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Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.136
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0860-150X - ISSN (Online) 2199-6059
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Public Finances of Spain and Poland
           in the Period 2020–2021: Historic and Economic Perspective

    • Abstract: The conclusion emerging from the analysis on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public finances in Spain and in Poland in the years 2020–2021 shows that the effects should be considered in the short-term and long-term perspectives. The short-term perspective is featured by deterioration of the budget condition and the public debt ratio of both countries in the first year of the pandemic, and an improvement of the situation in 2021. The effects of the pandemic for public finances were far more severe in Spain, which – viewed objectively – resulted from the fact that financing of the support programmes was to a larger extent based on funds from the state budget. In Poland the impact of these expenditures on the budget was relatively insignificant since the majority of the outlays were taken outside of the state budget, and even out of the sphere of public finances. As a consequence, the budget deficit remained at a moderate level and the debt of the public sector in relation to GDP was half that of Spain. Despite the fact that the condition of public finances was markedly worse there after two years of combating COVID-19, it was decisively more transparent. Admittedly, the model introduced in Poland ensured peace in the system of public finances on the formal side, but it meant future costs that were unavoidable and difficult to assess.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The COVID-19 Pandemic and Debudgetisation of Polish Public Finances

    • Abstract: The aim of the article is to analyse the provisions regulating the organisation and principles of financial management of the COVID-19 Counteracting Fund in the context of progressive debudgetisation of public finances. The first part presents the concept, sources and effects of debudgetisation of public finances, with emphasis on earmarked funds as the basic example of this process. The second part assesses the regulations concerning the organisation and tasks of the COVID-19 Counteracting Fund, and presents the sources of financing and the principles of financial management. Using methods according to contemporary legal, economic and financial principles (in particular, a critical review of the literature on the subject, legal acts, and analysis of statistical data), basic features determining the actual nature and role of the COVID-19 Counteracting Fund in the collection and spending of public money were verified. The hypothesis that this institution (despite not having the status of a state earmarked fund in the normative sense) is a kind of para-budget with typical functions of public finances was confirmed. The creation of the COVID-19 Counteracting Fund resulted in the exclusion of some finances of a public nature from the general pool, intended primarily for tasks related to health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The adoption of such a solution is part of a trend of increasing deviations from the principle of completeness of the state budget noticeable in recent years, which has led to excessive debudgetisation of the state budget. This, in turn, is not conducive to maintaining transparency and rationality in the collection and spending of public funds, which are prescribed by the doctrine.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Introduction. Some New Approaches to Knowledge Representation in
           Multidimensional Perspective: From Theory Through Experience to Scientific
           Practice

    • Abstract: This special issue offers a multidimensional perspective on the recent inquiries into knowledge representation. Multidimensionality exposes the complexity of knowledge representation and helps distinguish between different approaches and research tools. On the one hand, the presented research focuses on the theoretical and empirical aspects of knowledge representation (taking into account cognitive processes and capacities, including linguistic skills needed to generate and express knowledge); on the other, the articles included in the issue discuss the practical discourse, analyzing actions from the point of view of cognitively oriented semantics and the scientific practice broadly understood. The issue consists of five papers that show how certain ideas in the research area of knowledge representation inspired the authors to look for new approaches to modelling concepts and practical reasoning, constructing theory of signs using the tools of data science, and dealing with cognitive artifacts in scientific practice and its dynamics. What these approaches have in common is their attempt at capturing the multidimensionality of knowledge representation in such a way that integrates them. Our goal is to emphasize some innovative aspects of those approaches with respect to the dynamics of knowledge representation in both the cognitive system and scientific practice.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Public Debt – International
           Perspective

    • Abstract: A direct consequence of the pandemic was the widespread occur-rence, and in many OECD countries – a growing public finance imbalance. The paper presents the results of research on the dynamics and structure of public debt, its relation to GDP and to the net borrowing of the general government sector. The main purpose of the article is to show the impact of the pandemic on the size and structure of public debt in the largest EU economies, as well as in other selected OECD countries. An attempt was also made to identify factors that had a significant impact on the amount of public debt during the pandemic. The new debt was used primarily to finance net borrowing and, ultimately, to support the economy and selected social groups. However, as the article points out, the new debt to a significant extent financed the increase in liquidity in the public sector, and in some cases – a larger volume of loans granted by public sector entities and their equity investments.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Category of the Common Good from the COVID-19 Pandemic Perspective

