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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 766 journals)
Showing 201 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically
Ethical Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Ethics & Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ethics in Progress     Open Access  
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Éthique en éducation et en formation : Les Dossiers du GREE     Open Access  
Éthique publique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethische Perspectieven     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Etikk i praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études phénoménologiques : Phenomenological Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Études Platoniciennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of Islamic Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History     Open Access  
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Faith and Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
FALAH : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access  
Feminist Philosophy Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fichte-Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Film-Philosophy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Filosofia e Educação     Open Access  
Filosofia Theoretica : Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Filosofia Unisinos     Open Access  
Filosofia. Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto     Open Access  
Filozofia Chrześcijańska     Open Access  
Filozofia Publiczna i Edukacja Demokratyczna     Open Access  
Filozofija i društvo / Philosophy and Society     Open Access  
FLEKS : Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FOKUS : Jurnal Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Folios     Open Access  
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Forum Philosophicum     Full-text available via subscription  
Franciscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Franciscanum. Revista de las ciencias del espíritu     Open Access  
Frónesis     Open Access  
Funes. Journal of Narratives and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Gestalt Theory. An International Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Forum on Arts and Christian Faith     Open Access  
Gnosis : Journal of Gnostic Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Gogoa     Open Access  
Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Grafía     Open Access  
Granì     Open Access  
Grazer Philosophische Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Griot : Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Grotiana     Hybrid Journal  
GSTF Journal of General Philosophy (JPhilo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Review of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Heidegger Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Heroism Science     Open Access  
Hic Rhodus : Crisis capitalista, polémica y controversias     Open Access  
HiN : Alexander von Humboldt im Netz. Internationale Zeitschrift für Humboldt-Studien     Open Access  
Histoire Épistémologie Langage     Open Access  
History and Philosophy of Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
History of Communism in Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hobbes Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
HOPOS : The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Horizonte : Revista de Estudos de Teologia e Ciências da Religião     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Horyzonty Wychowania     Open Access  
HTS Theological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Humanidades em diálogo     Open Access  
Humanidades Médicas     Open Access  
Humanist Studies & the Digital Age     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Humanistic Management Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Hume Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Husserl Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Idealistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Idéias     Open Access  
Ignis (Revista de estudiantes)     Open Access  
IJIBE (International Journal of Islamic Business Ethics)     Open Access  
Ijtimaiyya : Jurnal Pengembangan Masyarakat Islam     Open Access  
Ikonomika : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access  
Impact : The Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain     Free   (Followers: 4)
Informal Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ingenium. Revista Electrónica de Pensamiento Moderno y Metodología en Historia de la Ideas     Open Access  
Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Inquiry : Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Intellèctus     Open Access  
Interações : Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
Interespe. Interdisciplinaridade e Espiritualidade na Educação     Open Access  
International Gramsci Journal     Open Access  
International Journal for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
International Journal for the Study of Skepticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Transformative Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Divination and Prognostication     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ethics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Philosophy & Social Values     Open Access  
International Journal of Philosophy and Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Philosophy Study     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Social Quality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Platonic Tradition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Zakat     Open Access  
International Journal of Žižek Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Philosophical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Studies in Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Studies in Philosophy Monograph Series     Full-text available via subscription  
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Iqtishoduna : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
Isegoría     Open Access  
Islamic Sciences     Open Access  
Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía del Derecho     Open Access  
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access  
Ítaca     Open Access  
Itinera     Open Access  
Ius Humani: Revista de derecho     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
JOHME : Journal of Holistic Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Continental Philosophy of Religion     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for Peace and Justice Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Aesthetic Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Analytic Divinity     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Hermeneutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Business Ethics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Catalan Intellectual History     Open Access  
Journal of Catholic Social Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chinese Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Critical Realism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Dharma Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of East Asian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Educational Thought / Revue de la Pensée Educative     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Friends of Lutheran Archives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Global Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Graduate Studies Review     Open Access  
Journal of Humanistic Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Humanities of Valparaiso     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Ethics     Open Access  
Journal of Islamic Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Japanese Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Literature and Trauma Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Media Ethics : Exploring Questions of Media Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access  
Journal of Modern Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Moral Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Nietzsche Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Philosophical investigations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Philosophical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Philosophical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Philosophy in Schools     Open Access  
Journal of Philosophy, Culture and Religion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Political Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Journal of Religion and Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Religion and Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Scottish Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Speculative Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the American Philosophical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the History of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Journal of the Philosophy of Games     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Philosophy of History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the Sociology and Theory of Religion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Urdu Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Values Education / Değerler Eğitimi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of World Philosophies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Juris (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah)     Open Access  
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Jurnal Dinamika Penelitian : Media Komunikasi Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (Journal of Islamic Economics and Business)     Open Access  
Jurnal Filsafat     Open Access  
Jurnal Konseling Gusjigang     Open Access  
Jurnal Living Hadis     Open Access  
Jurnal Theologia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ushuluddin     Open Access  

