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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
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Journal of the American Philosophical Association
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.857
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2053-4477 - ISSN (Online) 2053-4485
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [352 journals]
  • APA volume 8 issue 4 Cover and Front matter

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      Pages: 1 - 4
      PubDate: 2022-12-15
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2022.45
       
  • APA volume 8 issue 4 Cover and Back matter

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      Pages: 1 - 3
      PubDate: 2022-12-15
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2022.46
       
  • Art and Transformation

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      Authors: AUMANN; ANTONY
      Pages: 567 - 585
      Abstract: Encounters with art can change us in ways both big and small. This paper focuses on one of the more dramatic cases. I argue that works of art can inspire what L. A. Paul calls transformations, classic examples of which include getting married, having a child, and undergoing a religious conversion. Two features distinguish transformations from other changes we undergo. First, they involve the discovery of something new. Second, they result in a change in our core preferences. These two features make transformations hard to motivate. I argue, however, that art can help on both fronts. First, works of art can guide our attempt to imagine unfamiliar ways of living. Second, they can attract us to values we currently reject. I conclude by observing that what makes art powerful also makes it dangerous. Transformations are not always for the good, and art's ability to inspire them can be put to immoral ends.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.40
       
  • The Metaphysics of the Narrative Self

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      Authors: REA; MICHAEL
      Pages: 586 - 603
      Abstract: This essay develops a theory of identities, selves, and ‘the self’ that both explains the sense in which selves are narratively constituted and also explains how the self relates to a person's individual autobiographical identity and to their various social identities. I argue that identities are the contents of narratively structured representations, some of which are hosted individually and are autobiographical in form, and others of which are hosted collectively and are biographical in form. These identities, in turn, give rise to selves of various sorts—true selves, autobiographical selves, public and private selves, merely possible selves, and so on—which are the characters (or presupposed subjects) that appear in our various identities. Although the theory I develop bears some obvious affinities with the view that selves are fictional characters, the two views are in fact distinct, for reasons explained at the end.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.28
       
  • Compatibilist Libertarianism: Why It Talks Past the Traditional Free Will
           Problem and Determinism Is Still a Worry

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      Authors: WRIGHT; JOHN DANIEL
      Pages: 604 - 622
      Abstract: Compatibilist libertarianism claims that alternate possibilities for action at the agential level are consistent with determinism at the physical level. Unlike traditional compatibilism about alternate possibilities, involving conditional or dispositional accounts of the ability to act, compatibilist libertarianism offers us unqualified modalities at the agential level, consistent with physical determinism, a potentially big advance. However, I argue that the account runs up against two problems. Firstly, the way in which the agential modalities are generated talks past the worries of the incompatibilist in the traditional free will problem. As such, it fails to dispel the worries that determinism generates for the incompatibilist. Secondly, in spite of the ingenious use of the supervenience thesis and multiple realizability, the position still allows us to generate the old worry that determinism at the physical level would mean no alternate possibilities at the level of agency. In particular, I develop a new example, the ‘atomic slit case’ that demonstrates how physical level information is salient to what is possible at the agential level, motivating incompatibilism.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.37
       
  • Moral Rightness Comes in Degrees

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      Authors: PETERSON; MARTIN
      Pages: 645 - 664
      Abstract: This article questions the traditional view that moral rightness and wrongness are discrete predicates with sharp boundaries. I contend that moral rightness and wrongness come in degrees: Some acts are somewhat right and somewhat wrong. My argument is based on the assumption that meaning tracks use. If an overwhelming majority of competent language users frequently say that some acts are a bit right and a bit wrong, this indicates that rightness and wrongness are gradable concepts. To support the empirical part of the argument I use the tools of experimental philosophy. Results from three surveys (n = 715, 578, and 182) indicate that respondents use right and wrong as gradable terms to approximately the same extent as color terms, meaning that rightness and wrongness come in degrees roughly as much as colors do. In the largest study, only 4 percent persistently used right and wrong as non-gradable terms.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.36
       
  • The Pleasure Problem and the Spriggean Solution

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      Authors: PALLIES; DANIEL
      Pages: 665 - 684
      Abstract: Some experiences—like the experience of eating cheesecake—are good experiences to have. But when we try to explain why they are good, we encounter a clash of intuitions. First, we have an objectivist intuition: plausibly, the experiences are good because they feel the way that they do. Second, we have a subjectivist intuition: if a person were indifferent to that kind of experience, then it might fail to be good for that person. Third, we have a possibility intuition: for any kind of experience, possibly there is a subject who is indifferent to that kind of experience. The pleasure problem is the problem we face in reconciling these three claims. I explain the problem and argue for a solution. I argue that we ought to reject the most common solutions: rejecting the objectivist or subjectivist intuitions. Instead, we ought to follow Timothy Sprigge in rejecting the possibility claim. We should embrace the view that experiences bear necessary connections to our attitudes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.30
       
  • A Dilemma for Higher-Level Suspension

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      Authors: TAL; EYAL
      Pages: 685 - 699
      Abstract: Is it ever rational to suspend judgment about whether a particular doxastic attitude of ours is rational' An agent who suspends about whether her attitude is rational has serious doubts that it is. These doubts place a special burden on the agent, namely, to justify maintaining her chosen attitude over others. A dilemma arises. Providing justification for maintaining the chosen attitude would commit the agent to considering the attitude rational—contrary to her suspension on the matter. Alternatively, in the absence of such justification, the attitude would be arbitrary by the agent's own lights, and therefore irrational from the agent's own perspective. So, suspending about whether an attitude of ours is rational does not cohere with considering it rationally preferable to other attitudes, and leads to a more familiar form of epistemic akrasia otherwise.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.31
       
