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Kader
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  • The Change in Mizāj (Temperament) and Its Practical Value According to
           Jāḥiẓ' s Moral Theory

    • Authors: Emine BAYIR
      Abstract: The issue of humoral temperament (mizāj) is mainly a subject of the field of medicine, but it has also been a subject of psychology, philosophy and moral philosophy during time. As the issue is ontologically related to the human nature, it has been dealt from many different perspectives. Within these disciplines, it has been expanded and developed during the historical process. It holds a wide range of literature as it is a rooted and ancient subject analysed within different disciplines. Stretching out to the time of ancient Egypt, this theory was developed in the field of medicine by Hippocrates and by Galen in biology and it was a subject of some of the works of many Muslim scholars, first and foremost Jāḥiẓ, The issue of mizāj, first of all was explained by the theory of four composition (blood, mucus, yellow bile and black bile) Whether the amount of these liquids change within the body has always been an issue of debate according to the conditions of time and the place. Jāḥiẓ, impressed by the views of Galen, has no distinct piece of work on the issue of mizāj. However, he had put forward his views on the changes of the mizāj in some of his works but as he had unarranged writing style, he did not deal with these issues systematically. In this article, we have aimed at systematizing his views, determined in some of his own works and the studies on them, in two stages. What we mean by the change in mizāj is the point of disappearing of the ill temper and bringing good nature instead.Jāḥiẓ, considers the person as the subject of the effort to change the mizāj and evaluates this in two stages. For him, first of all, the person sinks herself into a mental effort. In this process, the person passes through the processes of remembrance, undertaking a task and suggestion. On this point, for abandoning the evilness and adopting the goodness in character, he underlines the importance of reason. Then, are these processes to change the mizāj for Jāḥiẓ are enough' Jāḥiẓ, invites the person to a second effort, accepting the person could feel hardship on the process, based on the analyses of observation and experiment. For this reason, getting a support from outside is proper for him. According to Jāḥiẓ, religion, education, being within the society and political authority are the factors affecting the change in the mizāj. Jāḥiẓ, brings forward views in an approach of taking away almost a general taboo within the society like “once a something always a something”. In an understandable and open wording, he conveys us the stance that the mizāj can change and its applicable within the daily life. In this study, the views of Jāḥiẓ, on the mizāj was evaluated in two stages, the temperament of the person was evaluated on the ground of the change of morality and was considered according to the contributions to the field of Kalam.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • No title

    • Authors: Büşra YILDIZ; Mukaddes DURAK
      Abstract: From the 2022 July issue of KADER Journal, which began publishing in 2003, we will include interviews with our doyen professors in the field of kalām. Within this scope, we will be accompanied by Prof. Dr. Mustafa Saim Yeprem, who played a critical role in the foundation process of KADER Journal and also penned the foreword of its first issue. Prof. Yeprem was born in Istanbul and brought up in an environment of very distinguished ulema. After concluding his education at Istanbul Imam Hatip School and Pertevniyal Highschool, he both studied at the Faculty of Arts and School of Law at Istanbul University. In addition to being at the top of his schools, he was also the owner of the “Diploma Number 1” of the Institute of Higher Islamic Education in Istanbul. Afterward, he was appointed to various positions at the Dean’s Office of the Faculty of Theology at Marmara University and the High Board of Religious Affairs at the Presidency of Religious Affairs. Prof. Yeprem has provided many excellent services to both Imam Hatip Schools and Theology Faculties. We asked Prof. Yeprem for an appointment to do this first interview, and he received it favorably. We would like to thank him.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Muʿtazilī Inclination on the Ontic Value of
           Divine Attributes

    • Authors: Mehmet AKTAŞ
      Abstract: This article tries to show that Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, one of Ash‘arī theologians of the contracting period, showed a Mu‘tazila tendency regarding the ontic value of divine attributes and his successors followed him in this regard. The problem of divine attributes, a heated discussion area of theology, has been interpreted differently by the theological sects over centuries. Mu‘tazila scholars before Abu Hāshim al-Jubbāī regarded those attributes as nominally attributed to God. For the first time, with Abu Hāshim, this relation was approached with a realistic attitude: Although divine attributes are not accepted as particular realities, they are viewed as states/ahwāl, the universal model of kalam atomism. The pre-Gazzālī Ash‘arī theologians, on the other hand, ascribed real existence to divine attributes as particular properties, whether they adopted this universal model or not. According to Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī, the founder of Ashʿarism, which does not include the universal category in any way, the attributes carried by God’s essence consist of particular qualities. al-Bāqillānī and al-Juwaynī, who, like Abu Hāshim, made room for universals under the name of states, accepted particular qualities that led to universal attributes in a system compatible with Ashʿarism. Muta’akhkhirūn Ash‘arī theologians, building their thought system within the framework of the particular-universal dichotomy, felt the need to apply the theories of universals and predication to overcome the paradox caused by the famous motto “Attributes are neither Him nor other than Him”. On the basis of universal properties that have a lower degree of existence compared to particular properties, Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī’s theory of particular attributes is intended to be associated with Abu Hāshim’s theory of universal (state). In this context, the value of divine attributes discussed on the ontic ground by the mutaqaddimūn theologians was drawn to the epistemic ground in the muta’akhkhirūn period. From the first kalām works of Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī to the last kalām works, he was distant from the ontic value of divine attributes. The statement that the derived word “knower”, which is appropriate for being a predicate in the propositional structure, and the infinitive “knowledge”, which is not appropriate for being a predicate, meet the same purpose, and that divine attributes are considered divine essence are the most important indications of this distance. Reviewing the works of prominent theologians, scholars of the time such as Fakhr al- Dīn al-Rāzī, Aḍud al-Dīn al-Ījī, Sa‘d al-dīn al-Taftāzānī, al-Jurjānī, and al-Dawānī, this article aims to demonstrate that Abu Hāshim’s view of the divine attributes in the ontic context was welcomed and that the evaluation of divine attributes shifted from particular realities to universal ones in the ontic context. The meaning of “God is knower” proposition according to the pre-Mu‘tazila in the ontic context will be analyzed. Then, its meaning according to Ash‘arite theologians from their framework of universals, will be investigated.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Abū Ḥanīfa's View of Equality in Faith and its
           Reflection on Social Life

