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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 762 journals)
Showing 1 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted by number of followers
Philosophical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
European Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Journal of Political Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Australasian Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Philosophy & Public Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
International Journal for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Nous     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Contemporary Political Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of the History of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Philosophical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Applied Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Theology & Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal for the History of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Moral Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Philosophy and Phenomenological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Philosophy of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 32)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Philosophy and Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Continental Philosophy Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 27)
Constellations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Canadian Journal of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
British Journal of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Linguistics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Philosophy & Social Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Philosophy and Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
The Heythrop Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Philosophy Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Philosophers' Imprint     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of the Philosophy of History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Assuming Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Pragmatics & Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Philosophy East and West     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Episteme     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Media Ethics : Exploring Questions of Media Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Midwest Studies In Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Philosophy & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Phronesis : A journal for Ancient Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Epistemology: A Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Review of Philosophy and Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Reformed Theological Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Pragmatics and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Estudos Bíblicos     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Global Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ethical Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Chinese Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Open Journal of Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Philosophy of Photography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Utilitas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dao : A Journal of Comparative Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Pacific Philosophical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Polis : The Journal of the Society for Greek Political Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Film-Philosophy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
HTS Theological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Research in Phenomenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Philosophical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Philosophia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Myth & Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Philosophical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Philosophical Books     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nordic Journal of Aesthetics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metaphilosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Speculative Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
SubStance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Philosophical Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contributions to the History of Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Southern Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
History and Philosophy of Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contemporary Chinese Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Think     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dialogue Canadian Philosophical Review/Revue canadienne de philosophie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Axiomathes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Philosophical Magazine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Philosophical Explorations: An International Journal for the Philosophy of Mind and Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Philosophical Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of the Platonic Tradition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Review of Contemporary Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Critical Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Critical Realism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Catholic Record, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Endeavour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Philosophical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Nietzsche Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Church Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Philosophy in Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Franciscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch für Antike und Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Philosophy = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Wysbegeerte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Philosophical Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hume Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Humanist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Studia Logica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Kantian Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
CR : The New Centennial Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bijdragen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Utopian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Russell : the Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Religion and Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Topoi     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Philology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Pluralist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Horizonte : Revista de Estudos de Teologia e Ciências da Religião     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for the Study of Skepticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Žižek Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cultura : International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Empedocles : European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Friends of Lutheran Archives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Erasmus Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Scottish Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Parapsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aesthetic Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sartre Studies International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Grazer Philosophische Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Quaestio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Poiesis & Praxis : International Journal of Technology Assessment and Ethics of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Philosophy & Theory in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veritas : Revista de Filosofí­a y Teología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Temporalités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Philosophique de Louvain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Quality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophia Scientiæ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Éthique publique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Noesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nóema     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PAN: Philosophy Activism Nature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue d’études benthamiennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Laval théologique et philosophique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethische Perspectieven     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Humanistic Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hobbes Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Husserl Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eleutheria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Collingwood and British Idealism Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Grotiana     Hybrid Journal  
Signos Filosóficos     Open Access  
Eidos     Open Access  
Cinta de Moebio     Open Access  
Cuyo Anuario de Filosofía Argentina y Americana     Open Access  
Tópicos. Revista de Filosofía de Santa Fe     Open Access  
Rhuthmos     Open Access  
Philosophiques     Open Access  
Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics     Open Access  
Studia Philosophica Estonica     Open Access  
Synthesis (La Plata)     Open Access  
Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access  
Circe de clásicos y modernos     Open Access  
Estudios de Filosofía Práctica e Historia de las Ideas     Open Access  
Doctor virtualis     Open Access  
Humanidades Médicas     Open Access  
Methodos     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Astérion     Open Access  
Trans/Form/Ação - Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Russian Studies in Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription  

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Similar Journals
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History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.205
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0391-9714 - ISSN (Online) 1742-6316
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Do heritable immune responses extend physiological individuality'

