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Itinera
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2039-9251
Published by U of Milan Homepage  [34 journals]
  • Worringer, Dewey, Goodman, and the Concept of Aesthetic Experience: A
           Biological Perspective

    • Authors: Fabio Tononi
      Abstract: The purpose of this essay is to advocate the ideas of Wilhelm Worringer, John Dewey, and Nelson Goodman on the roles of perception, empathy, emotion, and enjoyment in aesthetic experience. I will attempt to do this by offering a novel interpretation of some of these thinkers’ insights from a biological perspective. To this end, I will consider the following questions. What is an aesthetic experience' Does such a thing exist at all' If yes, is there a correlation between the concept of the aesthetic and perception' Is it possible, then, to find a biological basis for aesthetic experience' My argument is that a fresh analysis of the aesthetics of Worringer, Dewey, and Goodman, in light of some of the discoveries and theories of the cognitive neurosciences – such as the biological correlations of emotions, the “as-if-body-loop” theory, the discovery of mirror neurons, and the phenomenon of embodied simulation – may provide a contribution to longstanding philosophical problems relating to the nature of aesthetic experience.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18563
       
  • Measuring Experiences of Art in the Museum: Exploring Methodology for
           Getting It Right

    • Authors: Gemma Schino, Barend van Heusden, Franziska Nori, Ralf F. A. Cox, Héctor G. Gallegos González, Lisa-Maria van Klaveren
      Abstract: Can we measure the experiences of physical and VR art installations' How could that be done' The present research attempts to answer these questions through the use of a multimethod approach to assess every dimension of the experience of art. Wristband and questionnaires have been used as research tools to understand how the experience of art installations in the museum takes place and to study it, through and across two different installations. To examine art experiences in an ecologically valid setting, a pop-up lab was used at the Frankfurter Kunstverein, creating an opportunity to reach the «golden path» for empirical investigation of art experiences and, in the present instance, specific experience of art installations. Two installations have been selected from the exhibition «The Intelligence of Plants» (16.10.2021 – 20.02.2022) as single-cases to explore a suitable methodology for the experience of art installations. Both installations were chosen by the curator Franziska Nori for their shared goal of connecting the observers’ bodies with the ones of the giant trees featured in both installations, in order to look for commonalities with other non-human fellow beings. Additionally, both these installations aim at evoking experiences of the sublime in the audience. Sensations, emotions, and thoughts, as well as physiological reactions and movements, partake in these experiences. Data collected with the presented methodology is potentially very rich thanks to the presence of original art installations (rather than their reproductions) over the space and time they are meant to be visited. Data from the questionnaires can be considered ecologically valid, as consisting of accurate subjective reportages of the visitors while actually experiencing the installations in situ. The proper measurement of physical and behavioral patterns is however harder to achieve as it relies on biometrics in a real-world setting. To overcome this issue and have more control over the multiple variables that can affect the measurements, a collaboration among disciplines and professionals from the art sector is at the heart of the matter.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18562
       
  • The usual suspect: individuation, interpretation, and art

    • Authors: Tomás N. Castro
      Abstract: Some objects and some things that happen are difficult to understand because they escape what one is used to find. When something cannot be explained by custom or the habitual rules of a society, a charitable reaction assumes things nevertheless make sense, but they demand that one finds explanations that may apply to them and therefore explain of the objects under observation. Changes in contexts and places where things are found modify how phenomena are expected to happen; associations, metaphors, and interpretation are some mechanisms of change that displace habits in place. Art ultimately is the suspect when phenomena in our everyday life manifest these changes.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18564
       
  • Introduzione

    • Authors: Linda Bertelli, Gabriele Gambaro, Andrea Mecacci, Marcello Sessa
      Abstract: Colour reflects the “fluid” nature of the image: both can be considered as a factual, objective evidence of the external world as well as a subjective and sometimes deceptive re-representation of it. The section entitled “Colour. Photography, Image, Reality” collects essays that widely investigate the power of colour to unfold new sensibilities and practices linked the fruition, the creation and the use of images, across very different media: from literature to social media. The authors develop some core themes, such as the aesthetics of colors, the relevance of intermediality to comprehend specific experiences, and the epistemological and political implications of color technology. The reflections on images encounter the philosophical debate on colour, offering the opportunity to examine every pattern of recognition (that can be ours or of others, human or non-human) and contributing to the discussion on the contingent and questioning relationship between image and reality.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18543
       
