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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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ULUM : Journal of Religious Inquiries
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2645-9132
Published by DergiPark Homepage  [185 journals]
  • Analysis of the General Characteristics of Thaman in the Ḥanafi School
           in the Context of Determining the Legitimate Limit of the Remuneration in

    • Authors: Muhammet Ali ÇAĞLAR
      Abstract: While referring to sales contracts, the elements of thaman and mabīʿ are counted among the conditions of validity or establishment of the contract. Each one of these conditions has some specific characteristic. This study will try to determine the unique character of the thaman element. Generally, the characteristics of thaman have been analyzed under different titles instead of being discussed under a separate title, in classical sources. Combining these characters under a general framework will have great importance to determine the fiqh position of the sales price in the complex contract types which have developed recently and to improve a new perspective. There are several reasons why Ḥanafis are particularly have considered as the focal point of this study. One of them is that the Ḥanafis developed a new conception that clearly distinguishes thaman from mabīʿ. Another one is that they classified all commodity groups as might have been thaman or not. Hereby in the determination of semen, the characteristics of the prices were emphasized rather than the declaration of intention. In addition, according to Ḥanafis, thaman is not counted among the conditions of establishment of the contract, and the door has been opened to repair the contract in any deficiency that may occur with the distinction between fāsidh (peccable) and bāṭıl (superstitious). Thanks to these perspectives, solutions can be found at some points and even some contributions will be made to the confusions which stem from the contract diversity that has developed today. However, this study will not go beyond to mention the characteristics of thaman on a theoretical basis. Therefore, after introducing a certain definition of thaman, the prerequisite for thaman will be mentioned. The points where thaman differs from mabīʿ will be determined and it will be revealed which prices will be thaman and which ones will be considered mabīʿ if they come across. In addition, considering the basic contract forms, whether the properties of thaman are applied absolutely or not will be mentioned. Finally, the study has been concluded by briefly giving a place to the agreements or the disagreements of the three imams on relatively more specific issues such as withdrawal from the market, increase or decrease in value, which are among the most encountered recent problems when it comes to thaman.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Two Leading Names in Ottoman Islamism Thought: Muhammed Abduh and Mehmet

    • Authors: Yasin YILMAZ
      Abstract: Muslims who moved away from the idea of civilization, which based on the revelation, set by the Prophet in Medina and relying on reason and developing with knowledge, fell back when they could not bring new discoveries in the idea of civilization in the face of the West. The decline was inevitable when the Ottoman State, which was the carrier of Islamic civilization, could not renew itself according to the requirements of the era. A number of thinkers began to make great efforts to ensure that the Islamic world and the Ottoman Empire would be good again. Especially in the 19th century, thinkers who appeared in various parts of Islamic geography presented some suggestions and came up with solutions for the liberation of the Islamic world and the Ottoman Empire. For the liberation of the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world, the currents of thought that first began with the current of Islamism in the 1870s continued with Turkism, Ottomans, Westernism and Ittihad-i Islam. In the 19th century, intellectuals of the period such as Jamaluddin Efgani, Muhammad Abduh, Hayreddin Pasha of Tunis, Emir Shekip Arslan, Said Halim Pasha, Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Mehmet Akif came to the fore as activists of these thought movements. In particular, Islamism and the unifying aspect of Ittihad-i Islam have taken a great place in minds. Islamism aimed to make Islam dominant again in life by making contemporary interpretations in the fields of faith, worship, morality, philosophy, politics, law and education in the 19th and 20th centuries. By a rational method, it aimed to bring the Muslim mind that the Prophet had built in Mecca back to life. Thus, it aimed to civilize, unite and develop the Islamic world by freeing it from the exploitation of the West, the effects of modernism, bondage, imitation, superstition. Activists of this movement, who prioritize political, scientific and intellectual work, have put forward many proposals and solutions. Muhammad Abduh, who had the idea of Islamism/Ittihad-i Islam, worked throughout his life to glorify Islam and Muslims and to free the west from its captivity. Mehmet Akif also did not compromise his ideas in question during the Republican periods of legitimacy, Ittihad and progress in which he lived. Therefore, the efforts of these two people should be well known for the systemization and continuation of Islamism / Ittihad-i-Islam thoughts. In this case, we will try to put forward the views of Muhammad Abduh, who grew up in the Egypt of the Islamic geography and knew the West well, and Mehmet Akif, who grew up in the Anatolia/Balkan, as a comparison of Islamism and the Ittihad-i Islamic movement added to it.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • A Brief Comparison Between Systematic Theodicy and The Qur’anic

