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FLEKS : Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1894-5988
Published by Oslo Metropolitan University Homepage  [9 journals]
  • An Analysis of Hate Speech among Armenian Facebook Users

    • Authors: Lilit Bekaryan
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Social media networking websites have become platforms where users can not only share their photos, moments of happiness, success stories and best practices, but can also voice their criticism, discontent and negative emotions. It is interesting to follow how something that starts as a mere disagreement or conflict over clashing interests or values can develop into a hateful exchange on Facebook that targets social media users based on their gender, religious belonging, ethnicity, sexual orientation, political convictions etc. The present research explores how hateful posts and comments can start among Facebook users, and studies the language means employed in their design. The factual material was retrieved from more than ten open Facebook pages managed by popular Armenian figures, such as media experts, journalists, politicians and bloggers, in the period 2018–2020. The analysis of hate speech samples extracted from these sources shows that hate speech can find its explicit and implicit reflection in the online communication of Armenian Facebook users, and can be characterised by contextual markers such as invisibility, incitement to violence, invectiveness and immediacy. The language analysis of the posts and comments comprising hate speech has helped to identify language features of hateful comments including informal tone, use of passive voice, abusive and derogatory words, rhetorical or indirectly formed questions, generalisations and labelling.
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
      DOI: 10.7577/fleks.4170
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Hate speech in intercultural encounters

    • Authors: Anne Birgitta Nielsen, Ekaterine Pirtskhalava, Ekaterine Basilaia
      Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: The issue of hate speech has been a topic of international debate—most frequently in the domains of law, philosophy and language. Different issues linked to changes in society, ranging from the proliferation of social media, innovation and technology and influx of fake news, disinformation and propaganda to the rise of nationalism, far-right movements, increased cross-border movement of people and transnational business have made studying the conceptual and practical aspects of hate speech in different contexts ever more important. The papers in this issue focus on the sociolinguistic aspects of the use of hate speech and its different variants in online communication, offering a much-needed perspective on how hate speech in digital communication can be identified and tackled. For example, Dr. Manana Ruseishvili and Dr. Rusudan Dolidze analyse hate speech in computer-meditated communication, focusing on the polylogal, asynchronic remarks made by members of the public reacting to articles in online media or press releases about the LGBT pride event planned for June 2019. The research carried out by Lilit Bekaryan explores how hateful posts and comments can start among Facebook users, and studies the language means employed in their design based on data from more than ten open Facebook pages managed by popular Armenian figures, such as media experts, journalists, politicians and bloggers. Dr. Tatjana R. Felberg explores the interconnectedness between impoliteness and hate speech in online comments in Croatia and Serbia by applying impoliteness theory and a critical discourse analysis framework. Her research demonstrates that those who post often fluctuate between hate speech and impoliteness. Dr. Ayunts and Dr. Paronyan provide a comparative analysis of manifestations of hate speech and euphemisms in Armenian and British online media outlets and social sites targeting people's sexual orientation with emphasis on the interconnectedness of hate speech and culture. This issue was prepared as part of the project ‘Intercultural encounters in academia and work places in South Caucasus and Norway’ funded by DIKU, the Norwegian Agency for International Cooperation and Quality Enhancement in Higher Education. The project partner universities are Oslo Metropolitan University, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Yerevan State University and Khazar University.
      PubDate: 2021-09-15
      DOI: 10.7577/fleks.4570
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Chocolate, identity, and extreme speech online