    • Authors: Murat AKIN
      Abstract: Abū Ḥanīfa (d. 150/767) discussed the main issues of the science of kalām in the first period and expressed his best views on these issues in response to the sects that he accepted as bid'ah (innovation). Later, kalām scholars tried to justify these views by using different arguments according to the changing conditions and time. Undoubtedly, one of the most important opinions that Abū Ḥanīfa expressed and passed on to the next generations from the perspective of the science of kalām is those related to faith. In fact, faith is the strongest and most deep-rooted bond a believer establishes with his/her Creator. The individual shapes his world and the hereafter through this bond. On the other hand, faith is a phenomenon that does not contain doubt but carries certainty. In this respect, a person is included in the same category as a believer after she has firmly believed, and is called a believer or a Muslim, as the Qur'an puts it. Because no matter what race or color he is, he takes the same name because he believes in the same principles. Abū Ḥanīfa, who lived in a time when Muslims differed among themselves and differences of opinion increased, accepted faith as a common denominator by emphasizing the common values of Islam. Abū Ḥanīfa refers to this as "equality in faith". The issue of equality in faith, which is discussed as a result of the differentiation in matters related to the nature of faith, is shaped according to whether the action is counted as part of faith or not. Since Abū Ḥanīfa did not consider deeds a part of faith, so he advocated equality in faith. This view was adopted later by many scholars in the Māturīdī tradition. In the Hanafī-Māturīdī tradition, it can be said that the issue of equality in faith as well as issues such as confirmation and certainty in faith were shaped by the opinions of Abū Ḥanīfa. When equality in faith is accepted, one is not allowed to question the faith of another and say that his/her own faith is superior to the other because only God can know it. On the other hand, the understanding of equality in faith prevents external appearance and formalism from being decisive in one's religious life. Thus, a believer cannot accuse his brother who has deficiencies in his deeds but has faith of being infidel. When Abū Ḥanīfa's view of equality in faith is interpreted according to contemporary paradigms, his emphasis on human love, tolerance, and unity of the ummah, which has validity today, can clearly be observed. Therefore, it is seen that the reflection of a theological issue on social life is stressed in his opinion. This paper aims to study the issue of "equality in faith", one of the issues related to faith, and its reflection on social life by using the texts which are attributed to Abū Ḥanīfa.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Erratum: The Relation Between Beda-Levh-i Mahfuz in Early Shiite Sources

    • Authors: Fehmi SOĞUKOĞLU
      Abstract: The following note was added as the first footnote of the article, upon a request from the author of the article titled "The Relation Between Beda-Levh-i Mahfuz in Early Shiite Sources", published in the 15th Volume 2nd Issue (July 2017) of our journal, on the grounds that it was accidentally forgotten. This article was based on and prepared with the content of my doctoral thesis titled "Understanding of the Epistemology in the Sufism and the Shia (From its birth until V/XI. century)" which was prepared under the supervision of Ramazan Biçer at Sakarya University Social Sciences Institute. The original article was published on 31 July 2017https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kader/issue/30699/316191  
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Split-Brain Cases as an Argument Against the Soul Theory

    • Authors: Aykut Alper YILMAZ
      Abstract: One of the main problems of the soul theory is how the soul, which has no material properties, interacts with body. Because it is difficult to understand how an immaterial being interacts with matter. In particular, as our scientific understanding of the way the brain works and how it affects our psychology expands, the question of whether a soul is needed for the mind manifests itself more strongly. In this context, current data on the close connection between the brain and the mind is often used as an objection to the understanding of the soul. One of the recent data that has been claimed to have dealt a heavy blow against the understanding of the soul is the split-brain case. The split-brain case is the name given to the condition of patients whose brain hemispheres are surgically separated from each other. The difference of this case from other cases used against dualism is that it pointed out that the integrity of consciousness also depends on the brain. Because although there was a connection between many mental functions and the brain before, it was not between the unity of consciousness. For it was a new claim that the unity of consciousness also depends on the brain. On the contrary, arguments were used in favor of the existence of the soul, stating that the brain cannot provide the unity of consciousness due to its multi-part structure, and therefore an indivisible soul is necessary. Whereas, in the split-brain case, patients whose brain hemispheres were separated from each other could think and act like two different people. This is interpreted as contrary to the soul view, which argues that the individual and the soul are indivisible. The present study considers whether the split-brain case does indeed offer a strong argument against dualism. In this paper, first of all, more detailed information about the split-brain case will be given. Then, the arguments of those who use this case against dualism and why the issue seems problematic in terms of the soul view will be discussed. Afterwards, some solutions offered by dualists to this problem will be evaluated. There are three different strategies that dualists follow at this point. The first one rejects the idea that consciousness is divided as a result of the split-brain phenomenon, the second rejects the idea that the soul is indivisible, and the third way accepts both, but argues that they are not contradictory, because a single soul can have a divided consciousness. This paper argues that even if it is accepted that more than one stream of consciousness emerges as a result of the split-brain case, this cannot be seen as a finishing blow to dualism. Despite this, the case in question can be regarded as a strong argument against dualism. For a counter-argument to be strong, it does not need to conclusively demonstrate the falsity of what it opposes. It suffices to show the weakness of its probability of being true. In this respect, the split-brain case greatly weakens the probability of dualism being true.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Analysis, Critical Edition and Translation of the Borlevî’s Ilzām
           al-muʿānidīn wa-ibṭāl zaʿm al-ḥāsidīn

    • Authors: Mustafa Selim YILMAZ
      Abstract: Every text, in addition to its main idea and notional framework, has a context that reflects the background of the milieu in which it was written. In this respect, it would be paid attention in the identity of the text, which waiting to be discovered like a hidden treasure within lines and reflecting its time, as much as giving importance to the sentences of the text. Adopting such an approach, in a sense, could contribute to a better understanding of the spirit of the text. In addition, this approach is of great importance in bringing the treatises that built our civilization, especially the stories of many manuscripts waiting to be revealed, to modern scholarship. Therefore, each step on this path of discovery makes an outstanding contribution to the understanding of the ultimate extent of our civilization’s history. This paper aims to take a step on this path by examining a manuscript that depicts the Ottoman scholarly environment in the 18th century. Both the critical edition of the treatise, Ilzām al-muʿānidīn wa-ibṭāl zaʿm al-ḥāsidīn, and its translation constitute the scope and focus of this paper. The paper also aims to have a general view of the historical context of the treatise and a concise analysis in light of this information. Later, it is aimed to let the reader be alone with the edited Arabic text and its Turkish translation by leaving her/him alone in this intellectual journey. Another reason for choosing the treatise is that it is related to ʿiṣmah al anbiyā (the infallibility of the Messengers of Allah), which is a highly sensitive issue of kalām in terms of both thematically and methodologically. Moreover, this subject is extremely meaningful in terms of the revelation-centered structure of kalam, the nature of the concept of Messenger of Allah, and the understanding of the issues formed around being a Messenger of Allah. Following both etymological and discursive evaluation based on classical sources (especially related to fiqh), the treatise discusses whether the Messengers of Allah are protected from the faint (ighmāʾ) or not. Its main question is whether the faint be considered in the context of ʿiṣmah al anbiyā or not. First of all, the author explains the reasons for writing the treatise in the introduction and then, underlines prominently the results in the conclusion. Both chapters may be the most significant parts in respect of reflecting the identity of the text. The given messages by determining the causal relations in these chapters provide significant clues about the conflict between the Kadizādeli and the Sivasī, which adversely affected the history of Ottoman thought, and emerged trends as a consequence of that. The most prominent theme is that it is highly recommended to adopt a moderate way to overcome the negative effects of the conflict that polarized many people. Ultimately, the treatise is an extremely important text in terms of being the first witness of a time period, in which one of the greatest turning points emerged in our intellectual history.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Problem of Authenticity of Constitutive Root Text al-Fıqh al-Akbar
           and the Contribution of Ottoman Intellectuals I

