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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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Journal of Philosophy in Schools
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2204-2482
Published by U of South Australia Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Competition and its tendency to corrupt philosophy

    • Abstract: Competition plays a substantial and structural role in philosophy today. It is therefore remarkable that it has received little systematic ethical scrutiny in the literature until now. This paper aims to contribute to establishing a discussion about competition in the discipline of philosophy by arguing (i) that philosophy is not inherently competitive and (ii) that competition tends to corrupt the practice of philosophy.Regarding (i), I argue that philosophy can best be understood as a cooperative endeavour. The idea that philosophy is a matter of competitive adversarial argumentation impedes philosophers from achieving what philosophy is all about, that is, realising what Alasdair MacIntyre calls ‘internal goods’: acquiring greater wisdom and knowledge and getting closer to the truth.I then show that a lot of the competition that characterises today’s practice of philosophy revolves around obtaining external goods, such as money, status, prizes and academic positions. While external goods are needed to sustain and regulate the practice of philosophy, competition for such goods also tends to corrupt the practice (ii), by which I mean that internal goods are seriously compromised. This, in turn, excludes prospective philosophers who are not ‘competitive’ enough, which is also a loss for philosophy generally. Published on 2022-03-23 00:00:00
       
  • Corrupting Youth: Volume 1: History and Principles of Philosophical
           Enquiry (PhiE) and Volume 2: How to Facilitate Philosophical Enquiry
           (PhiE) by Peter Worley

    • Abstract: In his latest offering on the teaching of philosophy, a two-volume book titled Corrupting Youth, community of inquiry (CoI) practitioner, educational researcher, award winning author and co-founder of the Philosophy Foundation (https://www.philosophy-foundation.org) Peter Worley, provides us with a comprehensive overview of his dialectical method of Philosophical Enquiry (or PhiE).PhiE is a deliberately ‘informal’ (Vol. 1, p. xxvii) but highly effective method of philosophising aimed at children of all ages. It is one whose underlying principles and techniques, Worley points out, can be traced to the ancient Greeks, from pre-Socratic philosophers Heraclitus and Parmenides, to Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. As the originator and leading exponent of contemporary PhiE, much of what Worley details here, though on the surface familiar and commonsensical, is the product of years of experience and careful consideration. The result, coupled with Worley’s knack for masterful storytelling, is a highly engaging and accessible introduction to a dialectic-based pedagogy that has gained increasing traction in recent years. Published on 2022-03-23 00:00:00
       
  • Editorial

    • Abstract: Published on 2022-03-23 00:00:00
       
  • Philosothons: Rewarding collaborative thinking

    • Abstract: Competition, and its effect on educational environments, has been widely debated. On the one hand, it is argued that competition raises attainment and, on the other, it is said that whilst it may raise attainment for some, it exists at the expense of a supportive school environment. Should philosophy undertaken as a subject in schools, such as P4C, involve any level of competition if there is a chance of it raising performance' Scholars have argued that communities of inquiry within P4C conflict with the notion of competition, using competition as a contrast to cooperation, as competition implies that only certain voices will be heard and, without it, participation is more welcome and inclusive. Perhaps there is already too much competition in schools, in which case philosophy should be the one place students need not worry about competing with their peers and instead focus purely on collaboration. But what if the very skills that competition undermines are rewarded in a competition' While it stands that competition can silence particular voices and conflict with cooperation, I will argue that competition can avoid these outcomes and improve philosophical performance if such competition rewards collaboration and inquiry, therefore encouraging it. Published on 2022-03-23 00:00:00
       
  • Winning in philosophy: Female under-representation, competitiveness, and
           implications for inclusive high school philosophy competitions

    • Abstract: Women are currently under-represented in academic philosophy. This paper first considers ways in which the competitive atmosphere of philosophy might help explain this lack of diversity. For example, women are stereotyped as less competitive and as less capable of exhibiting what are considered ‘winning behaviours’ in philosophy, leading to a more stressful, less rewarding experience; lower assessments of merit by themselves and others; and potential under-performance. Second, this paper draws out the implications of this discussion for high school philosophy competitions. Are these competitions likely to further exacerbate existing trends of representation, by associating philosophy with competition and winning' I argue that the way that these philosophy competitions are set up, as friendly, low-stakes team events, rewarding attributes that are ‘stereotypically female’, mean that these events are likely to support, rather than damage, diversity in the discipline. Indeed, there are reasons to think that these events form an important part of an image-change that is required for philosophy if it is to become a more diverse discipline at university-level and beyond. I finish by offering a series of practical recommendations for high school philosophy competitions, in light of the aim of increasing diversity in academic philosophy, but also with the more immediate aim of making these competitions inclusive, enjoyable events for everyone. Published on 2022-03-23 00:00:00
       
  • Philosophising with children as a playful activity: Purposiveness without
           purpose

