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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
Showing 1 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted by number of followers
Philosophical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
European Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Political Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Australasian Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Philosophy & Public Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
International Journal for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Contemporary Political Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Nous     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of the History of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Philosophical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
British Journal for the History of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Applied Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Theology & Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Moral Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Philosophy and Phenomenological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Philosophy of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 32)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Philosophy and Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Continental Philosophy Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 28)
Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Constellations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Canadian Journal of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
British Journal of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Philosophy & Social Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Linguistics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Philosophy and Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
The Heythrop Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Philosophy Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Philosophers' Imprint     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Assuming Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of the Philosophy of History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pragmatics & Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Philosophy East and West     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Midwest Studies In Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Media Ethics : Exploring Questions of Media Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Episteme     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Phronesis : A journal for Ancient Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Epistemology: A Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Philosophy & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Review of Philosophy and Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Pragmatics and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Reformed Theological Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Ethical Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Global Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Chinese Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Philosophy of Photography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Open Journal of Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Utilitas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Estudos Bíblicos     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Dao : A Journal of Comparative Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Pacific Philosophical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Polis : The Journal of the Society for Greek Political Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
HTS Theological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Philosophical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Film-Philosophy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Research in Phenomenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Philosophical Books     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Philosophia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Philosophical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Myth & Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nordic Journal of Aesthetics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Speculative Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Metaphilosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SubStance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Philosophical Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Contributions to the History of Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Southern Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Philosophical Explorations: An International Journal for the Philosophy of Mind and Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Axiomathes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Philosophical Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contemporary Chinese Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dialogue Canadian Philosophical Review/Revue canadienne de philosophie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
History and Philosophy of Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Think     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Philosophical Magazine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Critical Realism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Endeavour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Catholic Record, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Nietzsche Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Philosophical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Review of Contemporary Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of the Platonic Tradition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch für Antike und Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Philosophical Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Church Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Franciscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Philosophy = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Wysbegeerte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hume Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Philosophy in Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Humanist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Religion and Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Studia Logica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Pluralist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Russell : the Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Philology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
CR : The New Centennial Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Utopian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kantian Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Topoi     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bijdragen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for the Study of Skepticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Žižek Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Empedocles : European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Horizonte : Revista de Estudos de Teologia e Ciências da Religião     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cultura : International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Erasmus Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Friends of Lutheran Archives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Scottish Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Poiesis & Praxis : International Journal of Technology Assessment and Ethics of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aesthetic Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sartre Studies International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Quaestio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Grazer Philosophische Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Philosophy & Theory in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Parapsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Éthique publique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Noesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Philosophia Scientiæ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Philosophique de Louvain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nóema     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Quality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PAN: Philosophy Activism Nature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Temporalités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethische Perspectieven     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Humanistic Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Laval théologique et philosophique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue d’études benthamiennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eleutheria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Husserl Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veritas : Revista de Filosofí­a y Teología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hobbes Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Collingwood and British Idealism Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Grotiana     Hybrid Journal  
Signos Filosóficos     Open Access  
Eidos     Open Access  
Cinta de Moebio     Open Access  
Cuyo Anuario de Filosofía Argentina y Americana     Open Access  
Tópicos. Revista de Filosofía de Santa Fe     Open Access  
Rhuthmos     Open Access  
Philosophiques     Open Access  
Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics     Open Access  
Studia Philosophica Estonica     Open Access  
Synthesis (La Plata)     Open Access  
Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access  
Circe de clásicos y modernos     Open Access  
Estudios de Filosofía Práctica e Historia de las Ideas     Open Access  
Doctor virtualis     Open Access  
Humanidades Médicas     Open Access  
Methodos     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Astérion     Open Access  
Trans/Form/Ação - Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Russian Studies in Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription  

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Epistemology & Philosophy of Science
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1811-833X
Published by Philosophy Documentation Center Homepage  [89 journals]
  • The Contemporary Philosophy of Science: An Eternal Return

