the emergence of the local action of determining the composition of chemical substances by weighing as practiced by Lavoisier and his followers; it is shown that the respective norm became employed in accord with the local action availability theorem.
      PubDate: 2023-12-31
      DOI: 10.33137/js.v5i.42266
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2023)
       
  • Discipline Dynamics of Chymistry and Rejection of Alchemy

    • Authors: Izzy Friesen, Paul Patton
      Pages: 93 - 110
      Abstract: This paper applies Patton and Al-Zayadi’s scientonomic framework for understanding disciplines to a case study of the development of the chemical discipline ("chymistry") from the 17th century through the early 18th century in Western Europe. Using evidence from the tradition of textbook publication that emerged in the seventeenth-century chymistry, we reconstruct the top-level of the question hierarchy of chymistry. Analyzing how these questions and their associated theories were received, we first show how, starting in the 1660s, alchemy transitioned from a synonym of chymistry to chymistry’s subdiscipline with a more limited scope. We identify that the rejection of alchemy's core questions occurred in the 1720s based on the reception of these questions in scientific publications and by academic institutions. Hence, we conclude that the subdiscipline of alchemy became rejected in the 1720s.  In order to conduct our case-study, we closely follow Newman and Principe's research on early modern alchemy and chymistry in our reconstruction of the episode. However, using the scientonomic framework in analyzing this case study reveals the specific dynamics of this instance of sub-discipline rejection. Our deepened understanding of this hallmark historical episode of disciplinary rejection indicates the value of Patton and Al-Zayadi’s theoretical framework for observational scientonomic research.
      PubDate: 2023-12-31
      DOI: 10.33137/js.v5i.42268
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2023)
       
 
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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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