    • Authors: Mustafa Bilal ÖZTÜRK
      Abstract: The foundations of almost all Islamic sciences were laid in the first and second centuries of hijra. With the expansion of the Islamic world since the first century of hijra, the existence of a collective effort to transfer oral information into writing is notable. With the invitation of the prophet Muḥammad to Islam, an unprecedented increase in the culture of writing has been observed. Since the emergence of Islam, the world history scene has witnessed feverish writing activity. Especially in the 2th/8th century, when the transition from oral culture to written culture accelerated, the founding texts of the science of language and religion, which were the carriers of these sciences related to aqāid-kalām, fiqh and uṣūl al-fiqh, tasawwuf, tafsir, and hadith, were compiled. Thanks to the founding texts containing the basic principles, the sciences have had the opportunity to develop by deepening. In this study, the contribution of Fiqh al-akbar, the founding text of the science of creed, to the science of kalam, which has made significant progress, will be discussed. In order for a text to be considered a founding and root, there must be a system that it establishes as the fruit of the tree. In this sense, Fiqh al-akbar established a moderate and defensible belief system. There is an organic link between the most concise faith texts and the most voluminous kalām books. While the creed texts, which consist of writing the goals at the end of the road, are the counting of the principles of faith, the texts of the kalām represent the walking of the road that leads to the goal of faith. Fiqh al-akbar, which marks the end of the road by finishing the roads to be walked, is the first and most important of the milestones of Islamic thought. In this study, the contribution of Fiqh al-akbar, the founding text of the science of aqāid, to the science of kalām will be discussed in the context of its belonging to its author. This text gave direction to Ahl al-Sunna theology, which would be written in the later stages of Islamic thought. In this study, the internal and external contexts of the founding text mentioned will be confirmed in terms of its relative acumen to Abū Ḥanīfa. In addition, the reason for the increase in the commentaries (Sharḥ) of Fiqh al-akbar during the Ottoman period will be shown. As a matter of fact, each annotation strengthens that it belongs to the author. In the annotations, there is no sentence stating that the text does not belong to Abū Ḥanīfa, on the contrary, the authenticity of the belonging is emphasized. Of course, not all the annotations of the relevant text will be included here, but mostly printed works will be emphasized. Theology, prophecy and the hereafter are discussed in Fiqh al-akbar. Here, how theological debates and problems related to the history of theological concepts are handled in the commentaries will be shown. In this article, within the framework of the method discussed as an example, a preparation will be made for further studies to evaluate the topics and concepts of prophecy and the hereafter in the context of commentaries. The point that should be emphasized here is that none of the scholars who commented on the text pointed out that the subject or concept was not discussed in the period of Abū Ḥanīfa. Moreover, from the early period until as late as the 7th/13th century, both theology and bibliography books did not have any doubts about the belonging of Fiqh al-akbar to Abū Ḥanīfa. Moreover, since the early period, both theological and bibliographical works did not have any doubts about Fiqh al-akbar’s belonging to Abū Ḥanīfa.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Early Ašʿarite Theology: Abū Bakr al-Bāqillānī (d. 403/1013) and his
           Hidāyat al-mustaršidīn

    • Abstract: In this study, Sabine Schmidtke introduces two manuscripts of Abū Bakr al-Bāqillānī's most comprehensive work in the field of Kalām, Hidāyatu'l-mustershidīn. Recently, Daniel Gimaret had introduced the manuscripts of the work in Fez and Cairo. The manuscripts discussed in this article are St. Petersburg and Tashkent. Based on the respective manuscripts, Schmidtke makes inferences about the form and content of Hidāya. Also, the study includes al-Bāqillānī's works on the fields of kalām and uṣūli’l-fıqh and his references to earlier kalām literature in St. Petersburg and Tashkent manuscripts. At the end of the article, the author offers a detailed table of contents of the St. Petersburg and Tashkent manuscripts and a short table of contents of the Fez and Cairo manuscripts.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Controversial Issues on Alevism and Bektashism

    • Authors: İbrahim Babür GÜNDOĞDU
      Abstract: In the present study, we tried to deal with the controversial concept of Alevism. Over the years, it has drawn our attention that controversial concepts have increased remarkably in various articles and studies. Especially heterodoxy, orthodoxy, syncretism, etc. It has been seen that the main concepts come to the fore as the main discussion axis in Alevism studies. However, without knowing what these concepts are, Alevism is being dragged into completely different channels with the tendency of slogans such as "Alevism is heterodoxy, Alawism is syncretism". From this point of view, the need to deal with controversial concepts that create the hidden agenda has emerged. From this point of view, we tried to deal with the main platform concepts and discussions encountered in Alevism studies. In particular, we tried to deal with the controversial concepts formed around the speculations produced by the West and that create the hidden agenda.The Ottoman Safavid rivalry attracted the attention of Europe which sought to expand its research and experience in the field. To date, incomparable literature has been produced in this field. Over time, this literature has become a reference source for modern Alevism studies.Although these studies are partially objective, the ambassadors, clerics, travelers, and researchers who wrote them could not escape the influence of the educational, cultural, and religious political perspective from which they came. This accumulation, which was transferred to the present over time, was transmitted to other generations and formed a tradition of perception. Alevism, which was condemned to vicious circles such as sectarianism, left-wing radicalism, etc., was included in the script of studies that aimed at politicization, marginalization, and conceptual distortions by separating it from the religion of Islam. But at the same time, the changes in knowledge and methods produced by each period were reflected in this literature. In this context, the research products on Alevism have formed the information infrastructure in politicization and orientation activities. This long-standing interest of the Europeans eventually allowed the emergence of new concepts and some evaluations from their own perspectives.Due to the lack of systematic theology of Alevism and its structure as a mythological theological understanding based on oral literature and traditions, no consensus could be reached on the definition. As a natural result of this, Alevism operates with the belief that it is in a race to be defined by different people and groups, and each one of them is the right one. Thus, Alevism is an emotional state where everyone can speak and even feel themselves in absolute truth. As a method, we tried to examine the leading controversial concepts with their current counterparts in a concrete way, so that they can find concrete answers in the minds of researchers.In addition, we have tried to deal with the works that set the agenda in the past and today. Thus, it will reflect the general view of the controversial concepts of Alevism. This situation of Alevism has attracted the attention of orientalist researchers (George White, Irène Mélikoff, Marcus Dressler, Hans Lucas Kieser) in the historical process, and they have shown interest in this field with political, ideological, religious, and other motives. While doing this, they preferred to use the concepts found in the history of Christianity and Judaism in the field of Alevism. These researchers have used the historical understanding and patterns of their cultures, such as Christianity and Judaism, to which they originally belonged, in interpreting Alevism. All these approaches prevent the correct perception of Alevism and lead to an environment of mental confusion and chaos. It has caused Alevism to move away from the scientific understanding it deserves.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Muʻtazilite Manifesto of a Muḥaddith: The Will of Abū
           Sa‘d as-Sammān

