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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
Showing 601 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted by number of followers
Analítica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of East Asian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Modern Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Philosophy and Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Sociology and Theory of Religion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Whiteness and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aesthetic Investigations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culture and Dialogue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ajatus : Suomen Filosofisen Yhdistyksen vuosikirja     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeszyty Naukowe Centrum Badań im. Edyty Stein     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Laisvalaikio Tyrimai     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ethics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Universitas : Revista de Filosofía, Derecho y Política     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Ethik und Moralphilosophie : Journal for Ethics and Moral Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Problema Anuario de Filosofía y Teoría del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agora: papeles de Filosofía     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ANFUSINA : Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TheoLogica : An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Philosophia : Revista de Filosofía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gnosis : Journal of Gnostic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Islamic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Divination and Prognostication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clotho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
An-Nisbah : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Biblical Annals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Fikra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Nietzsche     Open Access  
Bergsoniana     Open Access  
Histoire Épistémologie Langage     Open Access  
Ancient Philosophy Today     Hybrid Journal  
Endowment Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Danish Yearbook of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for Continental Philosophy of Religion     Full-text available via subscription  
Simone de Beauvoir Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Urdu Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Values Education / Değerler Eğitimi Dergisi     Open Access  
Conciencia     Open Access  
Correspondences : Journal for the Study of Esotericism     Open Access  
Resonancias : Revista de Filosofía     Open Access  
Res Humanitariae     Open Access  
Humanidades em diálogo     Open Access  
Discurso     Open Access  
Cadernos de Filosofia Alemã : Crítica e Modernidade     Open Access  
Cadernos de Ética e Filosofia Política     Open Access  
Cadernos Espinosanos     Open Access  
Studies in Christian-Jewish Relations     Open Access  
Dianoia     Open Access  
Saberes y Prácticas : Revista de Filosofía y Educación     Open Access  
Ciência & Trópico     Open Access  
Філософія та політологія в контексті сучасної культури (Philosophy and Political Science in the Context of Modern Culture)     Open Access  
Etcétera : Revista del Área de Ciencias Sociales del CIFFyH     Open Access  
Jurnal Konseling Gusjigang     Open Access  
Science et Esprit     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Journal of Educational Thought / Revue de la Pensée Educative     Full-text available via subscription  
Auslegung : A Journal of Philosophy     Open Access  
PhaenEx     Open Access  
International Journal of Philosophy & Social Values     Open Access  
Convivium : Revista de Filosophia     Open Access  
Aurora : papeles del Seminario María Zambrano     Open Access  
Astrolabio     Open Access  
IJIBE (International Journal of Islamic Business Ethics)     Open Access  
International Gramsci Journal     Open Access  
Andrews University Seminary Student Journal     Open Access  
SPICE : Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices & Ethic     Open Access  
Patristica et Mediævalia     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Filosofía     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Philosophy     Open Access  
Revista Fragmentos de Cultura : Revista Interdisciplinar de Ciências Humanas     Open Access  
Temporal : Prática e Pensamento Contemporâneos     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Filosofia da Religião     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Bioética     Open Access  
Ítaca     Open Access  