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      Abstract: Abstract Immunology and its philosophy are a primary source for thinking about biological individuality. Through its discriminatory function, the immune system is believed to delineate organism and environment within one generation, thus defining the physiological individual. Based on the paradigmatic instantiations of immune systems, immune interactions and, thus, the physiological individual are believed to last only for one generation. However, in recent years, transgenerationally persisting immune responses have been reported in several phyla, but the consequences for physiological individuality have not yet been explored. In this article, I will introduce an invertebrate immune system that is RNA-based and operates through a heritable silencing/licensing paradigm. I will discuss how such a perspective on immune systems can illuminate our conceptions of individuality. I will particularly introduce an account of immunological individuality that is not restricted to one generation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
       
  • Humanising and dehumanising pigs in genomic and transplantation research

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      Abstract: Abstract Biologists who work on the pig (Sus scrofa) take advantage of its similarity to humans by constructing the inferential and material means to traffic data, information and knowledge across the species barrier. Their research has been funded due to its perceived value for agriculture and medicine. Improving selective breeding practices, for instance, has been a driver of genomics research. The pig is also an animal model for biomedical research and practice, and is proposed as a source of organs for cross-species transplantation: xenotransplantation. Genomics research has informed transplantation biology, which has itself motivated developments in genomics. Both have generated models of correspondences between the genomes of pigs and humans. Concerning genomics, I detail how researchers traverse species boundaries to develop representations of the pig genome, alongside ensuring that such representations are sufficiently porcine. In transplantation biology, the representations of the genomes of humans and pigs are used to detect and investigate immunologically-pertinent differences between the two species. These key differences can then be removed, to ‘humanise’ donor pigs so that they can become a safe and effective source of organs. In both of these endeavours, there is a tension between practices that ‘humanise’ the pig (or representations thereof) through using resources from human genomics, and the need to ‘dehumanise’ the pig to maintain distinctions for legal, ethical and scientific reasons. This paper assesses the ways in which this tension has been managed, observing the differences between its realisations across comparative pig genomics and transplantation biology, and considering the consequences of this.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
       
  • Homeorhesis: envisaging the logic of life trajectories in molecular
           research on trauma and its effects

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      Abstract: Abstract What sets someone on a life trajectory' This question is at the heart of studies of 21st-century neurosciences that build on scientific models developed over the last 150 years that attempt to link psychopathology risk and human development. Historically, this research has documented persistent effects of singular, negative life experiences on people’s subsequent development. More recently, studies have documented neuromolecular effects of early life adversity on life trajectories, resulting in models that frame lives as disproportionately affected by early negative experiences. This view is dominant, despite little evidence of the stability of the presumably early-developed molecular traits and their potential effects on phenotypes. We argue that in the context of gaps in knowledge and the need for scientists to reason across molecular and phenotypic scales, as well as time spans that can extend beyond an individual’s life, specific interpretative frameworks shape the ways in which individual scientific findings are assessed. In the process, scientific reasoning oscillates between understandings of cellular homeostasis and organisms’ homeorhesis, or life trajectory. Biologist and historian François Jacob described this framework as the “attitude” that researchers bring to bear on their “objects” of study. Through an analysis of, first, historical and contemporary scientific literature and then ethnographic research with neuroscientists, we consider how early life trauma came to be associated with specific psychological and neurobiological effects grounded in understandings of life trajectories. We conclude with a consideration of the conceptual, ontological, and ethical implications of interpreting life trajectories as the result of the persistence of long-embodied biological traits, persistent life environments, or both.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
       
  • Octavio Ocampo, Mexican painter: a metamorphic look at the discourse
           between the local and the global

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      Abstract: Abstract Art and science is an area of research that has strengthened recently, mainly due to the impact of interdisciplinary work. At the same time, approaches between the humanities and the sciences have succeeded in re-signifying traditional views towards critical positions such as postcolonialism, especially in the colonially so-called “Global South”. In this paper, we want to review the case of the work of the Mexican artist Octavio Ocampo through works that present the case of biological and cultural evolution. From this, we want to reflect on the public perception of science in Mexico, the tensions between social and natural sciences, and the urgent need to strengthen the postcolonial discourse in scientific practice.
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
       
