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ISSN (Online) 2409-9287
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 71: Aesthetic Gadgets: Rethinking Universalism
           in Evolutionary Aesthetics

    • Authors: Onerva Kiianlinna
      First page: 71
      Abstract: There is a growing appetite for the inclusion of outcomes of empirical research into philosophical aesthetics. At the same time, evolutionary aesthetics remains in the margins with little mutual discussion with the various strands of philosophical aesthetics. This is surprising, because the evolutionary framework has the power to bring these two approaches together. This article demonstrates that the evolutionary approach builds a biocultural bridge between our philosophical and empirical understanding of humans as aesthetic agents who share the preconditions for aesthetic experience, but are not determined by them. Sometimes, philosophers are wary of the evolutionary framework. Does the research program of evolutionary aesthetics presuppose an intrinsic aesthetic instinct that would determine the way we form aesthetic judgments, regardless of the environment with which we interact' I argue that it does not. Imitation and mindreading are considered to be central features of the aesthetic module. Recently, and contrary to the prior view, it has been shown that imitation and mindreading are not likely to be innate instincts but socially learned, yet evolved patterns of behavior. Hence, I offer grounds for the idea that the cognitive aesthetic module(s) is socially learned, too. This outcome questions the need for the traditional differentiation between empirical and philosophical aesthetics.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040071
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 72: Theory of Knowledge Based on the Idea of
           the Discursive Space

    • Authors: Rafal Maciag
      First page: 72
      Abstract: This paper discusses the theory of knowledge based on the idea of dynamical space. The goal of this effort is to comprehend the knowledge that remains beyond the human domain, e.g., of the artificial cognitive systems. This theory occurs in two versions, weak and strong. The weak version is limited to knowledge in which retention and articulation are performed through the discourse. The strong version is general and is not limited in any way. In the weak version, knowledge is represented by the trajectories of discourses in time, in a dynamical space called the discursive space, which has an arbitrary number of dimensions. Given space is used to represent a given part of knowledge. A manifold is introduced to represent knowledge with a wider scope (all knowledge). The strong version is an extrapolation of the weak version to cover all forms of knowledge, not necessarily human or manifesting in language. The use of dynamical space construction allows one to formalize knowledge as such. Such an effort requires us to initially consider knowledge as mainly a social and linguistic phenomenon, which also could be presented as a result of the evolution of the understanding of knowledge that took place in the 20th century.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040072
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 73: An Ethics of Needs: Deconstructing
           Neoliberal Biopolitics and Care Ethics with Derrida and Spivak

    • Authors: Tiina Vaittinen
      First page: 73
      Abstract: The body in need of care is the subaltern of the neoliberal epistemic order: it is that which cannot be heard, and that which is muted, partially so even in care ethics. In order to read the writing by which the needy body writes the world, a new ethics must be articulated. Building on Jacques Derrida’s philosophy of deconstruction, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s notions of subalternity and epistemic violence, critical disability scholarship, and corporeal care theories, in this article I develop an ethics of needs. This is an ethical position that seeks to read the world that care needs write with the relations they enact. The ethics of needs deconstructs the world with a focus on those care needs that are presently responded to with neglect, indifference, or even violence: the absence of care. Specifically, the ethics of needs opens a space—a spacing, an aporia—for a more ethical politics of life than neoliberal biopolitics can ever provide, namely, the politics of life of needs.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040073
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 74: Diabolical Diagramming: Deleuze, Dupuy,
           and Catastrophe

    • Authors: Corry Shores
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Jean-Pierre Dupuy argues that our failure to prevent the looming climate catastrophe results from a faulty metaphysics of time: because we believe the present can proceed down one of the many branches that extend into the future, some of which bypass the catastrophe, we do not think it is absolutely urgent to take drastic action now. His solution to this problem of demotivation is “enlightened doomsaying” in “projected time”, which means that we affirm the coming catastrophe as something real in the future rather than being a mere possibility; thus, we regard it seriously enough that we are motivated to take the needed actions to prevent it. One potential obstacle to this proposal is that it requires the forming of consensus and coordination with the powerful players who benefit from our current path and whose apparently near-total grip on this catastrophic future may itself discourage action. We then consider an alternative model based on Gilles Deleuze’s philosophy of the present–future relation. Although it has the branching structure that Dupuy is wary of, it may not suffer from the same problem of demotivation on account of the way it conceives the complex structure of the present event. For this reason, the Deleuzian model may be more suited to motivating action in a world where the future must be fought for rather than unanimously agreed upon.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040074
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 75: Enactivism and Material Culture: How
           Enactivism Could Redefine Enculturation Processes

    • Authors: Alvaro David Monterroza-Rios, Carlos Mario Gutiérrez-Aguilar
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Culture has traditionally been considered as a set of knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, norms, and morals, acquired by a human being as a member of a group. Some anthropologists interpret this as a set of abstract representations, such as information or knowledge, while others interpret it as behavioral control mechanisms. These views assume that the contents of a particular culture must be processed by the minds of individuals, either in a direct way or by resorting to learned mental structures in processes of symbolic socialization. Some critics suggest a problem with these perspectives since they do not provide a convincing explanation of the enculturation process beyond metaphorical images of transfer or internalization of symbolic cultural contents through linguistic transmission. The new embodied theories of cognition, especially enactivism, could give new ideas about what enculturation processes are like, through the concept of participatory sense-making in material culture environments. In this essay, we discuss how an enactive vision of culture could be, and what advantages it would have, as well as the challenges and weaknesses in explaining the culture and its learning processes.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040075
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 76: The Accidental Philosopher and One of the
           Hardest Problems in the World

    • Authors: Sonje Finnestad, Eric Neufeld
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Given the difficulties of defining “machine” and “think”, Turing proposed to replace the question “Can machines think'” with a proxy: how well can an agent engage in sustained conversation with a human' Though Turing neither described himself as a philosopher nor published much on philosophical matters, his Imitation Game has stood the test of time. Most understood at that time that success would not come easy, but few would have guessed just how difficult engaging in ordinary conversation would turn out to be. Despite the proliferation of language processing tools, we have seen little progress towards doing well at the Imitation Game. Had Turing instead suggested ability at games or even translation as a proxy for intelligence, his paper might have been forgotten. We argue that these and related problems are amenable to mechanical, though sophisticated, formal techniques. Turing appears to have taken care to select sustained, productive conversation and that alone as his proxy. Even simple conversation challenges a machine to engage in the rich practice of human discourse in all its generality and variety.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040076
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 77: Building Ecological Solidarity: Rewilding
           Practices as an Example

    • Authors: Cristian Moyano-Fernández
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Solidarity within bioethics is increasingly being recognized as an important means of improving health for all. Its contribution seems particularly relevant when there are injustices or inequalities in health and different individuals or groups are disadvantaged. But the current context of ecological collapse, characterized mainly by a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem decline, affects global health in a different way to other factors. This scenario creates new challenges, risks and problems that require new insights from a bioethical perspective. I, therefore, propose an argument in favor of ecological solidarity. The aim of this article is to re-define this concept, outlining which causes should incite action through ecological solidarity and who should be the main recipient of it. To this end, I discuss what the background for practicing ecological solidarity might be: an intrinsically altruistic motivation to attempt to be a better person or a forced response to a political obligation. Finally, by way of example, I argue for rewilding as an effective, practical strategy through which ecological solidarity can be applied in the belief that building ecological solidarity supports a number of key interdependencies and ensures ethical care for the health of the planet.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040077
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 78: Caring for Whom' Racial Practices of
           Care and Liberal Constructivism

    • Authors: Asha Leena Bhandary
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Inequalities in expectations to receive care permeate social structures, reinforcing racialized and gendered hierarchies. Harming the people who are overburdened and disadvantaged as caregivers, these inequalities also shape the subjectivities and corporeal habits of the class of people who expect to receive care from others. With three examples, I illustrate a series of justificatory asymmetries across gender and racial lines that illustrate (a) asymmetries in deference and attendance to the needs of others as well as (b) assertions of the rightful occupation of space. These justificatory asymmetries are cogent reasons to evaluate the justice of caregiving arrangements in a way that tracks data about who cares for whom, which can be understood by the concept of the arrow of care map. I suggest, therefore, that the arrow of care map is a necessary component of any critical care theory. In addition, employing a method called living counterfactually, I show that when women of color assert full claimant status, we are reversing arrows of care, which then elicits resistance and violence from varied actors in the real world. These considerations together contribute to further defense of the theory of liberal dependency care’s constructivism, which combines hypothetical acceptability with autonomy skills in the real world. Each level, in turn, relies on the transparency of care practices in the real world as enabled by the arrow of care map.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040078
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 79: Just Rules for Innovative Pharmaceuticals

    • Authors: Thomas Pogge
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Globalized in 1995 through the TRIPs Agreement, humanity’s dominant mechanism for encouraging innovations involves 20-year product patents, whose monopoly features enable innovators to reap large markups or licensing fees from early users. Exclusive reliance on this reward mechanism in the pharmaceutical sector is morally problematic for two main reasons. First, it imposes a great burden on poor people who cannot afford to buy patented treatments at monopoly prices and whose specific health problems are therefore neglected by pharmacological research. Second, it discourages pharmaceutical firms from fighting diseases at the population level with the aim of slashing their incidence. These problems can be alleviated by establishing a supplementary alternative reward mechanism that would enable pharmaceutical innovators to exchange their monopoly privileges on a patented product for impact rewards based on the actual health gains achieved with this product. As such, an international Health Impact Fund (HIF) would create powerful new incentives to rapidly develop remedies against diseases concentrated among the poor, provide such remedies with ample care at very low prices, and deploy them strategically to contain, suppress, and ideally eradicate the target disease. By promoting innovations and their diffusion together, the HIF would greatly enlarge the benefits, and thereby also the cost-effectiveness, of the pharmaceutical sector, especially in favor of the world’s poor.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040079
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 80: Axiological Retributivism and the Desert
           Neutrality Paradox

    • Authors: Tim Campbell
      First page: 80
      Abstract: According to axiological retributivism, people can deserve what is bad for them and an outcome in which someone gets what she deserves, even if it is bad for her, can thereby have intrinsic positive value. A question seldom asked is how axiological retributivism should deal with comparisons of outcomes that differ with respect to the number and identities of deserving agents. Attempting to answer this question exposes a problem for axiological retributivism that parallels a well-known problem in population axiology introduced by John Broome. The problem for axiological retributivism is that it supports the existence of a range of negative wellbeing levels such that if a deserving person comes into existence at any of these levels, the resulting outcome is neither better nor worse with respect to desert. However, the existence of such a range is inconsistent with a set of very plausible axiological claims. I call this the desert neutrality paradox. After introducing the paradox, I consider several possible responses to it. I suggest that one reasonable response, though perhaps not the only one, is to reject axiological retributivism.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040080
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 81: Complex Cardinal Numerals and the Strong
           Minimalist Thesis

