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Ethics & Bioethics
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1338-5615 - ISSN (Online) 2453-7829
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Modern ideas about the object of scientific knowledge and bioethics

    • Abstract: The present article analyzes and outlines significant changes in ideas about the object of scientific knowledge in modern science. Special attention is paid to the transition to the paradigm of complexity, within which the object of scientific knowledge acquires a complex systemic character and remains in the same complex connections with systems of different levels. It is marked that such changes entail a number of methodological requirements, which are especially clearly manifested in modern theories of bioethics and its real practices. A special role in this case is assigned to issues of transdisciplinary approach, complementary methodology, and values of the subject of bioethical cognition. The prospects for further research are related to the possibilities of deepening the methodology of the paradigm of complexity based on the application of a transdisciplinary approach.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Michel Onfray’s concept of new ethics

    • Abstract: A new form of ethics suggested by the Francophone philosopher M. Onfray concerns, first of all, the resignation from faith in a transcendent God, which is substituted with an undefined sacrum (which is holy, highest) in immanence. This new form of ethics is, today, becoming a popular alternative to religious ethics. However, traditional, and new ethics should not be treated as separate sets, as they do not necessarily compete with each other. Systems of spiritual development related to specific denominations will always provide inspiration even for atheists’ ethics. The latter can indicate that, apart from religion, there is also a spirituality that can develop in a person. Nihilism is not the only alternative to religion, as sometimes the defenders of the old religious order try to show.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The ethical in Jan Patočka’s thought: Sacrifice and care for
           the soul

    • Abstract: In his two works from the 1970s, Patočka proposes a very personal way that the spiritual crisis, which manifests itself as a techno-scientific reality of Gestell, can be overcome. Patočka argues that the only way to escape spiritual decline is through sacrifice. This study examines how the ethical is represented in Patočka’s philosophy. It focuses on his two main concepts of sacrifice and care for the soul and explores the relationship between them. Through a close reading of Plato and Europe (1973), ‘Four Seminars’ (1973), and his essay ‘The dangers of technicization’ (1973), this study reveals how Patočka proposes that the ethical can be implemented within the realm of the political. Drawing a parallel between Socrates’ and Patočka’s lives and fates, this study points to the significance of ethics in political life – both in the ancient Greek polis of Socrates’ time and in communist Czechoslovakia in Patočka’s time. This approach highlights the influence that the philosophy of Socrates had on Patočka’s thinking.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Karol Frenkel and the tradition of ethics

    • Abstract: Karol Frenkel was one of Kazimierz Twardowski’s first disciples to undertake an attempt to develop their own concept of ethics. In his case, the process of developing his own ethical concept involved questioning the tradition in which he had been educated. Accordingly, he was able to formulate an original concept of independent ethics. In his doctoral dissertation, Frenkel analyzed two ethical systems, formulated by David Hume and Arthur Schopenhauer respectively which sought ethical determinants in the affective sphere. For Frenkel, these proposals turned out to be unsatisfactory, and thus he proposed his own solution derived from the accepted concept of morality. From today’s perspective, it was the first reflection in Poland referring to scientific ethics, which – chronologically speaking – in many respects preceded the analogous solutions proposed later by British analytical philosophers.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Ethical principles as the basis of governance in the works of Johann Weber
           and

    • Abstract: Our study deals with two works by Johann Weber, a pharmacist and mayor of the town Prešov, in which he tried to create an image of a virtuous ruler and governor who cares about the welfare of his people and the whole country. It is a physiological-political mirror (Specullum Physico Politicum) written in German and supplemented by Latin, forming the first part of a political trilogy. In the trilogy, Weber describes the qualities a ruler should possess, likening them to the various parts of the human body. The second part of the trilogy, Lectio principum, which is textually more complete and written both in German and Latin. Both are regnal mirrors, and contain ideas about governance in the 17th century.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • No room for patients or ethics: COVID-19-broken hospitals in Madrid

