Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 928 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (661 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (23 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (47 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (65 journals)


Showing 1 - 25 of 25 Journals sorted alphabetically
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ChemElectroChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electrochemical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Electrochemistry Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Electrochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Electronics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems     Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of The Electrochemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Materials and Corrosion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta     Open Access  
Reports in Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Russian Journal of Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 286: On the Usage of Battery Equivalent Series
           Resistance for Shuntless Coulomb Counting and SOC Estimation

    • Authors: Alessio De Angelis, Paolo Carbone, Francesco Santoni, Michele Vitelli, Luca Ruscitti
      First page: 286
      Abstract: In this paper, a feasibility study of a shuntless coulomb counting method for estimating the state of charge (SOC) of a battery is presented. Contrary to conventional coulomb counting, the proposed method does not require an external resistive shunt; it instead only requires voltage measurements performed on the battery under test while it is operating. The current is measured indirectly using the battery’s equivalent series resistance (ESR). The method consists of a preliminary calibration phase where the ESR and the open-circuit voltage of the battery are measured for different SOCs and stored in look-up tables (LUTs). Then, in the subsequent operational phase, the method uses these LUTs together with the measured voltage at the battery terminals to estimate the SOC. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a sample lithium polymer (LiPo) battery, using a realistic current profile derived from the Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). The results of this experimental evaluation demonstrate a SOC estimation root-mean-square error of 0.82% and a maximum SOC error of 1.45%. These results prove that the proposed method is feasible in a practical scenario.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9060286
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 287: Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries
           Based on Honeycomb-Structured Liquid Cooling and Phase Change Materials

    • Authors: Tianqi Yang, Shenglin Su, Qianqian Xin, Juan Zeng, Hengyun Zhang, Xianyou Zeng, Jinsheng Xiao
      First page: 287
      Abstract: Batteries with high energy density are packed into compact groups to solve the range anxiety of new-energy vehicles, which brings greater workload and insecurity, risking thermal runaway in harsh conditions. To improve the battery thermal performance under high ambient temperature and discharge rate, a battery thermal management system (BTMS) based on honeycomb-structured liquid cooling and phase change materials (PCM) is innovatively proposed. In this paper, the thermal characteristics of INR18650/25P battery are studied theoretically and experimentally. Moreover, the influence of structure, material and operating parameters are studied based on verifying the simplified BTMS model. The results show that the counterflow, honeycomb structure of six cooling tubes and fins, 12% expanded graphite mass fraction and 25 mm battery spacing give a better battery thermal performance with high group efficiency. The maximum temperature and temperature difference in the battery in the optimal BTMS are 45.71 °C and 4.4 °C at the 40 °C environment/coolant, as against 30.4 °C and 4.97 °C at the 23.6 °C environment/coolant, respectively. Precooling the coolant can further reduce the maximum battery temperature in high temperature environments, and the precooling temperature difference within 5 °C could meet the uniformity requirements. Furthermore, this study can provide guidance for the design and optimization of BTMS under harsh conditions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9060287
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 288: C4S Nanosheet: A Potential Anode Material
           for Potassium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Shaohua Lu, Enhao Lu, Kai Zhu, Xiaojun Hu
      First page: 288
      Abstract: Potassium ion batteries (KIBs) have received increasing popularity owing to their distinct advantages. We discover a hitherto unknown C4S nanosheet, a novel carbon-based material with carbon and sulfur consisting of pentagons and hexagons rings. The proposed C4S nanosheet is highly stable dynamically, thermodynamically, mechanically, and chemically, according to first-principles calculations. Moreover, the graphene-like C4S nanosheet is a prospective KIBs anode material, which has a metallic band structure, a relatively low diffusion barrier (0.07 eV), a large capacity (1340 mA h g−1), and an acceptable average voltage (0.44 V). Finally, we demonstrate good cycling stability of the C4S nanosheet. Our findings indicate that the proposed C4S nanosheet is a potentially favorable KIBs anode material.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9060288
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 289: Yeast-Derived Sulfur Host for the
           Application of Sustainable Li–S Battery Cathode