    • Abstract: In this study, edited on the basis of a critical review of domestic and foreign literature, as well as authors’ own analyzes, previously presented in several articles (Słodowa-Hełpa 2015; Gorynia 2021 and 2022), mainly in two shorter texts published in popular magazines with a range of Poland (Gory-nia and Słodowa-Hełpa 2022a, 2022b), selected aspects of the concept of the common good from the perspective of the Covid-19 pandemic were presented.The authors’ conviction that in the process of searching for cures to overcome civilization turbulences, the common good cannot be eliminated from the social, political, economic and moral space, was the inspiration to take up this issue. Therefore, the search for answers to the following four questions was considered leading: Will pandemic experiences catalyze a better understanding of the common good' How can they reduce its deficit' To what extent can a return to the concept of the common good, offering real forms of participation and shared responsibility, help in overcoming the painful effects of the present and future threats to civilization' Can respecting the principles of the common good be considered an imperative in the process of overcoming problems of an increasingly global scope'In view of the ambiguity of the category of the common good and the related interpretation difficulties, it was deemed necessary to place the main part of the study in the background of the most general approach to the essence of the analyzed category and its status in philosophical and economic terms.The summary outlines conclusions and postulates concerning the conditions for the functioning of global common goods and the possibility of using them in international cooperation.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Public Finance in Poland in a COVID Fog: A Look Through the Lens of Fiscal
           Transparency and Accountability

    • Abstract: Goal – The aim of the article is to identify dysfunctional phenomena (implementation of specific mechanisms/solutions and actions taken), generating increased opacity and limit the responsibility/accountability of public finance in Poland, exacerbated by the COVID-19 crisis.Methods – descriptive analysis, comparative analysis and financial analysis methods were used.Results – fiscal transparency and accountability in Poland is limited by: the marginalisation of the role of the state budget, the loosening of the stabilising expenditure rule, the creation of financial mechanisms based on special funds fed by repayable financing sources for the implementation of state tasks, inter alia, in the fight against the effects of the COVID-19 crisis, the use of national and EU methodologies for calculating the deficit and debt of the public sector in order to conceal part of them, the lack of a consolidated financial statement of the public finance sector.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Knowledge Routines, Threads and Network Dynamics

    • Abstract: The paper focuses on knowledge generation, a topic frequently overlooked in the traditional debates in epistemology and philosophy of science. We focus on investigation as the primary process generating knowledge and its products. Investigation is taken as a generalization of the research process that includes similar knowledge-generating practices in aboriginal communities. To characterize the complexity of investigation processes and their products we go beyond traditional epistemological characterization of knowledge in terms of mental states and turn to the concept of routine. Investigation processes share a common symbolic representation form which we call here a knowledge thread. The dynamics of the knowledge thread may be characterized by two intertwined tiers: cognitive and institutional. Using examples from our previous studies, especially on the recent discovery of microRNAs in molecular biology, we illustrate the dynamics of threads and claim that it is susceptible to the social network analysis which, however, requires insightful applications and sound interpretation of the results. Such an interpretation, as we suggest, may further be elaborated on the grounds of anthropological theories of distributed agency and distributed cognition.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • On the Role of Source and Target Words’ Meanings in Metaphorical
           Conceptualizations

    • Abstract: The paper argues that metaphorical expressions do more than just instantiate conceptual metaphors. The main aim is to emphasize the role source and target words’ meanings play in construing generic-level metaphors. The latter are taken to act as superordinate categories for other metaphors, occurring at various levels of schematicity. Identification of lower-level metaphors takes into account source words’ metaphorical senses, not the central meanings of the categories they represent. This method brings the issue of source words’ polysemy into play, and hence helps explain why metaphorical expressions relating to the same generic-level metaphor may activate different lower-level metaphors, which carry different metaphorical meanings.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Concepts and Categories: A Data Science Approach to Semiotics