    • Authors: Anna Maria Di Sciullo
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Different analyses of complex cardinal numerals have been proposed in Generative Grammar. This article provides an analysis of these expressions based on the Strong Minimalist Thesis, according to which the derivations of linguistic expressions are generated by a simple combinatorial operation, applying in accord with principles external to the language faculty. The proposed derivations account for the asymmetrical structure of additive and multiplicative complexes and for the instructions they provide to the external systems for their interpretation. They harmonize with those of coordinate nouns, and thus offer a unified Minimalist account of their core properties. Firstly, the empirical problem addressed is stated. Secondly, the theoretical framework is presented. Thirdly, Minimalist derivations for additive and multiplicative complexes are provided. Fourthly, the proposed derivations are contrasted with derivations not relying on the Strong Minimalist Thesis. Lastly, consequences for linguistic theory are identified as well as questions open to further inquiry.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040081
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 82: Integral Studies and Integral Practices
           for Humanity and Nature

    • Authors: Tomohiro Akiyama
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Humanity is facing a crisis of survival. In order to save humanity and nature, we must rebuild their foundations. This paper proposes integral studies and integral practices as a possible new paradigm for the 21st century. First, we investigated the necessity of integral studies and integral practices, which were suggested by the following three evidences: (1) limitations of the Spiritual Revolution and modern philosophy, (2) limitations of the Scientific Revolution and modern science, and (3) contemporary practical problems that threaten the future of humanity and nature. Second, we investigated the purpose and the principle of integral studies and integral practices from a viewpoint of the nature of both human beings and universe. One of the fundamental questions for humanity is how to overcome the egoism of individuals as well as the entire human race. In this avenue, we think the first step is to transcend toraware, which is a Japanese word meaning both “states of being caught” and “what catches us”. The state of being caught manifests itself when the ego emerges while we begin to distinguish between the self and others. Therefore, integrity and intrinsic nature become principles of integral studies and integral practices. Consequently, integral studies and integral practices serve for the sake of nature including humanity. Third, we discussed the methodology of integral studies and integral practices. We argue its core is integral exploration and reframing of the self and others, ourselves and the world (universe), and humanity and nature. It consequently reveals integrity and harmonizes intellect, emotion, and volition as well as goodness, truth, and beauty while revealing integrity and opening up or unfolding the intrinsic nature of the individual and the collective. Finally, we addressed limitations and future agendas of integral studies and integral practices. We suggest it is essential to raise and discuss fundamental questions on humanity and nature as well as to elucidate the truly unknown, which cannot be understood within existing frameworks. However, whether it is correct or not will come to be verified over time. No one in the history of humanity has ever attained universal truth, which is absolutely true in light of absolute criteria that are not relativized by differences in space, time, or people, or which is absolutely true even without referring to any criteria. Therefore, it is necessary for each of us to discern what is right and maintain a critical gaze.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040082
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 83: The Role of the Excluded

    • Authors: Gianfranco Minati
      First page: 83
      Abstract: We consider the peculiarity of unique events, such as those of a natural, evolutionary, and social nature. In particular, we consider unique social events that have had either the claim or the vocation of being salvific for humanity, such as the introduction over time of the Torah, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. We question how the claimed, general salvific vocation contrasts, or is inconsistent with, the non-retroactive temporality and locality of such events, which could not have happened otherwise. This undeclared and philosophically unsolved inconsistency then reappears in subsequent cultural contradictions and inadequacies, political and social allowances such as, for instance, homo-centrism and a pathological relation with Nature. In the case of Christianity, this inconsistency is represented by the painting reproduced in the article, a work in which the excluded humans and other living beings are represented as astonished by the occurrence in this moment, and in such an unnatural context. Furthermore, we consider the original understanding as related to concepts of classical physics, or of such concepts naively adopted within the texts considered sacred. However, in some religions, such as Christianity, the inconsistency is theologically solved. We stress the need to update the ancient original elementary, naïve, pre-classic philosophical and conceptual frameworks used so that these alleged inconsistencies and contradictions may be not only theologically solved, but also conceptually solved in more complex understandings of the world, for example, considering relativistic time, long-range interdependence, quantum entanglement, and theories of the universe. Without this update, the unique saving events can affect only religiously, that is, optionally, on the scientific and philosophical conceptions used. Without this adjustment, homo-centrist illusion and egoism prevail as the natural, linear consequential attitude without raising these questions. It rather assumes that the intervention is for involved human beings, and moreover for those who have had and are lucky enough to receive and practice it, ignoring the enormous inconsistency within the message itself, and its presumed general and available salvific nature. This requires theological, philosophical, and scientific interdisciplinarity. The theme concerns inconsistencies within and superficiality of the narratives and their treatment of the unique, salvific events, without any reference to possible general and retroactive effects of how these events are represented in the painting. We conclude that the subject should be debated by taking into account contemporary understandings, such as relativistic space and time, quantum physics, and of the universe, with new philosophical and anthropological approaches. This should be a matter of responsible philosophical and theological interdisciplinary debate involving science, suitable to establish new understandings.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040083
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 84: Abelard and Other Twelfth-Century Thinkers
           on Social Constructions

    • Authors: Andrew W. Arlig
      First page: 84
      Abstract: This article aims to supplement our understanding of later developments within European universities, that is, Scholastic thought, by attending to how certain pre-Scholastics, namely, Peter Abelard and other twelfth-century philosophers, thought about artifacts and social constructions more generally. It focuses on the treatment of artifacts that can be cobbled together out of Abelard’s Dialectica. The article argues that Abelard attempts to sharply distinguish the world of things from the world of human-made objects. This is most apparent in his treatment of creation and human acts of making. Yet there are places in his thought where we see some hesitancy. Many of Abelard’s peers seem to have drawn on the reasons why Abelard hesitates, and they blur the line between human-made objects such as houses and substances such as rocks and humans. Others seem to go further than Abelard—perhaps inspired by some of the thoughts that Abelard also entertains about social constructions such as days and speeches—and assert that even houses are merely convenient fictions.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040084
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 85: Naturalising Mathematics' A
           Wittgensteinian Perspective

    • Authors: Jan Stam, Martin Stokhof, Michiel Van Lambalgen
      First page: 85
      Abstract: There is a noticeable gap between results of cognitive neuroscientific research into basic mathematical abilities and philosophical and empirical investigations of mathematics as a distinct intellectual activity. The paper explores the relevance of a Wittgensteinian framework for dealing with this discrepancy.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040085
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 86: Wittgenstein and Care Ethics as a Plea for

    • Authors: Sandra Laugier
      First page: 86
      Abstract: This paper aims to bring together the appeal to the ordinary in the ethics of care and the ‘destruction’ or philosophical subversion which Wittgenstein references in his Philosophical Investigations: Where does our investigation get its importance from, since it seems to destroy everything interesting, all that is great and important' What we are destroying is nothing but houses of cards. The paper pursues a connection between the ethics of care and ordinary language philosophy as represented by Wittgenstein, Austin and Cavell, in particular in a feminist perspective. The central point of Carol Gilligan’s In a Different Voice may not be the idea of a ‘feminine morality’ but a claim for an alternative form of morality. Gilligan’s essay seeks to capture a different, hitherto neglected yet universally present alternative ethical perspective, one easy to ignore because it relates to women and women’s activities. The ethics of care recalls a plea for ‘realism’; in the sense given to it in Cora Diamond’s The Realistic Spirit to mean the necessity of seeing (or attending to) what lies close at hand. Reflection on care brings ethics back to everyday practice much as Wittgenstein sought to bring language back from the metaphysical level to its everyday use.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040086
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 87: What Philosophy Contributes to Emotion

    • Authors: Ronald De Sousa
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Contemporary philosophers have paid increasing attention to the empirical research on emotions that has blossomed in many areas of the social sciences. In this paper, I first sketch the common roots of science and philosophy in Ancient Greek thought. I illustrate the way that specific empirical sciences can be regarded as branching out from a central trunk of philosophical speculation. On the basis of seven informal characterizations of what is distinctive about philosophical thinking, I then draw attention to the fact that scientific progress frequently requires one to make adjustments to the way its basic terms are conceptualized, and thus cannot avoid philosophical thought. The character of emotions requires attention from many disciplines, and the links among those disciplines inevitably require a broader philosophical perspective to be understood. Thus, emotion science, and indeed all of science, is inextricably committed to philosophical assumptions that demand scrutiny.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040087
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 88: A Byzantine Metaphysics of Artefacts'
           The Case of Michael of Ephesus’ Commentary on Aristotle’s

    • Authors: Marilù Papandreou
      First page: 88
      Abstract: The ontology of artefacts in Byzantine philosophy is still a terra incognita. One way of mapping this unexplored territory is to delve into Michael of Ephesus’ commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. Written around 1100, this commentary provides a detailed interpretation of the most important source for Aristotle’s ontological account of artefacts. By highlighting Michael’s main metaphysical tenets and his interpretation of key-passages of the Aristotelian work, this study aims to reconstruct Michael’s ontology of artefacts and present it as one instance, which is perhaps exemplary, of the Byzantine ontology of artefacts. In particular, the study shows that this commentary holds a definite position on the nature of artefacts, according to which they are neither substances nor hylomorphic compounds. Indeed, artefacts lack a form altogether and their forms exist only in thought. As a result, Michael’s commentary provides an ontological interpretation of artefacts as accidental beings, i.e., as matter which acquires a mere property as opposed to a substantial form. While such an interpretation shows originality when compared to the Aristotelian text, it also indicates adherence to the reading established by Alexander of Aphrodisias, despite important departures concerning the status of natural forms.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7040088
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 46: Uncharted Aspects of Human Intelligence in
           Knowledge-Based “Intelligent” Systems

    • Authors: Ronaldo Vigo, Derek E. Zeigler, Jay Wimsatt
      First page: 46
      Abstract: This paper briefly surveys several prominent modeling approaches to knowledge-based intelligent systems (KBIS) design and, especially, expert systems and the breakthroughs that have most broadened and improved their applications. We argue that the implementation of technology that aims to emulate rudimentary aspects of human intelligence has enhanced KBIS design, but that weaknesses remain that could be addressed with existing research in cognitive science. For example, we propose that systems based on representational plasticity, functional dynamism, domain specificity, creativity, and concept learning, with their theoretical and experimental rigor, can best characterize the problem-solving capabilities of humans and can best overcome five key limitations currently exhibited by knowledge-based intelligent systems. We begin with a brief survey of the relevant work related to KBIS design and then discuss these five shortcomings with new suggestions for how to integrate results from cognitive science to resolve each of them. Our ultimate goal is to increase awareness and direct attention to areas of theoretical and experimental cognitive research that are fundamentally relevant to the goals underlying KBISes.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030046
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 47: International Human Rights Protections
           Find Support in Hobbes’ Leviathan

