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Journal of Humanities of Valparaiso
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0719-4234 - ISSN (Online) 0719-4242
Published by Valparaiso University Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Guest Editors' Introduction: "Connections Between Ethics and Moral
           Psychology. Studies Around the Work of Jonathan Haidt"

    • Authors: E. Joaquín Suárez-Ruíz, Pablo López-Silva
      Pages: 9 - 11
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp9-11
  • Forward, for “Connections Between Ethics and Moral Psychology. Studies
           Around the Work of Jonathan Haidt”

    • Authors: Jonathan Haidt
      Pages: 13 - 14
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp13-14
  • Moral Cognition and Psychological Cognition: Intuitions Come First

    • Authors: Carolina Scotto
      Pages: 15 - 42
      Abstract: Psychological understanding is a required capacity for moral competence in the sense that understanding the intentions, beliefs, and interests of others is a critical input for evaluating the responsibilities involved in their behaviors and understanding, in turn, how to interact with them to achieve our purposes. For its part, interaction with others is at the heart of both capacities, since both are essential and closely related components of human social life. My aim in this paper, in relation to both assumptions, will be to highlight a structural similarity between ordinary psychological cognition and moral cognition, showing as certain differentiated types of explanations on one domain and the other allows to identify a theoretical framework consistent that, in turn, it can account for the relationships between the two. For this, I will refer first, synthetically, to the Social Intuitionist Model (MIS) of J. Haidt (2001), as it exemplifies a non-classical and dual approach to moral cognition in which moral intuitions play a more basic role than reasons. In the field of psychological cognition, I will refer with more detail to the interactive or second-person approach, enriched by the dual approach to cognition, in particular by the proposals on implicit or “minimal” varieties of mental attribution. In this context, I will identify the so-called expressive behaviors: their nature and role in human behavior and interactions, and their significance as the evidential basis for psychological understanding. They constitute the primary objects of psychological intuitions. I hope to show that expressive signals are “readable” through the intuitive abilities that detect them and understand their psychological significance in efficient ways. Having exposed the theoretical affinities between the MIS and the interactive-dual approach, I will emphasize that, just as for the first, moral intuitions come first, and reasons later, also for the interactive-dual approach of psychological understanding, psychological intuitions come first, and reasons later.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp15-42
  • Following the path of Hume. Humean Resonances of the Social Intuitionist
           Model by Jonathan Haidt

    • Authors: Graciela Vidiella
      Pages: 43 - 62
      Abstract: Jonathan Haidt has exhibited in several publications a strong influence by Hume as his inspiration to build up his Intuitionist Social Model especially in reference to the emotional and intuitive roots of morals. So, this article aims to go deeper into that influence to analyze, review and compare their concepts and hypotheses in order to establish common features in both Philosophers´ programs. By demonstrating some similarities between both authors -both critical to rationalism, and compelled to investigate the roots of morals in Psychology-, their proposals will be compared and analyzed; and taking these critics into account the intuitionist assumptions that both Philosophers assume or could assume will be revised. In order to focus on the motivation of moral statements as a priority in Haidt research, the core of this article is dedicated to that issue. I will also explore Hume’s difficulty to conciliate his Emotivism with the rightness of moral statements that he considered necessary. Finally, my conclusions are that both positions sustain normative consequences ruled by an Ethics of Virtue.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp43-62
  • The Emotional Dog Was a Glauconian Canine: The Reception of the Social
           Intuitionist Model, From the Neurocentric Paradigm to the Digital Paradigm

    • Authors: Pedro Jesús Pérez Zafrilla
      Pages: 63 - 83
      Abstract: In this article I analyze the academic reception of Jonathan Haidt’s seminal article The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. My thesis is that in the spheres of philosophy and psychology, this article was initially studied within the neurocentric paradigm, which dominated the field of scientific reflection in the fifteen years following its publication. This neurocentric reading established a specific interpretation of the text with several limitations. However, more recently a digital paradigm has emerged and come to prevail in academia, providing a new perspective from which to return to Haidt’s text. Indeed, this approach makes it possible to unravel elements of the famous article that in the neurocentric paradigm went unnoticed by researchers. Moreover, the digital paradigm manages to better integrate Haidt’s seminal article into his later work as a whole.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp63-83
  • Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks: Intuition, Reason, and Responsibility

