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Wacana : Journal of the Humanities of Indonesia
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1411-2272 - ISSN (Online) 2407-6899
Published by Universitas Indonesia Homepage  [19 journals]
  • From dugouts to double outriggers; Lexical insights into the development
           of Swahili nautical technology

    • Authors: Martin Walsh
      Pages: 253 - 294
      Abstract: The early history of nautical technology in the western Indian Ocean and adjoining parts of the eastern Africa coast is poorly understood. In the absence of evidence from shipwrecks, it has hitherto been based largely on the uncertain interpretation of a few documentary references and speculation surrounding technological parallels and assumed lexical resemblances. This paper examines some of the linguistic evidence in a more rigorous way, by undertaking a cross-dialectal comparison of names for watercraft and terms for outriggers in Swahili (Kiswahili), a Bantu language spoken on the islands and in scattered communities along the western seaboard of the Indian Ocean. The resulting analysis provides a new outline of the development of Swahili nautical technology and maritime culture, highlighting the key role played by particular boat forms, and the relative importance of indigenous innovation and different external influences, including the elusive impacts of Austronesian seafaring.
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.17510/wacana.v22i2.954
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2021)
  • Language use and tourism in Yogyakarta; The linguistic landscape of

    • Authors: Anna Marietta da Silva, Yassir Nasanius Tjung, Sri Hapsari Wijayanti, Christiany Suwartono
      Pages: 295 - 318
      Abstract: The present study provides a depiction of Malioboro through language presentation, language preference and sign informativeness. Seven hundred and twenty-nine public signs were examined and analyzed. Analysis was limited to words. A survey on language preference and sign informativeness, clarity and visibility to both local and foreign visitors also conducted. Findings show the dominance of Indonesian language in Malioboro linguistic landscape; 73% of the signs were in Indonesian and all non-commercial signs used Indonesian. Only 15% of the entire signs use English and less than 5% of the signs contain Javanese script or Romanized Javanese. Mainly targeting Indonesian speakers, the LL of Malioboro presents an exclusiveness and reflects a language policy implementation. The survey shows an indication of having both Indonesian and English in Commercial, Regulatory, and Infrastructure signs, most of which are informative.
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.17510/wacana.v22i2.721
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2021)
  • Indonesian discourse particles in conversations and written text

    • Authors: David-M. Karàj
      Pages: 319 - 337
      Abstract: The aim of the present paper is an analysis of four most frequent Colloquial Indonesian discourse particles (lho, kok, sih and dong) and the comparison of their occurrences in both spontaneous spoken conversations as well as in written texts (articles from a youth magazine). The author's motivation for choosing the terms discourse particles (instead of for example pragmatic particles) is explained and a new definition of the phenomenon is proposed. First the particles' meanings as given in various dictionaries are presented, it is followed by examples from spontaneous conversations. Next, examples from written text are given, followed by an analysis of possible differences and similarities in meaning. Finally, the possible particles' meanings are presented as sample sentences using the explication method. In the Conclusions, the author makes an attempt at answering the question whether the discourse particles in Colloquial Indonesian can be considered to be a separate word class.
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.17510/wacana.v22i2.909
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2021)
  • Crossed control revisited; The structure and interpretations of “want”
           and so on + passive verb in Malay/Indonesian

    • Authors: Hiroki Nomoto
      Pages: 338 - 364
      Abstract:   In Malay/Indonesian, when certain predicates such as “want” are followed by a passive verb, an ambiguity arises about who has the desire and other attitudes in question. The attitude-holder can be either the surface subject or the passive agent. This article critically assesses the data and claims presented in three recent studies (Mike Berger 2019; Paul Kroeger and Kristen Frazier 2020; Helen Jeoung 2020) through consideration of additional data. It shows that the ambiguity is empirically robust, contrary to the doubts expressed by Jeoung, and that the restructuring analysis advocated by the latter two studies has problems with its primary evidence: alternate voice marking realization. Instead, the paper confirms the previous understanding of the construction, including a bi-clausal structure with a dyadic matrix predicate and the importance of voice marking. Methodologically, it demonstrates that linguistic evidence should come from multiple sources, that is, not from elicitation or texts alone but from both of these (and perhaps more).
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.17510/wacana.v22i2.1026
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2021)
  • Reciprocality in Papuan Malay

    • Authors: Yusuf Sawaki
      Pages: 365 - 388
      Abstract: Reciprocality, also known as reciprocal situation or reciprocal constructions, constitutes an expression which describes both the forms and meaning of an activity embodying a mutual relation. Papuan Malay, a pidginized lingua franca in Western New Guinea, has three types of constructions expressing reciprocality: lexical reciprocals, prototypical syntactic reciprocals with the baku construction, and syntactic reciprocals with the discontinuous satu...satu construction. Some additional constructions are considered to be reciprocal-like. These reciprocal constructions vary in their argument structure and valence operations. In argument structure, most constructions allow two kinds of argument structure: Type 1, which takes only a subject argument, and Type 2, which takes both a subject and object, and follows the basic SVO word order. However, the object in the Type 2 construction becomes oblique-like, indicating reduced transitivity in order to accommodate the concept of mutual relation. In valence operations, reciprocals can undergo both valence decreasing and valence increasing operations. In addition, some reciprocal constructions require subject and object to be syntactically retained, even though semantically they represent the same agent-patient/goal mutual relation.
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.17510/wacana.v22i2.959
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2021)
  • Dressed, undressed, or both; The case of Ewaw in Southeast Maluku