  • Daltonico. Il colore tra riscrittura della realtà e cliché
           sociale

    • Authors: Andrea Mecacci
      Abstract: Inevitably associated with perceptual or image theories, thematized through its psychologization or through a symbolic-anthropological perspective, color has often been taken away from one of its possible stories. The present contribution attempts to investigate this path in which color in modernity has become the pretext for a rewriting, often of rupture, of reality as in the case of the translations from the Greek of Hölderlin and the poetology of Rimbaud up to the Bauhaus aesthetics, but also its opposite: a sort of consolidation of social clichés as Abraham Moles (speaking of “sentimental chromatism”) and Jean Baudrillard (interpreting color as a mere semiotic value independent of the taste and perception of the subject) have shown in different but complementary ways.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18544
       
  • Colore, sinestesia ed emozione nella cultura visuale tra Otto e Novecento

    • Authors: Alessandra Ronetti
      Abstract: The idea that colour can have a psychological impact and in some way influence emotions has specific historical roots in the origins of modern visual culture. Therefore, this essay considers, in an epistemological perspective, the study of colour as a problem within the history of perception. Focusing on some key issues of the late 19th century artistic, cultural and psychophysiological debate on synaesthesia – in relation to the theories on colour and emotion –, this research interrogates in particular the link between image, sound, colour and the developments of chromatic music. The turn of the 20th century is a crucial moment to understand the historical basis of a new interpretation of colour, whose aesthetic effectiveness is connected to its power of conditioning the spectator’s senses. This article argues that the resulting emphasis on the viewer’s embodied reaction to colour also leads to rethink the status of still and moving images within the framework of immersive colour experiences based on the relationship between body, medium and senses.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18545
       
  • La dimensione cromatica nella riflessione di Gottfried Boehm. La
           differenza iconica, il colore e un confronto con la filosofia francese

    • Authors: Anita Merlini
      Abstract: Our paper aims at analyzing the relationship between the dimension of colour and the concept of iconic difference as it has been developed by the German philosopher Gottfried Boehm. In particular, we show how colours can contribute to the blossoming of iconic meaning in a way that cannot be fully expressed through language, thus giving access to a more authentic ontological truth of the object represented in the image. Moreover, we introduce a comparison between Boehm, Merleau-Ponty and Derrida. More specifically, we argue that Boehm’s understanding of the colour and of the concept of difference relies largely on the work of Merleau-Ponty and diverges for this reason with Derrida’s approach towards colours. Therefore, we conclude that any comparison between Boehm and Derrida should be undertaken prudently, if our goal is to appreciate the specific material features of images against the reduction of textual analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18546
       
  • Morfologia e Modernismo. Riflessioni sull’estetica fotografica di Karl
           Blossfeldt e László Moholy-Nagy

    • Authors: Alberto Giacomelli
      Abstract: The article aims to shed light on the peculiar relationship between Blossfeldt’s photographic aesthetics and that of Moholy-Nagy in a novel way. I intended to show, starting with the essay “Short History of Photography” and the review “News about flowers” by Walter Benjamin, the peculiar character of Blossfeldt’s photographs collected in his book Urformen der Kunst (1928). What emerges from this photo-collection is first and foremost a fundamental ontological difference between photo-graphs and pictorial chrome-graphs, which I have developed through comparison with Gadamer’s reflection on the portrait. I then showed the profound affinity of Blossfeldt’s photography with Riegl’s reflection on ornamentation, Goethean morphology and Klee’s painting. Despite the apparent proximity of Blossfeldt’s work to traditional photography and the so-called Neue Sachlichkeit, I have argued, in the last part of the contribution, the affinity of this work to certain aspects of Moholy-Nagy’s Neue Sehen. Like Moholy-Nagy, Blossfeldt intends to implement the perceptual possibilities of the human being, giving him access to a new “optical unconscious”.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18547
       
  • Fotocolor Le distorsioni moderniste della pittura fiamminga tra cromatico
           e fotografico

    • Authors: Marcello Sessa
      Abstract: In this essay I aim to draw close to an exceptional case study in American modernist art theory: Clement Greenberg’s reinterpretation of Flemish and Dutch painting. I will focus on it in connection with the Greenbergian vision of modernism as a whole. Firstly, I will make a genealogy of the “Flemish turn” in the history of aesthetics, by analyzing the key moments (Winckelmann, Hegel, Baudelaire) in which the so-called Northern Primitives have served to frame modern painting, in contrast to Southern classic Renaissance. Then, I will concentrate on Greenberg’s use of this heritage, by comparing his linking Flemish colour with photography to Svetlana Alpers’ notion of “art of describing”. It will emerge that an original interaction between colour and photography is given, that is suitable both to the notion of realism and to its modernist acceptance.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18548
       
