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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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Science & Philosophy
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2282-7757 - ISSN (Online) 2282-7765
Published by APAV Homepage  [2 journals]
  • On the symmetries of electrodynamic interactions

    • Authors: Hernán Gustavo Solari, Mario Alberto Natiello
      Pages: 7 - 40
      Abstract: While mechanics was developed under the idea of reciprocal action (interactions), electromagnetism, as we know it today, takes a form more akin to unilateral action. Interactions call for spatial relations, unilateral action calls for space, just one reference centre. In contrast, interactions are matters of relations that require at least two centres. The development of the relational electromagnetism encouraged by Gauss appears to stop around 1870 for reasons that are not completely clear but are certainly not solely scientific. By the same time, Maxwell recognised the equivalence in formulae of his electromagnetism and the one advocated by Gauss and called for an explanation of why such theories so differently conceived have such a large part in common. In this work we reconstruct and update the relational electromagnetism up to the contributions of Lorentz guided by the non-arbitrariness principle (NAP) that requests arbitrary choices to be accompanied by groups of symmetries. We show that a-priori there must be two more symmetries in electromagnetism, one related to the breaking (in the description) of the relation source/detector and one relating all the perceptions of the same source by detectors moving with different (constant) relative velocities. We show that the idea of electromagnetic waves put forward in concept by Lorenz (1861-1863) before Maxwell (1865) and in formulae (1867) just after Maxwell, together with the ``least action principle'' proposed by Lorentz are enough to derive Maxwell's equations, the continuity equation and the Lorentz' force, and that there is a dual formulation in terms of fields of the receiver (as opposed to fields of the source). While Galilean transformations are associated with removing the arbitrariness implied in the election of a reference space, they will not explicitly appear in a formulation based upon a relational space although we occasionally mention their usefulness. In contrast, Lorentz' transformations will emerge in this formulation involving the relations between the perceived fields of different receivers. Moreover, the role of the full Poincaré-Lorentz group as a group of transformations of the perceived actions is elucidated. In summary, we answer Maxwell's philosophical question showing how the same theory in formulae can be abduced using different inferred entities. Each form of abduction implies as well an interpretation and a facilitation of the theoretical construction. This work relies heavily on logical concepts as abduction put forward by C. Peirce, needed for the construction of theories.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v10i2.811
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • An analysis of the concept of inertial frame in classical physics and
           special theory of relativity

    • Authors: Boris Čulina
      Pages: 41 - 66
      Abstract: The concept of inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special theory of relativity is analyzed. It has been shown that this fundamental concept of physics is not clear enough.  A definition of inertial frame of reference is proposed which expresses its key inherent property. The definition is operational and powerful. Many other properties of inertial frames follow from the definition, or it makes them plausible. In particular, the definition shows why physical laws obey space and time symmetries and the principle of relativity, it resolves the problem of clock synchronization and the role of light in it, as well as the problem of the geometry of inertial frames.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v10i2.827
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • White Hole existence on the inverse universe

    • Authors: Shunji Mitsuyoshi, Eigo Shintani, Kosuke Tomonaga, Yuichi Tei
      Pages: 67 - 78
      Abstract: The existence of White Hole (WH) has been suggested by Schwarzschild solution to the Einstein field equation as a time-reversed Black Hole (BH), besides there has not been observational evidence for their existence yet. Our idea of the “inverse universe”, in which we introduce the time-reversed kinematics as another geometric state, can explain that WH should appear in such a geometry after a matter falls into a BH. In this work, we present a new operation for WH conversion from BH, and by using it the nearly infinity point on the universe, for instance the inside of BH, is geometrically connected to the inside of WH on the inverse universe. Such a conversion is useful to provide the simple solution to the problem of “information loss” in BH. Furthermore, we find another conversion point as the prior geometric state to the Big Bang, and we propose a new cosmology of cyclic universe.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v10i2.869
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • The authorship of the principle of inertia

    • Authors: Luca Nicotra
      Pages: 79 - 108
      Abstract: According to some currents of modern historiography, Galilei's propensity for circular motion would have led him to consider this and not rectilinear motion as “natural motion”; therefore the principle of inertia could not be fully attributed to Galileo, which he would never have formulated. The question of the authorship of the principle of inertia certainly weighs on both nationalistic elements and returns of antigaleleism, while the question of its not explicit formulation as a principle is due to ignorance of the type of organization that Galileo intended to give to the exposition of his physics. The author, after having hinted at possible prodromes of the principle of inertia and having reported the adverse opinions of illustrious historians of science (A. Koyré, I. B. Cohen, P. M. Duhem, P. Rossi, G. Holton), through a careful analysis of the Galilean writings, conducted on the digital versions with the help of text analysis programs, firmly reaffirms Galileo's authorship of the principle of inertia and the consequent principle of classical relativity.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v10i2.966
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • The influence of social capital on health issues among transgender and
           gender diverse people: a rapid review

