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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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Science & Philosophy
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2282-7757 - ISSN (Online) 2282-7765
Published by APAV Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Towards Inclusive Education: The Evaluation Challenge

    • Authors: Umberto Pagano
      Abstract: School inclusion embodies an educational philosophy aimed at ensuring that each and every student, regardless of individual characteristics, abilities, personal circumstances, or social conditions, is fully engaged and actively involved in the educational experience. This approach emphasizes diversity as a value and promotes the acceptance and appreciation of individual differences within the school environment. Despite the desirability of inclusive education systems being enshrined in many international and national Declarations and regulations, practical approaches still often lean towards school “integration”, understood as a paradigm of “assimilation”, which involves adapting disabled students to a school structure primarily designed for typical students.This article underscores the essential functions of assessing inclusion policies within individual educational institutions and, more broadly, evaluating mechanisms within the larger educational system to achieve continuous improvement in the real inclusion of all students, dedicating an in-depth analysis to the Italian context. The effective and adequate assessment in this field is challenging and methodological reflection is absolutely indispensable to define shared frameworks for evaluation policies. Building upon the recent OECD framework proposal (2023), this work suggests expanding the set of indicators to provide a more comprehensive and in-depth evaluation of school inclusion policies.
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1599
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sull’Infinito di Giordano Bruno (On the Infinite by Giordano Bruno)

    • Authors: Luca Granieri
      Abstract: AbstractThe notion of infinity and its atomistic counterpart are discussed in the framework of Giordano Bruno philosophy. The role played by mathematics is considered as well.Keywords: mathematics; atomism; philosophy of science; history of science; infinite. [1] SuntoSi discute il ruolo del concetto di infinito e il ruolo della matematica nella nova filosofia di Giordano Bruno, in relazione agli Infiniti Mondi e al problema del minimo.Parole chiave: matematica; scienza; atomismo; storia della scienza; filosofia della scienza; infinito. 
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1500
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Positivist and Interpretivist Ideas of Anol Bhattacherjee on The Methods
           of Data Collection: A Textual Critique

    • Authors: Vivian Christopher Kapilima
      Abstract: In the literature, the distinction between positivism and interpretivism based on ontological assumptions is somehow clear. Problems in dividing them based on epistemological assumptions continue to exist and appear in several works; for instance, Bhattacherjee’s book (2012) introduced the concept of research design and categorization of methods of data collection based on positivist and interpretivist epistemological assumptions. While acknowledging Bhattacherjee's contribution, nonetheless, the paper argues that since both the quantitative and qualitative research approaches share a few epistemological assumptions, strictly categorizing them into positivism and interpretivism raises some confusion. Consequently, impacting communication among researchers and the implementation of the research projects. Therefore, the paper describes Bhattacherjee's contributions and limitations in understanding the dichotomy existing between positivist and interpretivist methods of data collection. The paper's suggestions aim to resolve such confusion and restore research approaches and their methods of data collection to their original philosophical positions. Thus minimizing the existing confusion on research methodology in the current literature.
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1589
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Donne e scienza nel mondo antico (Women and science in the ancient world)

    • Authors: Ernesta De Masi, Adele De Santis, Maria Serra
      Abstract: L’articolo ricostruisce le biografie delle prime donne di cui si hanno notizie nella storia della matematica, filosofia e scienza. Sono descritte le vite e, per quel che permettono le fonti a noi giunte, le opere delle donne pitagoriche (in questo intervento si fa riferimento alle donne vissute dal VI al IV secolo a.C., nelle prime comunità pitagoriche della Magna Grecia), di Maria l’Ebrea alchimista alessandrina, per alcuni storici vissuta tra il I e il III secolo, per altri prima di Cristo, di Ipazia di Alessandria vissuta tra i IV e V secolo, uccisa tragicamente e, martire eroica, divenuta simbolo della libertà di pensiero femminile.
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1626
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Logic as an internal organisation of language

    • Authors: Boris Čulina
      Abstract: Contemporary semantic description of logic is based on the ontology of all possible interpretations, an insufficiently clear metaphysical concept. In this article, logic is described as the internal organization of language.  Logical concepts -- logical constants, logical truths, and logical consequence -- are defined using the internal syntactic and semantic structure of language. For a first-order language, it has been shown that its logical constants are connectives and a certain type of quantifiers for which the universal and existential quantifiers form a functionally complete set of quantifiers. Neither equality nor cardinal quantifiers belong to the logical constants of a first-order language.
      PubDate: 2024-07-07
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1582
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Proposizione 3 della κύκλου μέτρησις: la più emblematica
           delle opere di Archimede (Proposition 3 of the κύκλου
           μέτρησις: the most emblematic of Archimedes' works)