    • Abstract: While trying to preserve the autonomy of their playful activity consisting in a game of ‘questioning and answering’, the Gymnosophists defy Alexander the Great and, more importantly, go against their own chances of survival (since giving a wrong answer to the king’s question amounts to losing their life). Thankfully, we do not need to face such dilemmas when philosophising with children. Nevertheless, the Gymnosophists’ example helps construct a notion of philosophy for/with children as an autonomous playful activity that albeit (implicitly) purposive it is, however, without (explicit) purpose (something akin to Kant’s aesthetic judgement). Alluding to an Aristotelian sense of ‘telos’ in its connection with Platonic ‘paideia’ I understand philosophy for/with children as an activity that we carry out for its own sake. This does not mean that we are to abolish elements such as antagonism, competition, excellence, etc.―there is no question: the competitive element is there. But what does it mean' We could fix its meaning according to a purpose (we compete to excel or persuade and win) or we might entertain the idea of keeping its meaning rather vague or undetermined, implicit. Published on 2022-03-23 00:00:00
       
  • The Community of Philosophical Inquiry as a place of agon: Exploring
           children’s experiences of competitiveness in philosophical dialogue

    • Abstract: This paper explores an important yet overlooked aspect of Philosophy for Children (P4C): how children experience competitiveness in the Community of Philosophical Inquiry (CPI). It describes a qualitative case study conducted with 76 young people (aged 8-17) involved in CPI dialogues in formal and informal educational settings in Canada and New Zealand. Interviews and video observation revealed that participants often experienced dialogues as competitive exchanges in which ‘winning’ consisted of convincing others, while giving in to others’ opinions was associated with defeat and disappointment. Participants recognised the potential dangers of competitiveness, notably the epistemic risk of excluding alternative perspectives and the social risk of damaging their relationships. Participants often successfully managed competitive dynamics by remaining engaged and open-minded. The last part of the paper discusses these findings in relation to theoretical work in P4C, notably Kennedy’s (1997) notion of the CPI as a ‘place of agon.’ Further, it argues that we should rethink the role of competitiveness in the CPI while remaining mindful of its risks, notably by considering its potential as a motivational drive and its place within a larger process of inquiry. Published on 2022-03-23 00:00:00
       
  • What is a philosophical competition'

    • Abstract: Many competitions call themselves philosophical but the question what makes them philosophical has received little attention so far. The reason might be that it seems to have a simple answer according to which a philosophical competition is a rivalry about the best philosophical performance. In the paper, I argue that this answer is too simple. I suggest a richer analysis that defines philosophical competition as a striving play. I apply the richer notion to examples of contemporary competitions for high school students, the International Philosophy Olympiad and debate competitions, in particular the Ethics Bowl. The richer analysis also serves to counter an argument against philosophical competitions. Published on 2022-03-23 00:00:00
       
  • Reconciling Socrates and Levinas for the Community of Inquiry: A response
           to Sharp and Laverty (2018)

    • Abstract: In the publication In Community of Inquiry with Ann Margaret Sharp (2018) the editors, Maughn Rollins Gregory and Megan Jane Laverty present a series of significant essays that honour Anne Margaret Sharp and her significant contribution to the Philosophy for Children (P4C) program. One of the essays, Looking at others’ faces (Sharp & Laverty 2018), is a revised version of Sharp’s earlier essay (see Sharp & Laverty 2018, p. 128, note 2) and further develops her original themes and interests in post-structuralist research and its implications for the P4C program. Sharp and Laverty argue for recognising alterity as informed by Emmanuel Levinas and his notion of the ‘Other’ (L’Autre) in the Community of Inquiry (CoI) alongside the well-established model of Socratic maieutics. But can Socrates and Levinas be reconciled as Sharp and Laverty invite us' In this essay I examine an interpretation of maieutics from Levinas that makes it both incompatible and yet, ultimately, reconciled with alterity in his notion of teaching. Finally, I explore ambiguities and implications that emerge from accepting this approach and suggest further questions that remain to be explored in relation to the pedagogy of the CoI. Published on 2021-10-17 00:00:00
       
  • Cultivating and nurturing a positive school culture and climate: Impacts
           of Philosophy for Children Hawai‘i at Waikiki Elementary School

    • Abstract: This study investigates the development of positive school culture and climate at a mid-sized public elementary school in urban Oahu, Hawai’i, over fifteen years. Researchers ask: what key people, initiatives, and programs positively impacted the school culture and climate at Waikiki Elementary School' Qualitative methods are applied to design and carry out a portrait study, which included interviewing 22 members of the school community. Analysis of the data reveals how one particular school initiative—philosophy for children Hawai’i (p4cHI)—had a positive impact. p4cHI helped create a school culture and climate characterised by intellectual safety, learner-centred inquiry, integration of experience, and a reputation to be proud of. While no one school community is the same, this study sheds light on the factors that might help cultivate and nurture a more positive elementary school culture and climate in other contexts. Published on 2021-08-17 00:00:00
       
 
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