  • Istantanee della vita moderna: l’impressionismo tra realtà,
           fotografia e colore

    • Authors: Immacolata De Pascale
      Abstract: The essay aims to investigate the ways in which Impressionist art participates in socio- cultural modernity. Emancipation from the academic tradition, the choice of subjects from everyday reality, the influence of photography and the study of color are some of the elements through which the Impressionists investigated the reality of their time.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18549
       
  • Colore e fotografia

    • Authors: Giorgio Faccincani
      Abstract: Do black-and-white and colour photography really represent two different and complementary expressive languages' Or is one merely a mirror of the other, in that we 'see' colours even where they are apparently not present' Our brain reconstructs them even in their absence: cones and rods in the retina operate simultaneously and not alternately, and visual memories influence the decoding of shades of grey in a chromatic key. Black and white are nothing more than the two (unreachable) extremes of a continuum and are therefore fully part of our coloured world. All the various, unnamable as they are in fact indiscriminate, hues contain the so-called achromatics that delimit, both perceptually and psychologically, the space of colour and our way of relating to it.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18550
       
  • Shifting paradigms Mexico in color: Ellen Auerbach’s exile
           photography

    • Authors: Camilla Balbi
      Abstract: In 1955, Ellen Auerbach, a Weimarian advertising photographer of the Bauhaus circles, chose to document her trip to Mexico with her colleague Eliot Porter, using color photography for the first time in her career.
      This article seeks to contextualize, for the first time, Auerbach’s decision to use color in her work – and within the history of modernism in general. In a discourse where exile studies interweave closely with art theory, I intend to trace the paths of a modernism that might have been, but that was erased by history and migration, demonstrating how the use of color in a non-Western exile context became a starting point for rethinking the aims and epistemic possibilities of the photographic medium within and beyond the modernist perspective.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18551
       
  • Colorizzazione. Tanatoprassi e sopravvivenza delle immagini
           d’archivio

    • Authors: Renato Pisapia
      Abstract: The anthropological desire to revitalize images runs throughout the history of cinema and is particularly linked to colour and colorization practices. But, as Barthes notes, any attempt to revitalize is nothing more than a cosmetic, the kind used to paint corpses. When we look at a colorized image, we cannot fail to see death beneath the opaque layer of colour. In this article, we highlight and analyse three colorization techniques corresponding to as many attempts to bring images to life (hand painted, rotoscope and AI automatic colour) before proposing colorization as a tactics for the archival image to satisfy algorithmic desire of «survivre».
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18552
       
  • Feed your Self. Sulla colorizzazione del Sé nell’era del
           digitale

    • Authors: Anna Chiara Sabatino
      Abstract: At the time of Instagramism, social media profiles are characterized by recognizable and homogeneous visual theme. Following the spread of the filter culture which allows greater control over numerous chromo-luministic parameters, users are confronted with a normalization of the notions of editing and color correction before every contents’ online publication. The content creators are capable to creatively make what Lev Manovich defines style of existence, using the post-production tools now maneuverable to achieve the desired representation. In a self-representative but social dispositif, the aesthetics of filter triggers chromatic characterizations and compositions such as the color grid. The paper intends to deepen the theoretical and methodological relationship between the social self-representation and the chromatic practice, with particular attention to the ways in which the coloristic connotations led to pleasant and gratifying presentation of the Self on Instagram platform.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18553
       
  • La questione del colore oltre i generi fotografici. Temi e linguaggi
           trasversali per una fotografia contemporanea.

    • Authors: Pio Tarantini
      Abstract: The issue of color in photography constitutes one of those issues that have characterized and enlivened, especially since the post-war period, the debate around a fundamental aspect of the language of photography. I have limited myself to just hinting at the more dated aspects of this discussion (e.g., whether color photography is to be considered authentic photography in a vision that identifies its chromatic language with pure black and white) while trying to outline a reflection that is more attentive to current issues. In particular – the subtitle of this essay pinpoints this aspect – I have inserted the topic of color in the phase of transformation that photography is undergoing. Specifically, photography is considered and practiced not only in a documentary and mimetic function, but also as a multifaceted tool strongly linked to the experiences of the other visual arts. From this perspective, I have added my personal experience as a photographer to some historicized practices, of which I give a few examples.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18554
       