    • Authors: Emrullah KURT
      Abstract: One of the most debated problems in the history of philosophy is the problem of evil. Since classical times, philosophers have started to think about evil, a phenomenon that exists in the world and that almost everyone encounters. With questions such as why there is evil in the world we live in or how we can deal with evil, the problem of evil began to be examined philosophically. However, this is not only unique to the history of philosophy, it is also a topic of discussion that religions with a tradition of revelation have dealt with. Religions such as Judaism, especially Christianity and Islām have to some extent dealt with this problem. The means by which these religions respond to this problem is different from that of philosophical explanation, in which the process of reasoning and each philosopher's own logical process is heavily involved. Philosophers have tried to explain evil within the framework of neo-platonism and argued that it is actually the absence of goodness. While matter takes its most concrete form at the lowest levels, it moves far away from the good. Therefore, distancing from the perfect brings evil. Scholastics and Islāmic theologians, on the other hand, have tried to show that the evil in the world is not incompatible and contradictory with the existence of God by providing explanations that are partially in line with the doctrine of their religion. These theologians sometimes went beyond the framework of the doctrine and carried their reasoning tools quite far. Philosophers and theologians have tried to act according to the religious tradition to which they belonged in offering some solutions to this problem. Nevertheless, they did not always take the religious tradition into consideration when providing these answers and often tried to produce philosophical answers. In the modern period, the problem of evil has been seen as the soft belly of the Abrahamic religions. Since the seventeenth century, it has become one of the strongest atheistic arguments and has been used intensively today. Academically, this issue has generally been dealt with within the framework of philosophy of religion. It seems possible to say that a Qur'an-oriented study is relatively rare compared to the philosophical one. Therefore, in this study, the researcher has tried to focus on some Qur'anic verses that can be associated with the problem of evil and to show the relationship between the concepts used in the Qur'an in this context. He then discusses whether some of the Qur'anic parables can be evaluated within the framework of theodicy. In addition, the researcher has tried to reveal the differences between the arguments and style in the Qur'an and philosophical theodicy, also called systematic theodicy, throughout this study.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Muhammad Manla Guzayyil and The Literary Personality

    • Authors: Muhammed AŞANTOĞRUL
      Abstract: Arabic literature has witnessed new developments in terms of form and content in the modern period. The Islamic literary movement, which emerged with the effect of the political, social and cultural changes in the Islamic world in the middle of 20th century, is one of these developments. The representatives of this movement, who tried to rake the Islamic concept together literature and put forward many works in different genres such as poetry, stories, novels and theater, have influenced a large number of literati. It is seen that the recognition of Islamic literature in our country and the academic studies conducted on the subject are not at an adequate level. For this reason, the literary personality of the poet Muhammad Manla Ghuzayyil, who died recently and made important contributions to modern Arabic poetry, was chosen as the subject of research. The poet, who is one of the representatives of this literary movement in Syria, which started with Sayyid Qutb and his brother Muhammad Qutb and still continues to be active in literary circles, is known by the nickname “al-Bukhturiyyu's-Saghīr”. His curiosity about literature and poetry, which started from an early age, has led him to study in this field throughout his life. The year 1954, when a number of changes occurred in his religious life, became a turning point in his life and eliminated all the poems he had written before. The poet, who was subjected to various pressures from the rulers because of the new worldview he adopted, named his first published work “fī Zilāli'd-Da'wa”, reminiscent of the name of the well-known tafsir of Sayyid Qutb, the pioneer of Islamic literature. In addition to giving competent examples in the field of poetry with his works, he has obtained the qualification of a literary critic with the valuable contributions he has made in literary and cultural environments. The poet, who also stood out in terms of oratory, used poetry as a tool to convey his religious messages to his readers and was especially influential on young literati. Although he generally preferred the classical prosaic measure, he also used free verse forms such as prose or taf’īla poetry. In his works, he mostly deals with themes such as the struggle between truth and falsehood, the most valuable being of man, monotheism, ‘ummah, brotherhood, unity and togetherness. The fact that he uses a very simple language and that many of his poems were composed by famous musicians made his poems see a great appreciation in society. He spent most of his life in Manbij and died there on January 5, 2016. The “Muhammad Manla Ghuzayyil Library”, which was established in order to keep the poet's name alive in the region, is currently continuing its activities. In this small study, which was prepared with the hope of keeping his name alive in the scientific world, the poet's life and works were first introduced. Later, some examples of his poems were given and a general assessment of the poet's literary personality was made.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Arabic Prayers Used in Gokce Village and Surroundings of Mardin (A
           Comparative Thematic Study)