    • Authors: Zhanhui He, Xinyi Dou, Weilin Liu, Luxian Zhang, Laixi Lv, Jiehua Liu, Fancheng Meng
      First page: 289
      Abstract: A porous carbon structure (PCS) is considered as an ideal electrode material for lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries, owing to its flexible texture, large surface area, and high electrical conductivity. In this work, we use food-grade yeast as the carbon precursor, which is proliferated in glucose solution, carbonized with a NaCl template to yield a sheet-like carbon structure, and reactivated at different temperatures with KOH. The porous carbon material is then applied as the sulfur host of the Li–S battery cathode, and the electrode is systematically characterized by means of SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, XPS, thermogravimetric (TG), nitrogen gas adsorption–desorption, and electrochemical measurements. The results show that the PCS obtained at 800 °C has an ultra-high surface area of 2410 m2 g−1 and exhibits excellent performance for a Li–S battery cathode. The initial discharge capacity of the PCS-800/S cathode is 1502 mAh g−1, which accounts for 90% of the theoretical capacity value.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9060289
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 290: Preparation of Li2S-AlI3-LiI Composite Solid
           Electrolyte and Its Application in All-Solid-State Li-S Battery

    • Authors: Tran Anh Tu, Nguyen Huu Huy Phuc, Luong Thi Quynh Anh, Tran Viet Toan
      First page: 290
      Abstract: Novel (80Li2S − 20AlI3)·yLiI composite solid electrolytes (y = 5, 10, 15) were prepared by mechannochemical synthesis. XRD results showed that the pattern of 80Li2S − 20AlI3 was similar to that of AlI3, which means that Li2S was dissolved in AlI3 matrix during preparation. This structure was still maintained after LiI addition. The current measured at constant applied DC voltage indicated that (80Li2S − 20AlI3)·yLiI composites are intrinsically pure Li-ion conductors. The ionic conductivity at 25 °C of y = 10 was about 2.3 × 10−4 Scm−1, which was about three times higher than that of y = 0. The conductivity of y = 10 increased 20 times to 2.2 × 10−3 Scm−1 at 70 °C. These values were highest among those observed from Li2S-based materials. It was revealed that Li-ion moves in 80Li2S − 20AlI3 by a hoping mechanism, while the lattice dipoles are the origin of Li-ion movement in (80Li2S − 20AlI3)·yLiI. The polarization measurements using Liǀ90 (80Li2S − 20AlI3)·10LiI ǀLi and LiǀLi6PS5Clǀ90 (80Li2S − 20AlI3)·10LiIǀLi6PS5ClǀLi cells proved that 90 (80Li2S − 20AlI3)·10LiI reacts with Li metal, but it is relatively stable at a low voltage. Sample y = 10 was also employed as a solid electrolyte in the positive electrode of a solid-state Li-S battery to study its stability in the voltage range of the positive electrode. CuS and Li4.4Si were the electrode-active materials. The cell was cycled in CC-CV mode at 1.0 mA cm−2 (CC) with a cut-off voltage of 1.0–2.3 V. The cell delivered a stable capacity of about 400 mAh g−1CuS after 40 cycles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9060290
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 291: Multiobjective Optimization Charging
           Strategy Based on a Fast Charging Electrochemical Model and Safe Charging

    • Authors: Huanyu Wang, Jun Li, Shengzhe Liu, Yuqian Fan, Xiaojun Tan
      First page: 291
      Abstract: The present expeditious charging approach for electric automobiles relies on provisional trial data and the technical proficiency of lithium battery producers, and it is deficient in systematic methodologies for assessing the safety threshold of charging. The present study is grounded on the utilization of an electrochemical fast-charging model for the purpose of determining the temperature limits for lithium deposition. A proposed approach for enhancing the charging strategy involves the consideration of discharging pulses and pulse widths, and the utilization of a genetic algorithm based on the lithium deposition boundary. The present approach endeavors to enhance the duration of charging and minimize the occurrence of irreversible thermal effects by employing the existing threshold as a safeguard threshold. The outcomes of the experiment indicate that the electrochemical rapid charging approach proposed in this study exhibits a significant level of simulation precision when subjected to high magnification and a wide range of temperatures. Furthermore, the implementation of an enhanced genetic algorithm-based optimized charging strategy has demonstrated the capability to efficiently balance the charging duration and irreversible heat, leading to a significant improvement in the charging performance in comparison to the conventional 1 C constant current charging approach.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9060291
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 292: Li3BO3-Li3PO4 Composites for Efficient
           Buffer Layer of Sulphide-Based All-Solid-State Batteries