  • Introduction

    • Authors: Alice Barale, Claudio Rozzoni
      Abstract: This monographic section of “Itinera” develops some of the questions which were raised at the summer school “Aesthetics, Technique and Emotion”, held in June 2020 at the Lake Como School of Advanced Studies (https://aeat.lakecomoschool.org/). The summer school was organized by the University of Milan in collaboration with the European Seminar of Aesthetics (https://sites.unimi.it/eu_aesthetics/). The aim of the school was to investigate the meaning of aesthetics today, in light of the different changes that are occurring in our aesthetic perception of the world. How is technology transforming the way we view the world and art, and what role do emotions still play in this context' What is the value of the performing arts in facing these new challenges, and how is aesthetic experience related to the current issues of morality and politics' These are some of the problems that were raised at the school and this issue seeks to develop them further.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18555
       
  • Poetry and Poetics: some critical-creative reflections

    • Authors: Christopher Norris
      Abstract: Christopher Norris is Emeritus professor at Cardiff University. Recently, he began to address philosophical questions through poetry. In his paper, he explains why. Rather than expressing definite ideas in an elegant way, poetry can be intended as a process from which new ideas (also philosophical ones) can emerge. The result are a number of poems which cover a variety of issues, ranging from philosophy to politics, arts, history of ideas and science. Itinera has already begun to publish a few of these poems in previous issues and is now presenting three of them on painters (Turner, Matisse, Magritte).
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18556
       
  • Two Sabbath Stories in Walter Benjamin’s Kafka Essay: Wishing on a
           Constellation of Three Stars

    • Authors: Freddie Rokem
      Abstract: This essay examines the two stories about or related to the Sabbath which Walter Benjamin included in his essay commemorating the tenth anniversary of Kafka’s death. Both are pastiches of Hasidic stories, apparently written by Benjamin himself. The first is based on a legend about a princess who prepares a festive meal for her fiancé on Friday evening, as the Sabbath begins; and the second is about the Jews in a Hasidic village who have assembled on Saturday evening, as the Sabbath is about to end, telling their wishes to each other. These stories, the essay suggests, are not only important for assessing Benjamin’s reading of Kafka’s oeuvre, but must at the same time also be seen as an expression of Benjamin’s own, gradually developing understanding of the Messianic dimensions of his own philosophy of history.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18557
       
  • On Felt, Mice and Moths Change and Permanence in a Work by Joseph Beuys

    • Authors: Tancredi Gusman
      Abstract: In November 1970, Joseph Beuys and Terry Fox performed Isolation Unit in Düsseldorf in the cellar of the Kunstakademie, an hour-long performance in front of an audience of about thirty people. As in many of Beuys’s performances, the relation with (live or dead) animals and the use of natural materials played a crucial role. This is evident by the title he later used for the work: Action the dead mouse. During this performance, Beuys wore, for the first time, the felt suit that would later become one of his most iconic art-objects. Felt, like fat, is one of those organic matters recurring in his actions and refers to the warmth of the body, the energy of life. Shortly after the performance, the Felt Suit was (re)produced as a multiple in an edition of 100 copies by the Galerie René Block in Berlin. This essay starts with Isolation Unit and analyzes strategies for dealing with the organic and inorganic transformations of the multiple that originated from it. In doing so, it investigates contemporary approaches to the preservation of ‘ephemeral’ works and performance remains and discusses their consequences for the epistemology and ontology of the arts.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18558
       
  • Esperienza estetica interattiva e individuazione Nota su U-DATInos

    • Authors: Saverio Macrì
      Abstract: Starting from the analysis of U-DATInos, an artistic project realised by Salvatore Iaconesi and Oriana Persico, the article intends to investigate the essential traits and conditions of possibility of the interactive aesthetic experience. In order to understand the phenomenon of interactivity from a philosophical point of view, it may be of some interest to take a closer look at the concept of relation. The topic will be developed by comparing the perspectives of Gilbert Simondon and Alfred N. Whitehead. The primacy of the relation is precisely the phenomenon that both Simondon and Whitehead, independently but not incompatibly, sought to highlight. A relationship rich in consequences is thus formed between art and philosophy. Philosophy is enriched by its contact with artistic practices, reconsidering the categories it has at its disposal or creating new ones; in doing so, it provides art theory with the conceptual tools it needs, without, however, claiming to reduce the meaning of art within the dimension of the concept.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18559
       