    • Authors: Antonella Palma, Luca Dragone
      Abstract: SuntoNella proposizione 3 della κύκλου μέτρησις Archimede costruisce due numeri razionali che approssimano  la misura del rapporto tra la circonferenza e il suo diametro, oggi noto come π.In questo lavoro vogliamo porre l’accento su due aspetti del trattato di Archimede: il primo riguarda le scelte dei valori razionali approssimati per eccesso e per difetto di √3 utilizzati all’inizio della procedura di calcolo, che risultano essere i migliori approssimanti in base alla moderna teoria delle frazioni continue, i cui termini si possono ricavare dall’antico ανθυφαίρεσις euclideo; il secondo riguarda alcune stime utilizzate da Archimede, apparentemente non giustificate e sub-ottime, che invece sono frutto di un preciso procedimento logico da noi ricostruito in termini di un algoritmo.Di tale studio è stata proposta una trasposizione didattica che parte dal testo antico e giunge alla produzione di una traduzione commentata in cui lo studente è protagonista del processo di scoperta.  AbstractIn proposition 3 of the κύκλου μέτρησις Archimedes constructs two rational numbers that approximate the measure of the ratio between the circumference and its diameter, today known as π.In this work we emphasize two aspects of Archimedes' proof. The first one concerns the choices of the rational values approximated by excess and defect of √3 used at the beginning of the calculation procedure. These values turn out to be the best approximants based on the modern theory of continued fractions, whose terms can be obtained from the ancient Euclidean ανθυφαίρεσις. The second one concerns some estimates used by Archimedes, apparently unjustified and sub-optimal, which instead are the result of a precise logical procedure that we recontruct in terms of an algorithm.We also propose an educational transposition of this study that starts from the ancient text and leads to the production of a commented translation in which the student is the protagonist of the discovery process.
      PubDate: 2024-07-07
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1628
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Lo scandalo dell'incommensurabilità tra α ́λογος e α
           ́ρρητος (The scandal of incommensurability between α ́λογος
           e α ́ρρητος)

    • Authors: Giovanna Della Vecchia
      Abstract: Il presente lavoro intende ricostruire il percorso storico-epistemologico che ha condotto, nell’antichità, alla scoperta dell’esistenza delle grandezze incommensurabili.Non si sa con esattezza quando e come sia stata fatta tale importante scoperta e anche tra i commentatori antichi la questione sembra che abbia dato origine a discussioni e congetture varie; ancora oggi si può affermare che nell’ambito della storia della matematica il dibattito sia ancora aperto. È comunque fuori di dubbio che la scoperta sia stata fatta in seno agli sviluppi della matematica greca.This paper seeks to reconstruct the historical-epistemological path that led, in antiquity, to the discovery of the existence of incommensurable quantities.It is not known exactly when and how this important discovery was made; however, there is no doubt that the discovery was made within the developments of Greek mathematics.
      PubDate: 2024-07-06
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1620
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Citizen Science: which kind of public participation is epistemologically
           feasible'

    • Authors: Raffaele Mascella, Davide Fazio
      Abstract: Projects concerning the participation of citizens to the scientific research have become very popular in recent years. However, the literature seems not offer much foundational investigations into the epistemological conditions that make citizens’ contribution to science a fruitful and rigorous activity. Research institutions and citizens, understood as entities bearing generally distinct requests, practices and goals, knowledge and skills, are totally misaligned. In order to participate to collaborative research, citizens need an epistemic and methodological literacy to overcome common sense ideas, towards an ever adequate vision of phenomena under investigation. Besides  understanding the social advantages introduced by the participatory dimension, it is therefore necessary to analyze the related epistemological problems, to understand to what extent and in what respect to the participation of citizens to research processes might be regarded as truly advantageous from an epistemological perspective.
      PubDate: 2024-07-06
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1625
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Politiche sociali e Welfare Locale: le politiche di contrasto alla
           povertà in Abruzzo

    • Authors: Roberto Veraldi, Chiara Fasciani
      Abstract: Questo articolo si prefigge l’obiettivo di definire e inquadrare il processo di formazione, attuazione e valutazione delle politiche sociali e delle politiche pubbliche che contribuiscono alla costruzione del welfare locale. Tale processo di analisi risulta essere fondamentale sia per comprendere il funzionamento del ciclo di programmazione e le dinamiche intrinseche al processo di decision making sia per specificare il ruolo dello Stato e dei vari attori coinvolti nella definizione e risoluzione delle problematiche di forte rilevanza sociale. Dal punto di vista sociologico, il fenomeno della povertà, inteso come un fenomeno sociale complesso e multiparadigmatico, sarà analizzato sia in senso diacronico, attraverso l’analisi dell’evoluzione del concetto di povertà nel corso dei secoli, sia in senso sincronico, concentrandosi sulle diverse sfaccettature che lo caratterizzano ancora oggi e che lo rendono di difficile contrasto. Infine, si procede all’analisi dei dati riguardanti il problema della povertà in Abruzzo e delle proposte avanzate dalle Regione in materia di servizi, interventi e politiche sociali per affrontare tale problematica.The paper aims to define and frame the process of formation, implementation and evaluation of social policies and public policies that contribute to the construction of local welfare. This analysis process is fundamental both for understanding the functioning of the planning cycle and the dynamics intrinsic to the decision-making process and for specifying the role of the State and the various actors involved in the definition and resolution of problems of strong social relevance. From a sociological point of view, the phenomenon of poverty, understood as a complex and multi-paradigmatic social phenomenon, will be analyzed both in a diachronic sense, through the analysis of the evolution of the concept of poverty over the centuries, and in a synchronic sense, focusing on the different facets that still characterize it today and that make it difficult to contrast. Finally, the paper will investigate the data regarding the problem of poverty in Abruzzo and the proposals put forward by the Region regarding services, interventions and social policies to address this problem.
      PubDate: 2024-07-06
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1614
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Unravelling the Tapestry: Quantum Physics, Biocentrism, and Indian
           Philosophy