    • Authors: Yong Jun Ji, Sungwoo Noh, Ju Yeong Seong, Sangheon Lee, Yong Joon Park
      First page: 292
      Abstract: All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) based on sulphide electrolytes are promising next-generation energy storage systems because they are expected to have improved safety, increased volumetric energy density, and a wide operating temperature range. However, side reactions at the cathode/electrolyte interface deteriorate the electrochemical performance and limit the commercialization of ASSBs. Surface coating of the cathode is an efficient approach for overcoming this issue. In this study, new Li3BO3 (LBO)-Li3PO4 (LPO) composites were applied as coating materials for high-Ni cathodes (NCM). PO4-based materials (such as LPO) have been used as coating layers because of their good chemical stability in sulphide electrolytes. However, the ionic conductivity of LPO is slightly insufficient compared to those of generally used ternary oxides. The addition of LBO could compensate for the low ionic conductivity of LPO and may provide better protection against sulphide electrolytes owing to the effect of LBO, which has been used as a good coating material. As expected, the LBO-LPO composites (LBPO) NCM exhibited superior discharge capacity, rate capability, and cyclic performance compared to the pristine and LPO-coated NCMs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses confirmed that the LBPO coating on the cathodes successfully suppressed the byproduct formation and an undesirable interfacial layer, which are attributed to interfacial side reactions. This result clearly shows the potential of the LBPO coating as an excellent buffer layer to stabilise the oxide cathode/sulphide electrolyte interface.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9060292
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 293: High Areal Capacity and Sustainable High
           Energy in Ferroelectric Doped Holey Graphene/Sulfur Composite Cathode for
           Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    • Authors: Claudia C. Zuluaga-Gómez, Balram Tripathi, Christian O. Plaza-Rivera, Rajesh K. Katiyar, Margarita Correa, Dhiren K. Pradhan, Gerardo Morell, Ram S. Katiyar
      First page: 293
      Abstract: In this study, we are reporting the impact of the incorporation of ferroelectric nanoparticles (FNPs), such as BaTiO3 (BTO), BiFeO3 (BFO), Bi4NdTi3Fe0.7Ni0.3O15 (BNTFN), and Bi4NdTi3Fe0.5Co0.5O15 (BNTFC), as well as the mass loading of sulfur to fabricated solvent-free sulfur/holey graphene-carbon black/polyvinylidene fluoride (S/FNPs/CBhG/PVDF) composite electrodes to achieve high areal capacity for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The dry-press method was adopted to fabricate composite cathodes. The hG, a conductive and lightweight scaffold derived from graphene, served as a matrix to host sulfur and FNPs for the fabrication of solvent-free composites. Raman spectra confirmed the dominant hG framework for all the composites, with strong D, G, and 2D bands. The surface morphology of the fabricated cathode system showed a homogeneous distribution of FNPs throughout the composites, confirmed by the EDAX spectra. The observed Li+ ion diffusion coefficient for the composite cathode started at 2.17 × 10−16 cm2/s (S25(CBhG)65PVDF10) and reached up to the highest value (4.15 × 10−15 cm2/s) for S25BNTFC5(CBhG)60PVDF10. The best discharge capacity values for the S25(CBhG)65PVDF10 and S25BNTFC5(CBhG)60PVDF10 composites started at 1123 mAh/gs and 1509 mAh/gs and dropped to 612 mAh/gs and 572 mAh/gs, respectively, after 100 cycles; similar behavior was exhibited by the other composites that were among the best. These are better values than those previously reported in the literature. The incorporation of ferroelectric nanoparticles in the cathodes of Li-S batteries reduced the rapid formation of polysulfides due to their internal electric fields. The areal capacity for the S25(CBhG)65PVDF10 composites was 4.84 mAh/cm2 with a mass loading of 4.31 mgs/cm2, while that for the S25BNTFC5(CBhG)60PVDF10 composites was 6.74 mAh/cm2 with a mass loading of 4.46 mgs/cm2. It was confirmed that effective FNP incorporation within the S cathode improves the cycling response and stability of cathodes, enabling the high performance of Li-S batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9060293
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 237: Thermal and Mechanical Safety Assessment of
           Type 21700 Lithium-Ion Batteries with NMC, NCA and LFP
           Cathodes–Investigation of Cell Abuse by Means of Accelerating Rate
           Calorimetry (ARC)