    • Authors: Ilya T. Kasavin;Lada V. Shipovalova
      Abstract: The article explores the contemporary philosophy of science in the context of the idea of eternal return. The problematization of the intellectual field “after postpositivism” runs through the renewed questions “what'”, “how'”, “who'” and “for what'” of scientific research. This questioning is a search for bearings in the historical space and time that determines “after what'” or “back to whom'” the thinking about science unfolds. Such a reflexive appeal to the origins leads to the ideas of the philosophy of science of the first half of the twentieth century. It is then that the main differences within the research of science were formed: between sociological and methodological approaches, between philosophy and disciplines that study science, between the goals of forming a worldview and managing science. The philosophy of science “after postpositivism” expresses itself in the controversial interpretation of the subject matter and method of the study of science, in the division of labor between disciplines and approaches that lose the possibility of constructive interaction and reach the point of “science wars”. In conclusion, it is argued that philosophy as the "hard core” of scientific research, a historical appeal to the origins of scientific activity and the interpretation of the scientific revolution as a renewal of tradition can make such modernity valuable for return.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Who Studies the Studies of Science and Technology' On the Principle of
           Reflexivity from Empirical and Theoretical Points of View

    • Authors: Olga E. Stoliarova
      Abstract: The article discusses the methodological principle of reflexivity as formulated within the strong program of the sociology of scientific knowledge (STS). The applicability of this principle in science and technology studies is analyzed from empirical and theoretical points of view. The principle of reflexivity expresses the requirement of scientific universalism: it forbids the exclusion of one’s own cognitive activity and its results (knowledge) from the world totality of objectively observable things and processes, in this case – beliefs. In D. Bloor’s imperative formulation, the principle prescribes applying the explanatory methodology of the strong program in relation to the strong program’s own fundamental theoretical and methodological concepts. The implementation of this principle in STS faces practical problems and theoretical paradoxes. In line with the methodology of the strong program, the author asks the question about the social conditions of the failure of the principle of reflexivity. The author shows that empirically cognizable social conditions for the realization of the principle of reflexivity can be fulfilled. However, their fulfillment does not lead to reflexive work, which presupposes an external position of the one who explains in relation to what is explained. In accordance with the postpositivist concept of the underdetermination of theory by facts, the external position is achieved through the speculative transition from the factual given to the hypothesis explaining this given. The author shows that the external position taken by internal critics of the STS research community becomes the position of speculative philosophy.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • On the Analysis of the Reflexion in Science, in the Russian Philosophy,
           and the STS Strong Program

    • Authors: Valentin A. Bazhanov
      Abstract: This reply draws attention to the importance of taking into account the results of the study of the phenomenon of reflexivity in scientific knowledge, which have been obtained in the domestic philosophical and methodological tradition. We believe that taking this kind of results into account could enrich the analysis of the strong programme in the STS. We touch the origins of reflexive tendencies, the reflexive and non-reflexive in scientific knowledge, personal and transpersonal forms, the types and levels of reflexion in science, as well as denote the mechanisms that allows taking an external position in relation to the subject about which reflexive procedures are carried out (if we mean the interval approach implementation).
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Philosophy and Science and Technology Studies: The Problem of

    • Authors: Sofia V. Pirozhkova
      Abstract: The response to the article by O.E. Stolyarova the author shows why the proposed justification for the place of philosophy in the structure of science and technology studies does not work well in relation to the tasks of interdisciplinary communication. It is argued that it is more effective to refer to historical examples and analyze them than to use a purely theoretical explanation of why these examples arise. It is pointed out that, despite the results of postpositivist research of science, the scientific community continues to rely on corporate “common sense”, in which science is seen as positive knowledge and on this basis is opposed to philosophy as a speculative discipline. The necessity of avoiding these ideas in the context of science policy tasks, primarily among scientific managers from among the scientists themselves, is substantiated.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Does the Philosophical Reflection on the Foundations of Scientific
           Research Follow the Empiricism Principle'

    • Authors: Vladimir N. Porus
      Abstract: It is argued that O.E. Stoliarova’s analysis of the STS programs leads her to a conclusion that in them the principle of reflexivity (in D. Bloor’s version) is not carried out though this contradicts the orientation of these programs on a self-reflection of the scientific bases. Hence, a problem arises: whether we will apply the principle of empiricism to justification of metascientific reasonings (in particular, to sociological explanations of knowing actions of scientists). This, in turn, leads to a problem of universality of philosophy as a platform for metascientific criticism. The formulation and the solution of such a problem assume the possibility of creation of metaphilosophical systems radicalizing the principle of reflexivity before its application to philosophy. Thereby the philosophy of science appears in the field of immanent paradoxes. An exit from similar paradoxes demands new prospect of philosophical researches.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • On the Universality of Philosophical Reflection: Reply to Critics

