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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce)
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0867-8286 - ISSN (Online) 2451-0602
Published by Pontifical University of John Paul II in Krakow Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Past of a quantum particle: old problem with recent controversies

    • Authors: Jerzy Dajka
      Pages: 7 - 36
      Abstract: Time-symmetric formulation of quantum mechanics—the two-state vector formalism—is presented as a tool for studying past behaviour of quantum systems. A role of weak measurement and weak values in the Cheshire Cat effect and a nested (Vaidman) three-path interferometer are discussed. Interpretation of a particle’s faint trace indicating possibility of discontinuous paths of particles passing the Vaidman interferometer is given. Consistent histories are presented as one of alternative approaches. Multitude of controversial issues is briefly reviewed and discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • Response to Wysocki on indifference

    • Authors: Walter Block
      Pages: 37 - 62
      Abstract: Nozick (1977) was a critique of the view of Austrian economics which rejected the notion of indifference in human action. This author claimed that this stance was incompatible with the notion of the supply of a good, and, also, with diminishing marginal utility, both of which were strongly supported by this praxeological school of thought. Block (1980) was an attempt to rescue the Austrian school from this brilliant intellectual challenge. Hoppe (2005; 2009) rejected Nozick’s challenge, and, also, Block’s (1980) response. Block (2009a) and Block and Barnett (2010), defended Block’s (1980) analysis of indifference. The latest contribution to this ongoing discussion is Wysocki (2021) who maintains that Hoppe was correct in his rejection of Nozick, while Block was not. The present paper is a rejoinder to Wysocki (2021).
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • Stanisław Dunin–Borkowski and his views on Einstein’s
           special theory of relativity

    • Authors: Jacek Rodzeń
      Pages: 63 - 86
      Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to discuss the views of the Jesuit Stanisław Dunin–Borkowski (1864–1934) about Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. These days, Dunin–Borkowski is a rather obscure figure despite rising to fame in the interwar period as an outstanding expert in the philosophy of Baruch Spinoza. Thus, the secondary aim of this article is to remind ourselves of this somewhat forgotten scholar. As a researcher, writer, and pedagogue, Dunin–Borkowski was interested in numerous fields of knowledge. Among these were the natural sciences, including physics and the influence that new physical theories had on philosophical thought. This present study therefore fills a gap in the existing research about how Polish philosophers received Einstein’s theories. The example of Dunin–Borkowski also serves as a basis for discussing some of the fundamental problems of neo-scholasticism in receiving new mathematicised scientific theories.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • A critical analysis of the philosophical motivations and development of
           the concept of the field of rationality as a representation of the
           fundamental ontology of the physical reality

    • Authors: Wojciech Grygiel
      Pages: 87 - 108
      Abstract: The unusual applicability of mathematics to the description of the physical reality still remains a major investigative task for philosophers, physicists, mathematicians and cognitive scientists. The presented article offers a critical analysis of the philosophical motivations and development of a major attempt to resolve this task put forward by two prominent Polish philosophers: Józef Życiński and Michał Heller. In order to explain this particular property of mathematics Życiński has first introduced the concept of the field of rationality together with the field of potentiality to be followed by Heller’s formal field and the field of categories. It turns out that these concepts are fully intelligible once located within philosophical stances on the relations between mathematics and physical reality. It will be argued that in order to achieve more extended conceptual clarification of the precise meaning of the field of rationality, further advancements in the understanding of the nature of the human mind are required.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • Joseph Życiński’s struggle with the language about God

    • Authors: Michał Heller
      Pages: 109 - 125
      Abstract: In the two-volume work Theism and the Analytical Philosophy (1985; 1988a) Joseph Życiński took up the challenge of renewing Christian metaphysics so that it could appear as a full-fledged partner in the dialogue with other streams of contemporary philosophy. This renewal should use two sources: the methodological principles of analytic philosophy, especially its philosophy of language, and certain elements of Whitehead’s process philosophy. This study presents a critical reconstruction of Życiński’s arguments contained in the first two chapters of (1985), which are devoted to the problem of language. Main results of this part of Życiński’s work are negative, that is, they refute the arguments and interpretations of those analytical philosophers who show the meaninglessness of the theistic language or try to assimilate it to other standard languages, depriving it of a reference to the transcendent reality. How can a positive part of the Życiński program be developed' It seems that only by formulating specific problems in the field of philosophy of God, or even theology, and choosing the right linguistic tools to drill down on a given problem and seek its solution. This is in line with Wittgenstein’s concept of language games. Życiński tries to do this in (1988a). Życiński turned out to be a precursor of nowadays increasingly developing analytical theology.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • Edwin Hutchins: In defense of interdisciplinary research on cognition