    • Authors: Sebastian Ohneseit, Philipp Finster, Claire Floras, Niklas Lubenau, Nils Uhlmann, Hans Jürgen Seifert, Carlos Ziebert
      First page: 237
      Abstract: In this experimental investigation, we studied the safety and thermal runaway behavior of commercial lithium-ion batteries of type 21700. The different cathode materials NMC, NCA and LFP were compared, as well as high power and high energy cells. After characterization of all relevant components of the batteries to assure comparability, two abuse methods were applied: thermal abuse by the heat-wait-seek test and mechanical abuse by nail penetration, both in an accelerating rate calorimeter. Several critical temperatures and temperature rates, as well as exothermal data, were determined. Furthermore, the grade of destruction, mass loss and, for the thermal abuse scenario, activation energy and enthalpy, were calculated for critical points. It was found that NMC cells reacted first, but NCA cells went into thermal runaway a little earlier than NMC cells. LFP cells reacted, as expected, more slowly and at significantly higher temperatures, making the cell chemistry considerably safer. For mechanical abuse, no thermal runaway was observed for LFP cells, as well as at state of charge (SOC) zero for the other chemistries tested. For thermal abuse, at SOC 0 and SOC 30 for LFP cells and at SOC 0 for the other cell chemistries, no thermal runaway occurred until 350 °C. In this study, the experimental data are provided for further simulation approaches and system safety design.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050237
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 238: Hollow CuSbSy Coated by Nitrogen-Doped
           Carbon as Anode Electrode for High-Performance Potassium-Ion Storage

    • Authors: Ping Hu, Yulian Dong, Guowei Yang, Xin Chao, Shijiang He, Huaping Zhao, Qun Fu, Yong Lei
      First page: 238
      Abstract: As a potential anode material for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs), bimetallic sulfides are favored by researchers for their high specific capacity, low cost, and long cycle life. However, the non-ideal diffusion rate and poor cycle stability pose significant challenges in practical applications. In this work, bimetallic sulfide CuSbSy@C with a yolk-shell structure was synthesized by in situ precipitation and carbonization. When CuSbSy is applied in the anode of PIBs, it can provide the desired capacity and reduce the volume expansion of the compound through the synergistic effect between copper and antimony. At the same time, the existence of the nitrogen-doped carbon shell confines the material within the shell while improving its electrical conductivity, inhibiting its volume expansion and aggregation. Therefore, CuSbSy@C exhibits a satisfactory capacity (438.8 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 after 60 cycles) and an excellent long cycle life (174.5 mAh g−1 at 1000 mA g−1 after 1000 cycles).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050238
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 239: Online High-Resolution EIS of Lithium-Ion
           Batteries by Means of Compact and Low Power ASIC

    • Authors: Andrea Ria, Giuseppe Manfredini, Francesco Gagliardi, Michele Vitelli, Paolo Bruschi, Massimo Piotto
      First page: 239
      Abstract: A compact electronic circuit capable of performing Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) on either single Lithium-ion cells or modules formed by the series of two cells is presented. The proposed device, named Double Cell Management Unit (DCMU), constitutes an important improvement to a recently proposed cell management unit, which combined EIS acquisition functions with a multichannel sensor interface compatible with thermistors, strain-gauges and moisture detectors. The proposed circuit maintains the versatility of the previous version and significantly extends the EIS frequency range, allowing vector impedance measurements from 0.1 Hz to about 15 kHz. The capability of handling both single Lithium-ion cells or series of two cells is obtained by adding a few external components to the previous version. This also allowed increasing the stimulation current to a maximum amplitude of 200 mA, resulting in improved resolution. Experiments consisting in EIS acquisition performed on batteries of different capacity at different temperatures and states of charge are described. Estimated impedance resolution (standard deviation) is 20 μΩ obtained at 1 kHz with a stimulation current of 100 mA amplitude.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050239
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 240: Removal of Fe Impurity Ions from a Spent
           Vanadium Electrolyte Using Capacitive Deionization Based on
           Resin/Activated Carbon Composite Electrodes