Analytica : Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Anais de Filosofia Clássica     Open Access  
AL-Qadissiya Magzine for Human Sciences     Open Access  
Oksident     Open Access  
Diferencia(s)     Open Access  
Philosophical Inquiry in Education     Open Access  
Τέλος : Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Utilitaristas     Open Access  
Frónesis     Open Access  
Sapientia     Open Access  
Discusiones Filosóficas     Open Access  
Universidad de La Habana     Open Access  
Anais Eletrônicos do Congresso Epistemologias do Sul     Open Access  
Revista SURES     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Ludus Scientiae     Open Access  
Revista Epistemologias do Sul     Open Access  
Cracow Indological Studies     Open Access  
Australasian Philosophical Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Jus Cogens : A Critical Journal of Philosophy of Law and Politics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Dharma Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Humanistic Management Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Via Spiritus : Revista de História da Espiritualidade e do Sentimento Religioso     Open Access  
Filosofia. Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto     Open Access  
Civitas Augustiniana     Open Access  
Revista Binacional Brasil - Argentina: Diálogo entre as ciências     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Kantianos     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate Studies Review     Open Access  
HiN : Alexander von Humboldt im Netz. Internationale Zeitschrift für Humboldt-Studien     Open Access  
Dios y el Hombre     Open Access  
Bulletin of Yaroslav Mudryi NLU : Series : Philosophy, philosophy of law, political science, sociology     Open Access  
Sincronía     Open Access  
Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía del Derecho     Open Access  
Journal of Analytic Divinity     Open Access  
Cahiers de Philosophie de l’Université de Caen     Open Access  
Heroism Science     Open Access  
FOKUS : Jurnal Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
BELAJEA : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
AJIS : Academic Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
The Islamic Culture     Open Access  
Teologia i Moralność     Open Access  
Studia z Kognitywistyki i Filozofii Umysłu     Open Access  
Filozofia Publiczna i Edukacja Demokratyczna     Open Access  
Bohemistyka     Open Access  
Ethics in Progress     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Filosofía Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Norsk filosofisk tidsskrift     Open Access  
Kirke og Kultur     Full-text available via subscription  
Problemos     Open Access  
Global Forum on Arts and Christian Faith     Open Access  
Gogoa     Open Access  
Lato Sensu : Revue de la Société de philosophie des sciences     Open Access  
Mutatis Mutandis : Revista Internacional de Filosofía     Open Access  
Ruch Filozoficzny     Open Access  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
Les Cahiers philosophiques de Strasbourg     Open Access  
Philosophie antique : Problèmes, Renaissances, Usages     Full-text available via subscription  
Studi di Estetica     Open Access  
Hic Rhodus : Crisis capitalista, polémica y controversias     Open Access  
El Banquete de los Dioses     Open Access  
Psocial : Revista de Investigación en Psicología Social     Open Access  
Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice / Recueil annuel de Windsor d'accès à la justice     Open Access  
Éthique en éducation et en formation : Les Dossiers du GREE     Open Access  
Mizar : Costellazione di pensieri     Open Access  
Revista Poiesis     Open Access  
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Marwah : Jurnal Perempuan, Agama dan Jender     Open Access  
FALAH : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access  
Mises : Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy, Law and Economics     Open Access  
ULUM : Journal of Religious Inquiries     Open Access  
Voluntaristics Review     Open Access  
Scrinium : Journal of Patrology and Critical Hagiography     Open Access  
Idéias     Open Access  
Diakrisis Yearbook of Theology and Philosophy     Open Access  
Jurnal Living Hadis     Open Access  
Epistemología e Historia de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Kader     Open Access  
Metaphysics     Open Access  
Griot : Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Kontemplasi : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin     Open Access  
Jurnal Dinamika Penelitian : Media Komunikasi Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Review of Nationalities
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2084-848X - ISSN (Online) 2543-9391
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [371 journals]
  • Contemporary national movement and the problem of migration