    • Authors: Marcin Miłkowski, Witold
      Pages: 127 - 165
      Abstract: The article presents the interdisciplinary approach of Edwin Hutchins, analyzing his conception of distributed cognition as probably the most important and lasting contribution of anthropology to the repertoire of theoretical tools in cognitive science. At the same time, this conception resulted in one of the most interesting relationships between cognitive science and social sciences. These relationships are made possible by the assumptions of Hutchins’ conception, which directly contribute to interdisciplinary collaboration. His account of distributed cognition has enormous potential, allowing the integration of research into cognitive and social processes. This is also because it breaks with methodological individualism.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • Quantum mechanics of identical particles

    • Authors: Marek Kuś
      Pages: 169 - 178
      Abstract: Leibniz’s principium identitatis indiscernibilium excludes the existence of two different objects possessing all properties identical. Although perfectly acceptable for macroscopic systems, it becomes questionable in quantum mechanics, where the concept of identical particles is quite natural and has measurable consequences. On the other hand, Leibniz’s principle seems to be indispensable when we want to individuate an item and ascribe to it particular property (e.g. value of the projection of spin on a chosen axis). We may thus abandon the principle on the quantum level, claiming it falsity here, or (better) try to find other ways of individuation of objects, possibly by adopting appropriately the very concept of it. All these problems, and many other connected with identity and indiscernibility of quantum objects, are thoroughly discussed in the book of Tomasz Bigaj, unique in the world literature due to its comprehensiveness.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • Science and its social grounding

    • Authors: Roman Krzanowski
      Pages: 179 - 189
      Abstract: Stuart Richie’s book discusses social, political, and cultural influences on science. In a series of well documented cases Richie shows how many of top scientific journals publish poorly executed studies with dubious conclusions. Such publications distort a public image of science as an unbiased search for truth. The roots of such practices, Richie traces to the way science enterprise is done in academia and in private research centers, where only positive and “expected” results are valued. While according to Richie there is a small chance to cure scientific practices from these ills, science itself is and remains the search for truth, even if our social moors make it so much harder.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • A companion to Kazimierz Twardowski

    • Authors: Ewelina Grądzka
      Pages: 191 - 202
      Abstract: There have been many significant publications on Kazimierz Twardowski. Jacek Jadacki intends to add to this list another book Rozum i wola. Kazimierz Twardowski i jego wpływ na kształt kultury polskiej XX wieku. In the review it is appraised whether it can be called “a companion to...”. It provides introductory information that can help readers better understand the role of Twardowski in Polish philosophy and culture. Updated findings by contemporary scholars are also included. The quality of the articles is guaranteed by such authors as J. Woleński, R. Kleszcz, A. Brożek and J. Jadacki. However, new authors are also present as well as less common topics like Twardowski’s influence on the Polish School of Philosophy of Medicine and his roles as political scientist, educational theorist, and historian of Ancient philosophy. The authors manage to convince the reader that Twardowski is “a classic” worth knowing, in consequence the book can be treated as a “companion to Twardowski”. It also inspires readers to further investigate the works and accomplishments of the Lvov philosopher.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • Ideals and ideats

    • Authors: Michał Heller, Janusz Mączka
      Pages: 203 - 212
      Abstract: The original view of Joseph Życiński, presented in his book The Structure of the Metascientific Revolution (1988), boils down to the observation that almost before our eyes a great revolution took place, not in science, but in the philosophy of science, that is the meta-scientific revolution. His concept of the meta-scientific revolution grew out of his fascination with the revolution that took place in the foundations of mathematics in the first decades of the twentieth century. Whether a change in science deserves to be called a revolution is determined by whether the transformations it underwent also reached the meta-level. The set of presuppositions underlying transformations on the meta-level Życiński calls ideata. One of the aims of this article is to critically reconstruct the meaning of this term. The action of Życiński’s book takes place mainly on meta-level, but the meta-level constantly interacts with what is happening in science itself. The book sometimes makes an impression as if it were a study of the history of science, but history of science in a specific sense – something like a “sampling” of history with numerous examples. Among the creations of human thought, it is difficult to point to an area that changes more dynamically than science itself, but looking at it from a meta-perspective allows us to grasp those of its features that operate on a much broader scale.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
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