  • Attention: a descriptive taxonomy

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      Abstract: Abstract The term attention has been used to mean so many different things that some have despaired of it being useful at all. This paper is devoted to bringing a modicum of order to the chaos through the time-honored device of categorization. The chief purpose of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive descriptive taxonomy of the nuanced ways the term attention may be employed. It is presented in table form, followed by elucidations and illustrations of each of its items. But first, I offer reasons why a taxonomy of attention is needed and explore some of its possible benefits. After presenting the taxonomy, I sketch by way of example how it might be applied to two interesting questions: is the umbrella term attention still useful'; and, what is it that ties the subdefinitions of attention together yet distinguishes them from other kinds of cognition'
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
  • Challenges of anticipation of future decisions in dementia and dementia
           research

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      Abstract: Abstract Anticipation of future decisions can be important for individuals at risk for diseases to maintain autonomy over time. For future treatment and care decisions, advance care planning is accepted as a useful anticipation tool. As research with persons with dementia seems imperative to develop disease-modifying interventions, and with changing regulations regarding research participation in Germany, advance research directives (ARDs) are considered a solution to include persons with dementia in research in an ethically sound manner. However, little is known about what affected people deem anticipatable. This contribution provides a critical reflection of the literature on anticipation and of a qualitative study on the assessment of ARDs with persons with cognitive impairment in Germany. It combines theoretical and empirical reflections to inform the ethical-legal discourse. Anticipation involves the conceptual separation of the past, the present, and the future. Including dimensions such as preparedness, injunction, and optimization helps in establishing a framework for anticipatory decision-making. While dementia may offer a window of time to consider future decisions, individual beliefs about dementia including fears about stigma, loss of personhood, and solitude strongly impact anticipating sentiments. Concepts of anticipation can be useful for the examination of uncertainty, changing values, needs, and preferences interconnected with the dementia trajectory and can serve as a means to make an uncertain future more concrete. However, fears of losing one’s autonomy in the process of dementia also apply to possibilities of anticipation as these require cognitive assessment and reassessment of an imagined future with dementia.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
       
  • Who is the biological patient' A new gradational and dynamic model for
           one health medicine

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      Abstract: Abstract One Health medicine aims to improve health by focusing on the relations between the health of humans, animals, and the environment. However, One Health does not provide a clear idea of these relations, which are still represented as conceptually separated and not as one health, as the name implies. Inspired by holobiont research, I suggest a new model and conceptual framework for One Health that expands the notion of the biological patient by providing a gradational and dynamic understanding of environments, patients, and their relations. This new model conceptualizes humans and non-humans, individual organisms, and collectives, as belonging to one system that allows for more or less inclusive understandings of patients. As such, it resolves the conceptual tensions of different One Health approaches and supports the implementation of One Health as an interdisciplinary research field.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
       
  • Evaluating the validity of animal models of mental disorder: from modeling
           syndromes to modeling endophenotypes

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper provides a historical analysis of a shift in the way animal models of mental disorders were conceptualized: the shift from the mid-twentieth-century view, adopted by some, that animal models model syndromes classified in manuals such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), to the later widespread view that animal models model component parts of psychiatric syndromes. I argue that in the middle of the twentieth century the attempt to maximize the face validity of animal models sometimes led to the pursuit of the ideal of an animal model that represented a behaviorally defined psychiatric syndrome as described in manuals such as the DSM. I show how developments within psychiatric genetics and related criticism of the DSM in the 1990s and 2000s led to the rejection of this ideal and how researchers in the first decade of the twenty-first century came to believe that animal models of mental disorders should model component parts of mental disorders, adopting a so-called endophenotype approach.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
       