    • Authors: Stephen Setman
      Pages: 85 - 106
      Abstract: According to one highly influential approach to moral responsibility, human beings are responsible (eligible to be praised or blamed) for what they do because they are responsive to reasons (Fischer & Ravizza 1998). However, this amounts to a descriptive assumption about human beings that may not be borne out by the empirical research. According to a recent trend in moral psychology (Haidt 2001), most human judgment is caused by fast, nonconscious, and intuitive processes, rather than explicit, conscious deliberation about one’s reasons. And when humans do engage in explicit deliberation, it primarily serves to provide post hoc rationalization of their intuitive judgments (confabulation). If this is correct, it is tempting to conclude that most of our judgments—and the actions we perform on their basis—are not genuine responses to reasons. The reasons-responsiveness approach would thus appear to be committed to the implausible conclusion that we are not responsible for very much after all, including, most problematically, our implicit biases. I argue that the reasons-responsiveness approach can avoid this conclusion by showing three things: (1) that affective and intuitive processes can be reasons-responsive; (2) that the responsiveness of those processes can be bolstered by the agent’s environment; and (3) that practices like blame are one of the key ways in which human beings are attuned to reasons over time. I argue that the first and second of these items, despite their initial plausibility, are insufficient on their own to explain why humans can be held accountable for things like implicit biases, and that the way forward is to appreciate what holding each other accountable does—i.e., its effects.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp85-106
  • Hatred and Anger: A Conceptual Analysis and Practical Effects. A tribute
           to Jonathan Haidt

    • Authors: Guillermo Lariguet
      Pages: 107 - 123
      Abstract: This work intends to study the status of some emotions in a practical environment. I shall focus specifically on two: anger and hatred. My first objective will be to show that the distinction between the two is not as simple as might appear at first sight. This is because, as I will show, anger and hatred appear to be neighboring emotions. It is therefore necessary to analyze them conceptually to pull aside the veils of appearance and thus identify their relevant differences. My second objective is to show that the conceptual distinction I seek is not in pursuit of a merely analytical interest. I shall claim that the conceptual differences here have a practical impact, especially in the political environment, because anger and hatred should be dealt with differently in the realm of democracies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp107-123
  • Nudges and hive psychology: budging communal happiness

    • Authors: Daniel Loewe
      Pages: 125 - 162
      Abstract: The article analyzes and criticizes the political use of hive psychology proposed by Jonathan Haidt who appeals to the “nudges” of libertarian paternalism. The article introduces paternalism and discusses the nudge theory, and on the basis of that discussion examines the political use of hive psychology and holds that (i) nudges do not respect people as autonomous beings, and that (ii) hive politics are dangerous. Instead, a cosmopolitan perspective would be well worth pursuing.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp125-162
  • Under- and Overspecification in Moral Foundation Theory. The Problematic
           Search for a Moderate Version of Innatism

    • Authors: Rodrigo Sebastián Braicovich
      Pages: 163 - 179
      Abstract: Jonathan Haidt’s Moral Foundation Theory has been criticized on many fronts, mainly on account of its lack of evidence concerning the genetic and neurological bases of the evolved moral intuitions that the theory posits. Despite the fact that Haidt’s theory is probably the most promising framework from which to integrate the different lines of interdisciplinary research that deal with the evolutionary foundations of moral psychology, i) it also shows a critical underspecification concerning the precise mental processes that instantiate the triggering of our evolved moral intuitions, and that ii) that underspecification coexists with and overspecification of the structure of human nature when it comes to exploring alternatives to capitalist societies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp163-179
  • Extending the Conversation on Moral Judgement Development: Relations
           Between Social Intuitionism, Constructivism and Cultural Psychology

    • Authors: Alicia Viviana Barreiro, José Antonio Castorina
      Pages: 181 - 202
      Abstract: This paper aims to extend the dialogue between social intuitionism and the genetic perspectives of moral psychology, pointing out the contributions and limitations of each one to advance in the understanding of the formulation and transformation of moral judgments. An examination of how the relations between the subject and the object of knowledge have been approached in the light of the contributions of constructivist psychological tradition has been proposed. The relations between emotions, reasoning, and the specific social situation in which such cognitive processes take place it will be examined, taking up particularly the contributions of cultural psychology. By critically examining the three theoretical perspectives, it was possible to point out their contributions and limitations, as well as to appreciate the undoubted contribution of social intuitionism to moral psychology, its limitations and to elucidate the theses that shape this theory. It is precisely by examining the relationships, convergences and profound differences between social intuitionism, constructivism, and cultural psychology in their approaches to moral judgment that it is possible to contribute to promoting their revision and elucidation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp181-202
  • The Indolent Sympathy: An Explanation from Haidt’s Perspective