    • Abstract: Compared to existing classical approaches to semiotics which are dyadic (signifier/signified, F. de Saussure) and triadic (symbol/concept/object, Ch. S. Peirce), this theory can be characterized as tetradic ([sign/semion]//[object/noema]) and is the result of either doubling the dyadic approach along the semiotic/ordinary dimension or splitting the ‘concept’ of the triadic one into two (semiotic/ordinary). Other important features of this approach are (a) the distinction made between concepts (only functional pairs of extent and intent) and categories (as representations of expressions) and (b) the indication of the need for providing the mathematical passage from the duality between two sets (where one is a singleton) within systems of sets to category-theoretical monoids within systems of categories while waiting for the solution of this problem in the field of logic.Last but not least, human language expressions are the most representative physical instances of semiotic objects. Moreover, as computational experiments which are possible with linguistic objects present a high degree of systematicity (of oppositions), in general, it is relatively easy to elucidate their dependence on the concepts underlying signs. This new semiotic theory or rather this new research program emerged as the fruit of experimentation and reflection on the application of data science tools elaborated within the frameworks of Rough Set Theory (RST), Formal Context Analysis (FCA) and, though only theoretically, Distributed Information Logic (DIL).The semiotic objects (s-objects) of this theory can be described in tabular datasets. Nevertheless, at this stage of formalisation of the theory, lattices (not trees) can be used as working representation structures for characterizing the components of concept systems and graphs for categories of each layer.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Activity of Patents in Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Production in the Context
           of Passenger Car Fleet in the V4 Countries

    • Abstract: The hydrogen market in the world today is capable ovule and empirical evidence on activity of patents in fuel cells and hydrogen production is limited so far. Patent applications in zero-emission mobility in the aspect of fuel cells include: DAFC/DMFC&DMFC, PEMFC, SOFC, AFC, PAFC. As for the patents relating to the hydrogen production, they concern low carbon, electrolysis and inorganic. The purpose of the study was to investigate certain aspects of the activity of patents in fuel cells and hydrogen production in the context of passenger car fleet in the Visegrad group (V4) countries and to explore the relationship between patent registrations and GDP per capita in V4. The research area relates to the answer to the question of whether a country’s involvement in zero-emission patent activity (patents in fuel cells and hydrogen production) could contribute to the renewal of the country’s passenger car fleet. The theses were formulated as follows: 1) activity of patents in fuel cells and hydrogen production in the V4 countries doesn’t depend on the car fleet in these countries, 2) the level of GDP per capita in the V4 countries is not followed by the number of patents registrations in hydrogen technology, 3) the highest patent activity in fuel cells and hydrogen production doesn’t mean that the car fleet in these country will be zero-emission in coming years. The method used in this article is a comparative analysis, but also the relationships between patent registrations, GDP per capita and passenger car fleet in V4 are considered
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sovereign Asset and Liability Management (SALM): Perspective of Pandemic
           COVID-19 Outbreak in Oecd Countries, Including Poland

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is global and affects all countries in the world. The difference in the financial impact assessment of its outbreak concerns, inter alia, the state of preparation of the public sector in the previous period. The article assumes that countries which coordinated the structure of sovereign assets and liabilities before 2020 were less exposed to the negative effects of financial risks resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.The study uses data and methodology of the International Monetary Fund and the authors’ measures dedicated to the public sector to assess the sovereign asset and liability management (SALM).As part of the results, the negative value of net worth and the national net welfare index for the studied countries, including Poland in the period before the pandemic crisis, were indicated. In addition, the level of the loans mismatch on the public balance sheet and the scale of the increase in financial risk in the first year of COVID-19 are presented. Conclusions of research make it possible to assess the impact of COVID-19 on Sovereign Asset and Liability Management.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Covid Monetary Expansion: Are Business Profits to be Blamed for the
           Inflation in 2022'

    • Abstract: Recent increases in inflation rates around the world has lead to many discussions on the causes of such rapid adjustments, some suggesting that higher profits are responsible driving force behind inflation. Here we will focus on the United States case and demonstrate why quantity theory of money is relevant to explain what has been going on with inflation after 2020 rather than profit based theory of inflation. First section introduces the argument. Second section restates quantity theory of money with relevance to the empirical literature. Third section shows why quantity theory despite some suggestions works to explain the current levels of inflation. Fourth section notices why increases in nominal profits during inflation are part of the natural adjustment path. Last section offers concluding comments.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Reasoning with Expectations About Causal Relations