    • Authors: Hege Cathrine Finholt
      First page: 47
      Abstract: In her paper “Sovereignty and the International Protection of Human rights”, Cristina Lafont argues that “The obligation of respecting human rights in the sense of not contributing to their violation seems to be a universal obligation and thus one that binds states just as much as non-state actors.” In this paper, I argue that one can find support for this claim in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan. This requires a different reading of Leviathan than the one that is typically performed by realist thinkers, such as, for instance, Morgenthau and Mearsheimer, who read Hobbes as someone who has no regard for human rights. Contrary to the realists, I suggest a reading of Leviathan that shows that there is in fact a normative underpinning of Hobbes’ view of sovereignty, to the extent that Hobbes can be taken to be one of the forerunners of international law. I do this by showing how Hobbes’ reasons for establishing sovereign power, and not his conclusions on how to organize sovereign power, may give support to Lafont’s claim that an obligation to respect human rights is not confined to the sovereign state, but also to extra-state institutions.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030047
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 48: Scarcity, Justice, and Health Crisis

    • Authors: Matti Häyry
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has created or revealed scarcities in many domains: medical, civic, economic, and ideological. Responses to these are analyzed in the framework of a map of justice and an imperative of openness. The main argument is that whatever the view of justice chosen by public health authorities, they should be able and willing to disclose it to the citizens. Objections are considered and qualifications added, but the general conclusion is that in liberal democracies, truth-telling by those in power, although politically hazardous, would be ethically advisable.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 49: A Care Ethical Engagement with John Locke
           on Toleration

    • Authors: Thomas Randall
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Care theorists have yet to outline an account of how the concept of toleration should function in their normative framework. This lack of outline is a notable gap in the literature, particularly for demonstrating whether care ethics can appropriately address cases of moral disagreement within contemporary pluralistic societies; in other words, does care ethics have the conceptual resources to recognize the disapproval that is inherent in an act of toleration while simultaneously upholding the positive values of care without contradiction' By engaging care ethics with John Locke’s (1632–1704) influential corpus on toleration, I answer the above question by building the bases for a novel theory of toleration as care. Specifically, I argue that care theorists can home in on an oft-overlooked aspect of Locke’s later thought: that the possibility of a tolerant society is dependent on a societal ethos of trustworthiness and civility, to the point where Locke sets out positive ethical demands on both persons and the state to ensure this ethos can grow and be sustained. By leveraging and augmenting Locke’s thought within the care ethical framework, I clarify how care ethics can provide meaningful solutions to moral disagreement within contemporary pluralistic societies in ways preferable to the capability of a liberal state.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030049
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 50: The Politician: Action and Creation in the
           Practical Ontology of Gilles Deleuze

    • Authors: Julian Ferreyra
      First page: 50
      Abstract: This paper addresses an action that, from a Deleuzian perspective, is capable of modifying the despairing current social situation in which we are immersed, through the creation of political Ideas. Even though Deleuze conceives social Ideas as vast civilizing structures, we propose to bring into the political domain the logic of other acts of creation, such as the artistic or the philosophical, where the monumental coexists with minor figures that are nonetheless capable of introducing novelty into the world. The politician is the figure of those who are capable of having an Idea that allows to break the habits that perpetuate the current situation, and gives consistency to the intensive forms of life that continually create and dissolve themselves in the flow of becoming. Thus, macro- and micro-politics do not oppose each other, but offer in their immanence an alternative to social nihilism.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030050
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 51: Thinking about the Institutionalization of
           Care with Hannah Arendt: A Nonsense Filiation'

    • Authors: Catherine Chaberty, Christine Noel Lemaitre
      First page: 51
      Abstract: In recent decades, some feminists have turned to the writings of Hannah Arendt in order to propose a truly emancipatory ethic of care or to find the principles that could lead to the political institutionalization of care. Nevertheless, the feminist interpretations of Hannah Arendt are particularly contrasted. According to Sophie Bourgault, this recourse to Hannah Arendt is deeply problematic, mainly because of her strong distinction between the private and public spheres. This article discusses the relevance of using Arendt’s concepts to think about the institutionalization of care by Joan Tronto. Indeed, the most recent analyses developed on the politics of care are shaped by Arendt’s concepts such as power, amor mundi or by her conception of politics as a relationship.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030051
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 52: Positive Psychology and
           Philosophy-as-Usual: An Unhappy Match'

    • Authors: Josef Mattes
      First page: 52
      Abstract: The present article critiques standard attempts to make philosophy appear relevant to the scientific study of well-being, drawing examples in particular from works that argue for fundamental differences between different forms of wellbeing (by Besser-Jones, Kristjánsson, and Kraut, for example), and claims concerning the supposedly inherent normativity of wellbeing research (e.g., Prinzing, Alexandrova, and Nussbaum). Specifically, it is argued that philosophers in at least some relevant cases fail to apply what is often claimed to be among their core competences: conceptual rigor—not only in dealing with the psychological construct of flow, but also in relation to apparently philosophical concepts such as normativity, objectivity, or eudaimonia. Furthermore, the uncritical use of so-called thought experiments in philosophy is shown to be inappropriate for the scientific study of wellbeing. As an alternative to such philosophy-as-usual, proper attention to other philosophical traditions is argued to be promising. In particular, the philosophy of ZhuangZi (a contemporary of Aristotle and one of the most important figures in Chinese intellectual history) appears to concord well with today’s psychological knowledge, and to contain valuable ideas for the future development of positive psychology.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030052
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 53: Care Ethics and Paternalism: A Beauvoirian

    • Authors: Deniz Durmuş
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Feminist care ethics has become a prominent ethical theory that influenced theoretical and practical discussions in a variety of disciplines and institutions on a global scale. However, it has been criticized by transnational feminist scholars for operating with Western-centric assumptions and registers, especially by universalizing care as it is practiced in the Global North. It has also been criticized for prioritizing gender over other categories of intersectionality and hence for not being truly intersectional. Given the imperialist and colonial legacies embedded into the unequal distribution of care work across the globe, a Western-centric approach may also carry the danger of paternalism. Hence, a critical approach to care ethics would require reckoning with these challenges. The aim of this article is first to unfold these discussions and the responses to them from care ethics scholars and then to present resources in Beauvoir’s existentialist ethics, specifically the tenet of treating the other as freedom, as productive tools for countering the Western-centric and paternalistic aspects of care practices.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030053
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 54: Different Roles for Multiple Perspectives
           and Rigorous Testing in Scientific Theories and Models: Towards More Open,
           Context-Appropriate Verificationism

    • Authors: Peter Cariani
      First page: 54
      Abstract: A form of context-appropriate verificationism is proposed that distinguishes between scientific theories as evolving systems of ideas and operationally-specified, testable formal-empirical models. Theories undergo three stages (modes): a formative, exploratory, heuristic phase of theory conception, a developmental phase of theory-pruning and refinement, and a mature, rigorous phase of testing specific, explicit models. The first phase depends on Feyerabendian open possibility, the second on theoretical plausibility and internal coherence, and the third on testability (falsifiability, predictive efficacy). Multiple perspectives produce variety necessary for theory formation, whereas explicit agreement on evaluative criteria is essential for testing. Hertzian observer-mechanics of empirical-deductive scientific models are outlined that use semiotic operations of measurement/evaluation, computation, and physical action/construction. If models can be fully operationalized, then they can be intersubjectively verified (tested) irrespective of metaphysical, theoretical, value-, or culture-based disagreements. Verificationism can be expanded beyond simple predictive efficacy to incorporate testing for pragmatic, functional efficacy in engineering, medicine, and design contexts. Such a more open, pragmatist, operationalist, epistemically-constructivist perspective is suggested in which verification is contingent on the type of assertion (e.g., heuristic, analytic, empirical, pragmatic), its intended purpose, degree and reliability of model-based evidence, and existence of alternate, competing predictive models. Suggestions for epistemological hygiene amidst the world-wide pandemic of misinformation and propaganda are offered.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030054
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 55: How to Make AlphaGo’s Children

    • Authors: Woosuk Park
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Under the rubric of understanding the problem of explainability of AI in terms of abductive cognition, I propose to review the lessons from AlphaGo and her more powerful successors. As AI players in Baduk (Go, Weiqi) have arrived at superhuman level, there seems to be no hope for understanding the secret of their breathtakingly brilliant moves. Without making AI players explainable in some ways, both human and AI players would be less-than omniscient, if not ignorant, epistemic agents. Are we bound to have less explainable AI Baduk players as they make further progress' I shall show that the resolution of this apparent paradox depends on how we understand the crucial distinction between abduction and inference to the best explanation (IBE). Some further philosophical issues arising from explainable AI will also be discussed in connection with this distinction.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030055
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 56: Vectors of Thought: François
           Delaporte, the Cholera of 1832 and the Problem of Error

    • Authors: Samuel Talcott
      First page: 56
      Abstract: This paper resists the virality of contemporary paranoia by turning to “French epistemology”, a philosophical ethos that embraces uncertainty and complexity by registering the transformative impact of scientific knowledge on thought. Despite its popular uses describing phenomena of communication today, the idea of virality comes from biomedicine. This paper, therefore, investigates the extent to which an epidemiological concept of viral transmission—the disease vector—can comprehend and encourage new possibilities of thought beyond paranoia. Briefly, I attempt to analyze thought as a vector. I pursue this by examining Delaporte’s important, but neglected, study of the 1832 Parisian cholera epidemic. First elucidating his reconstruction of the ways tentative epistemological progress intertwined with and supported projects of working-class and colonial control. My vectorial analysis then considers how his argument infects contemporary readers with doubts that undo the bases of paranoia. I pursue this analysis further via a methodological examination of Delaporte’s study as both carrier of predecessors’ methods and host in which they alter, becoming newly infectious. I conclude by reflecting on this formulation of thought as disease vector and what Delaporte’s singular treatment of the problem of error reveals about an ethos committed to registering the impact of knowledge on thought.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030056
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 57: From Turing to Conscious Machines

    • Authors: Igor Aleksander
      First page: 57
      Abstract: In the period between Turing’s 1950 “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” and the current considerable public exposure to the term “artificial intelligence (AI)”, Turing’s question “Can a machine think'” has become a topic of daily debate in the media, the home, and, indeed, the pub. However, “Can a machine think'” is sliding towards a more controversial issue: “Can a machine be conscious'” Of course, the two issues are linked. It is held here that consciousness is a pre-requisite to thought. In Turing’s imitation game, a conscious human player is replaced by a machine, which, in the first place, is assumed not to be conscious, and which may fool an interlocutor, as consciousness cannot be perceived from an individual’s speech or action. Here, the developing paradigm of machine consciousness is examined and combined with an extant analysis of living consciousness to argue that a conscious machine is feasible, and capable of thinking. The route to this utilizes learning in a “neural state machine”, which brings into play Turing’s view of neural “unorganized” machines. The conclusion is that a machine of the “unorganized” kind could have an artificial form of consciousness that resembles the natural form and that throws some light on its nature.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030057
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 58: Creating New “Enclosures”:
           Violently Mimicking the Primitive Accumulation through Degradation of
           Women, Lockdowns, Looting Finance, War, Plunder