    • Authors: José Oliverio Tovar-Bohórquez
      Pages: 203 - 219
      Abstract: In this paper, I use Jonathan Haidt’s theory to explore an affective disposition that I call “indolent sympathy”. I argue that this disposition prevents a considerable group of human beings from showing solidarity with the millions of people who find themselves in conditions of poverty or extreme poverty. To demonstrate this, I will first present two dissimilar cases that show the type of affective disposition that I wish to submit to the reader’s consideration. Secondly, I will discuss the main characteristics of this affective disposition. Thirdly, I will discuss the social intuitionist model, highlighting the aspects that will help me to account for indolent sympathy. Finally, I will read indolent sympathy in the light of Haidt’s theory and explain one of its most important features: brutality.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp203-219
  • Far from Heart, Far from Eyes: Empathy, Personal Identity, and Moral

    • Authors: María del Mar Cabezas Hernández
      Pages: 221 - 243
      Abstract: Do we empathize with the others because first we have recognized them as somehow equals, or do we recognize them as equals because first we have empathized with them' This article explores the relation between affective empathy, the moral recognition of the others, and personal identity. I defend that, to recognize others as valuable and act in line with this, one must be able to feel affective empathy for their situation, and, to do so, one has to 1) be curious about them to surpass indifference, and 2) feel that your identity is not threatened by recognizing the others. Otherwise, rationalizations and justifications of antisocial behaviors would arise. Thus, I focus on how the construction of the self plays a key role in prosocial behaviors and the activation of affective empathy, which has been overlooked by moral philosophy in the debate on empathy. In order to do so, firstly, I explore cases where moral recognition is broken, secondly, I explore the dichotomic debate on the role of empathy for moral recognition and moral agency, and, thirdly, I try to enrich the debate by shifting the focus to the prerequisites to feel empathy, such as curiosity, a well-integrated self and healthy narcissism, addressing so how the construction of the self plays a key role in the possibility of empathizing with others and, therefore, in epistemic virtues and moral agency. As a result, I advocate the importance of psychological education for moral agency.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp221-243
  • Towards an Attempt to Unravel Normative Assumptions Implicit in
           Haidt’s Thought

    • Authors: Natalia Zavadivker
      Pages: 245 - 269
      Abstract: This article aims to investigate, starting from both the analysis of Haidt’s Theory of Moral Foundations, and his Intuitionist-social Model, if there is any implicit normative assumption in the author in relation to the value assigned to moral intuitions, both in relation to to its content and possible adaptive functionality (a matter developed in the FMT), as well as to the mechanisms that trigger such intuitions (a topic addressed in the SIM). An attempt is made to unravel whether the author, beyond considering emotional intuitions as the true cause of moral judgments, ascribes a positive or negative value to this situation. To this end, the motivations underlying various moral intuitions (both of biological roots, linked to various adaptive interests; and of social origin) are examined, in order to analyze Haidt’s contributions to the clarification of a problem of normative metaethics of great impact. at present: can the same normative weight be attributed to any moral foundation in force in human societies; or are only some orientations rational, and therefore morally justifiable' Do they all reveal genuine moral concerns, or do some reflect relevant but not specifically moral adaptive interests, or even selfish aspirations functional to the interests of hegemonic sectors' The implications of the FMT are analyzed as a valuable heuristic guide to interpret the moral concerns of conservatives from an evolutionary meta-ethical approach that allows to overcome the monism of the liberal ethical code, for which the spectrum of genuine moral concerns is reduced to questions of justice, rights and protection of the weakest (since only these would be rationally justifiable). The need to achieve a clearer articulation between the SIM, which puts more emphasis on the processes of acquisition of intuitions through learning and social interaction, and the FMT, that focuses on its content and its possible links with various adaptive interests.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp245-269
  • Social Intuitionism and Dual Reasoning Theory

    • Authors: Jonatan García Campos
      Pages: 271 - 292
      Abstract: In this work the social intuitionism defended by Jonathan Haidt is explored and compared with the dual reasoning theory (TDR), this theory belongs to a family of proposals that maintain that there is a duality in the field of the mental. On the one hand, social intuitionism has argued that it receives support from TDR, on the other hand, TDR has pointed out similarities with social intuitionism; despite the mutual references mentioned, an analysis of what the precise relationship between these projects could be has not been carried out. This work is an attempt to carry out such analysis, in which it is argued that a) it is not clear that the division of social intuitionism between reasoning, intuition, and emotion is equivalent to that of the defenders of TDR; b) social intuitionism has certain differences both with the default-interventionist version and with the parallel version of the TDR; and, finally, c) it is not evident that social intuitionism is an extension of a TDR to the field of moral judgment. It is necessary to carry out more studies that delve into the different elements of social intuitionism and TDR, in order to understand how human beings make judgments and decisions, either within the scope of morality or outside it.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp271-292
  • Naturalization of Ethics and Moral