    • Authors: Olga E. Stoliarova
      Abstract: The author replies and comments on the critical remarks and ideas expressed by her opponents concerning the principle of reflexivity and its philosophical realization. The general idea of the opponents that philosophical reflection, even if addressed to itself, cannot ignore the results of empirical sciences, is highlighted.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Is Kuhn’s “World Change through Revolutions”

    • Authors: Paul Hoyningen-Huene
      Abstract: Kuhn’s talk of “world change through revolutions” has mostly been met with perplexity. What is it really that Kuhn wants to express in this strange way' I will first review what Kuhn exactly says on this topic. Next, I show that the world change talk is at least not inconsistent and has some initial plausibility. Then I will discuss whether “world change through revolutions” should be replaced by “change of world view”. This will show that “world change through revolutions” is motivated by a strictly non-presentist historiographic stance. However, Kuhn’s intended message can also be expressed in a philosophically much less provocative way.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • From “Paradigm” to “Disciplinary Matrix”: A Fatal

    • Authors: Nataliya I. Kuznetsova
      Abstract: The citation index of Thomas Kuhn’s work may strike any imagination. “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (first edition 1962) is undoubtedly a twentieth-century record-breaker in the field of philosophy of science in terms of such a scientometric parameter. But such fame has been bitter in many ways and placed a heavy burden on the author. For several decades he has been the target of the harshest and most severe criticism. Often the concept of “normal science” and the “scientific revolution” as a “Gestalt switch” was declared ridiculous and absurd. The paper analyses three lines of criticism of Kuhn’s concept: the first came from practicing scientists, the second from specialists in the philosophy of science (primarily proponents of “critical rationalism”), and the third from the field of social epistemology. Reproaches about the political bias of Kuhn’s concept were taken to extremes, since his views were widely popular. In our opinion, Kuhn should be called a victim of spontaneous hypercriticism. This circumstance did not allow him to improve the original model of scientific revolutions. In this respect, replacing the concept of “paradigm” with the concept of “disciplinary matrix” was a step backwards, not forwards. However, it is impossible to deny that in the field of the historiography of science, he acted as a real reformer. With the courage of Don Quixote, he defended the rights of historical reconstruction, the preservation of the historical past of science, which should not be completely assimilated within the framework of the modern system of knowledge. His motto was – “penetrate the minds of other people who lived in the past.” He boldly argued that in the process of historical development, science changes not only ideas about the object of knowledge (representations of the object), but also the reference of its ideas and concepts. Such a formulation of the question has not yet been fully reflected in modern epistemological concepts.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Incommensurability and Communication: To the Communicative Turn in the
           Philosophy of Science

    • Authors: Alexander Yu. Antonovski
      Abstract: The article shows that Kuhn's concept of incommensurability emphasizes mainly the objective dimension of communication. To the thesis about the incommensurability of the meanings of scientific concepts in competing paradigms, we oppose the idea of a three-dimensional space of communicative dimensions. We supplement the objective dimension of communication, within which the environmental evolutionary selection of the best knowledge is carried out, with equal social and temporal horizons.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • What is Kuhn’s Problem'

    • Authors: Kevin Davey
      Abstract: Inspired by the work of Kuhn, we might want to develop an account of science that explains how it is that while much of science involves the investigation of a world as articulated by a paradigm, the scientist is nevertheless an observer and rational interpreter of a mind-independent world that does not change its character over time. Kuhn himself recognizes that there is a challenge here that he does not know how to meet. I argue that progress can be made on this challenge by carefully examining and criticizing Kuhn’s account of deliberation in science. Inspired by certain views about Gestalt psychology and examples such as the duck/rabbit picture, Kuhn takes deliberation in science to be a consequence of seeing things a certain way, rather than rational deliberation in science making new ways of seeing things possible. I argue that the most serious problems of Kuhn’s view of science stem from this fact, and that we can free ourselves from these problems by not following Kuhn here. In particular, I argue using material from Hanson and Peirce that we should think of the revolutionary scientist as being revolutionary not merely in virtue of seeing things in a new way, but rather for showing – typically through painstaking deliberation – that certain conjectures connected with new ways of seeing the world are reasonable (even prior to anything like inductive confirmation.) This makes coming to see the world differently a deliberative process that is importantly unlike seeing a rabbit/duck picture differently. Such a way of thinking allows us to view the articulation of a new paradigm as a deliberative process that does not take some paradigm or other for granted, but rather as a deliberative process that interrogates existing orthodoxy for its suitability to survive into the next paradigm. The result is a (sketch of a) view of science that maintains much of what is important to Kuhn, but departs from him where his view is least convincing.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Copernicus Contra Kuhn