  • The Carnal Specter: The Virtual Reality User Against Fragmentation

    • Authors: Giulia Rainoldi
      Abstract: Since Virtual Reality (VR) is characterised by the absence of the frame, the VR user has the impression of being immersed into the image, thus overcoming the distinction between spectacle and spectator. Therefore, the user becomes herself part of the work of art, exposing the limits of the Cartesian dualisms dominating the Western thought and raising critical questions about traditional aesthetic categories. Hence, my paper aims at pondering on the ontological status of the VR user. In opposition to Simon Penny’s argument, which proposes that VR fragments the viewer into a physical body versus a virtual one, my research goal is to clarify that the participant’s physical body and virtual body are inseparable and firmly intertwined. In order to do so, I analyse the VR documentary Send me Home (Evanisko, 2019). The point of departure is the acknowledgment that the VR user is invisible both to herself and to the other characters with whom she shares the virtual space. Following Jacques Derrida’s Specters of Marx, I argue that this invisibility reveals the ontological status of the VR participant as a specter. However, my goal is to show that the spectrality of the user is not in contradiction with her carnality: on the contrary, even when one tries to bracket the body, the body remains vigilant, interpreting the world through its flesh. To conclude, then, I argue that the body is the condition of possibility for the user to feel immersed into the virtual world, and that, contrary to the fragmentation argument, physical body and virtual body cannot be thought as separate.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18560
       
  • Expressiveness. A methodological approach

    • Authors: Marco Franceschina
      Abstract: The debate on expressiveness is one of the most relevant in contemporary aesthetics. In fact, the possibility of an emotional linguistic expression referring to artistic objects or natural situations crosses a number of themes of classical and analytical aesthetics. The aim of this essay is therefore to enucleate what the presuppositions of a theory of expressiveness should be, starting from their historical genesis in the «expression theory» elaborated by Dewey. In particular, through the critical examination of two contemporary orientations on this issue – the Wollheim projectivist theory and the profile one by Kivy –, the aim is to bring attention to two indispensable aspects of a theory of expressiveness, which, although in need of revision, were already recognizable in the expression theory: a. a theory of intentionality and b. the dialectical consideration between Leib and Körper. In particular, the direction sketched at the end would suggest that it is this dialectical experience of the body that could be considered as the intentional condition for the existence and recognizability of expressive phenomena.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18561
       
  • Immaginazione, sublime e apertura del tempo Deleuze lettore
           dell’estetica kantiana

    • Authors: Anna De Martino
      Abstract: The aim of this essay is to outline the genesis of a plural conception of temporality within Gilles Deleuze's thought, using as a starting point his reflection on the Kantian sublime and showing how this reflection has significant repercussions in place of the pages that Deleuze dedicates to painting. To show the implications of the overcoming that Deleuzian conception tries to make on the ordinal character of Kantian temporality, we will first focus on the role played by imagination within the doctrine of faculties; then, we will focus on the passage from the ordinal temporality disclosed by Kant to the plural one conceived by Deleuze. Finally, we will show how this new temporality manifests itself through Deleuzian aesthetic conceptions in the field of painting, with reference to the notions of "actual" and "virtual" and to the role that the Kantian sublime continues to play in this phase of Deleuzian thought.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18565
       
  • An Interdisciplinary Perspective Towards Explaining the Visual Aesthetic
           Experience: The Case of Emotion

    • Authors: Ryan Slaby
      Abstract: This paper discusses the empirical findings concerning the visual aesthetic experience in a neurological context. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to shed light on the common ground across neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy to pave new roads for empirical research. Cognitive models posit that the brain employs neural networks mediating bottom-up and top- down processes, and in effect, engenders emotion and reward throughout the visual aesthetic experience. Likewise, empathy and its corresponding recruitment of bodily processes may facilitate the understanding of a visual artwork’s depicted emotion, which may allow the viewer to engage with the visual artwork from a psychological distance and, consequently, to experience pleasure regardless of the visual artwork’s emotional content. In conclusion, empathetic processes may be central to the visual aesthetic experience and should be considered by future empirical research investigating the visual aesthetic experience.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18566
       
  • Tra ricerca e memoria: Leggenda di Alessandro Solbiati

    • Authors: Graziella Seminara
      Abstract: The article examines Alessandro Solbiati’s second theatrical work, Leggenda, which takes inspiration from the tale “The Grand Inquisitor” included in Dostoevsky’s novel The Karamazov Brothers. After presenting the meaning of this tale in the novel of the Russian writer, it reconstructs the genesis of the opera and the structure of the libretto. Then it analyses the musical forms, the vocal language and the composer’s ‘pensée sonorielle’ and considers them in the light of his musical dramaturgy. Finally, it outlines Solbiati’s aesthetical conception, his relationship with the musical tradition and his personal stance on postmodernism and postwebernian avant-garde.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18567
       