  • Georges Canguilhem on sex determination and the normativity of life

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      Abstract: Abstract Our goal in this paper is to reassess the relationship between norms and life by drawing on the philosophy of Georges Canguilhem, particularly some of his unpublished lectures about teratology and sexual determination. First, we discuss the difficulties Canguilhem identified in the introduction of life and sexuality as objects of philosophical reflection. Second, we reassess Canguilhem’s understanding of normativity as rooted in life and the axiological activity of the living. Third, we analyze how Canguilhem drew from past and contemporary teratology to conceive of the notions of anomaly and abnormality. Finally, we reconstruct Canguilhem’s analysis of a case of hermaphroditism, highlighting how he presented it as evidence that sexual determination is the result of a normative choice. One of the key contributions of the paper to scholarly literature on Canguilhem is a better understanding of his notion of choice, which was considered not the conscious and intentional act of a subject but rather an axiological activity of the living. We conclude by positioning Canguilhem’s concept of normativity and his belief that norms are produced by the living in relation to the naturalist/normativist divide in medicine.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
       
  • Correction to: Organisms as subjects: Jakob von Uexküll and Adolf
           Portmann on the autonomy of living beings and anthropological difference

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-11-07
       
  • Humboldt, Darwin, and theory of evolution

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      Abstract: Abstract Numerous authors have examined the influence of other thinkers on Darwin’s formulation of some of the key concepts of the theory of evolution. Amongst those, Alexander von Humboldt often stands out – a scholar who, following his intention to explain the interconnection of various parts of the natural system, seems to tackle the question of evolution but does not offer an explicit answer. In this article, I examine Humboldt’s thoughts on evolution and the origin of species and evaluate his contribution to Darwin’s theory of evolution. First, I analyse and explicate the fundamental assumptions and goals of Humboldt theory, and compare them to Darwin. Moving forward, I highlight the similarity of their methods, and argue that Humboldt and Darwin conduct similar investigation of fossil record and geographical distribution of species. Finally, I show that Humboldt acknowledges essential elements of Darwin’s theory of evolution: evidence given by fossil records, struggle for survival and relation between natural environment and living organisms. Humboldt, however, concludes we cannot know the evolution of species. I explain this stance, and contend that theories of Humboldt and Darwin turn out to be more similar than they seem, yet their different conclusions regarding the evolution of species stem from different initial assumptions underlying their respective frameworks.
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
       
  • Design principles and mechanistic explanation

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      Abstract: In this essay I propose that what design principles in systems biology and systems neuroscience do is to present abstract characterizations of mechanisms, and thereby facilitate mechanistic explanation. To show this, one design principle in systems neuroscience, i.e., the multilayer perceptron, is examined. However, Braillard (2010) contends that design principles provide a sort of non-mechanistic explanation due to two related reasons: they are very general and describe non-causal dependence relationships. In response to this, I argue that, on the one hand, all mechanisms are more or less general (or abstract), and on the other, many (if not all) design principles are causal systems.
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
       
  • Games and genes: human diversity meets cytogenetics—Mexico 1968

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      Abstract: Abstract The 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico included innovative practices and technological knowledge of human biology. The first time that cytogenetic techniques had been applied to athletes was in the 1966 European Athletics Championship in Budapest and used on Olympic athletes for the first time in Mexico in 1968. The Genetics and Human Biology Program (Programa de Genética y Biología Humanas, PGBH) was created for this purpose in 1966 in close collaboration with the Local Organizing Committee (Comité Organizador, CO), by Mexican geneticists Alfonso León de Garay and Rodolfo Félix Estrada who led the project. The main objective was to study the genetic and anthropological components which determine an Olympic athlete’s abilities. This investigation studied 1,265 game participants and included family studies, cytological analyses, research on single genes, and the study of sex determination. In terms of influence beyond Mexico, this Program was significant as a site of transnational collaboration. It mobilized cognitive and financial resources, scientific practices, and material culture to set up a clinical laboratory in the Olympic Village. The Program also hosted three international seminars in Mexico City, two before the games, to calibrate clinical trials and anthropological tests. One in 1969 to analyze the results and proceed to their publication in 1974. This manuscript will focus on the PGBH to show how its work fits in the larger tapestry of post-1945 human biological studies. Also, to explore how the Olympic athlete populations studied can be considered laboratories of knowledge production or sites of cognition conceived as specific entities for scientific inquiry, standardization of medical practices, and the production or application of medicines. Finally, through the narrative of the different trajectories and collaborations of the leaders of the PGBH, this manuscript will show how contact between their scientific practices brought cytogenetics and sports together.
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
       