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European Journal for Philosophy of Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.648
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 1879-4912 - ISSN (Online) 1879-4920
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Cultural Theory’s contributions to climate science: reply to Hansson

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      Abstract: Abstract In his article, ‘Social constructionism and climate science denial’, Hansson claims to present empirical evidence that the cultural theory developed by Dame Mary Douglas, Aaron Wildavsky and ourselves (among others) leads to (climate) science denial. In this reply, we show that there is no validity to these claims. First, we show that Hansson’s empirical evidence that cultural theory has led to climate science denial falls apart under closer inspection. Contrary to Hansson’s claims, cultural theory has made significant contributions to understanding and addressing climate change. Second, we discuss various features of Douglas’ cultural theory that differentiate it from other constructivist approaches and make it compatible with the scientific method. Thus, we also demonstrate that cultural theory cannot be accused of epistemic relativism.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • An ineffective antidote for hawkmoths

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      Abstract: Abstract In recent publications we have drawn attention to the fact that if the dynamics of a model is structurally unstable, then the presence of structural model error places in-principle limits on the model’s ability to generate decision-relevant probability forecasts. Writing with a varying array of co-authors, Eric Winsberg has now produced at least four publications in which he dismisses our points as unfounded; the most recent of these appeared in this journal. In this paper we respond to the arguments of Winsberg and his co-workers, and we point out that their criticisms fail. We take this as an opportunity to restate and explain our arguments, and to point to fruitful directions for future research.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • No, water (still) doesn’t have a microstructural essence (reply to
           Hoefer & Martí)

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      Abstract: Abstract Häggqvist and Wikforss (2018) argued that in the case of so-called natural kind terms, semantic externalism relies on an untenable metaphysics of kinds: microessentialism. They further claimed that this metaphysics fails, for largely empirical reasons. Focussing on the case of water, Hoefer and Martí European Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 9, (2019) rejoin that suitably construed, microessentialism is correct. I argue that their defence of microessentialism fails.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Modelling the psychological structure of reasoning

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      Abstract: Abstract Mathematics and logic are indispensable in science, yet how they are deployed and why they are so effective, especially in the natural sciences, is poorly understood. In this paper, I focus on the how by analysing Jean Piaget’s application of mathematics to the empirical content of psychological experiment; however, I do not lose sight of the application’s wider implications on the why. In a case study, I set out how Piaget drew on the stock of mathematical structures to model psychological content, namely, the operations of thought involved in reasoning. In particular, I show how operations of thought form structured wholes that initially resisted modelling by either lattices or groups but could be modelled adequately by modifications of these mathematical structures. Piaget coined the term ‘grouping’ for the modified structure, and I conclude that it represents a non-canonical application of mathematics to the empirical content of experimental psychology. I also touch on the role external factors played in Piaget’s development of the grouping. According to the genetic epistemology conceived by Piaget, the origin of intelligence lies in the biological organism and develops in stages over time, and, via the grouping, Piaget established a genetic relationship between two stages of reasoning. I show how this relationship explains why mathematics and logic fit the psychological content of reasoning whilst simultaneously making their successful deployment in the natural sciences more mysterious. Finally, I turn to the explanation Piaget envisaged for the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences and consider some consequences for naturalism and Pythagoreanism.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • (In)effective realism'

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      Abstract: Abstract Matthias Egg (2021) argues that scientific realism can be reconciled with quantum mechanics and its foundational underdetermination by focusing realist commitments on ‘effective’ ontology. I argue in general terms that Egg’s effective realism is ontologically overly promiscuous. I illustrate the issue in relation to both Newtonian mechanics and quantum mechanics.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
       
  • Correction to: Incommensurability and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis:
           taking Kuhn seriously

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-04-09
       
  • Powers and the hard problem of consciousness: conceivability, possibility
           and powers