  • La realtà è l’unico genio L’America di Wallace
           Stevens

    • Authors: Stefano Esengrini
      Abstract: The devastation of truth today at work in the Western world forces those who follow the philosophical and poetic word to rethink the meaning of our stay on Earth and to found a new world in which everyone can live within the space and time opened by the relationship between man and the divine. In this perspective, the poetic work of Wallace Stevens lays the foundations for the birth of that new world America set out to be and which does not have its roots in the illusion of abundance that soon resulted in the most alienating consumerism, but in a reality that preserves in its apparent anonymity the trace of a possible new beginning. «The fundamental difficulty in any art – wrote Stevens – is the problem of the normal». The poet’s task, in fact, is to grasp «the full flower of the actual, not the California fruit of the ideal».
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18569
       
  • Produzione emotiva di senso comune. Advertising a matrice estetica

    • Authors: Sara Matetich
      Abstract: Aesthetics and Economics, both immanent sciences producing sense, conciliate (find an agreement between) spirit and sense by making themselves privileged regulators of the effectiveness of a peculiar effect, produced by the significant cognitive bond established between them. This original effect that, in its interactive comparison with the subject, usefully covers the object, places the ‘product’ on a market regulated by economic laws, but on the sole condition that it is not ‘consumed’ within it, that is to say that it maintains itself poietically operative in the recreational act of the relationship with the consumer. It produces non-objects, sensuous prototypes of sense, able to make themselves attractive products (with the double value of both use and exchange) before which the subject mimics – without distorting it – its own nature, putting it at the service of commerce (that is of its being with the product: cum merx). It is the Halo Effect. It necessarily precedes the formulation of any judgment because it is the regulatory precondition of every emotional production of common sense, which becomes an eminent contemporary device regulating the interaction between subject and object in the pre-vision of a possible knowledge of the world.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18571
       
  • La festa Potenza di un’immagine estetica

    • Authors: Giovanni Ferrario
      Abstract: The article aims to investigate the relationship between the festive act and the artistic event. What Furio Jesi defines as “peaceful celebration” is likened to the ancient Greek festivities in which the poet shows the unrepeatable repetition of the artistic event, and thus frames it within the community-based realm of friendship. While singing the feast, artists preserve memory and realise an “expropriative” event. This creates an atmosphere in which one dwells in the “unappropriable”, i.e., what one can neither buy nor possess. Although art can enter the market economy and bend to the laws of exhibition, within itself it remains a pulsating festive image that is never entirely reducible to mere commodity. The event of art, in this sense, brings about the unveiling of an excess and turns it into potential. As their role is to trigger and share the celebration, poets are holders of madness understood as the matrix of a festive wisdom, which allows a perception of life as in-depth, dancing rhythm, and which makes itself available to the human community as an opportunity for transformation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18572
       
  • L'uso delle immagini artistiche e non nella cultura contemporanea: il
           pensiero di due filosofi contemporanei (Jean Baudrillard e Mohamed Abed
           al-Jabri)

    • Authors: Sameh Eltantawy
      Abstract: The main purpose of this research is to analyze and understand the use of artistic and non-artistic images between East and West and especially of images accompanied by words written in Arabic. In reality there is a lot of information, images and falsifying words, in fact as stated by the French philosopher Jean Baudrillard: "when the image cancels reality" it is our duty to interpret it and give it the right meaning (Jean Baudrillard, 1988). In this regard We can say with certainty that very often, when the images shown contain writings in Arabic or in other languages that are not well known in the West, the message may not be fully intelligible or decodable and this prevents the understanding of the images themselves which may mistakenly be deemed untrue. We live in the era of images, and since these dominate the panorama of the contemporary world at the level of science, culture, economy and media, today as never before they are so fundamental in political and social life. To better understand this phenomenon of dependence of individuals on technology, television, social networks and videos, we will use the methodology of interpretation that will allow us to analyze these phenomena and these means which, taken in themselves, have no negative or positive value, which however, they must be considered critically in order to be able to use them correctly and consciously. With this research I aim to establish a link between different cultures, to find a common thought and contribute to the formation of a society, united against violence and terrorism.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.54103/2039-9251/18577
       
 
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