    • Authors: Lorenzo Magnani, Anna Maria Marchini
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Starting from the analysis of Marx’s Chapter 26 of the first volume of Capital, this article describes Marxian emphasis on the extremely violent aspects—a list of the main cases is also provided—of the so-called “enclosures” as fundamental procedures that favored the “primitive accumulation”, that is, the first social and economical step that led to capitalism. The “enclosures” that characterized the primitive accumulation process, violently expropriating peasants, razing their cottages and dwellings, are illustrated in detail. At the same time, we will describe what we call the “moral bubble”, created by the narratives—morally edifying—about enclosures, only devoted to the emphasis on the positive economical and social outcomes: the moral bubble acts as a powerful conceptual device capable of concealing the violence that accompanies enclosures. The second part of the article stresses the fact that the mechanism of enclosures can be traced back not only to violently expropriating common lands in which the peasants flourished but also to the violent processes against women to have them basically reduced to machines for the production of new workers, in the framework of the new “patriarchy of the wage”. The importance of the so-called “new enclosures” is further delineated after having shown how enclosures express the historical and general tendency of capitalistic accumulation and not only of the primitive one. The violent aspects of primitive accumulation, and so of primitive enclosures, are described as the main characters of every phase of the recent capitalist globalization, marked by continuous and unprecedented assault (as smart social, political, and economical mechanisms for producing enclosures) on the commons, perpetrated by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, coronavirus lockdown and, currently, also by the paradoxical economical effects of the interplay between the green era and Ukraine war–global food and energy crisis. Finally, the last section provides insight on what we called the “terminal enclosure” related to the aggression of the ultimate common good: water.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030058
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 59: Žižek’s Hegel, Feminist
           Theory, and Care Ethics

    • Authors: Sacha Ghandeharian
      First page: 59
      Abstract: This article presents conceptual bridges that exist between the philosophy of G.W.F Hegel and a feminist ethics of care. To do so, it engages with Slavoj Žižek’s contemporary reading of Hegel in concert with existing feminist interpretations of Hegel’s thought. The goal of doing so is to demonstrate how both Žižek and a selection of critical feminist thinkers interpret Hegel’s perspective on the nature of subjectivity, intersubjective relations and the relationship between the subject and the world it inhabits, in a way that can further our thinking on the feminist ethics of care as a relational and contextualist ethics that foregrounds vulnerability as a condition of existence. These readings of Hegel highlight the radical contingency of human subjectivity, as well as the relationship between human subjectivity and the external world, in a way that is compatible with the feminist ethics of care’s emphasis on the particularity, fluidity, and interdependency of human relationships. I argue that this confrontation between care ethics and mainstream philosophy is valuable because it offers mutual contributions to both care ethics as a moral and political theory and the philosophy of Hegel and Žižek.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030059
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 60: Care Ethics and the Feminist Personalism
           of Edith Stein

    • Authors: Petr Urban
      First page: 60
      Abstract: The personalist ethics of Edith Stein and her feminist thought are intrinsically interrelated. This unique connection constitutes perhaps the main novelty of Stein’s ethical thought that makes her a forerunner of some recent developments in feminist ethics, particularly ethics of care. A few scholars have noticed the resemblance between Stein’s feminist personalism and care ethics, yet none of them have properly explored it. This paper offers an in-depth discussion of the overlaps and differences between Stein’s ethical insights and the core ideas of care ethics. It argues that both Stein and care ethicists relocate a certain set of practices, values and attitudes from the periphery to the center of ethical reflection. This includes relationality, emotionality and care. The paper finally argues that it is plausible and fruitful to read Stein’s advocacy of ‘woman’s values and attitudes’ in a critical feminist way, rather than as an instance of essentialist difference feminism.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030060
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 61: Desire, Delirium, and Revolutionary Love:
           Deleuzian Feminist Possibilities

    • Authors: Janae Sholtz
      First page: 61
      Abstract: In Deleuze and Guattari’s Anti-Oedipus volumes, revolution, social transformation, and the possibility of a new future are all linked to desire: minimally, to the freeing of desire from the false refuges of Oedipalization and its constructs of molar sexuality. Everywhere, they seek to uncover the potential of desire, sexuality, and love, asking us to consider that what we take to be the most personal is impersonal, how the most intimate is the collective and social. Thus, it calls us to rethink our material and affective relations and reconceptualize the sphere of intimacy itself. I develop the concepts of delirium and revolutionary love, suggesting that we interpret these as perpetual processes of transformation and conjugation, initiating relations of intimacy and advocate for more nuanced, complex forms of subjectivity and to become more sensitive to the varying relational complexes within a given space. Revolutionary love gains its newness from both the extension of Deleuzian desire and from its return to several heritages of feminisms which have themselves been marginalized in the forward sweep of new materialist and posthumanist discussions. The point is to sharpen our focus on the conditions that produce certain social bodies, certain kinds of consciousness, and certain molar identities—not to deny the realities of the socius or reject subjectivity, but to move from a majoritarian to a minoritarian politics that widens our purview of what forces and desires exist within these spaces so that we may transform and build less fascistic, more attuned relational complexes.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030061
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 62: Jacques Rancière and Care Ethics:
           Four Lessons in (Feminist) Emancipation

    • Authors: Sophie Bourgault
      First page: 62
      Abstract: This paper proposes a conversation between Jacques Rancière and feminist care ethicists. It argues that there are important resonances between these two bodies of scholarship, thanks to their similar indictments of Western hierarchies and binaries, their shared invitation to “blur boundaries” and embrace a politics of “impropriety”, and their views on the significance of storytelling/narratives and of the ordinary. Drawing largely on Disagreement, Proletarian Nights, and The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation, I also indicate that Rancière’s work offers crucial and timely insights for care ethicists on the importance of attending to desire and hope in research, the inevitability of conflict in social transformation, and the need to think together the transformation of care work/practices and of dominant social norms.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030062
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 63: A Relational Perspective on Collective

    • Authors: Yiyan Wang, Martin Stokhof
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The discussion of collective agency involves the reduction problem of the concept of a collective. Individualism and Cartesian internalism have long restricted orthodox theories and made them face the tension between an irreducible concept of a collective and ontological reductionism. Heterodox theories as functionalism and interpretationism reinterpret the concept of agency and accept it as realized on the level of a collective. In order to adequately explain social phenomena that have relations as their essence, in this paper we propose a relational, holistic account of collective agency and argue that functionalism and interpretationism can be integrated into such an account.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030063
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 64: Violence and Care: Fanon and the Ethics of
           Care on Harm, Trauma, and Repair

    • Authors: Maggie FitzGerald
      First page: 64
      Abstract: According to Frantz Fanon, the psychological and social-political are deeply intertwined in the colonial context. Psychologically, the colonizers perceive the colonized as inferior and the colonized internalize this in an inferiority complex. This psychological reality is co-constitutive of and by material relations of power—the imaginary of inferiority both creates and is created by colonial relations of power. It is also in this context that violence takes on significant political import: violence deployed by the colonized to rebel against these colonial relations and enact a different world will also be violent in its fundamental disruption of this imaginary. The ethics of care, on the other hand, does not seem to sit well with violence, and thus Fanon’s political theory more generally. Care ethics is concerned with everything we do to maintain and repair our worlds as well as reasonably possible. Violence, which ruptures our psycho-affective, material, and social-political realities, seems antithetical to this task. This article seeks to reconsider this apparent antinomy between violence and care via a dialogue between Fanon and the ethics of care. In so doing, this article mobilizes a relational conceptualization of violence that allows for the possibility that certain violences may, in fact, be justifiable from a care ethics perspective. At the same time, I contend that violence in any form will also eventually demand a caring response. Ultimately, this productive reading of Fanon’s political theory and the ethics of care encourages both postcolonial philosophers and care ethicists alike to examine critically the relation between violence and care, and the ways in which we cannot a priori draw lines between the two.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030064
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 65: Muay Thai, Psychological Well-Being, and
           Cultivation of Combat-Relevant Affordances

    • Authors: Adam M. Croom
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Some philosophers argue that martial arts training is maladaptive, contributes to psychological illness, and provides a social harm, whereas others argue that martial arts training is adaptive, contributes to psychological wellness, and provides a social benefit. This debate is important to scholars and the general public since beliefs about martial arts training can have a real impact on how we evaluate martial artists for job opportunities and career advancement, and in general, how we treat martial artists from different cultures in our communities. This debate is also important for children and adults that have considered enrolling in martial arts training programs but remain uncertain about potential outcomes of training due to the lack of research in this area. This article therefore contributes to the literature on martial arts by (1) outlining a framework that characterizes psychological well-being in terms of five elements, (2) discussing how results from empirical research support the hypothesis that Muay Thai training can contribute to psychological well-being by contributing to all five component elements, (3) discussing the psychological benefits of martial arts training from the perspective of an Everlast Master Instructor, and (4) discussing how martial arts training involves the cultivation of combat-relevant affordances.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030065
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 66: A Hobbesian Argument for World Government

    • Authors: Henrik Skaug Sætra
      First page: 66
      Abstract: The legitimacy of government is often linked to its ability to maintain order and secure peace. Thomas Hobbes’ political philosophy provides a clear description of why government is necessary, as human nature and the structures emerging out of human social interaction are such that order and peace will not naturally emerge to a sufficient degree. Hobbes’ general argument is often accepted at the national level, but in this article, I explore why a Hobbesian argument for the international level—an argument for world government—is deducible from his philosophy. Hobbes builds his philosophy on his conception of human nature and argues that individuals’ interests and preferences should be the determinant for evaluating the value of a political entity. By emphasising these aspects of Hobbes’ theory, I argue that several contemporary phenomena suggest that a world government could be preferable to the states system. The cases used are the outbreak of war in Europe in 2022 and the continuing and accelerating environmental crisis. Through this examination, the continued relevance of Hobbes’ political philosophy is demonstrated, and according to Hobbes’ own logic, those who accept the argument should also seek to implement such a solution.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030066
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 67: Ontology and Attention: Addressing the
           Challenge of the Amoralist through Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology and
           Care Ethics

    • Authors: Anya Daly
      First page: 67
      Abstract: This paper addresses the persistent philosophical problem posed by the amoralist—one who eschews moral values—by drawing on complementary resources within phenomenology and care ethics. How is it that the amoralist can reject ethical injunctions that serve the general good and be unpersuaded by ethical intuitions that for most would require neither explanation nor justification' And more generally, what is the basis for ethical motivation' Why is it that we can care for others' What are the underpinning ontological structures that are able to support an ethics of care' To respond to these questions, I draw on the work of Merleau-Ponty, focusing specifically on his analyses of perceptual attention. What is the nature and quality of perceptual attention that underwrite our capacities or incapacities for care' I proceed in dialogue with a range of philosophers attuned to the compelling nature of care, some who have also drawn on Merleau-Ponty and others who have examined the roots of an ethics of care inspired or incited by other thinkers.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030067
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 68: Rossian Intuitionism without