    • Abstract: Reasoning is not just following logical rules, but a large part of human reasoning depends on our expectations about the world. To some extent, non-monotonic logic has been developed to account for the role of expectations. In this article, the focus is on expectations based on actions and their consequences. The analysis is based on a two-vector model of events where an event is represented in terms of two main components – the force of an action that drives the event, and the result of its application. Actions are modelled in terms of the force domain and the results are modelled with the aid of different domains for locations or properties of objects. As a consequence, the assumption that reasoning about causal relations should be made in terms of propositional structures becomes very unnatural. Instead, the reasoning will be based on the geometric and topological properties of causes and effects modelled in conceptual spaces.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Factors Determing the COVID-19 Fiscal Stimulus Packages. the Case of the
           Advanced and Emerging Economies

    • Abstract: The article discusses the determinants of fiscal policy in the times of COVID-19. Most economists share the opinion that fiscal packages are necessary to mitigate the health and economic costs of a pandemic. However, the scale of fiscal intervention and the types of fiscal policy instruments that should be used raise doubts.The aim of the article is to explore the factors determining the size and structure of fiscal packages which have been implemented globally in response to the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, attention is drawn to the potential impact of fiscal intervention on public finance sustainability, bearing in mind that most governments have chosen to use fiscal support instruments to enhance consumption and investment following the COVID-19 hit, although the cross-country differences are evident both in the magnitude and composition of fiscal stimulus packages.A descriptive analysis was conducted along with a panel data analysis to examine the determinants of government fiscal support in response to the COVID-19 crisis. The empirical analysis is based on cross-sectional data from the International Monetary Fund, OECD and Eurostat. The sample consists of 40 countries representing advanced and emerging economies. Based on the panel analysis, it was found that the total fiscal stimulus packages depended mainly on the fiscal space. Fiscal intervention in countries with greater tax-collection capacity (such as Germany, United States, United Kingdom and Japan) was greater compared to others. A positive and statistically significant relationship between the average income level and the size of fiscal stimulus was also confirmed. Moreover, it turned out that countries with larger populations and higher fatality rates provided greater fiscal support for the COVID-19 pandemic.The empirical analysis expands the existing knowledge on the determinants of the fiscal policy implemented in response to the COVID-19 crisis under the conditions of low interest rates, when macroeconomic stabilization can only be ensured through fiscal stimulus programs.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Information as a Factor Regulating and Deregulating Markets. A Case Study
           of the Dot.Com Crisis, the Lehman Brothers Crisis and the Sars-Cov2
           Pandemic

    • Abstract: Present, as Manuel Castells (1996) notes, we live in the information age. Knowledge and the way it is acquired and processed are the driving forces of the economy, and information processing systems are the strength of economies. The aim of this article is to identify the key role of the information supply phenomenon in contemporary socio-economic processes. The initial part of the article will define such concepts as: information, infodemia, information market, in the further part examples of the use of information in the process of forming social behaviour in the market context will be presented. For this purpose, three major economic crises from the turn of the 20th and 21st century will be used cross-sectionally. The first will be described as the dot-com crisis, i.e. the first global Internet players, which led to the collapse or loss of value of many global Internet platforms through the creation and bursting of a speculative bubble. The second crisis described below was related to the collapse of Lehman Brothers, a leading US bank, and the US housing crisis. In the above case, both supply and concealment of information in the public sphere could be observed. The last crisis described is the crisis related to the SARS-COV2 pandemic, in which dis- and mis- information activities proved to be crucial.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Fiscal Federalism and the COVID-19 Crisis: Theoretical Aspects and
           Poland’s Experience

    • Abstract: The article analyzes the specifics of the COVID-19 crisis and its impact on the public finance system, taking into account the key problems of the theory of fiscal federalism. The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of the pandemic crisis on the fiscal relations taking place between different levels of public authority (intergovernmental relations – IGR), considered in the context of the decentralization of the public finance system and the associated distribution of public functions and resources. The article refers to the model features of these relationships, as defined in the theory of fiscal federalism. It also examined the responses of European countries to the negative effects of the COVID-19 crisis, taken within the framework of the IGR, in order to limit the negative effects of the pandemic at different stages. An attempt was also made to answer the question of how the current pandemic crisis may change the multilevel governance (MLG) patterns set forth in the doctrine. The Polish public finance system was used as an example for detailed analysis in this regard.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Logical Fallacies as a Possible Source of Misconceptions and Inadequate
           Patient Recommendations Given by Medical Professionals – A Preliminary
           Review