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      Abstract: Abstract Do conceivability arguments work against physicalism if properties are causal powers' By considering three different ways of understanding causal powers and the modality associated with them, I will argue that most, if not all, physicalist powers theorists should not be concerned about the conceivability argument because its conclusion that physicalism is false does not hold in their favoured ontology. I also defend specific powers theories against some recent objections to this strategy, arguing that the conception of properties as powerful blocks conceivability arguments unless a rather implausible form of emergence is true.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
       
  • Incommensurability and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: taking Kuhn
           seriously

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we analyze the debate between the Modern Synthesis and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis in light of the concept of incommensurability developed by Thomas Kuhn. In order to do so, first we briefly present both the Modern Synthesis and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis. Then, we clarify the meaning and interpretations of incommensurability throughout Kuhn’s works, concluding that the version of this concept deployed in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is the best suited to the analysis of scientific disputes. After discussing incommensurability in Kuhn’s works, we address the question of whether the Modern Synthesis and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis can be considered semantically, methodologically, and ontologically incommensurable, concluding that they can. Finally, we discuss three problems that arise from such a conclusion: firstly, what are the consequences of incommensurability; secondly, which mode of scientific change better explains this current dispute in evolutionary biology; and thirdly, whether rational theory comparison is possible given incommensurability. We suggest that the main consequence of incommensurability is profound disagreement, that the kind of scientific change that better explains the current dispute between the MS and the EES may be scientific specialization, and that incommensurability does not preclude rational theory comparison.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
       
  • From epistemology to policy: reorienting philosophy courses for science
           students

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      Abstract: Abstract Philosophy of science has traditionally focused on the epistemological dimensions of scientific practice at the expense of the ethical and political questions scientists encounter when addressing questions of policy in advisory contexts. In this article, I will explore how an exclusive focus on epistemology and theoretical reason can function to reinforce common, yet flawed assumptions concerning the role of scientific knowledge in policy decision making when reproduced in philosophy courses for science students. In order to address this concern, I will argue that such courses should supplement the traditional focus on theoretical reason with an analysis of the practical reasoning employed by scientists in advisory contexts. Later sections of this paper outline a teaching strategy by which this can be achieved that consists of two steps: the first examines idealized examples of scientific advising in order to highlight the irreducible role played by moral reasoning in justifying policy recommendations. The second employs argument analysis to reveal implicit moral assumptions in actual advisory reports that form the basis for class discussion. This paper concludes by examining some of the wider benefits that can be expected from adopting such an approach.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
       
  • Foregrounding and backgrounding: a new interpretation of
           “levels” in science

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      Abstract: Talk of “levels” can be found throughout the sciences, from “levels of abstraction”, to “levels of organization”, to “levels of analysis” (among others). This has led to substantial disagreement regarding the ontology of levels, and whether the various senses of levels each have genuine value and utility to scientific practice. In this paper, I propose a unified framework for thinking about levels in science which ties together the various ways in which levels are invoked in science, and which can overcome the problems that different senses of levels have faced. I argue that levels can best be understood as choices scientists make regarding what sort of information to foreground in their models and theories, and what sort of information to push into the background. To change levels is to change the foregrounding and backgrounding of information for different representational and pragmatic purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
       
  • Creativity and Yóu: the Zhuāngzǐ and scientific inquiry

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      Abstract: Abstract Might traditional Chinese thought regarding creativity not just influence, but also enrich, contemporary European thought about the same' Moreover, is it possible that traditional Chinese thought regarding creativity might enrich contemporary thought both in a more broad, holistic sense, and more specifically regarding the nature and role of creativity as it pertains to scientific inquiry' In this paper, I elucidate why the answer to these questions is: yes. I explain in detail a classical Chinese conception of creativity rooted in Zhuangist philosophy and which centrally involves spontaneity engendered by embracing yóu遊, or “wandering”, rather than novelty or originality (even if processes or products that issue from such spontaneity very often are, or strike us as, novel or original). I then illustrate how this conception of creativity can be used to enrich contemporary thought regarding the nature and role of creativity both in general and as it pertains to scientific inquiry in particular, as well as how to engender creativity, by arguing that it might allow us to: i) more easily remove what is frequently an obstacle to creativity (viz., that of striving for novelty or originality, or even creativity itself, whatever it is taken to involve), and; ii) better understand creative agents as being more intimately connected with, and as processes within and products of, their environments (and thus better promote both extraordinary and ordinary creativity). Finally, I conclude by briefly remarking on how exploring various cultural perspectives on creativity promises to help us to better comprehend and promote creativity, by encouraging us to become more creative about creativity itself.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
       