    • Authors: David Kaspar
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The first phase of the recent intuitionist revival left untouched Ross’s claim that fundamental moral truths are self-evident. In a recent article, Robert Cowan attempts to explain, in a plausible way, how we know moral truths. The result is that, while the broad framework of Ross’s theory appears to remain in place, the self-evidence of moral truths is thrown into doubt. In this paper, I examine Cowan’s Conceptual Intuitionism. I use his own proposal to show how he arrives at a skeptical position on self-evidence. First, he completely ignores the kind of epistemic appraisal intuitionism has always rested on; second, he is committed to the Reasons View of prima facie duty, rather than to Ross’s Properties View; third, he holds that a commitment to self-evidence often comes with a commitment to metaphysically extravagant entities, which he calls Perceptualism; fourth, he scrutinizes only a part of the contemporary theory of self-evidence, overlooking the strengths of the theory when considered as a whole. Revealing these several points supports the conclusion that Cowan has not provided a viable variety of Rossian Intuitionism.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030068
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 69: Turing’s Conceptual Engineering

    • Authors: Marcin Miłkowski
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Alan Turing’s influence on subsequent research in artificial intelligence is undeniable. His proposed test for intelligence remains influential. In this paper, I propose to analyze his conception of intelligence by relying on traditional close reading and language technology. The Turing test is interpreted as an instance of conceptual engineering that rejects the role of the previous linguistic usage, but appeals to intuition pumps instead. Even though many conceive his proposal as a prime case of operationalism, it is more plausibly viewed as a stepping stone toward a future theoretical construal of intelligence in mechanical terms. To complete this picture, his own conceptual network is analyzed through the lens of distributional semantics over the corpus of his written work. As it turns out, Turing’s conceptual engineering of the notion of intelligence is indeed quite similar to providing a precising definition with the aim of revising the usage of the concept. However, that is not its ultimate aim: Turing is after a rich theoretical understanding of thinking in mechanical, i.e., computational, terms.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030069
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 70: Ethics in Emergency Times: The Case of

    • Authors: Stefano Semplici
      First page: 70
      Abstract: A disaster is an occurrence disrupting a community’s normal functioning and existence. The disruption may render it impossible to comply with principles and to respect, protect, and fulfill rights as it happens in ordinary times; it may induce an overwhelming shortage of resources and make tragic decisions unavoidable. From its very beginning, the COVID-19 pandemic evoked the scenario of disaster medicine, where triage is likely to imply not simply postponing a treatment but letting someone die. However, it is not only the health care system that faces disruption risks. Lockdown measures and other restrictions were imposed to curb the pandemic, impinging upon individual freedom as well as economic activities. The proposal of mandatory vaccination implied a suspension of the principle of autonomy, which is a fundamental pillar of modern medicine. Out of the ordinary balancing efforts may be required, and two questions arise. Do such exceptional circumstances suggest reconsidering the criteria to apply, especially when essential, life-saving treatments are at stake' Who should decide' Science offers the premises to build on, but the last word does not belong to science. It remains the province of ethics and politics.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7030070
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 23: SHE (Sustainability, Health,
           Ethics)—A Grid for an Embodied Ethic

    • Authors: Brian Macallan
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Our current planetary emergency is one in which we are facing significant global warming as a result of human-driven climate change. This is having and will continue to have catastrophic results for the earth’s ecosystems and for life as we know it. The Christian tradition often works actively against the seriousness of these challenges due to its eschatological outlook. Process theology, as one stream within the Christian tradition, embraces a different vision of the future that fosters engagement in current concerns rather than an escapist approach. A process theological proposal is therefore offered that calls for an embodied ethic that embraces the acronym SHE. SHE stands for Sustainability, Health, and Ethics. It provides a dietary grid as a way to embody ethics to bring about societal change in light of environmental challenges. SHE is proposed against a background that argues for Christian engagement in our current global crisis. The idea of “small turnings” as a conceptual idea is adopted to help frame how the SHE grid might be understood.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020023
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 24: Aesthetics as a Habit: Between Constraints
           and Freedom, Nudges and Creativity

    • Authors: Mariagrazia Portera
      First page: 24
      Abstract: This paper is a preliminary attempt to bring to the fore some questions and issues regarding the role of habits in aesthetics. Indeed, much attention has recently been given to habits across a wide range of fields of inquiry: philosophers turn to the concept to investigate its significance to the historical development of Western thought; neuroscientists look into the role that habits play in the functioning of the human mind and identify the neural and psychological underpinnings of habitual behavior; anthropologists, political scientists and sociologists tap into habits as a key notion to explain social dynamics and collective behavior. For all of these waves that the notion has made in other parts of the humanities and social sciences, there have been so far, however, only a few sustained discussions of habits in conjunction with aesthetics. What is the role of habits in aesthetic experience' How do habits influence and regulate artistic creative processes'
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020024
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 25: How Much Punishment Is Deserved' Two
           Alternatives to Proportionality

    • Authors: Thaddeus Metz, Mika’il Metz
      First page: 25
      Abstract: When it comes to the question of how much the state ought to punish a given offender, the standard understanding of the desert theory for centuries has been that it should give him a penalty proportionate to his offense, that is, an amount of punishment that fits the severity of his crime. In this article, we maintain that a desert theorist is not conceptually or otherwise required to hold a proportionality requirement. We show that there is logical space for at least two other, non-proportionate ways of meting out deserved penalties, and we also argue that they have important advantages relative to the dominant, proportionality approach.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020025
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 26: Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity,
           and Transdisciplinarity: The Tower of Babel in the Age of Two Cultures

    • Authors: Marcin J. Schroeder
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Despite the continuous emphasis on globalization, we witness increasing divisions and divisiveness in all domains of human activities. One of the reasons, if not the main one, is the intellectual fragmentation of humanity, compared in the title to the failed attempt at building the Biblical Tower of Babel. The attempts to reintegrate worldview, fragmented by the specialization of education (C.P. Snow’s The Two Cultures) and expected to be achieved through reforms in curricula at all levels of education, were based on the assumption that the design of a curriculum should focus on the wide distribution of subjects of study, as if the distribution was the goal. The key point is not the distribution of themes, but the development of skills in the integration of knowledge. The quantitative assessment of the width of knowledge by the number of disciplines is of secondary importance. We cannot expect the miracle that students without any intellectual tools developed for this purpose would perform the job of integration, which their teachers do not promote or demonstrate, and which they cannot achieve for themselves. There are many other reasons for the increasing interest in making inquiries interdisciplinary, but there is little progress in the methodology of the integration of knowledge. This paper is a study of the transition from multidisciplinarity to interdisciplinarity, and further, to transdisciplinarity, with some suggestions regarding the use of methodological tools of structuralism and the choice of a conceptual framework.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020026
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 27: Inconsistent, Vague, and…Just'
           An Analysis of the National Football League’s 2021 COVID-19 Policy

    • Authors: Steven Gimbel, Joseph Radzevick
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The National Football League, the premier professional organization for American football, developed a policy concerning the protocol in cases where players contract COVID-19. This policy includes elements such as collective punishment that appear, at first glance, to be morally problematic. To the contrary, the policy is indeed morally acceptable as we should not think of organizations such as the NFL in the same way we think of governments in stable nations, but rather in the same way that we think of hybrid justice systems in countries where because of histories of colonialism, the identity of citizens is divided, with tribal identities being more important than national citizenship.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020027
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 28: Information in Explaining Cognition: How
           to Evaluate It'

    • Authors: Nir Fresco
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The claims that “The brain processes information” or “Cognition is information processing” are accepted as truisms in cognitive science. However, it is unclear how to evaluate such claims absent a specification of “information” as it is used by neurocognitive theories. The aim of this article is, thus, to identify the key features of information that information-based neurocognitive theories posit. A systematic identification of these features can reveal the explanatory role that information plays in specific neurocognitive theories, and can, therefore, be both theoretically and practically important. These features can be used, in turn, as desiderata against which candidate theories of information may be evaluated. After discussing some characteristics of explanation in cognitive science and their implications for “information”, three notions are briefly introduced: natural, sensory, and endogenous information. Subsequently, six desiderata are identified and defended based on cognitive scientific practices. The global workspace theory of consciousness is then used as a specific case study that arguably posits either five or six corresponding features of information.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020028
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 29: Virtual Reality and Aesthetic Experience

    • Authors: Roberto Diodato
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The problem of aesthetic experience in a virtual environment could be reformulated as: what can we learn about aesthetics from the perspective of ‘aesthetic experience in virtual environments’, given the specific nature of such an environment' The discourse goes in circles, because it is always from theories elaborated in the field of the so-called ‘real’ that we develop the difference, but it is a process typically philosophical, that, on the other hand, can make sense only if it can be shown that the virtual is an existent being that has an ontological structure of its own. The ontology of this strange object–event, and of its relationship to space–time, must therefore be addressed: what are the conditions of identity for a virtual body' What are its limits' In what sense does it have borders' Also, its specific temporality and its connection to human and computer memories are arguable dimensions that deserve analysis, as they directly affect an ontology of the virtual body, the difference between the virtual and the possible, and the relationship between the human body and the virtual body. However, the specific character of the virtual is to be an intermediate entity between object and event, between thing and image, so that virtual bodies represent a hybrid, interactive world which can be visualized as synthetic image, an immersive hybrid engaging the corporeality of the user and merging with the virtual body’s image; this hybridization, between the body of the spectator–actor and the virtual space in which it is immersed, is difficult to define with singularity.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020029
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 30: Causal Emergence: When Distortions in a
           Map Obscure the Territory

    • Authors: Frederick Eberhardt, Lin Lin Lee
      First page: 30
      Abstract: We provide a critical assessment of the account of causal emergence presented in Erik Hoel’s 2017 article “When the map is better than the territory”. The account integrates causal and information theoretic concepts to explain under what circumstances there can be causal descriptions of a system at multiple scales of analysis. We show that the causal macro variables implied by this account result in interventions with significant ambiguity, and that the operations of marginalization and abstraction do not commute. Both of these are desiderata that, we argue, any account of multi-scale causal analysis should be sensitive to. The problems we highlight in Hoel’s definition of causal emergence derive from the use of various averaging steps and the introduction of a maximum entropy distribution that is extraneous to the system under investigation.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020030
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 31: Care Ethics, Bruno Latour, and the

    • Authors: Michael Flower, Maurice Hamington
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Bruno Latour is one of the founding figures in social network theory and a broadly influential systems thinker. Although his work has always been relational, little scholarship has engaged the relational morality, ontology, and epistemology of feminist care ethics with Latour’s actor–network theory. This article is intended as a translation and a prompt to spur further interactions. Latour’s recent publications, in particular, have focused on the new climate regime of the Anthropocene. Care theorists are just beginning to address posthuman approaches to care. The argument here is that Latourian analysis is helpful for such explorations, given that caring for the earth and its inhabitants is the dire moral challenge of our time. The aim here is not to characterize Latour as a care theorist but rather as a provocative scholar who has much to say that is significant to care thinking. We begin with a brief introduction to Latour’s scholarship and lexicon, followed by a discussion of care theorist Puig de la Bellacasa’s work on Latour. We then explore recent work on care and the environment consistent with a Latourian approach. The conclusion reinforces the notion that valuing relationality across humans and non-human matter is essential to confronting the Anthropocene.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020031
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 32: From Prolepsis to Hyperraising