    • Authors: Ömer SADIKER
      Abstract: Isma‘īl b. ‘Ali, who is referred to as Abū Sa‘d as-Sammān, was born in Ray, Iran, between 981 and 983 and he devoted most of his life to educational travels, especially for hadith and he returned to his city of birth towards the end of his life and died there in 1053. Isma‘īl b. ‘Ali is well-known with the name of as- Sammān, meaning butter trader, because of he was grew up in a family of butter traders. The movables and real estates in his inheretence show that he belongs to a wealthy family. As-Sammān, who seems to be in the twelfth generation of Muʻtazilite tradition, approve the thoughts of Abū Hāshim al-Jubbā’ī (ö. 321/933) and Abu'l-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī (ö. 436/1044) and he was accepted as the leader of the Muʻtazila in his own period. He had education from scholars such as Abū Tāhir al-Muḫallis, Ibn Abū Nasr at-Tamīmī and Abkasī (ö. 405/1014-15) in the discipline of hadith. As-Sammān, was an authoritative figure both in the fiqh of Hanafi and disagreements between thoughts of Hanafism and Shafi'ism as well as in the fiqh of Zaydism. In addition, he educated himself in the topic of Qur’anic recitation, scholars of narrators, genealogy, law of inheritence and arithmetic. Among the works of as-Sammān, who are stated as many, only one record seem to be extant until today: “Kitāb al-Muvāfaqa bayn ahl al-bayt wa's-sahāba wa mā ravāhu kullu farīqin fī haqq al-āḫar”, which was written to point out the fondness and respect between the first three caliphs and ‘Ali. Thus, it is not possible for us to have a detailed knowledge about his thoughts in kalam and fiqh. However, Ibn al-‘Adīm (ö. 660/1262) gives us some ideas about thoughts of al-Sammān through his will narrates in his “Bughyat aṭ-Ṭalab fī tārīḫi Ḥalab”. As-Sammān states that his thoughts of kalam and fiqh are formed on the school of Ahl al-‘adl wa't-tawḥīd, in particular parallel with Muʻtazila-Zaydiyya and he designed his will, which he gave about two years before his death, according to the Muʻtazilite theological paradigm. In this context, according to as-Sammān, Allah is one and eternal. Attributes of Allah such as Power, Knowledge, Life, Hearing, Sight and Wealth are by virtue of His essence. Allah does not resemble anything, nor a body or an accident. All actions of Allah are good, and He never do evil. Allah does not wish for a sin nor have any consent to sin. Allah does not test people with what they cannot afford. Allah does not oppress people nor punish anyone with no justice. Allah is faithful to his promise that he will reward people who are good and will punish people who do evil. Voluntarily actions are created by people themselves. Revelation regarding the doomsday and the hereafter are true. Also, worships performed by the living on behalf of the dead such as hajj, ‘umrah, charity, reciting the the Qur'an and visiting the graves of them are useful for the dead. Repentance which is the forgiveness of sins is the decisiveness of not to commit it again with regret. As-Sammān has been criticized because of his Muʻtazilite thoughts, but his credibility, his intellectual effort and his abilities have been appreciated even by his opponents. The combative and dynamic nature of his life was reflected in his will are analysed in this work and it is concluded that he expressed his thoughts on belief and deeds in his will as a true Mu‘tazilite manifesto.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Discussions Regarding The Belonging of Qur’ânic Words in The
           Tradition of Tafsir and The Critique of Them

    • Authors: Zakir DEMİR
      Abstract: When viewed the history of Islamic thought, it is seen that the scholars have made an effort to understand the nature of the speech of God and make sense of it. Essentially, understanding and grasping of the words of God are an effort to look from the physical realm to the metaphysical one. In spite of this fact, the scholars as the indomitable seekers of truth are in search of finding some clues to say about it. While some of them consider the “divine speech” as an attribute of God, many others view it as a divine act. It is also admitted by all of them that whether being attributive or act of God, the reflection of the divine speech is the Qur’ân. In this sense, three views have been put forward on the question of the belonging of the Qur’ânic words. According to the dominant and preferred point of view among these views, Qur’ân belongs to God in terms of wording and meaning. Accordingly, the revelation of the Qur’ân, which was revealed to the Prophet Mohammed consists of both wording and meaning. Therefore, there is no intervention or contribution of Gabriel or Muhammad in constituting of Qur’ân. According to the second approach, the meaning of Qur’ânic text belongs to God, however, its words pertain to Mohammed. This view signals that Gabriel revealed nothing more than the meanings of Qur’ân. Mohammed understands the meanings conveyed to him and then said them in Arabic expression patterns and phrases. According to the third approach, the meanings of Qur’ânic text belongs to God, however, its words pertain to Gabriel. In other words, only meanings of text were given to Gabriel, and its words are formed by him. In the present study, the mentioned approaches which are put forward by scholars about the belonging of Qur’ânic words will be examined in terms of the integrity of the Qur’ân and Tafsir rumors (riwâyât) of the classical period. In a nutshell, it can be said that there is no disagreement among scholars in the field of the belonging of the meanings of Qur’ânic text to God. The main disagreement is whether the Qur’ânic words belong to God, Gabriel or Muhammad. Considering the integrity of Qur’ân and Tafsir rumors regarding to the circumstances of sending down of the Qur’ânic revelation, it has been determined that the prevailing view is more consistent than the other two views.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Miracles of Saints (Karāmāt) and Its Natures According to
           Ibn Ḥazm

    • Authors: Halil İbrahim BULUT
      Abstract: Muslims accept the existence of prophets and the occurrence of miracles as a basis of faith. The issue whether miracles will emerge from the righteous or saints is debatable. All Islamic scholars have accepted the existence of spiritual miracles, such as the grace of Allah to his saintly servants in the form of glad tidings, peace of heart and perseverance in faith. However, the existence of sensible (ḥissī) miracles or extraordinary situations that a person would never be able to do under normal circumstances such as resurrecting the dead, changing the nature of objects, talking with inanimate beings and animals, knowing the events of the unseen, reaching long distances in a short time, walking on water or in the air, etc. has been the subject of serious debate. Most notably Mutazilites as well as some Sunni scholars also rejected saintly miracles and they argued that such events could only occur for prophets -with Allah’s permission and creation- and that they were called miracles. They are also concerned that if the extraordinary acts of saints are accepted, the institution of prophecy and therefore the proof of the miracle may be harmed. One of those who accepted this view is the famous Ẓāhirī scholar Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456/1064), who grew up in Andalusia. He claimed that marvelous events would occur only on the hands of the prophets, and he argued that it cannot be possible for a rightful person, saints or wizard to do extraordinary acts. However, he considered the marvelous events attributed to some people -who were not known to be prophets in the Qur’an and hadiths- as the miracles of the prophet who lived in the period in question. Ibn Ḥazm, who accepted that extraordinary events occurred from some of the ṣaḥāba (Prophet’s companions) during the Prophet’s lifetime, claimed that it ended with the death of the Prophet. According to him, those who claim that such events took place after the Prophet Muhammad, are liars, dishonest and deceitful people. In this article, the nature and limits of miracles according to Ibn Ḥazm are discussed, and the role he assigned to miracles despite being a scholar of the ahl al-ḥadīth is evaluated.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Concept of Additional Imposition (al-Taklīf al-Zāid) in
           Muʿtazilite Kalām