  • Applying the notion of epistemic risk to argumentation in philosophy of
           science

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      Abstract: Abstract I analyse an empirically informed argument in philosophy of science to show that it faces several varieties of risk commonly discussed as inductive risk. I argue that this is so even though the type of reasoning used in this argument differs from the reasoning in some of the arguments usually discussed in connection with inductive risk. To capture the variety of risks involved, I use the more general notion of epistemic risk proposed by Justin Biddle and Quill Kukla. I show how the argument in question faces several of the epistemic risks already described in connection with empirical reasoning. Importantly, I also argue that the subtype of inductive reasoning used in the argument merits a separate discussion. To analyse it, I recommend using the model of colligation, or reasoning through offering synthesising expressions. I then argue that it is desirable to recognise the risk in colligating inductive reasoning as a distinct type of epistemic risk that is relevant for understanding risk in other fields as well. Thus, I suggest that philosophy of science is one of the fields subject to non-trivial epistemic risk; I characterise several of these risks on the example of a specific argument; and I describe epistemic risk that accompanies colligation – colligating inductive risk.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
       
  • Overcoming Frege’s curse: heuristic reasoning as the basis for teaching
           philosophy of science to scientists

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      Abstract: Abstract A lot of philosophy taught to science students consists of scientific methodology. But many philosophy of science textbooks have a fraught relationship with methodology, presenting it either a system of universal principles or entirely permeated by contingent factors not subject to normative assessment. In this paper, I argue for an alternative, heuristic perspective for teaching methodology: as fallible, purpose- and context-dependent, subject to cost-effectiveness considerations and systematically biased, but nevertheless subject to normative assessment. My pedagogical conclusion from this perspective is that philosophers should aim to teach science students heuristic reasoning: strategies of normative method choice appraisal that are sensitive to purposes, contexts, biases and cost-effectiveness considerations; and that we should do so by teaching them exemplars of such reasoning. I illustrate this proposal at the hand of three such exemplars, showing how they help students to appreciate the heuristic nature of both methods and methodology, and to normatively assess method choice in such circumstances.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
       
  • Process epistemology in the COVID-19 era: rethinking the research process
           to avoid dangerous forms of reification

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      Abstract: Abstract Whether we live in a world of autonomous things, or a world of interconnected processes in constant flux, is an ancient philosophical debate. Modern biology provides decisive reasons for embracing the latter view. How does one understand the practices and outputs of science in such a dynamic, ever-changing world - and particularly in an emergency situation such as the COVID-19 pandemic, where scientific knowledge has been regarded as bedrock for decisive social interventions' We argue that key to answering this question is to consider the role of the activity of reification within the research process. Reification consists in the identification of more or less stable features of the flux, and treating these as constituting stable things. As we illustrate with reference to biological and biomedical research on COVID-19, reification is a necessary component of any process of inquiry and comes in at least two forms: (1) means reification (phenomena-to-object), when researchers create objects meant to capture features of the world, or phenomena, in order to be able to study them; and (2) target reification (object-to-phenomena), when researchers infer an understanding of phenomena from an investigation of the epistemic objects created to study them. We note that both objects and phenomena are dynamic processes and argue that have no reason to assume that changes in objects and phenomena track one another. We conclude that failure to acknowledge these forms of reification and their epistemic role in scientific inquiry can have dire consequences for how the resulting knowledge is interpreted and used.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
       
  • Revisiting abstraction and idealization: how not to criticize mechanistic
           explanation in molecular biology

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      Abstract: ion and idealization are the two notions that are most often discussed in the context of assumptions employed in the process of model building. These notions are also routinely used in philosophical debates such as that on the mechanistic account of explanation. Indeed, an objection to the mechanistic account has recently been formulated precisely on these grounds: mechanists cannot account for the common practice of idealizing difference-making factors in models in molecular biology. In this paper I revisit the debate and I argue that the objection does not stand up to scrutiny. This is because it is riddled with a number of conceptual inconsistencies. By attempting to resolve the tensions, I also draw several general lessons regarding the difficulties of applying abstraction and idealization in scientific practice. Finally, I argue that more care is needed only when speaking of abstraction and idealization in a context in which these concepts play an important role in an argument, such as that on mechanistic explanation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
       
  • Is HPS a valuable component of a STEM education' An empirical study of
           student interest in HPS courses within an undergraduate science curriculum
           