    • Authors: Punit Kumar
      Abstract: In the intricate dance between the scientific and the metaphysical, the realms of quantum physics, biocentrism, and Indian philosophy converge, offering profound insights into the nature of reality. This article embarks on a journey to explore the interconnected threads that weave through these seemingly distinct domains, revealing a tapestry that challenges our understanding of existence.
      PubDate: 2024-07-06
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1591
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • La natura della propria realtà. Her di Spike Jonze (The Nature of one’s
           own Reality. Her by Spike Jonze)

    • Authors: Emanuela Piga Bruni
      Abstract: SuntoL’obiettivo di questo studio è di riflettere su alcune questioni che ruotano intorno alla rappresentazione dell’Intelligenza artificiale, e che riguardano l’impatto della tecnologia sulla sfera esistenziale e sulla condizione umana. In questo quadro mi soffermerò, attraverso un close reading, sul film Her di Spike Jonze, analizzandone in particolare i dialoghi, con l’intento di evidenziare anche la presenza di quei fili che tracciano una continuità con le questioni poste da Alan Turing nel celebre articolo “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” pubblicato sulla rivista Mind nel 1950. Se la domanda al centro dello studio di Turing è Can Machines Think', e viene ripresa in seguito da Asimov e Dick con la variante Can Machines Lie' , nel film di Spike Jonze la declinazione più stringente dell’interrogativo è Can Machines Feel'
      Parole chiave: Intelligenza artificiale; solitudine; emozioni; reale/virtuale; modi di amare; trascendenza.AbstractThe purpose of this study is to tackle some of the issues that revolve around the representation of Artificial Intelligence and that concern the impact of technology on the existential sphere and the human condition. Within this framework, I will focus on Spike Jonze’s film Her, in particular through a close reading of its dialogues. The aim is also to highlight the presence of threads tracing a continuity with the issues raised by Alan Turing in the famous article “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” published in the journal Mind in 1950. If the question at the heart of Turing’s study is ‘Can Machines Think'’ – later turned into ‘Can Machines Lie'’ in Asimov and Dick’s variant – in Spike Jonze’s film the point at issue becomes ‘Can Machines Feel'’.
      PubDate: 2024-03-02
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1571
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Participation, democracy and sustainable politics: a first reading
           (Partecipazione, democrazia e politica sostenibile: una prima lettura)

    • Authors: Roberto Veraldi, Gianmarco Oddo
      Abstract: English AbstractIn this first interpretative reading, this work focuses, also through the use of numerous sources found, on the idea-strength of the active participation of citizens in the political life of their community as a central element for the complete realization of democracy and the pursuit of a sustainable policy. By examining in detail both the traditional tools and the innovative methodologies, we will try to understand how to increase active participation, in particular of the new generations, and, above all by pushing it so that it is more aware, we will be able to build an effectively democratic society, where political institutions are identified as key actors in promoting democratic participation, despite the difficulties inherent in the very angularity of the topic addressed.Sunto in ItalianoIn questa prima lettura interpretativa, questo lavoro si focalizza, anche attraverso l’uso di numerose fonti reperite, sulla idea-forza della partecipazione attiva dei cittadini nella vita politica della propria comunità quale elemento centrale per la realizzazione compiuta della democrazia e il perseguimento di una politica sostenibile. Esaminando nel dettaglio sia gli strumenti tradizionali sia le metodologie innovative, si tenterà di comprendere come aumentare la partecipazione attiva, in particolare delle nuove generazioni, e, soprattutto spingendola in modo che sia più consapevole, si riuscirà a costruire una società effettivamente democratica, dove le istituzioni politiche sono identificate come attori chiave nel promuovere la partecipazione democratica, malgrado le difficoltà insite nella spigolosità stessa della tematica affrontata. 
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.23756/sp.v12i1.1570
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
 
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