    • Abstract: The aim of the article is to present the position of the contemporary national movement towards the problem of the influx of immigrants to Europe, with a particular emphasis on the threats arising from this fact for Poland. The article uses opinion journalism, political programmes and the press of the contemporary national movement. Content analysis and, to a lesser extent, comparative studies were used as a research method.During the migration crisis, there was a strong protest against the attempt to accept a refugees into Poland. Activists of the national movement recorded a film Stop for Refugees in which they put forward the idea of holding a referendum during which Poles would decide whether to stop the influx of refugees.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Book Review: Rafał Prostak, , Wydawnictwo Naukowe Chrześcijańskiej
           Akademii Teologicznej w Warszawie, Warszawa

    • PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Integral Ukrainian nationalism in the comparative context

    • Abstract: This article presents main analytic problems that Victor Polishchuk tackles in his book Ideologia nacjonalizmu ukraińskiego [The Ideology of Ukrainian Nationalism]. Key features of integral Ukrainian nationalism in Dontsov’s version have been presented here on the background of the nationalisms of two neighbouring countries, Germany and Poland, in order to identify the similarities and differences between them in the realm of axiological systems.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • National self-identification of students of the Faculty of Orthodox
           Theology at the University of Warsaw (late 1920s-1930s)

    • Abstract: In the article, the data about national structure of students of Faculty of Orthodox Theology of the University of Warsaw in the late1920s-1930s is analyzed. The features of national self-identification of different groups of students are designated. Conclusions are made about the reasons for the disproportionate representation among future theologians of persons self-identifying as Russian and Orthodox Poles.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Real breakthrough or pragmatic continuation' The Polish People’s
           Republic in the assessment of German diplomacy on the eve of imposing
           martial law in Poland – discussion theses

    • Abstract: The author of the following Contribution text was interested in whether December 13, 1981 – it means also the Martial Law in Poland – really changed anything for West Germany from the point of view of its own foreign policy. The answers of this Question, formulated on the basis of the Research in the political archives of the West German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, aim at explaining the reasons for the behavior of certain institutions or politicians in West Germany after the breakthrough of 1980-1981. The main Thesis of the author are: The West German primacy of stabilisation meant doing everything to avoid a soviet military intervention in Poland. How' Through diplomatic and military messages stating that the intervention would be too costly. Besides, in agreement with the US State Department, West Germany tried to avoid doing anything which could give the Communist Party of the Soviet Union arguments for an invasion. Last but not least, General Jaruzelski, as a figure publicly referring to national and patriotic feelings, but also enjoying some form of support in Moscow, was able to provide a difficult, but real stabilisation, even with the use of violence. The diplomacy of West Germany needed nothing more. Therefore was the message given to the authorities of the Polish People’s Republic after December 13 was crystal clear. Unless blood was shed, West Germany would not condemn General Jaruzelski’s government more than the country’s loyalty to NATO required it to.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Mainstreaming the right-wing radicalism and extremism: basic approaches
           and perceptions from Georgian academia

    • Abstract: Unlike some European countries, the involvement of radical right-wing forces in Georgian politics and the support of a certain part of the society for them is a relatively new phenomenon in Georgia’s politics. This has resulted in a growing interest in the study of the topic among Georgian academic circles. However, the defining and applying the concepts of radicalism and extremism regarding Georgian right-wing forces are different. By comparing the major approaches to the concepts of right-wing radicalism and extremism this paper aims to critically review and analyze perceptions from Georgian academia.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Ukrainian nationalism and Viktor Polishchuk as its historian

    • Abstract: The article deals with the problem of Ukrainian nationalism and its significance in Polish-Ukrainian relations. It considers the role of the Ukrainian Nationalist Organization (OUN) established in 1929, and its militia, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), and the genocide committed by these organizations and the Ukrainian population supporting them during the World War II on Poles living in the south-eastern voivodeships of the Second Polish Republic. At the same time, it presents the scientific achievements of the recently deceased Ukrainian political scientist and historian, Associate Professor Viktor Polishchuk, who, on over 2,579 pages of his works, documented the ideology, organizational structures and genocidal activity of those organizations which, according to the calculations of the Polish side, murdered about 200,000 Poles using the most atrocious methods. The article also lists very critical opinions of the Ukrainian bishop Khomyshyn on the contemporary Ukrainian nationalism, as well as detailed documentation of the crime of genocide carried out by the OUN and UPA on Poles as compiled within the five volumes listed in the bibliography.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The national team – shaping the nation’s representation in
           football

    • Abstract: The national football team represents the nation and speaks for it. The football team plays an important role in the reproduction of national identity and nationalism. It is also used as a tool of public diplomacy. The team is managed by the national football association, which is autonomous from the state authorities. Thanks to its dominant position, the national football association can impose its vision of the representation of the nation. However, the vision of the selector is not received passively. The composition of the national team – an important aspect of the team as a metonymy of the nation – is sometimes contested by the public, especially sports journalists or fans.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Creedal Nationalism in early American labor movements