    • Authors: Davide Costa
      Pages: 109 - 131
      Abstract: This article aims to analyze the current literature on the social capital of transgender and gender diverse(TGD) people, given their fragility in social and health terms. The paper followed the guidelines developed by Tricco, Langlois, and Straus. The results of this paper reveal significant gaps in the literature relating to the social capital of TGD people and highlight how the various types of shared capital are for sexual health to be considered in future research on transgender health. This is the first article that analyzes in detail the relationship between social capital and TGD individuals. To date, there is no other scientific evidence in the literature in this regard. The paucity of scholarly evidence available for paper limits our ability to make conclusive statements about social capital of TGD people. Small sample sizes in the included studies warrant caution when deriving generalized conclusions about social capital.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v10i2.934
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Order and disorder in the cities

    • Authors: Umberto Pagano
      Pages: 132 - 145
      Abstract: In recent years a paradigm has emerged for which urban liveability coincides with the existence of conditions of order, rationality, predictability and safety. If we combine this with the enormous technological progress applied to the management of urban ecosystems and the strongly transitional nature of our age (digital transition, climate change, ecological transition ...), we understand why in the last twenty years the concept of “Smart City” has been one of the most successful. But exactly what are we talking about when we talk about Smart City' In reality, the process of smartification does not only concern the urban dimension but, in some way, seems to apply to so many aspects of life. What kind of rationality is hidden in the dynamics of smartification' Are there dark sides of the Smart Cities' Are there alternatives to the Order based on standardization, digital surveillance, massive use of increasingly invasive technologies' These are categories whose application is generally argued with the need to generate “sustainable” ways of life but to what extent are these categories sustainable themselves' Martin Heidegger warned that the fact that “everything works” is exactly the problem and not the solution. Is humanity generating an increasingly irrational rationality'The provocation launched by some
      Authors (above all Richard Sennett) is that there is the possibility of an antagonism to this process, designing cities as something open, never concluded, dis-organized. But what exactly does this disorder consist of' Is it a mere utopia or is it really possible to develop concrete categories and urban planning practices consistent with it'
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v10i2.943
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • It is impossible to teach special relativity without deceiving the student

    • Authors: Denis Thomas
      Pages: 146 - 167
      Abstract: As the title asserts, it is impossible to teach the theory of special relativity without deceiving the student, which means that everyone who already accepts the theory as truth has been deceived. The resulting problem from this deception is, not only is science being held back as people not being told truth, these people are passing their deception onto others, even using time dilation as an answer to the distant starlight problem which many use to attack the account of Biblical creation instead of focusing on the error which yields such exaggerated stellar measurements. The focus of this paper is to expose many of the deceptions within physics texts used to deceive the student, along with several lies which have been told in support of the theory, such as GPS requiring relativity, the Hafele-Keating experiment, muons, etc., while also revealing Einstein’s confusion concerning light
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v10i2.1036
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • A logical-metantological approach to the problem of (meta)data veracity in
           systems for automatic extraction of metadata from scientific-legal

    • Authors: Simone Cuconato
      Pages: 168 - 187
      Abstract: In an increasingly data-driven world, the question of data – or metadata – veracity is now a central issue not only in the world of information but also in the legal one. Data veracity describes a closeness to truth on a higher level than a measure such as accuracy does. High veracity data is data that can be relied upon when making decisions, thus reducing the risk of basing choices on untrue information. The article uses epistemic
      logic to model structured metadata automatically extracted from legal papers, and the tools of metaontology to propose a definition of veracity as truthmaker
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v10i2.784
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Scientific-Philosophical definition of life

    • Authors: Klaus Fröhlich
      Pages: 188 - 205
      Abstract: There are about 100 different contradictory definitions of life. The definition of life based on symbiosis that is presented here differs fundamentally from them; it gives life a value. So this definition offers a basis for ethical and legal action e.g. in organ transplants. It is based on principles and is not an ad hoc model: Significant processes for life are basis for a theoretical concept. Quality criteria for definitions are employed to control the concept. There is a graduation, not a clear division, between inanimate and animate. The graduation is based on the amount of symbiosis to be found. Life is based on symbiosis. The ideas of “ethics” and “reality” are considered in the context of this definition.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v10i2.801
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
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