    • Authors: Kevser DEMİR BEKTAŞ
      Abstract: One of the issues covered by Muʿtazila’s idea of justice is the subject of the imposition of moral obligation (taklīf). The concept of the obligation (taklīf), which expresses that God imposes some difficult acts on His servants and asks them to fulfill them, is important because it explains God’s justice for His servants and His wisdom in creating them. For this reason, the main emphasis in the matter of imposition has been on the veneration of the servants and rendering benefits to them in return for imposition. As a matter of fact, God offers His servants such a reward that it is not possible to achieve with anything other than obligation. This article presents examples of hypothetical obligations emphasizing the same issue. Al-taklīf al-zāid is an additional imposition period meaning that God does not end the life that he determines for the morally obliged (mukallaf), but prolongs the life of the servant in such a way that changes the result of his imposition. In Muʿtazilite thought, the issue of the additional imposition basically takes place in the form of two separate discussions about unbeliever and believer. While the additional imposition of the unbeliever deals with the situation of the unbeliever who is known to believe when his imposition (or life) is prolonged; the additional imposition of believer deals with the situation of the believer who is known to disbelieve when his imposition (or life) is prolonged. Abū ʿAli thinks that it is obligatory (wajib) for God to keep this unbeliever alive when it is known that he would come to believe if He did not kill him and his imposition had been prolonged. His argument in this regard is his thought that the additional imposition is a favour (lutf) for the unbeliever to believe. Abū Hāshim, on the other hand, says that it is not obligatory for God to prolong the imposition of unbeliever in such a situation, and that it would be good (hasan) to kill the unbeliever, even though it is known that he would have believed if his imposition had been prolonged. Because, according to Abū Hāshim, God already gave the unbeliever the opportunity to attain rewards in his first imposition. The unbeliever reached this end because he made a wrong choice in his imposition and it cannot be obligatory for God to re-present the circumstances that will change this outcome. According to him, the additional imposition of an unbeliever is not a favour (lutf), but it is like the enabling to act (tamkīn) and is not obligatory. As for the additional imposition of a believer, Abū ʿAli, Abū Hāshim and the Bahshamites agree that it is good to prolong the imposition of the believer who is known to be an unbeliever if his imposition was prolonged. The reason for their view is that God has endowed the servant with a reward, which would otherwise be unattainable, in return for the prolonged imposition. However, the Husaynites believe that prolonging the imposition of believer in this situation would not be good. Because the believer deserves a reward for his first imposition and in this case, his additional imposition will be a corruption (mafsada) for him. As a result of these different views, when we look generally, it is seen that the main concern in Muʿtazilite thought is to make the most appropriate decision for the benefit of the servant in all the impositions that God has imposed and is likely to impose. The Bahshamites have always prioritized offering more rewards to the servant. However, Abū ʿAli regarding the additional imposition of the unbeliever, and the Husaynites regarding the additional imposition of believer, prioritized the imposition’s resulting in belief, and they thought that it was more suitable for the benefit of the servant. Since the purpose of the imposition in Muʿtazilite thought is to provide the opportunity to attain the degrees that it could never been reached in any other way, regardless of the outcome, it should be said that the views of the Bahshamites on both additional obligations are more consistent within the general system of Muʿtazila.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Role of Language in Qâdî ‘Abd al- Jabbâr’s
           Thought

    • Authors: Mesut ERZİ
      Abstract: The thought system of Qâdî ‘Abd al-Jabbâr, who is a productive intellectual worker in the Mu‘tazilî school, is established on the contingency (imkân) of obligation (taklîf) of the God upon people. In other words he has a universe and order of thought which is built around the term obligation. Therefore, the content of Qâdî’s aforementioned thought which has a very significant place in Mu‘tazilî thought is constituted of responsbilities of human beings. These responsibilities of the human beings are gathered under the title of rational ones (aqliyyât) in terms of being held responsible by reason and the title sem‘iyyât which covers the things that fall under the category of responsibilities that can be only known by revelation (wahy) due to the imposibility of being assigned by the sole reason. In short, aqliyyât corrresponds to the rational field of obligation whereas se‘miyyât corresponds to the legal (shar’i) field of responsibility. The responsibilites under the title aqliyyât are such as tawhîd, justice, and other non-primary premises that serve as instruments for comrehending these two terms. The content of sem‘iyyât, on the other hand, is constituted of the issues that fall outside of the rational obligation (taklîf al-aqlî) and can only be known by means of sam‘ (revelation) such as the knowledge that adultry leads to moral corruption or the knowledge of juristic worships. We can observe that Qâdî ‘Abd al-Jabbâr, did make use of three different kinds of proofs in order to prove, found, and justify the aforementioned issues which lay the foundations for his thought. These are rational (aqlî), revelational (sam‘î) and linguistic (lugawi) proofs, respectively. For each of these kinds of proofs there is an idiosyncratic domain of coverage on which that kind of proof is considered as the unique authority. This research aims to elaborate the domain the only authority of which is the linguistic proofs and also aims to render it comprehensive. So to speak, the motivating factor of this research is to clarify the question of to what extent the language plays a role in Qâdî’s thought and its domain of influence in the simplest way.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Classical Islamic Discourse on the Origins of Language: Cultural Memory
           and the Defense of Orthodoxy

    • Abstract: Classical Islamic scholarship developed two principal theses on the subject of the origin of language (aṣl al-lugha). The first of these theses, commonly referred to as tawqīf, accentuated the pre-eminent role that divine agency played in the imposition of language; axiomatic within this perspective is the view that words (lafẓ pl. alfāẓ) have been assigned their meanings (maʿnā pl. maʿānī) primordially by God. Presented as something of an antithesis to this position, the second doctrine, labeled iṣṭilāḥ, predicates that language was established and evolved via a process of common convention and agreement: words together with their meanings were assigned by human beings, although both the doctrines of tawqīf and iṣṭilāḥ posit that the actual relationship between words and their assigned meanings remains entirely arbitrary, rejecting any sort of natural link between the two. Although later Islamic scholarship accepted that both theses were plausible, within the course of the 9th/10th centuries opinions on the subject were ostensibly polarized between orthodox and arch-rationalist camps with the former endorsing tawqīf and the latter iṣṭilāḥ. In the quest to achieve a conceptual defense of traditional arguments for tawqīf it was necessary for orthodox theologians to create a connective structure, as articulated through reference to remembrance, continuation, and identity, which enabled them to anchor the construct of tawqīf in a formalized way to the scriptural exegesis and emblems of orthodoxy associated with the pious ancestors. That this was successfully accomplished through references to the past would seem to confirm the role which cultural memory played in the defense of what was deemed an orthodox belief.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Reflections of the Problem of the Uncertanity of Textual Evidence on
           Kalām -Fahr al-Dīn er-Rāzī Example-