    • Authors: Aone van Engelenhoven
      Pages: 389 - 418
      Abstract: This article discusses complexity and simplification in Ewaw (also known as Kei or Keiese), an Austronesian language in Southeast Maluku. Section 1 provides an introduction to the genetics, spelling, and phonology of this language, which is related to the Austronesian languages of Timor. There are two main dialects which subdivide into two variants each. Section 2 provides an overview of the productive inflection in Ewaw and its derivational morphology, of which only reduplication is still productive. It has two noun classes and four verb classes, seventeen derivational prefixes and four derivational suffixes. Section 3 is a sketch of Ewaw syntax and deixis. It has twenty-four adverbial markers to encode direction and manner, which can all be analysed as serial verb constructions. Section 4 compares Ewaw grammar to languages in the region. Whereas Ewaw’s petrified morphology is more complex than in any other language in the region, it now has the simplest morphology. Section 5 concludes that Ewaw’s simplification without “shedding” its morphology is problematic.
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.17510/wacana.v22i2.1039
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2021)
  • The coming and going of "come" and "go"; Multi-verb directional motion
           constructions in Surinamese Javanese

    • Authors: Sophie Villerius
      Pages: 419 - 438
      Abstract: This article examines multi-verb directional motion constructions in Surinamese Javanese, a heritage language undergoing structural influence from Dutch and Sranantongo. These are constructions which express ‘direction away’ by means of a V2 lunga ‘go away’. They are more frequent – and used with more different V1s – than in Indonesian Javanese, the baseline. The frequency change is a pattern change, a result of cross-linguistic transfer from Sranantongo, in which multi-verb constructions to express ‘direction away’ are very frequent. The extension of the usage contexts to more V1s is a form of semantic extension, and it is the first stage of contact-induced grammaticalization. This is caused by entrenchment of the schema motion verb + away, which exists in both Dutch and Sranantongo. The meaning of the constructions is also changing: whereas in Indonesian Javanese the directional element never refers to the causee alone, it frequently does in Surinamese Javanese. Finally, some preliminary observations are made with respect to the possible development of a parallel construction expressing ‘direction towards’ with V2 teka ‘come’, modeled on the Sranantongo multi-verb constructions with V2 kon ‘come’.
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.17510/wacana.v22i2.1037
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2021)
  • Preserving and empowering local languages amidst the Covid-19 pandemic;
           Lessons from East Kalimantan

    • Authors: Allan F. Lauder, Multamia RMT Lauder, Kiftiawati Kiftiawati
      Pages: 439 - 466
      Abstract:  This article brings together two ostensibly separate subjects: language empowerment and the Covid-19 pandemic. It argues that knowledge of local languages can help disseminate health-related information on a regional level. This addresses two problems simultaneously: the problems raised by the intelligibilty of governmental healthcare protocols and the functions of the use of local languages. The article is a case study presenting a number of interventions in the languages of East Kalimantan and can be seen as an inclusive, grassroots example of health communication. The study was initially a modest attempt to generate on-the-ground examples of health information in the dominant languages of the region of East Kalimantan. These studies demonstrate that the local communities of these languages are very enthusiastic about getting involved in the interventions. They also reveal that communication using IT and social media is thriving.One of our observations was that information about this pandemic tends to be understood only by highly educated urban people. This happens because it is conveyed by the government in standard Indonesian, which includes many foreign loanwords. The application of local languages is not just using local language vocabulary, it is instead a trigger to revive the collective memory of disaster management based on local culture. In this case, local languages are recognized and considered useful in helping to break the chain of virus transmission to free Indonesia of the Covid-19 outbreak. There were a number of unexpected developments. We found support for the intervention being rolled out on a national level by Special Task Force for Covid-19 under National Disaster Management Agency (Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana/BNPB). We also welcomed the online publication by the National Agency for Language Development and Cultivation (Badan Bahasa) of the Handbook for managing behavior about health protocols in seventy-seven local languages. The main thrust of this article should therefore be of interest to anyone working to empower local languages and language vitality.
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.17510/wacana.v22i2.1006
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2021)
  • Practicalities of language data collection and management in and around

    • Authors: Marian Klamer, Owen Edwards, Hanna Fricke, Zoi Gialitaki, Francesca Moro, Axel Palmér, George Saad, Yunus Sulistyono, Eline Visser, Jiang Wu
      Pages: 467 - 521
      Abstract: Researchers use different approaches when collecting and managing primary language materials during fieldwork. Yet it is important that this work is done in a transparent way, so that it can be used by other researchers, who might have other aims, as well as by the speaker community who might want to use or take note of the collected materials. In this article we use our research experience in language data collection in and around Indonesia in fieldwork projects of three kinds: descriptive fieldwork, linguistic surveys, and projects investigating language contact. Our aim is to provide an introductory and practical guide for students and professionals who are embarking on fieldwork in or around Indonesia. Describing practical methods of language data collection, processing, and management, our aim is to provide a guide for any research which involves the collection of language materials, including linguistic research, oral history or literature, and ethnography.
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.17510/wacana.v22i2.930
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2021)
  • A Grammar of Dhao; An endangered Austronesian language in Eastern

    • Authors: Jermy Balukh
      Pages: 522 - 533
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.17510/wacana.v22i2.1005
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2021)
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