    • Authors: Magdalena Lohninger, Iva Kovač, Susanne Wurmbrand
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Case, agreement, and A-movement dependencies across finite clause boundaries, such as Hyperraising (to subject or object) or Long-Distance Case or Agreement [LDA], are available in many typologically diverse languages. The research on such dependencies typically distinguishes between cross-linguistically restricted true A-dependencies across finite clauses, and generally available binding-like A′-dependencies as found in Prolepsis. In this paper, we investigate both types of configurations in parallel and refer to this as the A-domain. Since the diagnostics to distinguish A-configurations vary across languages and often cannot be compared directly, we define four characteristic properties: (A) whether the construction is restricted by matrix predicate selection, (B) whether movement in the embedded clause is involved, (C) whether the dependency shows locality restrictions (in particular, A-Minimality), and (D) whether there are semantic restrictions on the relevant DP. By combining different values of the characteristic properties, we show, differently from previous approaches, that the A-domain does not simply consist of two types of configurations, but that the empirical landscape represents a continuum of five A-constructions. We suggest a theoretical implementation of our empirical findings, which is built on a predicational relator phrase above the embedded CP and propose that, in some of the constructions, these two projections fuse into one. We employ a minimalist probing approach which relies on differences in the base-generated position of the relevant DP (matrix clause, high in the embedded clause, argument position in the embedded clause), differences in the feature composition of the embedded C (a plain A′-head, or a bundled predicational C head involving composite A/A′ probes), a composite probe hierarchy yielding three types of feature-dependencies of composite probes, and, resulting from that, different probing mechanisms (conjunctive satisfaction, dependent satisfaction, and independent satisfaction). Lastly, this paper also contributes methodological tools for disentangling constructions of the A-domain.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020032
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 33: Intuition and Ingenuity: Gödel on
           Turing’s “Philosophical Error”

    • Authors: Long Chen
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Despite his unreserved appreciation of Turing’s analysis for being a “precise and unquestionably adequate definition” of formal system or mechanical computability, Gödel nevertheless published a short note in 1972 claiming to have found a “philosophical error” in Turing’s argument with regard to the finite nature of mental states and memory. A natural question arises: how could Gödel enjoy the generality conferred on his results by Turing’s work, despite the error of its ways' Previous interpretative strategies by Feferman, Shagrir and others have mainly tried to resolve the disparity by distinguishing different types of arguments in Turing and taking Gödel to approve only some of them. By a more integral examination of their ideas, especially Turing’s response to the “mathematical objection” based on Gödel’s incompleteness theorem and Gödel’s own conception of finite yet non-mechanical procedures, and taking some of the main ideas of current developments in machine learning into consideration, I will try to present a new explanation for the apparent disparity, arguing that there is no “error” on Turing’s side and the seemingly conflicting views held by Turing and Gödel should best be seen as complementary, keeping intuition and ingenuity together.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020033
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 34: Biopolitics and the COVID-19 Pandemic: A
           Foucauldian Interpretation of the Danish Government’s Response to
           the Pandemic

    • Authors: Philip Højme
      First page: 34
      Abstract: With the coronavirus pandemic and the Omicron variant once again forcing countries into lockdown (as of late 2021), this essay seeks to outline a Foucauldian critique of various legal measures taken by the Danish government to cope with COVID-19 during the first year and a half of the pandemic. The essay takes a critical look at the extra-legal measures employed by the Danish government, as the Danish politicians attempted to halt the spread of the, now almost forgotten, Cluster 5 COVID-19 variant. This situation will serve as a critical point from where to start using Foucault’s writings on life and biopolitics in order to expose various legally problematic governmental decisions that became visible during the handling of COVID-19 in general and the Cluster 5 mutation in particular. Reframing the pandemic within Foucault’s concept of biopolitics, this essay concludes that the state of exception has led to an increase in biopolitical logic, where some lives have come to matter more than others. As a critical counterpoint to this logic, the conclusion suggests that the notion of biocommunism could provide a suitable reconfiguration of communism. A reconfiguration that could mitigate some of the issues related to biopolitics is uncovered earlier in the essay.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020034
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 35: On Explainable AI and Abductive Inference

    • Authors: Kyrylo Medianovskyi, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Modern explainable AI (XAI) methods remain far from providing human-like answers to ‘why’ questions, let alone those that satisfactorily agree with human-level understanding. Instead, the results that such methods provide boil down to sets of causal attributions. Currently, the choice of accepted attributions rests largely, if not solely, on the explainee’s understanding of the quality of explanations. The paper argues that such decisions may be transferred from a human to an XAI agent, provided that its machine-learning (ML) algorithms perform genuinely abductive inferences. The paper outlines the key predicament in the current inductive paradigm of ML and the associated XAI techniques, and sketches the desiderata for a truly participatory, second-generation XAI, which is endowed with abduction.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020035
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 36: Backpropagation of Spirit: Hegelian
           Recollection and Human-A.I. Abductive Communities

    • Authors: Rocco Gangle
      First page: 36
      Abstract: This article examines types of abductive inference in Hegelian philosophy and machine learning from a formal comparative perspective and argues that Robert Brandom’s recent reconstruction of the logic of recollection in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit may be fruitful for anticipating modes of collaborative abductive inference in human/A.I. interactions. Firstly, the argument consists of showing how Brandom’s reading of Hegelian recollection may be understood as a specific type of abductive inference, one in which the past interpretive failures and errors of a community are explained hypothetically by way of the construction of a narrative that rehabilitates those very errors as means for the ongoing successful development of the community, as in Brandom’s privileged jurisprudential example of Anglo-American case law. Next, this Hegelian abductive dynamic is contrasted with the error-reducing backpropagation algorithms characterizing many current versions of machine learning, which can be understood to perform abductions in a certain sense for various problems but not (yet) in the full self-constituting communitarian mode of creative recollection canvassed by Brandom. Finally, it is shown how the two modes of “error correction” may possibly coordinate successfully on certain types of abductive inference problems that are neither fully recollective in the Hegelian sense nor algorithmically optimizable.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020036
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 37: Scientific Observation Is Socio-Materially
           Augmented Perception: Toward a Participatory Realism

    • Authors: Tom Froese
      First page: 37
      Abstract: There is an overlooked similarity between three classic accounts of the conditions of object experience from three distinct disciplines. (1) Sociology: the “inversion” that accompanies discovery in the natural sciences, as local causes of effects are reattributed to an observed object. (2) Psychology: the “externalization” that accompanies mastery of a visual–tactile sensory substitution interface, as tactile sensations of the proximal interface are transformed into vision-like experience of a distal object. (3) Biology: the “projection” that brings forth an animal’s Umwelt, as impressions on its body’s sensory surfaces are reconfigured into perception of an external object. This similarity between the effects of scientific practice and interface-use on the one hand, and of sensorimotor interaction on the other, becomes intelligible once we accept that skillful engagement with instruments and interfaces constitutes a socio-material augmentation of our basic perceptual capacity. This enactive interpretation stands in contrast to anti-realism about science associated with constructivist interpretations of these three phenomena, which are motivated by viewing them as the internal mental construction of the experienced object. Instead, it favors a participatory realism: the sensorimotor basis of perceptual experience loops not only through our body, but also through the external world. This allows us to conceive of object experience in relational terms, i.e., as one or more subjects directly engaging with the world. Consequently, we can appreciate scientific observation in its full complexity: it is a socio-materially augmented process of becoming acquainted with the observed object that—like tool-use and perceiving more generally—is irreducibly self, other-, and world-involving.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020037
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 38: Against Music' Heuristics and
           Sense-Making in Listening to Contemporary Popular Music

    • Authors: Vincenzo Zingaro
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Is the ubiquity of contemporary popular music akin to a deliberate aggression to the hearing, making the listening experience devoid of any sense' If so, is there any strategy to morph this supposed confusion into meaningful stimuli' Relying on epistemology, we attempt at promoting the act of listening as a proper way of world-making and refer to Mark Reybrouck, Bruno Nettl, Steven Brown and Joseph Jordania—among others—to gather appropriate heuristic tools. In the last part of the essay, we advance the concept of timbral quotation as an additional means to grasp meaningful cues in the timbrical richness of contemporary popular compositions. We shall sustain the particular fitness of this tool especially with regard to nowadays’ Western popular music, more and more timbre-centered rather than harmony-centered.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020038
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 39: Naturalizing Morality to Unveil the Status
           of Violence: Coalition Enforcement, Cognitive Moral Niches, and Moral
           Bubbles in an Evolutionary Perspective

    • Authors: Lorenzo Magnani
      First page: 39
      Abstract: I propose that the relationship between moral and violent behavior is overlooked in current philosophical, epistemological, and cognitive studies. To the aim of clarifying the complex dynamics of this interplay, I will describe, adopting an evolutionary perspective, the concepts of coalition enforcement, cognitive moral niche, and of what I call moral bubbles. Showing the interesting relationships between these three basic concepts, I will explain the role of morality in causing and justifying violence. The main theoretical merit of the concept of coalition enforcement is that it permits the naturalization of morality that is the only conceptual means to unveil, in a naturalized way, the status of violence beyond the constraints generated by the so-called moral bubbles that prevent agents from seeing the potential violence generated by their own moral acts.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020039
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 40: On Falsifiable Statistical Hypotheses

    • Authors: Konstantin Genin
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Popper argued that a statistical falsification required a prior methodological decision to regard sufficiently improbable events as ruled out. That suggestion has generated a number of fruitful approaches, but also a number of apparent paradoxes and ultimately, no clear consensus. It is still commonly claimed that, since random samples are logically consistent with all the statistical hypotheses on the table, falsification simply does not apply in realistic statistical settings. We claim that the situation is considerably improved if we ask a conceptually prior question: when should a statistical hypothesis be regarded as falsifiable. To that end we propose several different notions of statistical falsifiability and prove that, whichever definition we prefer, the same hypotheses turn out to be falsifiable. That shows that statistical falsifiability enjoys a kind of conceptual robustness. These notions of statistical falsifiability are arrived at by proposing statistical analogues to intuitive properties enjoyed by exemplary falsifiable hypotheses familiar from classical philosophy of science. That demonstrates that, to a large extent, this philosophical tradition was on the right conceptual track. Finally, we demonstrate that, under weak assumptions, the statistically falsifiable hypotheses correspond precisely to the closed sets in a standard topology on probability measures. That means that standard techniques from statistics and measure theory can be used to determine exactly which hypotheses are statistically falsifiable. In other words: the proposed notion of statistical falsifiability both answers to our conceptual demands and submits to standard mathematical techniques.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020040
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 41: Finding Oneself Well Together with Others:
           A Phenomenological Study of the Ontology of Human Well-Being

    • Authors: Jonas Holst
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Based on critical readings of Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time and Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, the paper offers a phenomenological study of the ontology of well-being that transcends the opposition between subjective and objective being. By interpreting the Heideggerian notion of Befindlichkeit as the fundamental way in which humans find themselves in the world, being affected by and faced with their own existence, the paper opens a way to understanding well-being that locates the possibility of elevating one’s own being not inside or outside the I but in the affective bond to others called friendship. Aristotle’s reflections on philia play a crucial role in developing this understanding of well-being, according to which humans find themselves well by sharing joy with each other and making a vital contribution to the realization of their own possibilities.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 42: Wellbeing Competence