    • Authors: Zübeyir ÇETİN
      Abstract: In some works of Fahr al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 1210), there is a discourse related to the claim that textual evidence produces uncertainty. This claim was put forward as a theory based on approximately eleven premises although this number varies in some of his works. According to this theory, textual evidences are not convenient for drawing definite conclusions about the meanings indicated by these evidences due to the situations which is caused by (ⅰ) the language itself and (ⅱ) the use of the speaker of the language and (ⅲ) understanding of listener respectively. There is an additional phrase “This claim is not valid absolutely” in some of the works that mention this theory. Even though that is the case, this addition is not enough -at first glance- to solve the problem. If the problem of the uncertanity of textual evidence, which was put forward systematically for the first time by Fahr al-Dīn al-Rāzī as far as is known, is accepted in the borad sense it might cause some critical problems concerning the science of Kalām. The most important one among these problems can be presented in this way: In the science of Kalām, it is claimed that the certain (yakīnī) propositios and certain evidences are used in the issues that Kalām deals with and substantiates. On the other hand, the true narrative (al-khabar al-sādiq) is counted as one of the sources of knowledge in this science. The true narrative has subsections in the form of narratives transmitted from so many groups of people that are almost impossible to agree on a lie. Because all of these have reached us by way of words and narration, the issue of the uncertanity of textual evidence renders these subsections problematic. Consequently, one of the sources of knowledge in the science of Kalām happens to lose its reliability. In the present work, the following problem is analyzed: The problem of the uncertanity of textual evidence in that it causes one fundamental source of knowledge to be eliminated in the science of Kalām. [In the present paper] Two solutions will be offered to solve the problem: (a) Questioning how the issue was discussed after Rāzī and how Rāzī was understood, then showing which understanding is in accordance with Rāzī's statements. For, in order to reach the most accurate conclusion about a problem, how the issue is understood and explained in the historical process has a very important position. To solve a problem regarding a scholar like Rāzī, who left many works that must be examined from a holistic point of view, it is extremely important to consider first-hand his students, close followers and critics. (b) Showing the field and issues in which the textual evidence can be used epistemologically" through "the tripartite division of the issues whose knowledge is sought to be attained, as known only by reason, known only by transplantation, and known by both" in Kalām. Because the division of the issues according to the ways and sources of knowledge will reveal which information sources can be used in what kind of issues and where they will pose a problem when used. Accordingly, the power or consistency of an information source should be examined through issues that are not objectionable in their epistemological use. The aim of this study is to solve the problem in two ways to have been mentioned.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • No title

    • Authors: Zeynep Hümeyra KOÇ
      Abstract: This study is about Ahmet Mahmut Suphi's work called İslâm Düşüncesinde Ahlâk Felsefesi: Akılcılar ve Tecrübeciler. The work is based on the question: Do Islamic thought have a moral philosophy' In this context, it is stated in the work that the Aristotelian framework is not applicable for all moral orientations. Since, according to the work, that a moral philosophy cannot be addressed without metaphysical principles, it has been analysed the possibility of a moral philosophy emerging either from the basic principles and theories of the Mu‘tazila as rationalists, or of the Sufis as empiricists. In the last chapter, the theories of Ikhwan al-Safa and Ibn Miskawayh, which centres mainly on reconciling both approaches, are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Eclecticism of Proofs on the Road to Demonstrate The Existence of
           Allah: Examples of Dawwānī and Aḥmad Nūrī

    • Authors: Hülya TERZİOĞLU
      Abstract: The most fundamental subject and aim of the Islamic belief system is the subject of maʿrifatullah (knowing Allah). Studies on this subject are mostly called ithbāt al-wājib (the demonstration of God) in the literature. They are considered the most valuable work for kalām, philosophy and mysticism schools. Kalām schools started to use this conceptualization intensively after Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, mainly under the influence of Ibn Sīnā. Sūfis, on the other hand, most participated in these studies based on the theory of the unity of existence. In kalām, all the principles of belief are ultimately grounded to explain and strengthen faith in Allah. For this reason, belief in Allah is referred to as aṣl al-uṣūl (the origin of all principles).Throughout history, scholars of kalām discussed the creedal issues of Islam in the Muslim society while it tried to answer the creedal issues abroad by the expanding Islamic geography with studies on ithbāt al-wājib. In this framework, the problems of prophecy and the hereafter are included in kalām. Since the beginning of the history of kalām, it has used the theory of atomism to a large extent, especially in defending the existence of Allah against materialists. The systematisation of Islamic philosophy and mysticism in time, the kalām cosmological argument, the argument from contingency of philosophers and the argument from kashf and ilhām of Sūfis strengthened this area from three different branches. On the other hand, the interaction of these schools within themselves and the diversification of the interlocutors of studies on ithbāt al-wājib brought these arguments closer together. The convergence in terms of terminology, subject and methodology, especially after Shahrestānī and Rāzī, revealed the tradition of philosophical theology. In this process, theologians began to use both the concepts of temporality (hudūth) and contingency (imkān) to use ontological, cosmological and teleological proofs. Dawānī, one of the eminent figures of these studies in the last periods of Ottomans, is the subject of our research, due to his skills in utilising these proofs of ithbāt al-wājib and his influence in the studies after him. His review of the matter can be observed in his effort in his works where he deals with the so-called deficiencies and errors of his predecessors regarding ithbāt al-wājib. For this reason, many annotations and commentaries were made for his treatises and ideas until the 19th century.Especially, the advance of materialism in the West in this century showed great influence on many scholars and intellectuals in the Ottoman Empire seems to be a parallel historical experience. Therefore, it has become necessary to utilise the arguments for the existence of Allah by supporting each individual argument together. In this regard, in our study, to see the process, we also discussed the views of Aḥmad Nūrī, one of the scholars in the last period Ottoman, who dealt with the common arguments about ithbāt al-wājib produced by the three primary schools of Islamic thought: kalām, Islamic philosophy and mysticism.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • No title

    • Authors: Zeynep Hümeyra KOÇ
      Abstract: This article contains the summary of the doctoral thesis titled " Ebû’l-Kāsım el-Ka‘bî el-Belhî’de Bilgi ".
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • No title

    • Authors: Büşra EDİS
      Abstract: This review contains the evaluation of the book set titled The History of Muslim Women. The History of Muslim Women consists of 5 volumes: Muslim Women in History, Muslim Women in Geography, Muslim Women in Politics, Muslim Women in Thought, and Muslim Women in Science. The work is the product of a collective work that aims to look at the Muslim woman from the inside among the studies on the subject. The work, which was written by Muslim women thinkers who are all experts in their fields, represents a first in its field in this respect.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Genuine and Resembling Verses of the Qur’an: Muḥkam and
           Mutashābih