    • Abstract: In 2020, COVID-19 patients overwhelmed hospital beds in several Spanish cities, producing an increase in mortality derived from a lack of resources. The provision of new spaces to be reconfigured as healthcare centers for COVID patients was one of the measures implemented. In Madrid, two of these COVID centers drew enormous media and political repercussions due to their high cost and the controversy surrounding the quality of the care they offered. In this scenario of misinformation, several doctors and patients rejected to be transferred to such medical centers, but they were nonetheless compelled to make the move. This manuscript underscores how this lack of transparency affects health workers, patients, and the relationship between them, and brings out the question of how many essential bioethical principles can be individually violated by a matter of public health. New guidelines for the transfer of patients should be designed from an ethical perspective and updated, as the epidemic continues, to improve the modern understanding of human factors in times of uncertainty. The lesson that these centers provide us is that we must rethink crisis resource management from a new perspective that prioritizes access to quality information. In its absence, the principle of autonomy must prevail.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Ethics programs in business and management literature: Bibliometric
           analysis of performance, content, and trends

    • Abstract: Research regarding ethics programs represents an important segment of business ethics literature. In the last thirty years, scientific discourse on ethics programs has flourished. Numerous studies examined their functions, composition, application in organizational practice, and impact on employee ethical behavior and many other organizational variables. However, so far there has been no study that would comprehensively map this particular field. Given that, this paper aims to examine discourse on ethics programs in its complexity within business and management literature. Based on a sophistically composed search protocol in the Scopus database, and after multiple rounds of checks, we extracted a final sample of 287 documents that matched the selection criteria. The sample was thoroughly analyzed by means of advanced bibliometric analytics tools. The results show the quantitative impact of ethics program literature via publication and citation metrics, a network of co-occurring themes and clusters of scientific inquiry, and the evolution of respective discourse over time. This detailed analysis results in a set of conclusions provided in the last part of the paper summarizing the quantitative performance and thematic scope of literature on ethics programs.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Values consolidating and disintegrating lyrical relationships as evaluated
           by women and men

    • Abstract: In this article, we will discuss and identify infidelity. We will take a closer look at some theories and research. This article will also describe concepts of sexuality, monogamy, and partner relationships. In the first paragraph, we will take a closer look at infidelity in general and we will mention the most common reasons for infidelity. The next paragraph deals with differences between men and women in response to infidelity. Based on this, we will define two types of infidelity- sexual and emotional infidelity. In the last paragraph, we will describe the most commonly known predictors of infidelity. Knowing and understanding the reasons, factors, differences and predictors of infidelity can help people in critical situations and this article can be a useful source of information for partners in their future relationships.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • T. G. Masaryk’s involvement in the Jewish issue

    • Abstract: T. G. Masaryk’s thought is famous for his concept of the Czech nation as well as his ideals of humanity. As a philosopher, sociologist, and politician, he was confronted with Czech anti-Semitism, and after Czechoslovakia was founded, with issues of the Jewish national minority. He tried to solve all the questions with respect to his ethical conviction and the ideals of democracy and equality. The most difficult personal situation for Masaryk emerged with the ‘Hilsner affair’, when his brave stance against anti-Semitism caused animosity and even hatred from the public. As a consequence of that Masaryk had to abandon his public activities including lecturing at university for some time. The philosopher Jan Patočka analysed Masaryk’s involvement in this case and the following events in his study Masaryk’s struggle against anti-Semitism. Patočka pointed out that there is an interconnection between Masaryk’s involvement in this affair and his engagement in the question of Czech nationality, as Masaryk intended to improve the ethical level of the nation by disposing of bias and namely the ritual murder myth. The second part of the present contribution is focused on Masaryk’s views on Zionism and the assimilation movement and his ambiguity in relation to the issue. It seems that Masaryk’s concept of the Czech nation, formed for the struggle against the Habsburg monarchy, became inadequate in the new republic, as it was not inclusive of the many minorities, the Jewish one included. On the other hand, Masaryk’s ideals of humanity provide a certain solution on the level of ethics.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Utilitarianism on the front lines: COVID-19, public ethics, and the
           “hidden assumption” problem

    • Abstract: How should we think of the preferences of citizens' Whereas self-optimal policy is relatively straightforward to produce, socially optimal policy often requires a more detailed examination. In this paper, we identify an issue that has received far too little attention in welfarist modelling of public policy, which we name the “hidden assumptions” problem. Hidden assumptions can be deceptive because they are not expressed explicitly and the social planner (e.g. a policy maker, a regulator, a legislator) may not give them the critical attention they need. We argue that ethical expertise has a direct role to play in public discourse because it is hard to adopt a position on major issues like public health policy or healthcare prioritisation without making contentious assumptions about population ethics. We then postulate that ethicists are best situated to critically evaluate these hidden assumptions, and can therefore play a vital role in public policy debates.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Editorial

    • PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Moral bioenhancements and the future of utilitarianism

    • Abstract: Utilitarianism has been able to respond to many of the objections raised against it by undertaking a major revision of its theory. Basically, this consisted of recognising that its early normative propositions were only viable for agents very different from flesh-and-blood humans. They then deduced that, given human limitations, it was most useful for everyone if moral agents did not behave as utilitarians and habitually followed certain rules. Important recent advances in neurotechnology suggest that some of these human limitations can be overcome. In this article, after presenting some possible neuro-enhancements, we seek to answer the questions, first, of whether they should be accepted by a utilitarian ethic and, second, if accepted, to what extent they would invalidate the revision that allowed them to escape the objections.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Intercultural dialogues in times of global pandemics: The Confucian ethics
           of relations and social organization in Sinic societies

    • Abstract: Since COVID-19 is a global-scale pandemic, it can only be solved on the global level. In this context, intercultural dialogues are of utmost importance. Indeed, different models of traditional ethics might be of assistance in constructing a new, global ethics that could help us confront the present predicament and prepare for other possible global crises that might await us in the future. The explosive, pandemic spread of COVID-19 in 2020 clearly demonstrated that in general, one of the most effective tools for containment of the epidemics is precisely human and interpersonal solidarity, which must also be accompanied by a certain degree of autonomous self-discipline. The present paper follows the presumption that these types of personal and interpersonal attitudes are—inter alia— culturally conditioned and hence influenced by different traditional models of social ethics. In light of the fact that East-Asian or Sinic societies were more successful and effective in the process of containing and eliminating the virus compared to the strategies of the Euro-American regions, I will first question the widespread assumption that this effectiveness is linked to the authoritarian political traditions of the Sinic East and Southeast Asian areas. Then, I will critically introduce the Confucian ethics of relations, which in various ways has influenced the social structures of these regions, and clarify the question of whether and in which way the relics of this ethics had an actual effect on the crisis resolution measurements. The crucial aim of this paper is to contribute to the construction of theoretical groundworks for a new, transculturally grounded global ethics, which is more needed today than ever before.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Healthy people and biochemical enhancement: A new paradigmatic approach to
           the enhancement of human beings'

    • Abstract: The authors analyse a new paradigmatic approach to the enhancement of human beings proposed in transhumanist visions. Transhumanist authors promote the biochemical enhancement of healthy people via the concepts of bio-happiness and bio-love (love drugs). The paper is based on an assessment of the value attributed to the lives of disabled people vis-à-vis those of healthy people. The value imbalance in the transhumanist conception is criticized on the grounds that it is an incorrect response to the posthuman urge to redefine human beings. The authors’ final standpoint is that the value of human beings should be derived primarily from our naturalness and that artificiality (which is indisputably a part of people) should be subordinate to this.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Epistemic and ethical responsibility during the pandemic

    • Abstract: Intellectual (specialised) knowledge is omnipresent in human lives and decisions. We are constantly trying to make good and correct decisions. However, responsible decision-making is characterised by rather difficult epistemic conditions. It applies all the more during the pandemic when decisions require not only specialised knowledge in a number of disciplines, scientific consensus, and participants from different fields, but also responsibility and respect for moral principles in order to ensure that the human rights of all groups are observed. Pandemic measures are created by politicians, healthcare policy-makers, and epidemiologists. However, what is the role of ethics as a moral philosophy and experts in ethics' Experts in ethics and philosophy are carefully scrutinising political decisions. Levy and Savulescu (2020) have claimed that Ethicists and philosophers are not epistemically arrogant if they question policy responses. They played an important role in the creation of a reliable consensus. This study analyses epistemic and moral responsibility, their similarities, analogies, and differences. Are they interconnected' What is their relationship and how can they be filled with actual content during the pandemic'
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Triage of the elderly in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis as a
           bioethical process