    • Authors: Igor S. Dmitriev
      Abstract: T. Kuhn’s theory of scientific revolutions has repeatedly been the subject of criticism. It is important to note that Kuhn pays very limited attention to the phenomenon of the scientific revolution itself, comparing the revolution either with a religious conversion or with a gestalt switch. Such comparisons, however, are very superficial. This paper outlines a new understanding of the scientific revolution as a result of the resonance of the intellectual trends of the early modern period. It was the quasi-simultaneous action of various factors (from the great geographical discoveries to social cataclysms and the religious Reformation) that led to revolutionary changes in natural philosophy, which, in turn, gave rise (already in the XVIIIth century) to the actual scientific revolution. In addition, the article shows that the Copernican Revolution cannot be described within the model of scientific revolution developed by T. Kuhn. Ptolemy’s theory was mathematically constructed so that it could not make inaccurate predictions of planetary motion, because – as we are now clear – the function characterizing the trajectory of planetary motion was actually represented as a Fourier series. The Copernican revolution was not a Kuhn-type scientific revolution, nor was it caused by the empirical failures of Ptolemaic astronomy (i.e. the accumulation of anomalies turning into a crisis). Events unfolded according to a different scheme. Copernicus set out to carry out the principle of the uniform circular motion of the planets more consistently than had been done in Ptolemy’s theory, at the same time presenting to this theory those requirements of an aesthetic and methodological order, which the cognitively fragmented system of Ptolemy, for all its flexibility, could not satisfy and, by the conditions of its creation, could not satisfy. In addition, the article shows that Copernicus, in constructing his heliocentric theory, was essentially seeking answers to the challenges that Alberti’s artificial perspective and Nicholas of Cusa’s theological speculation posed to the visual experience in the sixteenth century.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Kuhn, Lakatos, and the Historical Turn in the Philosophy of Mathematics

    • Authors: Vladislav A. Shaposhnikov
      Abstract: The paper deals with Kuhn’s and Lakatos’s ideas related to the so-called “historical turn” and its application to the philosophy of mathematics. In the first part the meaning of the term “postpositivism” is specified. If we lack such a specification we can hardly discuss the philosophy of science that comes “after postpositivism”. With this end in view, the metaphor of “generations” in the philosophy of science is used. It is proposed that we restrict the use of the term “post-positivism” to two and only two philosophical “generations”: the one to which Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend belong, and the previous “generation” to which Wittgenstein, Polanyi, Popper and Quine (as well as the major part of logical positivists) belong. From this point of view, Bloor, Latour, Pickering, Daston and Galison belong to the “third generation” which represents the philosophy of science “after post-positivism”. The characteristic feature of post-positivism is the combination of decisive impact of logical positivism and its severe criticism. This combination inevitably makes post-positivism a transitional form in the philosophy of science. In the second part the contribution of the “big four” of post-positivist philosophers (Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, and Feyerabend) to the radical change in the philosophy of mathematics in the second half of the 20th century is analyzed. Primarily, they shifted philosophical interest from the logical analysis of formal systems to the historical dynamics of informal mathematics. They also reconsidered the sharp opposition between mathematics and the physical sciences. However, the transitional character of their philosophy manifests itself both in their treatment of mathematics and their way of understanding history. On the one hand, their “heritage” is ambiguous, on the other hand, it opens new perspectives. Neither Kuhn, nor Lakatos, have eliminated completely the methodological barrier positing the fundamental heterogeneity of mathematics and natural science. Neither Lakatos, nor Kuhn, adhered to the viewpoint of relentless historicism. Nevertheless, it is their work that has made these options open for today’s historians and philosophers of science, even for philosophers of mathematics.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Ernst Mayr’s Critique of Thomas Kuhn