    • Authors: Søren Engelsen
      First page: 42
      Abstract: This article presents and analyzes the basic features of wellbeing competence. Following a procedural approach to wellbeing, I propose wellbeing competence as a significant object of focus in the philosophical debate on wellbeing. Instead of being concerned one-sidedly with abstract ideals and explicit, theoretical knowledge about what constitutes wellbeing, wellbeing competence is the ability to handle the concrete process of living well and helping others live well in a generally qualified way. This article presents a theory that considers wellbeing competence a complex form of knowing how. Further, it outlines central aspects and components of wellbeing competence. I suggest four components to play central functional roles in wellbeing competence when supplementing each other: empathy, emotional awareness, flexible perspective, and metacognition.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020042
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 43: Back to the Present: How Not to Use
           Counterfactuals to Explain Causal Asymmetry

    • Authors: Alison Fernandes
      First page: 43
      Abstract: A plausible thought is that we should evaluate counterfactuals in the actual world by holding the present ‘fixed’; the state of the counterfactual world at the time of the antecedent, outside the area of the antecedent, is required to match that of the actual world. When used to evaluate counterfactuals in the actual world, this requirement may produce reasonable results. However, the requirement is deeply problematic when used in the context of explaining causal asymmetry (why causes come before their effects). The requirement plays a crucial role in certain statistical mechanical explanations of the temporal asymmetry of causation. I will use a case of backwards time travel to show how the requirement enforces certain features of counterfactual structure a priori. For this reason, the requirement cannot be part of a completely general method of evaluating counterfactuals. More importantly, the way the requirement enforces features of counterfactual structure prevents counterfactual structure being derived from more fundamental physical structure—as explanations of causal asymmetry demand. Therefore, the requirement cannot be used when explaining causal asymmetry. To explain causal asymmetry, we need more temporally neutral methods for evaluating counterfactuals—those that produce the right results in cases involving backwards time travel, as well as in the actual world.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020043
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 44: Natural Philosophy, Abstraction, and
           Mathematics among Materialists: Thomas Hobbes and Margaret Cavendish on

    • Authors: Marcus P. Adams
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The nature of light is a focus of Thomas Hobbes’s natural philosophical project. Hobbes’s explanation of the light (lux) of lucid bodies differs across his works, from dilation and contraction in Elements of Law to simple circular motions in De corpore. However, Hobbes consistently explains perceived light (lumen) by positing that bodily resistance (endeavor) generates the phantasm of light. In Letters I.XIX–XX of Philosophical Letters, fellow materialist Margaret Cavendish attacks the Hobbesian understanding of both lux and lumen by claiming that Hobbes has illicitly made abstractions from matter. In this paper, I argue that Cavendish’s criticisms rely on an incorrect understanding of the nature of Hobbesian geometry and the role it plays in Hobbes’s natural philosophy. Rather than understanding geometry as wholly abstract, Hobbes attempts to ground geometry in different ways of considering bodies and their motions. Furthermore, Hobbes’s own criticisms of abstraction suggest that he would share many of the worries she raises but deny that he falls prey to them.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020044
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 45: Habit: A Rylean Conception

    • Authors: Cheng-Hung Tsai
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Tennis champion Maria Sharapova has a habit of grunting when she plays on the court. Assume that she also has a habit of hitting the ball in a certain way in a certain situation. The habit of on-court grunting might be bad, but can the habit of hitting the ball in a certain way in a certain situation be classified as intelligent' The fundamental questions here are as follows: What is habit' What is the relation between habit and skill' Is there such a thing as intelligent habit' In this paper I expound the nature of habit by developing and defending a Rylean conception of habit, according to which an acquired disposition is a habit if and only if the manifestation of the disposition is repeated, automatic, and uniform. One implication of this conception is that there is no such thing as intelligent habit. A practical application in athletic expertise is that sport coaches can help athletes go beyond repeated, automatic, and uniform dispositions in sport.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7020045
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 4: The AI Carbon Footprint and
           Responsibilities of AI Scientists

    • Authors: Guglielmo Tamburrini
      First page: 4
      Abstract: This article examines ethical implications of the growing AI carbon footprint, focusing on the fair distribution of prospective responsibilities among groups of involved actors. First, major groups of involved actors are identified, including AI scientists, AI industry, and AI infrastructure providers, from datacenters to electrical energy suppliers. Second, responsibilities of AI scientists concerning climate warming mitigation actions are disentangled from responsibilities of other involved actors. Third, to implement these responsibilities nudging interventions are suggested, leveraging on AI competitive games which would prize research combining better system accuracy with greater computational and energy efficiency. Finally, in addition to the AI carbon footprint, it is argued that another ethical issue with a genuinely global dimension is now emerging in the AI ethics agenda. This issue concerns the threats that AI-powered cyberweapons pose to the digital command, control, and communication infrastructure of nuclear weapons systems.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010004
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 5: Object Coreference in German: The Reflexive
           sich as a Problem for Derivational Approaches to Binding

    • Authors: Vera Lee-Schoenfeld, Nicholas Twiner
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Despite Grewendorf’s well-known German binding data with the double-object verb zeigen ‘show’, where one object reflexively binds the other and which suggests that the direct object (DO) is generated higher than the indirect object (IO), this paper argues for the canonical surface order of IO > DO as base order. We highlight the exceptional status of Grewendorf’s examples, build on scope facts as well as a quantitative acceptability rating study, and exploit the fact that zeigen can also be used as inherently reflexive with idiomatic meaning. Appealing to the base configuration of the pieces of idiomatic expressions and considering different Spell-Out possibilities of coreferential objects in German, we show that the case, number, and gender underspecification of the anaphor sich poses a previously unnoticed problem for derivational approaches to binding.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010005
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 6: Hobbes and Spinoza on Sovereign Education

    • Authors: Boleslaw Z. Kabala, Thomas Cook
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Most comparisons of Thomas Hobbes and Baruch Spinoza focus on the difference in understanding of natural right. We argue that Hobbes also places more weight on a rudimentary and exclusive education of the public by the state. We show that the difference is related to deeper disagreements over the prospect of Enlightenment. Hobbes is more sanguine than Spinoza about using the state to make people rational. Spinoza considers misguided an overemphasis on publicly educating everyone out of superstition—public education is important, but modes of superstition may remain and must be offset by institutions and a civil religion. The differences are confirmed by Spinoza’s interest in the philosopher who stands apart and whose flourishing may be protected, but not simply brought about, by rudimentary public education. Spinoza’s openness to a wisdom-loving elite in a democracy also sets up an interesting parallel with Thomas Jefferson’s own commitment to the natural aristocracy needed to sustain republicanism. In demonstrating the 17th century philosopher’s skepticism toward using the state exclusively to promote rationality, even as he recognizes the importance of a sovereign pedagogical role and the protection of philosophy, we move to suggest that Spinoza is relevant to contemporary debates about public education and may reinvigorate moral and political discourse in a liberal democracy.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010006
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 7: Vertigos. Climates of Philosophy

    • Authors: Giovanbattista Tusa
      First page: 7
      Abstract: In this essay, I suggest that we are currently witnessing a mutation, which disrupts the mythical imaginary that had confined viruses, climate change, and atmospheric turbulences to an immutable background in the all-too-human narrative of the struggle against nature. I argue that the incapacity of translating this mutation in cultural and social terms, and the repression of this traumatic experience, are the cause of the perturbation that haunts our time. Disorientation pervades philosophy when the entire imaginary to which it had anchored its power to change the world seems to dissolve in the air, when what was silent and distant turns out to be vibrant, more familiar to us than any known proximity. Precisely for this reason, philosophy must rediscover its ability to inhabit times and spaces different from those oriented by the hegemony of capitalist progress, with its correlate of regular catastrophic emergencies and calculated risk. In this essay, I aim to present a perspective in which, instead of coming back straightforwardly ‘down to earth’, philosophy accepts inhabiting the fluctuating disorientation of its own time, itself populated by intermittent and uncertain opportunities of experiencing differently the past and the future—to encounter different relationships with the times that change.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010007
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 8: Deontological Desert

    • Authors: Shelly Kagan
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Although the nature of moral desert has sometimes been examined in axiological terms—focusing on the thought that it is a good thing if people get what they deserve—deontologists typically think desert is more appropriately treated in terms of duties and obligations. They may, for example, prefer to talk in terms of there being a moral duty to give people what they deserve. This essay distinguishes a number of forms such a duty might take, and examines four of them more closely. (In particular, it looks at positive and negative duties with regard to both comparative and noncomparative desert). Questions about the contents of each of these duties are raised, making clearer just how much work would be involved in spelling out the relevant duties more completely. The essay concludes with a brief discussion of the possible implications of such desert-based duties for population ethics.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010008
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 9: Is There an Environmental Principle of

    • Authors: Cecilia Sá Cavalcante Schuback
      First page: 9
      Abstract: This essay considers and reflects upon the principle of causality and its relation to the global environmental crisis. Parting from some of Immanuel Kant’s views on causality and freedom as well as from Heidegger’s reading of causality in Kant, it asks some questions about the role of human activity in the principle of causality, the relation between causality and freedom, and in what possible different way we could interpret causality and environment. The essay proposes that instead of trying to decide on the subject of who causes the environmental crisis, and on the subject capable to solve it, one must turn the intention of inquiry to the very principle of causality and consider the need to rethink this notion today.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010009
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 10: On the Limits of Across-the-Board
           Movement: Distributed Extraction Coordinations

    • Authors: Željko Bošković
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The paper examines distributed extraction coordinations, in which different elements move out of conjuncts of a single coordination, as in Which book and which magazine did Mary buy and Amy read respectively, from a crosslinguistic perspective. A number of properties of such coordinations are discussed, which includes showing that they are also subject to the ATB requirement, which will shed light on the nature of the ATB phenomenon itself. It is also shown that there is a rather strong restriction on distributed extractions which confines such extractions to one context and completely excludes one type of movement, in particular head-movement, from participating in them. The higher coordination is shown to be formed during the derivation and to be semantically expletive. Distributed extraction constructions are also shown to have consequences for the proper analysis of a number of phenomena, including subject-oriented anaphors, right node raising, tough-constructions, agreement, and clausal structure. Regarding subject-oriented anaphors, the paper teases apart different approaches to subject-oriented anaphors based on constructions where different elements fill SpecvP and SpecTP (the latter undergoes agreement with T and the former binds subject-oriented anaphors).
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010010
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 11: Lessons from Grandfather