    • Authors: İzzettin ÇELİK; Mehmet Ali Kılay ARAZ
      Abstract: The word prayer means “to call, to address, to ask; It is an infinitive like the words invitation and petition (da'vet and da'vâ ) meaning "to ask for help". It is used as a name for the features of "demand and supplication that occur from small to large, from bottom to top". Prayer is a person's wish for good for himself and for others. Although the graphic form of prayer is present, many burdens have an important place in prayer. Prayers are cultural mirrors that include a society's way of thinking, other societies with which it interacts and culturally exchanges, the point of view of these societies on life, as well as artistic and rhetorical features. Prayers are national entities that concern many fields such as sociology, psychology, history, morality, folklore and are worth being the subject of investigation and research in many respects, and they are very important compositions in terms of utterance, power of expression and richness of concepts. In this study, the prayers used in and around Gökçe village in Mardin province, one of the ancient provinces in the Southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey, are discussed in a comparative way with those in fluent Arabic and Turkish. In terms of oral narrative, the region is a very fertile region, but the fact that today's young people do not have a full command of their mother tongue and they speak Turkish makes it difficult to transfer this folklore from generation to generation. For this reason, the Arabic prayers used in and around Mardin Gökçe village, which is one of the values belonging to the folk culture that is in danger of being forgotten and destroyed by the effects of phenomena such as social life, technology and globalization, have been compiled and given in thematic order. Marriage, Engagement and Youth in Marriage Age, Business and Employees, Family Elders, Elderly, Travelers and Travelers, Protection from Evil (Trouble/Evil), Death and Funerals, Good Wishes and Wishes, Health and Healing, Family, Parents In our study, in which a total of twelve themes and one hundred and forty-three prayers, which are related to children, giving thanks and gratitude, receiving a new item, and students of knowledge, were discussed, besides the usage of the people of the region, the standard Arabic of the prayers was also given and their equivalents in Turkish were evaluated. The source persons with whom the interviews were conducted are given with an abbreviation between KK-1/KK-18 in the research. Comparisons were made by considering the contexts in which prayers were used, and etymological analysis of some words used in prayers was made. Similar and different aspects of these words with fluent Arabic have been mentioned. In addition, by considering the prayers used in Mardin Gökçe village and its surroundings, another goal is to record the oral culture, which may face the danger of extinction with the death of the elderly population, and transfer it to future generations. On the other hand, it is aimed to contribute to the literary and cultural richness of the language spoken in this region.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Translations of the Qur’an in Terms of Written Purposes

    • Authors: Fatih KANCA
      Abstract: The subject of this article is to determine for what purposes the Turkish Qur’an translations are written. Increase in Societiy’s interest in reading the translation of the Qur’an and the debates on the subject matter motivated us to prepare this study. In this study, the information given in Turkish Qur’an translation’s prefaces, presentations, and introductions, are examined and analyzed by categorizing for what purposes they are written, consequently providing a guidance to both readers and the new studies. It is seen that the specified purposes in the prefaces of these translations as to why they are written generally point out to the method and content of the translation as well. The purpose given in the preface played a crucial role for us in identifying what method the author of the translation used in translating of both the words and the verses of the Qur’an since it is the exact purpose which reveals the authors perspective towards the Qur’an. In this study, approximately hundred and fifty Turkish translations are examined. Qur’an translations are written either for personal or communal reasons. İt is also noted that a great deal of Qur’an translations are penned based on the needs at the time. For example, importance and need of understanding the Qur’an in order to find answers to the questions pertaining to the religious matters in the society and to establish a religious culture have been the reasons behind some of the Qur’an translations. Need-based translations indicate signs of innovations in terms of both format and content. For this reason, some of the Qur’an translators pen their tranlations to convey the message of the Qur’an to the modern day people with the modern day language and transmitting the message of the Qur’an to non-Arabic speaking people. Additionally, there are other type of Qur’an translation methods such as those with or without the Qur’anic text to Turkish language, with hadith commentaries and references to the related verses from the Qur’an, and those with footnotes, parantheses with explanation, color coded ones between the sentences, attractive fonts anbd designs. İt is important to understand the Qur'an in order to find solutions to the problems with religious content in the society and to create a religious culture, and the need for translations of the Qur'an has come to the fore as a goal in some translations. It is concluded that these translations are written for the following purposes; simplified language and style, striving to understand the Qur’an in the time period it was revealed, to understand the Qur’an in their mother tongue, to spread nationalism, to support an ideology or sectarian views, and from the perspectives of seerah, history, chrolonogy, discovery, and scientific developments. As a result, it is crucial to emphasize as one of the most important conclusions of this study, that the need of development of a new inclusive Qur’an translation method. It is realized that following predetermined scientific methods and criterias will produce better quality Qu’an translations. Additionally, it is vital to copy edit the Qur’an translation works in terms of language, style, content, and wording.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
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