    • Abstract: In the United States during the late 1820s, the labor movements formed that faced public accusations of being un-American and potentially puppets of European influence. These accusations often came from politicians or organizations sympathetic to ethnic nationalism. Partially in response to these charges, labor movements began to espouse versions of Creedal Nationalism. As a country without a natural nation, the United States has maintained for over two centuries two competing narratives within political ideologies concerning who should be allowed to be members of the American Nation. This paper presents research that continues to refine the history of Creedal Nationalism in the United States, a more precise construction of nation than the more ambiguous concept of civic nationalism. Specifically, the article is part of an effort to refine the usually vague and undocumented claims that social movements beginning in the late 1820s began using Creedal Nationalism to counter ethnic nationalism, using a mistaken or intentionally distorted interpretation of the Jeffersonian Creed of “all men are created equal”. While prominent uses by women’s and abolitionist movements are often cited (usually the same famous examples), the evidence of the use of Creedal Nationalism in public rhetoric by early labor associations is less documented. The ideological conflict between Creedal Nationalism and ethnic nationalism remains deeply embedded in American political culture and the political party system. The origins, development, and rhetoric of the category of Creedal Nationalism remain important for the framing of models of American political development and current political conflict.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR) and the armed resistance
           in Chile during the institutionalization of the dictatorship (1978-1990)

    • Abstract: The Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR) was a political-military organization of Marxist ideology which between 1978 and 1990 defined and deployed in Chile a strategy of armed struggle to confront the dictatorship led by Augusto Pinochet Ugarte. Its objective was to prevent the dictatorship from completing its project of re-founding Chilean society (economically, politically, socially and culturally) and, in this way, to advance towards the development of a socialist revolution.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • On the need to recognize the Greeks in Poland as a national minority

    • Abstract: Members of the Greek community living in Poland are making efforts to obtain the status of a national minority. Their ancestors have been present on Polish lands since the Middle Ages. Over the centuries, Greeks played an important role in the development of economic and scientific life of Polish cities. They were co-creators of Polish culture, art, and animators of the development of Orthodox religious life. Nowadays, the Greek minority is a permanent element of the Polish society, cultivating its own national and religious traditions. Its representatives are political and local government activists. Through the created organizational structures, they emphasize and cultivate their own national identity. The Greeks in Poland meet all the legal requirements for recognition as a national minority.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Framing as modus operandi for social movements: The case of Black Lives
           Matter

    • Abstract: From a symbolic and cultural approach to the social movements, framing theory has contributed to explain meanings and strategies for mobilization. Also, the theory has evolved in the media research, and media frames have to be also considered in the collective action. This paper clarifies how frames work in this context and describes their ability to give legitimization and congruence to the movement. The case of Black Lives Matter is an example of the use of framing and its consequences for the movement.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sami identity in the face of climate change

    • Abstract: Global warming is accelerating, thus irreversibly changing the human environment, and most of the measures taken to halt this phenomenon seem to be the result of wishful thinking. Policies meant to combat climate change fail to bring about the desired effect. Arctic indigenous peoples are particularly vulnerable to climate change, and their cultural identity is under threat. However, owing to the actions taken by state authorities and European Union institutions, there is a chance that the Sami languages will be preserved.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The consequences of the 1989 changes in the socio-political activity of
           Lemkos in Poland and the United States of America

    • Abstract: During the communist period, the Lemko community did not have its own separate ethnic organization in Poland. In the USA, the Lemkos were able to conduct social and political activities without any obstacles. Even before World War II, two important organizations were established: the Russophile Lemko-Soyuz and the Ukrainophile Organization for the Defense of Lemkivshchyna in America. The social and political transformation initiated by the elections of June 1989 changed the situation of national and ethnic minorities. The period of political transformation in Poland also activated the Lemkos, who also took advantage of these changes to formalize and develop their activities. The first postwar Lemko organization was the Lemko Association. As a counterbalance for Lemkos Association, Ukrainophiles created in Gorlice their own organization – Union of Lemkos. American activists also had to find their way in the new political circumstances. When the Soviet Union collapsed, not only did the ideological base of Lemko-Soyuz fall into ruin, but also its financial base. OOL found itself in a much better position than Lemko-Soyuz during the period of political transition in Eastern Europe. The anti-Moscow stance of the Ukrainianophile organization allowed it to remain credible and continue to fight for the interests of Ukraine. However, the organizations, both Polish and American, in their multifaceted activity still contribute to consolidation and preservation of Lemkos’ cultural identity and preservation of their traditions.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Conditions of the foundation of Ukrainian nationalism