  • Organic form and evolution: the morphological problem in twentieth-century
           italian biology

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the efforts in evolution research to understand form’s structure that developed in Italy during the first half of the twentieth century. In particular, it analyzes how the organic approach in biology and the study of organic form merged in the morphological research agendas of Giuseppe Colosi (1892–1975) and Giuseppe Levi (1872–1965). These biologists sought to understand form’s inner composition and structure. First, I will briefly outline the morphological practices and frameworks used to study form changes and structures in the early twentieth century. Second, I will discuss what the Italian biologist Antonio Pensa (1874–1970) called the morphological problem. Third, I will examine Colosi’s response to the morphological problem. Fourth, I will analyze Levi’s morphological research program. As a result, this paper paves the way for a more nuanced and varied picture of the so-called “organicism movement” in the first half of the twentieth century by calling attention to morphology as practiced in Italian-speaking biology. In fact, alongside dialectical materialism and holistic biology, two of the main strands within organicism, the architectural approach to evolution as practiced in Italy and elsewhere had a profound impact on twentieth- and twenty-first-century organicism specifically and on evolutionary biology generally.
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
       
  • Technics and signs: anthropogenesis in Vygotsky, Leroi-Gourhan, and
           Stiegler

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper reconstructs L.S. Vygotsky’s account of anthropogenesis with respect to the work of anthropologist André Leroi-Gourhan and late philosopher Bernard Stiegler, situating Vygotsky as a forerunner to recent theories that posit cultural scaffolding and niche construction as the main drivers of human cognitive evolution. One might think there is an immediate affinity between Vygotsky and the techno-centric accounts of Leroi-Gourhan and Stiegler. Following Leroi-Gourhan, Stiegler argues that “technics” is the main driver in the anthropogenic development of “reflective consciousness.” Vygotsky likewise claims that “psychological tools” are responsible for the development of uniquely human forms of consciousness. However, closer inspection reveals deep disparities between Vygotsky and the French thinkers. In Stiegler’s philosophical redeployment of Leroi-Gourhan’s anthropology, “reflective” cognition is the product of a prehistorical rupture in which some threshold of technical-cortical complexification is breached. For Vygotsky, on the other hand, the inverse scenario obtains. Technical development initially proceeds in tandem with the complexification of biologically based signaling behavior until the introduction of signs, which then radically restructure the cognitive apparatus. Due to inconsistencies regarding the equivalency of the technical and semiotic in Stiegler and Leroi-Gourhan, I advance a Vygotskian account where anthropogenesis is the result of semiotic rather than technical intervention. This aims to establish Vygotsky’s “Cultural Historical” approach, and the Marxian-dialectical tradition from which he draws, as not only presaging recent naturalistic accounts of development, but offering a relevant theoretical program that may continue to inspire contemporary enculturated accounts of anthropogenesis.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Bruce S. Grant, Observing Evolution: Peppered Moths and the Discovery of
           Parallel Melanism. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press,
           2021

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      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • “Waking up” the sleeping metaphor of normality in connection to
           intersex or DSD: a scoping review of medical literature

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study is to encourage a critical debate on the use of normality in the medical literature on DSD or intersex. For this purpose, a scoping review was conducted to identify and map the various ways in which “normal” is used in the medical literature on DSD between 2016 and 2020. We identified 75 studies, many of which were case studies highlighting rare cases of DSD, others, mainly retrospective observational studies, focused on improving diagnosis or treatment. The most common use of the adjective normal was in association with phenotypic sex. Overall, appearance was the most commonly cited criteria to evaluate the normality of sex organs. More than 1/3 of the studies included also medical photographs of sex organs. This persistent use of normality in reference to phenotypic sex is worrisome given the long-term medicalization of intersex bodies in the name of a “normal” appearance or leading a “normal” life. Healthcare professionals should be more careful about the ethical implications of using photographs in publications given that many intersex persons describe their experience with medical photography as dehumanizing.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
       