    • Authors: Tatjana Felberg, Ljiljana Šarić
      Pages: 15 - 25
      Abstract: In this article the phrase “extreme speech” is used to encompass both hate speech and impoliteness. Legislation against hate speech has been passed in many countries, while work on defining phenomena related to hate speech is still ongoing. As a rule, there is no legislation prohibiting impoliteness, and thus impoliteness is often perceived as a less serious verbal offence. There is, however, a grey zone between the two phenomena, which depends on contextual factors that must be constantly explored. In this article, we explore the gray zone between hate speech and impoliteness by looking at user-generated posts commenting on seemingly uncontroversial topics such as giving chocolate to children. The context we explore is the political relationship between Croatia and Serbia, two neighboring countries in the southwest Balkans with a history of recent military conflicts that ended in 1995. The relationship between these two countries can still be described as periodically troubled. The comments we analyze were posted on two online newspapers, the Croatian Jutarnji list and the Serbian Večernje novosti. Using impoliteness theory and Critical Discourse Analysis framework we identify and analyze various linguistic means that serve as extreme speech triggers, connect them to relevant contexts and highlight the grey zone that exist between hate speech and impoliteness. Our findings show that, in their discussions, the posters used a number of linguistic means for constructing national identities that at times resulted in extreme speech. The posters often targeted individual co-posters first and very quickly moved on to target ethnic groups, thus fluctuating between impoliteness and hate speech.
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
      DOI: 10.7577/fleks.4168
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • From Euphemism to Verbal Aggression in British and Armenian Cultures

    • Authors: Anoush Ayunts, Shushanik Paronyan
      Pages: 26 - 42
      Abstract: The topic of the present article concerns verbal aggression and focusses on the verbal expression of the emotional mind; specifically, the expression of negative feelings, emotions and attitudes. Since computer-mediated communication is widely used to shape and reshape public opinion, the analysis of hate speech on the material of internet discourse may shed light on the manipulative communicative tactics that are used in online media and social networking sites to spread hostility and negativity globally. Hence, the examination of the language strategies and tactics that are used to formulate hate speech becomes essential in communicatively oriented linguistic studies. The present article provides a comparative analysis of manifestations of hate speech and euphemisms in Armenian and British online media outlets and social sites targeted towards people's sexual orientation. The aim of the paper is to show the close connection between hate speech and culture. The research, which embarks on two basically different cultures – British and Armenian – is carried out within the framework of cross-cultural pragmatics and discourse analysis. A qualitative research method is applied to analyse samples of hate speech. Social sites and online media outlets were searched through search engines, using certain keywords (LGBT, sexual minorities, etc.). For the purpose of the study, language resources from English and Armenian – words, expressions, constructions, speech acts expressing hostile attitudes towards sexual orientation – have been picked out and analysed.
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
      DOI: 10.7577/fleks.4173
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Hate Speech in Online Polylogues

    • Authors: Manana Rusieshvili-Cartledge, Rusudan Dolidze
      Pages: 43 - 59
      Abstract: This research is the first attempt in Georgia to analyse hate speech emerging in Computer-Meditated Communication. Particular attention is paid to the polylogal, asynchronic remarks made by members of the public reacting to online newspaper articles or press releases concerning the LGPT pride event planned for 18 - 23 June 2019, in Tbilisi, Georgia. The methodology is based on combining methods utilized in CDA and Genre Approach to (im)politeness which is in accord with the general approach to CMDA . At the first stage of the analysis, the examples of hate-speech acts were analysed according to the following criteria: identification of linguistic means and strategies employed while expressing impoliteness and specificity of identity construction (self-asserted versus others -asserted, positive versus negative, roles of participants and strategies of conflict generation or management). Next, linguistic peculiarities of hate speech (for instance, linguistic triggers [threats, insults, sarcasm incitements], wordplay, taboo, swear and derogatory words, metaphors, allusions and similes) were identified and analysed. Quantitative methodology was employed while stating the number of proponents and opponents of the event as well as statistical data referring to the number of linguistic and politeness strategies employed while expressing an opinion. This research shows particular tendencies of how impoliteness can be realised and how social identities can be construed using the example of hate discourse concerning LGBT pride in Georgia. However, to fully explore the genre properties of hate discourse in Georgia further research based on examples of hate-discourse strategies applied when discussing ethnic minorities and gender roles, is needed.
      PubDate: 2021-02-13
      DOI: 10.7577/fleks.4171
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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