    • Abstract: The paper discusses the problem of triaging the elderly in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis by analyzing the triage process, caused by lack of resources, in Germany, Holland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. We apply inductive, deductive, and normative bioethical methods, comment on various recommendations for the indication of intensive care during a crisis, and discuss the utilitarianism of benefit maximization. As it follows from the evaluation of the elderly by the frailty parameter, medically inappropriate treatment, as a result of limited resources, is characterized by clinical and bioethical uncertainty. If the main bioethical objective of general bioethics for the COVID-19 pandemic is, in the case of limited resources, based on the non-utilitarian consequentialism paradigm, from the perspective of medical ethics, we face a borderline situation closely related to the topic of dying and death. Such a situation requires social, ethical, and professional reflection. An algorithm for intensive care indication in the situation of crisis and limited resources in the period of the pandemic requires a definition of criteria that identify an acceptable reason for abandoning the treatment in the context of the autonomy of the elderly and by respecting their human dignity and humanity. A global objective of general bioethics in the situation of the pandemic crisis should be based on the paradigm of social justice.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Equitable global COVID-19 vaccine allocation and distribution: Obstacles,
           

    • Abstract: Accelerated COVID-19 vaccine development represents an important accomplishment and a milestone in the history of vaccine evolution. However, the vaccine’s scarcity made its equitable global allocation and distribution ambiguous. Despite the initial pledges from wealthy countries for fairness and inclusivity towards the poorer ones, the policies followed diverged significantly. Wealthy countries have vastly superior access to vaccines in a reality likened to an ethical disaster. This paper calls for the need for fair global vaccine allocation and distribution and examines the barriers that were met along the way, originating from different points, such as the nationalistic approach on the matter that most wealthy countries have adopted or the inability of poor countries to purchase or manufacture vaccines. Further, a suggestion regarding the ethical principles and values that ought to guide global vaccine allocation and distribution is provided with a higher priority given to helping the worst-off, saving the most lives, protecting people in high risk, such as frontline healthcare professionals, and minimising social gaps, along with an ethical theoretical background for each prioritisation. It is not too late for wealthy countries to realise that vaccine inequity prolongs pandemics, so that they change their policies in favour of the global common good that will not only provide immediate universal benefits but will also serve as a guide for future pandemic crises.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Pandemic challenges and models of democracy

    • Abstract: This article examines the impact of a pandemic on democratic societies. The central research question is the extent to which a pandemic can alter the trajectory of social and ethical democratic development nationally and internationally. Therefore, the article examines contemporary controversies in democratic society in the aftermath of a pandemic. The leading hypothesis is that the pandemic should reinforce the need for social solidarity, but it is unclear what political form this need will take: populism or deliberative/nonconsensual democracy.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • On the safety and danger of ‘viral’ information from the perspective
           of the epistemological subject

    • Abstract: The present paper addresses the formal perspective of information with the focus on ‘untrue’ information presented as dangerous. Grounded in perspectivism, the epistemic subject is understood as decisive in informational transfer. In this context, ethics should focus on how the epistemic subject receives information. Regarding wide-spread information, the notions of danger and safety, the latter being a reaction to the former, essentially result from the fear mechanism of affective neural systems in higher mammals. The practice of attaining safety by eliminating danger is analyzed through the Nietzschean metaphor of the Apollonian and the Dionysian and the concept of ressentiment. Focusing on the individual, the paper presents a critique of systemized authoritative management of speech content, intensified by the emergence of social media. It is asserted that, by reacting to danger through the systematization of prevention and regulation of speech, it not only affirms fear but also decreases the faculties of an individual to deal with danger and fear itself. The paper argues that the only way to overcome danger and fear is through the individual’s exposure to it, which allows for the strengthening of one’s faculties, thus fulfilling one’s potential in freedom.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Ethical implications of procedural or protocol adjustments to clinical
           research involving the participation of human subjects during the COVID-19
           pandemic

    • Abstract: The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to essential adjustments in clinical research involving human subjects. The pandemic is substantially affecting most procedures of ongoing, as well as new clinical trials related to diseases other than COVID-19. Procedural changes and study protocol modifications may significantly impact ethically salient fundamentals, such as the risk-benefit profile and safety of clinical trial participants, which raise key ethical challenges the subject-matter experts must face. This article aims to acquaint a wide audience of clinical research professionals, ethicists, as well as the general public interested in this topic with the legal, ethical and practical considerations in the field of clinical trials during the COVID-19 pandemic and to support the clinical researchers and study sponsors to fulfil their responsibilities in conducting clinical trials in a professional way that does not conflict with any legal or ethical obligations.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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