    • Authors: Erkan YAR
      Abstract: Muḥkam and mutashābih have developed as two topics that are related to every field of religious studies throughout the historical process. The fact that this has been a topic of controversy in every field of religious studies is due to the fact that verses of the Qur’an were classified as muḥkam and mutashābih by the verses of the Qur’an. Discussions and suggestions regarding muḥkam and mutashābih generally tended to be limited to the studies about the semantic definitions of the terms or were shaped around the narratives about the circumstances of the revelation and thus digression from the actual context was inevitable. In addition, acknowledging muḥkam and mutashābih as semantic qualities of the Qur’an raised doubts over the Qur’an's status as an understandable text. As mutashābih verses were considered by some as ambiguous, this enabled each school of thought to base their opinions on the verses of the Qur'an. The fact that current interpretations of the verses of the Qur’an are not made free from the historical points of view is due to the strength of the historical knowledge. Qur’an demands faith in the previous canons as well as demanding faith in the previous messengers. In this context, muḥkam are the genuine commandments of the Qur’an which did not exist in the previous canons whereas mutashābih are the commandments that resemble the ones in the previous canons. This research employs analysis, comparison and criticism methods for examining its subject matter. Meanings of the verses of the Qur’an are analyzed linguistically and the relations between the terms in this context are attempted to be shown. In interpreting the verses about the topic, arguments of different schools of thought are included. Criticism of the previous interpretations is carried out considering the contextual and semantic integrity of the Qur'an. It is also stated that while forming its muḥkam verses, the Qur’an employed the methods of abrogation, adjournment and conversion. Abrogation is not an annulation of the own verses of the Qur’an but an annulation of a commandment in a previous canon. Adjournment means not to abrogate a commandment of a previous canon but their inclusion in the new canon. The cases that the Qur’an mentions in which the messenger is accused of fabricating are stated to be due to the conversion of the commandments the interlocutors had already known by genuine verses of the Qur’an. To regard muḥkam and mutashābih as genuine and resembling verses would fortify the judgement that the verses of the Qur’an are comprehensible. This paper concludes that the muḥkam verses provide the fundamentals of the system of law which is the Qur’an, and mutashābih are the verses that are in the Qur’an and show resemblance to previous laws that were already present at the time. In relation to this, that those with crooked hearts tracing after the mutashābih is interpreted to mean that they investigated whether the ayats were included in the previous canons and that Allah knows the gloss of the mutashābih ayats is interpreted to mean that He knows in which canon the ayats were first included and finally the attitude of those with deep wisdom towards the muteshâbih ayats is explained as that with their vast knowledge on revelation, they confess that all the resembling ayats were revealed by Allah.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Constant and Variable: Continuous Re-Creation in al-Juwaynī

    • Authors: Emine Nur ERDEM
      Abstract: In this article, the idea that the accidents (a’rād) do not have continuity for two consecutive periods of time and that they are recreated in the second moment of their existence is analyzed within the framework of al-Juwayn¬ī's approaches. For this purpose, first of all, the place of the theory of continuous creation in the thought system of mutakallimūn, and then the consequences of al-Juwaynī's acceptance of continuous creation in terms of the effectiveness of divine intervention and the understanding of the universe (al-‘ālam) are touched upon. Continuous re-creation (Tajaddud al-amthal) is an understanding that is considered as the disappearance of accidents moment by moment and their re-creation with similar ones. In this way, mutakallimūn tried to explain the continuity and change in the universe, as well as the constants that do not change in things. This understanding, which is associated with the renewal of accidents at every moment, is handled by al-Juwayn¬ī within the framework of the principles that the accidents are finite and that they cannot subsist by themselves (qāim bi-nafs). Accordingly, the accident cannot carry another accident because it does not occupy space (mātahayyaza); nor does it have continuity because it cannot be self-subsisting (al-qāim) with invariability (baqā) which is an accident like itself. As a matter of fact, if the existence of the accident had continued for the second time, it would not have been possible for its like to exist in the same place. Likewise, if the accident had the characteristic of continuity, its nonexistence would be impossible. Because what is continuous at two consecutive moments would not be able to perish in the third and subsequent moments. However, senses reveal that the accidents have disappeared. Thus, the accident, which has a discontinuous and impermanent structure, becomes the subject of creation at the same time whenever it loses its existence. The understanding of continuous creation, accepted by most of the mutakallimūn, is systematized over accidents and does not include the renewal of substances. It is striking that al-Juwayn¬ī also made a distinction with regard to the renewal of the accidents and the continuity of the substances. However, by associating the persistence of the substance with the continuous creation of accidents, al-Juwayn¬ī explains this issue in a way that does not contradict the absolute power of Allah. According to him, the condition of continuity of the substance depends on the existence of the accident which subsists with it. As long as Allah wishes for the continuity of the existence of the substance, he creates the accident of baqā in it one after the other. If the accident disappears, the substance also loses its existence. Thus, God's intervention by continuous re-creation has a direct effect on the accident; the substance, depending on the accident, which is the condition of its continuity, is in need of God's intervention. Therefore, the universe as a whole is not independent of the Creator even for a moment. This understanding of creation of al-Juwayn¬ī, on the one hand, hinders the idea of necessary causality, on the other hand, it draws a model of God-world (al-‘ālam) relationship that foresees the constant intervention of the Creator, who is the Free Agent (Fā‘il Mukhtār). The idea that everything that exists before and after is dependent on Allah's creation also invalidates the idea that the objects in the world stem from the qualities they have in their own nature.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • No title

    • Authors: Tuğba GÜNAL
      Abstract: This article contains the summary of the doctoral thesis titled "Kelam’da Nefs Fenomenolojisi".
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Style of Criticism in the Qur'an in the Context of Its Features
           and Principles

    • Authors: Sultan YEŞİLTAŞ; Nurullah DENİZER
      Abstract: Criticism is a phenomenon that exists in all stages and dimensions of life. One of the narrative styles used by the Qur'an, which was sent to guide people from falsehood to truth and from heresy to guidance, is the style of criticism. It is seen that this style aims to enable people to make a constant effort to eliminate their deficiencies and to be cleaned from their mistakes. How does the criticism style take place in the Qur'an' How important is it to its interlocutors' Is it possible to deduce some principles from the criticism style used by the Qur'an' Searching for answers to these and similar questions will help us determine the method of the style in question. In addition, it will help us understand the nature of the effect that this style aims to create on the addressee. In this context, it can be said that the criticisms in the Qur'an towards its addressees took place within the framework of some principles. The Qur'an sometimes criticizes its addressee by warning with kind words, sometimes by warning with wisdom and good advice, and sometimes by asking and answering questions. From this point of view, it is seen that the criticisms in the Qur'an offer a method about its style of criticism, as well as realizing the goal of the Qur'an to guide people. Identifying the principles and features of the Qur'anic criticism will help better understand and convey its message. In this respect, it is obvious that knowing the Qur'anic criticism will make important contributions to the tafsir literature. While the Qur'an presents a system of life to people, it also orders people to apply it to their practical life. The principles, limits, targets and examples shown for human beings in the Qur'an are reference points for transferring them to practical life. When the Qur’anic guidance is ignored, not implemented or deviated from its purpose, the Qur'an criticizes people in a certain way. In this context, many criticism-oriented verses in the Qur'an not only serve to direct people to the life order drawn by the Qur'an, but also offer a set of universal principles about how the criticism style should be. When people criticize each other in their social lives, taking the criticism style of the Qur'an as a model will help criticism to give positive results. The focus of this study is the features and principles of the Qur'anic criticism. Within the framework of this focal point, first of all, the concepts used in the Qur’anic criticism will be analyzed conceptually, and the context and importance of the criticism style in the Qur'an will be emphasized. Finally, the general characteristics and principles of this style will be determined and evaluations will be made about these principles.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The First Treatise on the Parents of the Prophet in Ottoman Turkish:
           Rawḍat al-ṣafā fī wāliday al-Muṣṭafá – A Study on Its
           Authorship and Content –