    • Authors: Tianzhuang Zhang, Tao Liu, Yimin Zhang, Hong Liu
      First page: 240
      Abstract: Capacitive deionization (CDI) based on LSC-957 resin/carbon composite electrodes was used to remove Fe impurity ions from a spent vanadium electrolyte, which enabled simple and efficient regeneration of the electrolyte. The experiments conducted in this study demonstrated that 3:1 was the optimal mass ratio of LSC-957 resin to activated carbon for the preparation of the composite electrodes, and the optimal operating voltage and operating time were 0.9 V and 6 h, respectively. After five stages of CDI tandem treatment, the adsorption rate of Fe impurity ions was 86.84% and the loss rate of V was only 3.8%. The energy efficiency of the regenerated electrolyte was 84.49%, and its performance was significantly improved compared to the spent vanadium electrolyte. The adsorption process of composite electrodes was analyzed by kinetic and isothermal models’ fit, SEM-EDS, and FTIR. This work has provided an effective and novel method for removing impurity ions from a spent electrolyte.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050240
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 241: A Superior Lithium-Ion Capacitor Based on
           Ultrafine MnO/Dual N-Doped Carbon Anode and Porous Carbon Cathode

    • Authors: Da Lei, Yuyang Gao, Zhidong Hou, Lingbo Ren, Mingwei Jiang, Yunjing Cao, Yu Zhang, Jian-Gan Wang
      First page: 241
      Abstract: Owing to the unique virtues of specific energy/power densities, lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) have been increasingly attracting research attention. However, the LICs are greatly restrained by the slow Li+-reaction kinetics of battery-type anodes, which is still a challenging task. In this work, we construct a superior LIC using ultrafine MnO/dual N-doped carbon (MnO/DNC) anode and activated N-doped porous carbon (ANC) derived from a homologous polypyrrole precursor. The uniform MnO ultrafine particles (~10 nm size) are well encapsulated into a dual-carbon framework, which provides fast ion/electron transportation and structural cushion for high-rate and long-durable energy storage. Accordingly, the anodic MnO/DNC achieves an impressive rate performance (179 mAh g−1 @10 A g−1) and a stable 500-cycling lifespan. The as-constructed LICs could deliver a large specific energy of 172 Wh kg−1 at 200 W kg−1 and retain at 37 Wh kg−1 even at a high specific power of 15 kW kg−1. It is believed that the design strategy of confining ultrafine conversion-type anode materials into a dual-carbon structure will expedite the development of advanced LICs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050241
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 242: Impedance Investigation of Silicon/Graphite
           Anode during Cycling

    • Authors: Xiuwu Wang, Jiangong Zhu, Haifeng Dai, Chao Yu, Xuezhe Wei
      First page: 242
      Abstract: Silicon/graphite material is one of the most promising anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. However, the considerable deformation occurring during the charge/discharge process leading to its degradation hinders its application. Research on the electrochemical performance of silicon/graphite anode have mainly focused on its cyclic performance and microscopic mechanism, whilst the correlation between electrochemical performance and the mechanical deformation of batteries at the cell level is in few numbers. In this study, the electrochemical performance and cycling performance of the cells in Ah-level silicon/graphite anode pouch cells with different SiO weight ratios (5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, and 20 wt.%) in the anode, and LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1 as the cathode are investigated by quantitative analysis. It is found that cells with different SiO weight ratios in anodes under a different state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) demonstrate remarkable differences in electrochemical impedance characteristics. The results show that SOC, SOH and the weight ratios of SiO are the main factors affecting the impedance characteristics for batteries with silicon/graphite anode, which is deeply related to the change in the thickness of the electrode during lithiation/delithiation. This research facilitates the application of EIS in battery management and the design of silicon/graphite anode lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050242
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 243: A High-Performance Li-O2/Air Battery System
           with Dual Redox Mediators in the Hydrophobic Ionic Liquid-Based Gel
           Polymer Electrolyte

    • Authors: Ningning Feng, Chaoqiang Wang, Jing Wang, Yang Lin, Gang Yang
      First page: 243
      Abstract: Lithium–oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have captured worldwide attention owing to their highest theoretical specific energy density. However, this promising system still suffers from huge discharge/charge overpotentials and poor cycling stability, which are related to the leakage/volatilization of organic liquid electrolytes and the inefficiency of solid catalysts. A mixing ionic liquid-based gel polymer electrolyte (IL-GPE)-based Li-O2 battery, consisting of a 20 mM 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DBBQ) 40 mM N-methylphenothiazine (MPT)-containing IL-GPE and a single-walled carbon nanotube cathode, is designed for the first time here. This unique dual redox mediators-based GPE, which contains a polymer matrix immersed with mixed ionic liquid electrolyte, provides a proper ionic conductivity (0.48 mS cm−1) and effective protection for lithium anode. In addition, DBBQ, as the catalyst for an oxygen reduction reaction, can support the growth of discharge products through the solution–phase pathway. Simultaneously, MPT, as the catalyst for an oxygen evolution reaction, can decompose Li2O2 at low charge overpotentials. Hence, the DBBQ-MPT-IL-GPE-based Li-O2 battery can operate for 100 cycles with lower charge/discharge overpotentials. This investigation may offer a promising method to realize high-efficiency Li-O2/air batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050243
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 244: Lithium Niobate for Fast Cycling in Li-ion
           Batteries: Review and New Experimental Results