    • Authors: Anna Estany Profitós
      Pages: 293 - 312
      Abstract: The approach to issues such as good and evil from philosophy leads us to specify what is understood by ethics and morals. Canonically, ethics is a branch of philosophy that studies and systematizes these concepts and aims to rationally define what constitutes a good or virtuous act, regardless of the culture in which it is framed. Morality is defined as the set of norms that govern the behavior of people who are part of a given society, thus contributing to the maintenance of stability and social structure. Based on these definitions, naturalization consists of seeking foundations in the empirical sciences to justify moral principles. The objective of this work is to see to what extent science can contribute knowledge that supports ethics and moral principles, a project based on the naturalization of philosophy, questioning any apriorism that ignores science. First, the naturalizing program and its main variants in philosophy will be examined. Second, two proposals from the philosophy of science that can be framed in naturalism will be analyzed, namely: Philip Kitcher and Patricia S. Churchland. Next, some of the main theses that provide scientific explanation of human behavior from the point of view of moral virtues will be addressed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp293-312
  • The Moral Mind: How 5 Sets of Innate Moral Intuitions Guide the
           Development of Many Culture Specific Virtues, and Perhaps Even Modules
           (Translation of published paper)

    • Authors: Jonathan Haidt, Craig Joseph
      Pages: 313 - 348
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp313-348
  • Tensions at School: Education for Girls Under the Neoliberal Stamp

    • Authors: Luna Follegati, Claudia Matus, Valentina Errázuriz
      Pages: 349 - 375
      Abstract: Problematizing the production of gender -and specifically of the feminine in the school context- is particularly complex. For some time now, it has been the students themselves who have pointed out the disagreement with an educational system that persists in implementing both institutional and daily actions that shape and produce sexist differences in a significant way. The school has thus become a space of dispute and territory in conflict, where new perspectives of girls and young women coexist in relation to the demands for rights, to make their voices heard and to publicly express their disagreement, in the current context of mobilizations that question the prevailing neoliberalism. From the above framework and context, ethnographies conducted in two educational establishments, during 2014-2018, will be analyzed. In them, it is possible to identify two relevant argumentative axes that account for the production of women as second-class subjects, accentuating the analysis in the crossing between the forms of economization of life in a neoliberal key, and the implications of this from a gender perspective.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp349-375
  • Heidegger and the Hermeneutics of Serenity (Gelassenheit)

    • Authors: Fernando Gabriel Martin De Blassi
      Pages: 377 - 394
      Abstract: This paper aims to review the meaning and scope of the Heideggerian notion of serenity. In accordance with this purpose, the research is articulated according to four thematic units that allow reconstructing and synoptically exposing the most significant aspects that Heidegger elucidates throughout his conference, given in 1955 with the title of Gelassenheit. These points read as follows: (1) the meaning and semantic scope of the word serenity; (2) the condition of autochthony and the threatening nature of calculating thought; (3) technique, violence and alienation; (4) the Heideggerian sense of serenity according to the meaning of equanimity. For the interpretation of the documents, the methodology commonly used in studies concerning the history of philosophy is adopted, which consists of a hermeneutical and critical reading of the texts selected for analysis, together with the unavoidable support favored by the specialized bibliography.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp377-394
  • Biological Functions: A Critical Review and A Proposal

    • Authors: Nicolás Alarcón
      Pages: 395 - 409
      Abstract: This research aims to propose a new theory to account for the functions of biological objects. For this, I will show that the most accepted theories of biological functions fail, and then I will propose a new alternative that overcomes the given counterexamples. The research is divided into the following questions: i) appealing to various counterexamples, noting that there is no robust theory capable of accounting for the phenomenon; finally ii) I will give a minimal provisional / operational theory, which allows us to continue incorporating the functional dimension of the features.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp395-409
  • Communist Becomings

    • Authors: Sergio Fiedler
      Pages: 411 - 432
      Abstract: More than 30 years after the fall of the soviet block and because of the social and political crisis that have occurred in various places of the world in recent years, there have been important political and academic debates about the meaning of the concept of communism. The current article attempts to contribute theoretically to this discussion by highlighting the different becomings within which communism can be understood in the actual context. Among those are the performative importance of the word “communism” in political and symbolic terms; communism as a process that precedes and modulates capitalist development; communism as a specter and multiplicity; and the relationship of communism with new forms of capitalist exploitation and political subjectivity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp411-432
  • Màrcio Bilharinho Naves (2020). Marx, ciencia y revolución. Santiago de
           Chile: Doble Ciencia Editorial, 198 págs. ISBN: 978-956-9681-16-5

    • Authors: Renzo Fabrizio
      Pages: 433 - 440
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp433-440
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