    • Authors: Georgy S. Levit;Uwe Hossfeld
      Abstract: In the early 1960s, American philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn contributed to a “crisis of rationality” with his hypothesis that science develops by means of paradigm shifts. He challenged the positivist concept of cumulative and continuous scientific progress. According to Kuhn, the relation between two succeeding scientific traditions ‘separated by a scientific revolution’ is characterized by conceptual incommensurability that constrains the interpretation of science as a cumulative, steadily progressing enterprise. Thomas Kuhn’s philosophy was heavily criticized by German-American biologist Ernst Mayr as unapplicable to the history of biology. Mayr, one of the most outstanding evolutionary biologists of the 20th century and a “co-architect” of the so-called Modern Synthesis (contemporary Darwinism), published extensively on the history and philosophy of biology as he thought that theoretical biology cannot progress without proper philosophy of science. Being convinced of the progressive development of Darwinism, Mayr pointed out that Kuhn’s concept of scientific revolutions does not reflect conceptual changes in evolutionary biology. Here we summarize Mayr’s critiques of Kuhn and, based on our own research, take Mayr’s side in the controversy between two great thinkers.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Popper and His Popular Critics: Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend and Imre
           Lakatos: Appendix

    • Authors: Joseph Agassi
      Abstract: Popper’s popular critics – Kuhn, Feyerabend, and Lakatos – replace his older, Wittgenstein-style critics, now defunct. His new critics played with the idea of criticism as beneficial, in vain search of variants of these that could better appeal to the public. Some of their criticism of Popper is valid but marginal for the dispute about rationality. He was Fallibilist; they hedged about it. He viewed learning from experience as learning from error; they were unclear about it. His view resembles Freud’s reality principle; they hedged about this too, as they defended the stupid idea of constructive criticism (namely, hold on to your faith in a refuted theory until you can replace it). He stressed his criticism of the view of science as inductive; they endorsed it. They differed from him significantly regarding their intended readers: he had addressed those who readily admit criticism and his popular critics addressed those who find it hard to admit openly that criticism upsets them somewhat. Current popular criticism of Popper’s ideas shows yet again the logical relation between the critical attitude and liberalism: liberalism without critically mindedness is permissible, scarcely the other way around. Hence, we better read the objection that Popper’s popular critics have launched against him not as criticism proper, but as somewhat reasonable protest against his use of the highest standards in his relentless advocacy of liberalism and of criticism in his valuation of science and of democracy as joint.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • A New Concept of Reason'

    • Authors: Andrew Feenberg
      Abstract: In One-Dimensional Man, Herbert Marcuse followed Husserl in arguing that modern natural science translates concepts and practices from the Lebenswelt, the everyday lifeworld. Marcuse claimed that a socialist revolution would change that life-world and transform natural science. He anticipated a new concept of reason that would incorporate potentialities experienced in the lifeworld. Teleological aspects of everyday experience would be “materialized” by science. Marcuse’s critique of social science employs a similar concept of translation. The notion that changes in the lifeworld would enable the social sciences to incorporate potentialities is more plausible than these speculations about a successor natural science. But Marcuse’s assumption that such changes would occur after a socialist revolution has been overtaken by the actual development of social movements challenging the socially embedded technosciences. The reciprocal interaction between science and society in the struggle for a liveable world is now a present phenomenon, no longer a distant revolutionary prospect.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • The Problem of Reality in the Philosophy of Science by T. Kuhn

    • Authors: Vera A. Serkova
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to clarify the importance of questions about the nature of reality for understanding the basic ideas of Thomas Kuhn’s philosophy of science. For Kuhn, the topic of reality is not "too metaphysical" and therefore undesirable, as for the neo-positivists, although in a certain sense it is “premature” and will emerge later in the discussions of realists and anti-realists in full measure. The ontological meaning of the problem of the relationship between science and reality appears in Kuhn’s works as a side topic of his epistemological research. The first part of the paper analyzes Kuhn’s statements about reality and determines his ontological position; the second part considers how the problematic of reality was clarified in his polemic with his critics, who either, like K. Hempel, turn Kuhn to clarify some points of his ideas about reality, or, like M. Masterman, give their interpretation of his ideas, with which he agrees. The third part of the paper shows how Kuhn’s anti-realism is reflected in his epistemological and methodological understanding of objectivity and truth in science. The conclusion of the paper is that Kuhn’s epistemological skepticism is becoming increasingly evident to himself and his critics, and his anti-realist ontological position becomes apparent against this background.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Nataliya I. Kuznetsova

    • PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
  • Vladislav A. Lektorskiy

    • PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 06:05:59 GMT
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