    • Authors: Erwin Hüger, Lukas Riedel, Jing Zhu, Jochen Stahn, Paul Heitjans, Harald Schmidt
      First page: 244
      Abstract: Li-Nb-O-based insertion layers between electrodes and electrolytes of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are known to protect the electrodes and electrolytes from unwanted reactions and to enhance Li transport across interfaces. An improved operation of LIBs, including all-solid-state LIBs, is reached with Li-Nb-O-based insertion layers. This work reviews the suitability of polymorphic Li-Nb-O-based compounds (e.g., crystalline, amorphous, and mesoporous bulk materials and films produced by various methodologies) for LIB operation. The literature survey on the benefits of niobium-oxide-based materials for LIBs, and additional experimental results obtained from neutron scattering and electrochemical experiments on amorphous LiNbO3 films are the focus of the present work. Neutron reflectometry reveals a higher porosity in ion-beam sputtered amorphous LiNbO3 films (22% free volume) than in other metal oxide films such as amorphous LiAlO2 (8% free volume). The higher porosity explains the higher Li diffusivity reported in the literature for amorphous LiNbO3 films compared to other similar Li-metal oxides. The higher porosity is interpreted to be the reason for the better suitability of LiNbO3 compared to other metal oxides for improved LIB operation. New results are presented on gravimetric and volumetric capacity, potential-resolved Li+ uptake and release, pseudo-capacitive fractions, and Li diffusivities determined electrochemically during long-term cycling of LiNbO3 film electrodes with thicknesses between 14 and 150 nm. The films allow long-term cycling even for fast cycling with rates of 240C possessing reversible capacities as high as 600 mAhg−1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the film atomic network is stable during cycling. The Li diffusivity estimated from the rate capability experiments is considerably lower than that obtained by EIS but coincides with that from secondary ion mass spectrometry. The mostly pseudo-capacitive behavior of the LiNbO3 films explains their ability of fast cycling. The results anticipate that amorphous LiNbO3 layers also contribute to the capacity of positive (LiNixMnyCozO2, NMC) and negative LIB electrode materials such as carbon and silicon. As an outlook, in addition to surface-engineering, the bulk-engineering of LIB electrodes may be possible with amorphous and porous LiNbO3 for fast cycling with high reversible capacity.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050244
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 245: The Role of Protective Surface Coatings on
           the Thermal Stability of Delithiated Ni-Rich Layered Oxide Cathode

    • Authors: Friederike Reissig, Joaquin Ramirez-Rico, Tobias Johannes Placke, Martin Winter, Richard Schmuch, Aurora Gomez-Martin
      First page: 245
      Abstract: To achieve a broader public acceptance for electric vehicles based on lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology, long driving ranges, low cost, and high safety are needed. A promising pathway to address these key parameters lies in the further improvement of Ni-rich cathode materials for LIB cells. Despite the higher achieved capacities and thus energy densities, there are major drawbacks in terms of capacity retention and thermal stability (of the charged cathode) which are crucial for customer acceptance and can be mitigated by protecting cathode particles. We studied the impact of surface modifications on cycle life and thermal stability of LiNi0.90Co0.05Mn0.05O2 layered oxide cathodes with WO3 by a simple sol–gel coating process. Several advanced analytical techniques such as low-energy ion scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and high-temperature synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction of delithiated cathode materials, as well as charge/discharge cycling give significant insights into the impact of surface coverage of the coatings on mitigating degradation mechanisms. The results show that successful surface modifications of WO3 with a surface coverage of only 20% can prolong the cycle life of an LIB cell and play a crucial role in improving the thermal stability and, hence, the safety of LIBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050245
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 246: Low-Cost Mn-Based Cathode Materials for
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Hongming Yi, Ying Liang, Yunlong Qian, Yuchuan Feng, Zheng Li, Xue Zhang
      First page: 246
      Abstract: Due to a high energy density and satisfactory longevity, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely applied in the fields of consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Cathodes, an essential part of LIBs, greatly determine the energy density and total cost of LIBs. In order to make LIBs more competitive, it is urgent to develop low-cost commercial cathode materials. Among all cathode materials, Mn-based cathode materials, such as layered LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 and Li-rich materials, spinel LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, olivine-type LiMnPO4 and LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4, stand out owing to their low cost and high energy density. Herein, from the perspective of industrial application, we calculate the product cost of Mn-based cathode materials, select promising candidates with low cost per Wh, and summarize the structural and electrochemical properties and improvement strategies of these low-cost Mn-based cathode materials. Apart from some common issues for Mn-based cathode materials, such as Jahn–Teller distortions and Mn dissolution, we point out the specific problems of each material and provide corresponding improvement strategies to overcome these drawbacks.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050246
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 247: Advanced Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on
           Anthraquinone-2,3-Dicarboxylate Ligands as Cathode for Lithium-Ion