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the results of a survey of students majoring in STEM fields whose education contained a significant history, philosophy and sociology (HPS) of science component. The survey was administered to students in a North American public 4-year university just prior to completing their HPS sequence. The survey assessed students’ attitudes towards HPS to gauge how those attitudes changed over the course of their college careers, and to identify the benefits and obstacles to studying HPS as a component of their STEM education. The survey reveals that students generally found unexpected value in taking HPS within their STEM curriculum. It also reveals that framing HPS courses as a means of gaining communication skills necessary to be an influential scientist seems to resonate with students. However, students also identified several factors limiting engagement with HPS content, including the length and density of required readings and assessment via essays and papers.
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13194-021-00433-x
       
  • Miracles persist: a reply to Sus

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      Abstract: Abstract In a recent article in this journal, Sus purports to account for what have been identified as the ‘two miracles’ of general relativity—that (1) the local symmetries of all dynamical equations for matter fields coincide, and (2) the symmetries of the dynamical equations governing matter fields coincide locally with the symmetries of the metric field—by application of the familiar result that every symmetry of the action is also a symmetry of the resulting equations of motion. In this reply, we argue that, while otherwise exemplary in its clarity, Sus’ paper fails in this regard, for it rests upon a illegitimate application of the aforementioned result. Thus, we conclude, pace Sus, that these two miracles persist in general relativity.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13194-021-00440-y
       
  • The emergence of the postgenomic gene

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      Abstract: Abstract The identity and the existence of genes has been challenged by postgenomic discoveries. Specifically, the consideration of molecular and cellular phenomena in which genes are embedded has proved relevant for their understanding. In response to these challenges, I will argue that the complexity of genetic phenomena supports the weak emergence of genes from the DNA. In Section 2, I will expose what genes are taken to be in the postgenomic world. In Section 3, I will present the relevant account of emergence. I consider weak emergence as in Franklin and Knox (Studies for the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 64, 68–78, 2018), for which a phenomenon is emergent when it displays novelty and robustness. In Section 4, I will argue that genes are weakly emergent since they are novel, improving explanations, and robust in respect to some perturbations. Then, I will conclude in Section 5 that genes’ emergence is a way to allow genes’ flexibility and context dependency, without compromising their existence.
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13194-022-00446-0
       
  • Epistemological and educational issues in teaching practice-oriented
           scientific research: roles for philosophers of science

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      Abstract: Abstract The complex societal challenges of the twenty-first Century require scientific researchers and academically educated professionals capable of conducting scientific research in complex problem contexts. Our central claim is that educational approaches inspired by a traditional empiricist epistemology insufficiently foster the required deep conceptual understanding and higher-order thinking skills necessary for epistemic tasks in scientific research. Conversely, we argue that constructivist epistemologies (developed in the philosophy of science in practice) provide better guidance to educational approaches to promote research skills. We also argue that teachers adopting a constructivist learning theory do not necessarily embrace a constructivist epistemology. On the contrary, in educational practice, novel educational approaches that adopt constructivist learning theories (e.g., project-based learning, PjBL) often maintain traditional empiricist epistemologies. Philosophers of science can help develop educational designs focused on learning to conduct scientific research, combining constructivist learning theory with constructivist epistemology. We illustrate this by an example from a bachelor’s program in Biomedical Engineering, where we introduce conceptual models and modeling as an alternative to the traditional focus on hypothesis testing in conducting scientific research. This educational approach includes the so-called B&K method for (re-)constructing scientific models to scaffold teaching and learning conceptual modeling.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13194-022-00447-z
       
  • The logic of explanation in molecular biology: historical-processual and
           logical-procedural aspects

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      Abstract: Abstract This work addresses biological explanations and aims to provide a philosophical account which brings together logical-procedural and historical-processual aspects when considering molecular pathways. It is argued that, having molecular features as explananda, a particular non-classical logical language – Zsyntax – can be used to formally represent, in terms of logical theorems, types of molecular processes (pathways), and to grasp how we get from one molecular interaction to another, hence explaining why a given outcome occurs. Expressing types of molecular biology processes in terms of the Zsyntax language allows us to represent causal interactions by taking into account their context-sensitivity, and amounts to partly reviving the spirit of the so-called received view of explanation – which aimed to capture scientific explanatory accounts in terms of their logical structure and their appealing to nomological relations. Such a partial revival is pursued by invoking here non-classical deductions and empirical generalisations, which are called to provide the epistemic norms to explain the behavior of molecular pathways.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13194-022-00445-1
       
 
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