  • Locating hygienic medicine within the intellectual history of hygiene:
           cases of E. W. Lane and T. R. Allinson

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      Abstract: Abstract Nineteenth century hygiene might be a confusing concept. On the one hand, the concept of hygiene was gradually becoming an important concept that was focused on cleanliness and used interchangeably with sanitation. On the other hand, the classical notions of hygiene rooted in the Hippocratic teachings remained influential. This study is about two attempts to newly theorise such a confusing concept of hygiene in the second half of the century by Edward. W. Lane and Thomas R. Allinson. Their works, standing on the borders of self-help medical advice and theoretical treatises on medical philosophies, were not exactly scholarly ones, but their medical thoughts - conceptualised as hygienic medicine - show a characteristically holistic medical view of hygiene, a nineteenth-century version of the reinterpretation of the nature cure philosophy and vitalism. However, the aim of this study is to properly locate their conceptualisations of hygienic medicine within the historical context of the second half of the nineteenth century rather than to simply introduce the medical ideas in their books. Their views of hygiene were distinguished not only from the contemporary sanitary approach but also from similar attempts by contemporary orthodox and unorthodox medical doctors. Through a chronological analysis of changes in the concept of hygiene and a comparative analysis of these two authors’ and other medical professionals’ views of hygiene, this paper aims to help understand the complicated picture of nineteenth-century hygiene, particularly during the second half of the century, from the perspective of medical holism and reductionism.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
       
  • “Batesonian Mendelism” and “Pearsonian biometry”: shedding new
           light on the controversy between William Bateson and Karl Pearson

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper contributes to the ongoing reassessment of the controversy between William Bateson and Karl Pearson by characterising what we call “Batesonian Mendelism” and “Pearsonian biometry” as coherent and competing scientific outlooks. Contrary to the thesis that such a controversy stemmed from diverging theoretical commitments on the nature of heredity and evolution, we argue that Pearson’s and Bateson’s alternative views on those processes ultimately relied on different appraisals of the methodological value of the statistical apparatus developed by Francis Galton. Accordingly, we contend that Bateson’s belief in the primacy of cross-breeding experiments over statistical analysis constituted a minimal methodological unifying condition ensuring the internal coherence of Batesonian Mendelism. Moreover, this same belief implied a view of the study of heredity and evolution as an experimental endeavour and a conception of heredity and evolution as fundamentally discontinuous processes. Similarly, we identify a minimal methodological unifying condition for Pearsonian biometry, which we characterise as the view that experimental methods had to be subordinate to statistical analysis, according to methodological standards set by biometrical research. This other methodological commitment entailed conceiving the study of heredity and evolution as subsumable under biometry and primed Pearson to regard discontinuous hereditary and evolutionary processes as exceptions to a statistical norm. Finally, we conclude that Batesonian Mendelism and Pearsonian biometry represented two potential versions of a single genetics-based evolutionary synthesis since the methodological principles and the phenomena that played a central role in the former were also acknowledged by the latter—albeit as fringe cases—and conversely.
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
       
  • Phenotype-first hypotheses, spandrels and early metazoan evolution

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      Abstract: Abstract Against the neo-Darwinian assumption that genetic factors are the principal source of variation upon which natural selection operates, a phenotype-first hypothesis strikes us as revolutionary because development would seem to constitute an independent source of variability. Richard Watson and his co-authors have argued that developmental memory constitutes one such variety of phenotypic variability. While this version of the phenotype-first hypothesis is especially well-suited for the late metazoan context, where animals have a sufficient history of selection from which to draw, appeals to developmental memory seem less plausible in the evolutionary context of the early metazoans. I provide an interpretation of Stuart Newman’s account of deep metazoan phylogenesis that suggests that spandrels are, in addition to developmental memory, an important reservoir of phenotypic variability. I conclude by arguing that Gerd Müller’s “side-effect hypothesis” is an illuminating generalization of the proposed non-Watsonian version of the phenotype-first hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
       
 
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