    • Abstract: The aim of this article was to prepare a basis for further quantitative research concerning the nutritional knowledge of medical professionals (doctors) and dieticians in view of the accuracy of dietary recommendations given to patients. For this purpose, a review of literature data in this area was performed and logical fallacies were proposed as the ‘tool’ that doctors rely on in cases when they lack the proper knowledge required to be able give an informed and beneficial recommendation. In the course of the study, it was found that nutritional education is neglected in medical curricula, while dieticians are underused as professionals in clinical settings. Furthermore, numerous characteristics of the medical profession and the doctor–patient relationship are conducive to committing several types of logical fallacies, prompted mainly by the need for providing advice without delay and the infallibility traditionally expected from doctors. Hence, the gaps in nutritional knowledge and the fallacious character of recommendations, in addition to the re-valuation of the role of the nutritionist, need to be further investigated in order to improve the quality of patient advice in the area of dietary requirements as well as to propose the necessary changes in curricula.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Subnational Finance: Polish
           Experience

    • Abstract: In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments worldwide established various mechanisms to facilitate the pandemic response and ensure the state’s functioning. As a consequence, the economic impact of the COVID-19 crisis varies in countries, depending on the region. We are looking for answers to research questions: how the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the finances of local government institutions in 2020–2021; Is it possible to distinguish the types of units where this impact was greater or smaller, and whether and how the pandemic-related legislation influenced the fiscal relations between the state and local government, especially in the context of the local government institutions’ financial independence. We have noticed that financial solutions dedicated to local government units, as well as making local government fiscal rules more flexible, allowed to maintain the potential of the local economic base. They also had a diversified impact on the Polish local government institutions’ income level.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Cognitive Artifacts and Their Virtues in Scientific Practice

    • Abstract: One of the critical issues in the philosophy of science is to understand scientific knowledge. This paper proposes a novel approach to the study of reflection on science, called “cognitive metascience”. In particular, it offers a new understanding of scientific knowledge as constituted by various kinds of scientific representations, framed as cognitive artifacts. It introduces a novel functional taxonomy of cognitive artifacts prevalent in scientific practice, covering a huge diversity of their formats, vehicles, and functions. As a consequence, toolboxes, conceptual frameworks, theories, models, and individual hypotheses can be understood as artifacts supporting our cognitive performance. It is also shown that by empirically studying how artifacts function, we may discover hitherto undiscussed virtues and vices of these scientific representations. This paper relies on the use of language technology to analyze scientific discourse empirically, which allows us to uncover the metascientific views of researchers. This, in turn, can become part of normative considerations concerning virtues and vices of cognitive artifacts.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Consequences of the Constitutional Tribunal’s Ruling of October 22,
           2020. On the Citizens’ Bill on Safe Termination of Pregnancy and Other
           Reproductive Rights

    • Abstract: The ruling of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal of October 22, 2020 introduced a near-complete ban on abortion in Poland, as it removed from the law the embryopathological condition that allowed abortion when the fetus had an incurable, severe disease. The ruling raises a number of questions regarding the recognition of international protection of human rights, the equal protection status of human rights, and the principle of trust in the state. The Tribunal’s ruling resulted in massive public protests in Poland, the adoption of condemnatory resolutions by the European Parliament, and the submission of a new bill by members of the parliament from the opposition groups. The purpose of the paper is to show the questionable ruling issued by the Constitutional Tribunal from the perspective of protection of human rights and the attempts of opposition MPs to change the legal order. The Tribunal’s ruling violates women’s human rights and is therefore a form of discrimination against women. Attempts by opposition MPs to “civilize” the right to abortion have proved unsuccessful. The jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights may establish a breakthrough, as the Tribunal has received a complaint concerning the prevention of abortion on embryopathological grounds in connection with the ruling of the Constitutional Court of October 22, 2020.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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