  • Forgiveness, Repentance, and Diachronic Blameworthiness

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      Authors: KHOURY; ANDREW C.
      Pages: 700 - 720
      Abstract: Many theorists have found the notion of forgiveness to be paradoxical, for it is thought that only the blameworthy can be appropriately forgiven but that the blameworthy are appropriately blamed, not forgiven. Some have appealed to the notion of repentance to resolve this tension. But others have objected that such a response is explanatorily inadequate in the sense that it merely stipulates and names a solution leaving the transformative power of repentance unexplained. Worse still, others have objected that such a response cannot succeed because no amount of repentance can render the blameworthy not blameworthy. I argue that this latter objection is based on a mistaken assumption, the acknowledgement of which has the power to resolve the paradox in a way that meets the explanatory adequacy challenge and, more generally, has significant implications with which any full theory of forgiveness must engage.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.41
       
  • Resisting Marriage, Reclaiming Right: An (Early) Modern Critique of
           Marriage

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      Authors: EMMETT; KELIN
      Pages: 721 - 740
      Abstract: Moderata Fonte's dialogue The Worth of Women (1600) contains stinging critiques of marriage and the dowry system as well as of women's inequality. I argue that Fonte's critique of male dominance, particularly in marriage, employs a modern method of argument, which anticipates the later contractarian critiques of political authority. Given that women are naturally men's equals, Fonte argues that men's de facto authority over women is illegitimate and based on force. Moreover, by treating marriage as an artificial institution rather than as a natural institution, Fonte anticipates later feminist arguments that criticize the modern contract tradition for its failure to extend its critique of other forms of authority to patriarchal marriage, instead positing a natural basis for women's subordination to men. In light of this history, Fonte's critique of patriarchy is especially interesting: it challenges the patriarchal family structure and the institutions that collude to diminish women's agency, and this challenge to male authority is similar to later (male) challenges to de facto political authority.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.38
       
  • Fairness in Algorithmic Policing

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      Authors: PURVES; DUNCAN
      Pages: 741 - 761
      Abstract: Predictive policing, the practice of using of algorithmic systems to forecast crime, is heralded by police departments as the new frontier of crime analysis. At the same time, it is opposed by civil rights groups, academics, and media outlets for being ‘biased’ and therefore discriminatory against communities of color. This paper argues that the prevailing focus on racial bias has overshadowed two normative factors that are essential to a full assessment of the moral permissibility of predictive policing: fairness in the social distribution of the benefits and burdens of policing as well as the distinctive role of consent in determining fair distribution. When these normative factors are given their due attention, several requirements emerge for the fair implementation of predictive policing. Among these requirements are that police departments inform and solicit buy-in from affected communities about strategic decision-making and that departments favor non-enforcement-oriented interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.39
       
  • Generic View of Gendered Slurs and the Subset Argument

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      Authors: VALTONEN; PASI
      Pages: 762 - 779
      Abstract: The neutral counterpart assumption is widely accepted in the study of slurs. It provides a simple and effective explanation for the meaning of slurs. Slurring terms are coextensional with their neutral counterparts. However, Lauren Ashwell (2016) has questioned this assumption. She argues that gendered slurs refer to a subset of their neutral counterparts. Hence, slurs are not coextensional with their counterparts. She goes on to present a view that is not based on the counterpart assumption. Still, her view is a unifying view of slurs as it also applies to ethnic and racial slurs. In this paper, I defend the counterpart assumption with a generic view of slurs. While being a unifying view, it accommodates the subset argument with its eponymous feature that the meaning of slurs involves a generic component.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.35
       
  • The Role of Philosophers in Climate Change

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      Authors: CHISLENKO; EUGENE
      Pages: 780 - 798
      Abstract: Some conceptions of the role of philosophers in climate change focus mainly on theoretical progress in philosophy, or on philosophers as individual citizens. Against these views, I defend a skill view: philosophers should use our characteristic skills as philosophers to combat climate change by integrating it into our teaching, research, service, and community engagement. A focus on theoretical progress, citizenship, expertise, virtue, ability, social role, or power, rather than on skill, can allow for some of these contributions. But the skill view, I argue, uniquely captures the breadth of philosophers’ role in climate change; promises to make us more effective in practice; and offers a compelling way to overcome our own lingering climate denial by integrating climate change into all aspects of philosophical activity.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.32
       
  • The Principle of Reason's Self-Preservation in Kant's Essay on the
           Pantheism Controversy

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      Authors: BAGHAI; FARSHID
      Pages: 623 - 644
      Abstract: In his 1786 essay on the pantheism controversy, ‘What Does It Mean to Orient Oneself in Thinking'’, Kant implies that ‘the maxim of reason's self-preservation [Selbsterhaltung]’ is reason's first principle for orienting itself in thinking supersensible objects. But Kant does not clearly explain what the maxim or principle of reason's self-preservation is and how it fits into his larger project of critical philosophy. Nor does the secondary literature. This article reconstructs Kant's discussion of the principle of reason's self-preservation in ‘What Does It Mean to Orient Oneself in Thinking'’ It suggests that this principle is best understood as the discipline of pure reason. The principle of reason's self-preservation performs the same methodological function that Kant assigns to the discipline of pure reason. This principle establishes the rule of law in reason and subjects reason to its own laws. In so doing, it prevents reason's dialectical errors and also grounds reason's faith (Vernunftglaube), which in turn systematically conditions the practical use of reason.
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.1017/apa.2021.29
       
 
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