    • Authors: Ulvi Murat KILAVUZ
      Abstract: The debate on the Prophet’s parents’ (abawayn al-Rasūl) religious status and their position in the hereafter goes back to several narrations from the Prophet himself. This subject, which can principally be considered part of the problem of the religious status of ahl al-fatrah, seems to be raised by the Shīʿah as an issue of creed in line with their understanding of imamate. Abū Ḥanīfah’s (d. 150/767) statement in his al-Fiqh al-akbar that “Prophet’s parents passed away on kufr/jāhiliyyah” is seen as a Sunnī reaction to this earlier position and led to a new area of discussion shaping the approach of several scholars to the issue.The earliest treatises dedicated to this issue are attributed to al-Ghazzālī (d. 505/1111) and Abū Bakr Ibn al-ʿArabī (d. 543/1148), but these works did not survive to this day. The earliest examples available today are the six epistles that al-Suyūṭī (d. 911/1505) penned.Literature on the Prophet’s parents flourished during the Ottoman times after the introduction of al-Fiqh al-akbar to the Ottoman scholarship. Starting with the first examples that belong to Ibrāhīm al-Ḥalabī (d. 956/1549), Ibn al-Khaṭīb al-Amāsī (d. 940/1534), and Kamālpashazādah (d. 940/1534), the treatises in question were mostly written in Arabic in the Ottoman scholarly milieu. Consequently, it seems that Rawḍat al-ṣafā fī wāliday al-Muṣṭafá is the first treatise dedicated to the issue in Ottoman Turkish.In the library catalogue records, some bio-bibliographical sources, and consequently in some modern studies on the issue of abawayn al-Rasūl, Rawḍat al-ṣafā wrongly attributed to a certain Wajdī Aḥmad Efendī (in Turkish: Vecdî Ahmed Efendi). This is probably due to the author’s presentation of himself in the introduction as just “Wajdī,” without making further description. Besides the data in Bursalı Meḥmed Ṭāhir’s Osmanlı Müʾellifleri, no more information could be provided about the identity of Wajdī Aḥmad Efendī who is shown as the author of the treatise.Intra-textual signs such as the author’s words about the reason and process of writing the work, the way he handled the subject and the evidence he put forward indicate that the treatise belongs to Nūḥ ibn Muṣṭafá al-Qūnawī (d. 1070/1660). Indeed, it overlaps with the fact that Nūḥ ibn Muṣṭafá presented himself as Wajdī in many of his other works.Seemingly the fact that Nūḥ ibn Muṣṭafá defends the view that the parents of the Prophet are among the people of salvation (ahl al-najāh), and while doing this, he was mainly based on the view that they were resurrected after death and that their souls are recaptured after they believed in the Prophet, stem from various reasons such as the view that attributed to Abū Ḥanīfah, Nūḥ’s Sufi identity to the extent that he was initiated to the Khalwatiyyah/Gulshaniyyah along with the ever-growing Sufi influences and the consequent idea of nūr-i Muḥammadī in the public sphere, the authority of the narrations attributed to the Prophet, and perception about the Prophet Muḥammed in the public imagination.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Anthropomorphic God Concepts in Kalām Thought

    • Authors: Yunus ERASLAN
      Abstract: Undoubtedly, the most important issue that the Qur'an focuses on regarding divinity has been the creed of tawhid. While the Qur'an was constructing a vision of God in this direction in the minds of its first interlocutors, there was no problem in understanding the relevant verses. However, as a result of the encounter of Islamic thought with ancient cultures and civilizations with the conquests, religious texts have been addressed with different perspectives. On the one hand, a viewpoint based on discontinuity in the relationship between God and man has been displayed by interpreting the expressions in religious texts that describe God with the characteristics of creatures. On the other hand, an understanding has emerged that opposes interpretation by understanding the expressions of the related texts as they are. Both understandings, which try to understand the mutashabih and khabari attributes in the Qur'an on the axis of tanzih-tashbih, constituted two opposite poles. Proponents of tanzih sometimes took the matter into obscurity regarding the nature of Almighty Allah. Proponents of tashbihhave on the other hand, has opened the door to anthropomorphist god conceptions, since it Paves the waytowards a conviction based on continuity in the God-human relationship. However, no sect has openly advocated such an idea. Therefore, this perception about them was mostly based on the claims and accusations of their opponents. In general, it is possible to examine the sects accused of anthropomorphist god understanding in three categories in the historical process. The first of these is the extremist branches of the Shī‘a, and they have developed some discourses in order to strengthen their political ideas rather than having a theoretical idea of divinity. It is understood that the religion and belief systems that existed in the region before Islam had an impact on their understanding. Another sect accused of the anthropomorphic God concept is the Karramiyya sect, which stands out with its tajseem view. Members of this sect, described by their opponents as Mujassema because they used the word "body" for God, tried to prove that they byusingthatword, were pointing to the existence of God rather than an anthropormorphist understanding of God. Another denomination accused in this regard is the Hashwiyya. This understanding, which is against interpretation in religious texts in general, maintained the same attitude for mutashabih and khabariattributes. Mu’tazila’s understanding of divinity based on interpretation was effective in their attitudes. The Hashwiyya school, which basically did not have an anthropomorphic understanding of divinity, naturally faced such an accusation because they did not question their purpose when accepting the expressions in religious texts as they were. In this article, after discussing the concept of anthropomorphism in terms of religion and philosophy, all three understandings will be examined in the context of anthropomorphism based on their own sources. It will be tried to reach a conclusion by comparing the views of the relevant sects with the discourses of their opponents.In this context, it is claimed by the opponents that they have a belief in God that is incompatible with the belief of tawhid. However, the understandings of divinity of the sects, which seem to be influenced by pre-Islamic and post-Islamic social, cultural and religious factors, will be tried to be understood in their own context and in an impartial way.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Attitudes of Theology Students towards Kalām Course and Its Teaching: A
           Scale Development Study

    • Authors: Ahmet Mekin KANDEMİR; Sibel KANDEMİR
      Abstract: There is a need for an extensive study on undergraduate students' attitudes towards the kalām course and its teaching process in the faculties of theology and Islamic studies, which are higher religious education institutions. In order to meet this need, a 30-item survey was prepared in a 5-point Likert structure that measures the attitude towards the kalām course. This questionnaire was applied to 1007 randomly selected undergraduate students studying in faculties of theology and Islamic studies in Turkey in the 2021-2022 academic year. In this sample, 69.9% (N=704) of the participants were women, and 30.1% (N=303) were men. In the analyses made with the data obtained, it was seen that the questionnaire had a high incidence of internal consistency; and its suitability for factor extraction was calculated with the Bartlett Sphericity Test and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) sample adequacy test. The KMO value was 0.934, and the Chi-square value [X2= 8083,719 p
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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