    • Authors: Andrew Law, Ryan Wasserman
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Assume that, even with a time machine, Tim does not have the ability to travel to the past and kill Grandfather. Why would that be' And what are the implications for traditional debates about freedom' We argue that there are at least two satisfactory explanations for why Tim cannot kill Grandfather. First, if an agent’s behavior at time t is causally dependent on fact F, then the agent cannot perform an action (at t) that would require F to have not obtained. Second, if an agent’s behavior at time t is causally dependent on fact F, then the agent cannot perform an action (at t) that would prevent F from obtaining. These two explanations have distinct upshots for more traditional debates over freedom. The first implies that causal determinism is incompatible with the ability to do otherwise and also raises questions about the traditional arguments for the incompatibility of divine foreknowledge and the ability to do otherwise; the second does neither. However, both explanations imply that the Molinist account of divine providence renders agents unable to do otherwise, at least in certain circumstances.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 12: From Ama Lur to the Anthropocene and Back:
           The Earth in Basque Mythology

    • Authors: Luis Garagalza
      First page: 12
      Abstract: What I propose is that, by delving into the world of mythologies, there we might find some indications, helpful for understanding what is happening with the environment today. To do so, I will revisit a particular mythology from the South of Europe, an archaic (probably, a pre-Indo-European one), namely Basque mythology. Here, earth (lurra) appears as a maternal character (Ama-lur) and becomes, in a sense, divine in the figure of the goddess Mari, who occupied a central and predominant position in this cosmovision.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010012
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 13: In What Person to Say the Disaster'
           From R. Kusch towards An-Other Cogitamus

    • Authors: Héctor Andrés Peña
      First page: 13
      Abstract: “Latin America”, for the ecopolitical approach, could be appropriate as the proper name of the ecological disaster, even as its first person: the environmental catastrophe, by means of “Latin America”, would say “I”. Genealogically, and as part of the so-called “Third World”, it would delimit the frontiers where the disastrous takes place “naturally”. But “Latin America”, from the philosophical perspective, has also been the locus par excellence to think about the vegetal and the indigenous. This article, driven by the current relevance of these two concepts, rereads the work of Rodolfo Kusch, one of the key figures of the so-called Pensamiento latinoamericano, and unveils not only one of the most original reflections on “plant metaphysics” and the “indigenous thought” but also the contours of a new or alternative philosophical subject: a thinking “we”. Drawing on Kusch’s indications, this text traces “an-other us” on the discursive level and develops the fundamental Kuschean intuition according to which such “we” has a synesthetic nature. From there, this article points to the conceptual reconfigurations of the vegetal and the indigenous by M. Marder and E. Viveiros de Castro to indicate in them the need to experiment, before and in the face of disaster, an-other “us” by/in thinking.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010013
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 14: Human Rights and
           Democracy—Obligations and Delusions

    • Authors: Hans Kolstad
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Based on today’s compromises with human rights and the numerous violations of them, which for several countries seems to be the rule rather than an exception, this article discusses the cause of the delusions that in today’s politics are attached to human rights. An analysis is made of the nature of human rights understood as something common and universal for all people. On this basis, a division of human rights is proposed, which at the same time means limiting them to perfect, imperfect and adventitious rights. Central to the discussion is the question of how the normative element of human rights should be understood. This article distinguishes between two approaches to the question, where one is identified as a source of current misconceptions about human rights, while the other is highlighted as a possible answer to key challenges facing democracy.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010014
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 15: Human Abductive Cognition Vindicated:
           Computational Locked Strategies, Dissipative Brains, and Eco-Cognitive

    • Authors: Lorenzo Magnani
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Locked and unlocked strategies are illustrated in this article as concepts that deal with important cognitive aspects of deep learning systems. They indicate different inference routines that refer to poor (locked) to rich (unlocked) cases of creative production of creative cognition. I maintain that these differences lead to important consequences when we analyze computational deep learning programs, such as AlphaGo/AlphaZero, which are able to realize various types of abductive hypothetical reasoning. These programs embed what I call locked abductive strategies, so, even if they present spectacular performances for example in games, they are characterized by poor types of hypothetical creative cognition insofar as they are constrained in what I call eco-cognitive openness. This openness instead characterizes unlocked human cognition that pertains to higher kinds of abductive reasoning, in both the creative and diagnostic cases, in which cognitive strategies are instead unlocked. This special kind of “openness” is physically rooted in the fundamental character of the human brain as an open system constantly coupled with the environment (that is, an “open” or “dissipative” system): its activity is the uninterrupted attempt to achieve the equilibrium with the environment in which it is embedded, and this interplay can never be switched off without producing severe damage to the brain. The brain cannot be conceived as deprived of its physical quintessence that is its openness. In the brain, contrary to the computational case, ordering is not derived from the outside thanks to what I have called in a recent book “computational domestication of ignorant entities”, but it is the direct product of an “internal” open dynamical process of the system.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 16: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of
           Philosophies in 2021

    • Authors: Philosophies Editorial Office Philosophies Editorial Office
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 17: On Some Epistemological Advantages of the
           Notion of “Intervenient Aesthetic Field”

    • Authors: Giovanni Matteucci
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The reality of the aesthetic seems to manifest itself more and more in relational and immersive ways that defy analyses that follow the trail of the modern tradition of philosophy, based on the dual gnoseological relationship between subject and object. Even some areas of the new cognitive sciences seem to converge towards a conception of experience as a complex horizon in which variously related vectors operate. From this point of view, it is worth exploring the notion of “field” as a conceptual tool to describe the aesthetic. In this paper we will consider two possible uses of this notion in reference to the aesthetic: to describe experiential modes (following Arnold Berleant), and to describe social dynamics (following Pierre Bourdieu). Yet, the starting point will be some considerations provided by Peter Abbs. We will thus try to show how the notion of “aesthetic field” can be consonant with scientific settings that advocate models of mind that stress its being extended and situated. A particular test bed will be the psychology of art as a discipline spanning philosophical knowledge and empirical investigation. In this key will also be considered the so-called “experiential revolution” in psychology, which indicates an extra-cognitive horizon variously coinciding with the perspective of an aesthetic research focused on the conception of aisthesis as a system of practices of perception, emotion, and expression. According to this conception, the dynamics within the aesthetic field, such as those related to the nexus between perceptual contents and aesthetic properties, or between emotional content and the practices of sensing could prove to be dynamics of “intervenience,” rather than of supervenience.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 18: The Mathematics of Desert: Merit, Fit, and

    • Authors: Stephen Kershnar, Michael Tooley
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Here, we argue for a mathematical equation that captures desert. Our procedure consists of setting out principles that a correct equation must satisfy and then arguing that our set of equations satisfies them. We then consider two objections to the equation. First, an objector might argue that desert and well-being separately contribute to intrinsic goodness, and they do not separately contribute. The concern here is that our equations treat them as separate contributors. Second, our set of desert-equations are unlike equations in science because our equations involve multiple desert-equations with the applicable equation depending on how the variables are filled out. Neither objection succeeds.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010018
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 19: Voice Syncretism Crosslinguistically: The
           View from Minimalism

    • Authors: Despina Oikonomou, Artemis Alexiadou
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Voice syncretism is widely attested crosslinguistically. In this paper, we discuss three different types of Voice syncretism, under which the same morpheme participates in different configurations. We provide an approach under which the same Voice head can convey different interpretations depending on the environment it appears in, thus building on the notion of allosemy. We show that, in all cases under investigation, allosemy is closely associated with the existence of idiosyncratic patterns. By contrast, we notice that allosemy and idiosyncrasy are not present in analytic passive and causative constructions across different languages. We argue that the distinguishing feature between the two types of constructions is whether the passive and the causative interpretation comes from the Voice head, thus forming a single domain with the vP or whether passive and causative semantics are realized by distinct heads above the Voice layer, thus forming two distinct domains.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010019
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 20: Computability, Notation, and de re
           Knowledge of Numbers

    • Authors: Stewart Shapiro, Eric Snyder, Richard Samuels
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Saul Kripke once noted that there is a tight connection between computation and de re knowledge of whatever the computation acts upon. For example, the Euclidean algorithm can produce knowledge of which number is the greatest common divisor of two numbers. Arguably, algorithms operate directly on syntactic items, such as strings, and on numbers and the like only via how the numbers are represented. So we broach matters of notation. The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between the notations acceptable for computation, the usual idealizations involved in theories of computability, flowing from Alan Turing’s monumental work, and de re propositional attitudes toward numbers and other mathematical objects.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010020
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 21: Aesthetics without Objects: Towards a
           Process-Oriented Aesthetic Perception

    • Authors: Nicola Perullo
      First page: 21
      Abstract: In this paper, I suggest an aesthetic model that is consistent with anti-foundational scientific knowledge. How has an aesthetics without foundation to be configured' In contrast to the conventional subject/object model, with idealistic and subjective aesthetics, but also with object-oriented assumptions, I suggest that aesthetics has to be characterized as relational aesthetics in terms of process-oriented perception and that this leads to an Aesthetics Without Objects (AWO) approach. The relational nature of processes means that they do not happen inter-, that is, between ontologically delimited and stable entities, but rather they correspond between relations. I will try to show that AWO matches well with the onto-phenomenological-epistemic and relational models proposed by recent theories in different fields of science, especially in the relational interpretation of quantum physics. The field of aesthetics, then, does not indicate perceptual fixed contents—either subjective or objectual properties—rather it emerges from a correspondence occurring in an engaged and situated perceptual movement, an agencing that is prior to any sharp distinction between a perceiver and a perceived. I propose to call haptic this perceptual agencing. In the first section, I describe the reasons according to which the adoption of AWO seems more correct and advisable, both with respect to contemporary scientific models and to the current ecological changes on the planet. In the second section, I portray some characteristics of AWO. In the third section, I argue that AWO calls for haptic perception. In the fourth section, I briefly draw some meta-aesthetics consequences concerning, on the one side, socio-political issues of AWO and, on the other side, the possibility for a theory in an anti-foundational model. I conclude with a proposal: a process-oriented aesthetics approach has to be understood mainly as an art of thinking. This means rethinking and re-evaluating the idea of aesthetics as an artisan thought.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010021
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Philosophies, Vol. 7, Pages 22: The Ontological Role of Applied
           Mathematics in Virtual Worlds

    • Authors: Miklós Hoffmann
      First page: 22
      Abstract: In this paper, I will argue that with the emergence of digital virtual worlds (in video games, animation movies, etc.) by the animation industry, we need to rethink the role and authority of mathematics, also from an ontological point of view. First I will demonstrate that the application of mathematics to the creation and description of the digital, virtual worlds behaves in many respects analogously to the application of mathematics to the description of real-world phenomena from the viewpoint of the history of science. However, from other aspects, the application of mathematics significantly differs in this virtual world from the application to real-world fields. The main thesis of my paper is that the role of mathematics in the digital animation industry can be ontologically different from its usual role. In the application of mathematics to digital virtual worlds, mathematical concepts are no longer just modelling tools, forming a subordinated, computational basis, but they can direct and organise, and even create non-mathematical theory, something that we can call, for example, digital physics and biology. I will study this new, creative role of mathematics through some concrete phenomena, specifically through gravity. Our conclusion is that the animation industry opens an entirely new chapter in the relationship between (digital) sciences and mathematics.
      Citation: Philosophies
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/philosophies7010022
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
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