    • Abstract: The consequences of implementing the assumptions of the ideology of Ukrainian nationalism were especially tragic for the Polish population living in Volhynia and Eastern Lesser Poland. The number of Poles murdered by the OUN-UPA and other armed Ukrainian nationalist formations in 1939-1948 is not known exactly, but it is estimated that it was from 80,000 to 150,000 people. This article is an attempt to answer the question of what the determinants of Ukrainian nationalism were. For this purpose, it refers to the historical, civilization and cultural background on which the Ukrainian soul have been shaped for centuries. This foundation prepared the space for the emergence of a criminal ideology, and then for its implementation.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Election of Bishop Bazyli (Doroszkiewicz) as the Metropolitan of the
           Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church as part of the religious policy of
           the Polish state

    • Abstract: The election of superiors in the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church was one of the key elements in the religious policy of the communist authorities. The new superiors were expected to be full of loyalty and closely cooperate and support the social and political changes taking place. The rulers wanted the bishops and the Orthodox clergy to take full control. The way to do this was to influence the selection of a suitable candidate for the position of a metropolitan. The choice of a superior appointed by the authorities was to fully guarantee the realization of tasks important from the point of view of the multilateral activity of the state.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • How does secessionism end' No-win scenarios for contemporary American
           secessionist movements

    • Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to attempt to characterize the American secessionist movement in the 21st century. In spite of the fact that all ideas of self-determination in the U.S. are not welcomed by the federal government in Washington and as a consequence are dying on the vine, they have still reborn in subsequent separatist and secessionist initiatives. An analysis of the goals, sizes and motivations of contemporary secessionist groups in the United States will lead to the main goal of the paper, which is to answer the question about the types of strategies chosen by American secessionists in the situation of the obvious failure of their overarching political goal - independence. As it turns out, a significant part of such groups in a situation of collision of their own political dreams with the harsh conditions of American Realpolitik does not give up and continues their activities in a slightly modified form. Understanding the scenarios accompanying this ideological and organizational change, as well as exemplifying the groups that have decided to implement these scenarios in recent years will be the crucial goal of the paper.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The rise of independence feelings in Catalonia and Scotland. A
           longitudinal study on the profile of independence in the beginning of the
           21st century

    • Abstract: The following article aims to make headway on the knowledge related to the elements that explain the steep increase of secessionist nationalism during the 21 st century in the peripheral territories of plurinational Western long-established democracies, such as the ones existing in the United Kingdom and Spain. In order to do so, we will be focusing on the quick change observed in the preferences as to the state territorial organization in Catalonia and Scotland. Through the usage of the logistic regression technique, a longitudinal analysis will be carried out to analyze the principal characteristics of the Catalonian and Scottish independence profile throughout the period comprehended between 1999 and 2016.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sovereignty of Member States in New European Pact for Migration and Asylum

    • Abstract: The author of the article attempts to analyze the consequences for Member States’ sovereignty arising from the European asylum system reform and harmonization proposed in September 2020 by the European Commission. The author believes that so-called solidarity mechanism, however designed with intention of burden sharing and help, de facto has the potential to become migrant relocation mechanism. That argument is already being raised by Member States that are opposing the European Commission’s proposal. According to them, the proposal violates rules guaranteeing Member States’ rights to determine volumes of admissions of the third country nationals, explicitly expressed in the Treaty on the European Union. The author also notices that decision-making power on the relocations is transferred to the Commission, leaving limited flexibility in gesture of Member States. Without being opposed to subsidiarity principle itself, the article questions whether the details of the Commission’s proposal are not actually against the principle and certain elements, like effective return, are not better achieved at the national level. In the research procedure, a method of critical analysis of the content of studies and the available sources was used.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The historical background of Catalan separatism: The case of Occitania

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study is to discuss the originality of the Catalan literature at its beginnings in relation to the poetry of the Occitan troubadours, and to explain why some Catalans today do not feel connected to the Castilian heritage. The paper presents the Occitan-Catalan political and cultural relations in the time between 993 and 1213, with particular emphasis on the 12th century when the Great Occitan War took place. The historical Occitania at that time was divided into numerous principalities affected by constant internal struggles. That unstable political situation encouraged powerful neighbours – as the rulers from the House of Barcelona – to attain their domination over the region. The successful military and diplomatic engagements of the Catalan sovereigns allowed them to create a relatively homogeneoas Occitan-Catalan community based on cultural similarity and feudal dependence.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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