    • Authors: Minjie Lai, Dongying Zhang, Fenghua Chen, Xiaoying Lin, Ankun Qiu, Chenxi Lei, Jiaying Liang, Junfeng Liang, Jianhui Li, Qunfang Wang, Ronghua Zeng
      First page: 247
      Abstract: Quinone organic materials are promising electrodes for the next lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their versatile molecular designs, high theoretical capacity, flexibility, sustainability, and environmental friendliness. However, quinone organic electrode materials can easily dissolve in organic electrolytes during the cycling process, which leads to the decay of capacity and poor cycling stability. Here, two metal-organic frames (MOFs), one-dimensional (1D) linear structural anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylate zinc coordination polymer (ZnAQDC) and two-dimensional (2D) structural anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylate manganese coordination polymer (MnAQDC), are synthesized by using anthraquinone 2,3-dicarboxylic acid, zinc acetate, and manganese acetate in a simple hydrothermal reaction. The formed 1D and 2D structures facilitate the insertion and extraction of lithium ions in and from carbonyl groups of anthraquinone. When MnAQDC is used as cathodes for LIBs, MnAQDC electrodes show an initial discharge capacity of ~63 mAh g−1 at 50 mA g−1. After 200 cycles, the MnAQDC electrode still maintains the specific capacity of ~45 mA h g−1, which exhibits good cycle stability. the ZnAQDC electrode displays a initial discharge capacity of ~85 mA h g−1 at 50 mA g−1, and retains the specific capacity of ~40 mA h g−1 after 200 cycles, showing moderate cyclic performance. The lithium-inserted mechanism shows that lithium ions are inserted and extracted in and from the carbonyl groups, and the valences of the Zn and Mn ions in the two MOFs do not change, and coordination metals do not contribute capacities for the two MOFs electrodes. The strategy of designing and synthesizing MOFs with 1D and 2D structures provides guidance for suppressing the dissolution and improving the electrochemical performance of quinone electrode materials.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050247
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 248: Effect of Water-Soluble CMC/SBR Binder
           Ratios on Si-rGO Composites Using µm- and nm-Sized Silicon as Anode
           Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Sebastian Müllner, Tobias Michlik, Michael Reichel, Tilo Held, Ralf Moos, Christina Roth
      First page: 248
      Abstract: Silicon-containing materials are still the most promising alternatives to graphite as the negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries. However, the different Li+ storage mechanism combined with the high capacity result in new requirements for the passive electrode components, such as the binder. To ensure sufficient cycling stability, silicon must be embedded in a suitable carbonaceous matrix. For this purpose, we used a simple ball milling process with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to produce Si-rGO composites with µm- and nm-sized silicon particles. The rGO was synthesized previously from a two-step thermal synthesis method developed in-house. Subsequently, electrodes with varying CMC/SBR ratios (3:1, 1:1, and 1:3) were prepared from the composites containing the different Si particle sizes. It was found that the optimal binder ratio depends on the size of the Si particles. For the nm‑Si‑rGO composite, a CMC/SBR ratio of 3:1 results in a total capacity over 51 cycles of 20.6 Ah g−1, which means an improvement of 20% compared to CMC/SBR = 1:3 (17.1 Ah g−1). In contrast, we demonstrate that for µm-Si-rGO composites with an optimal CMC/SBR ratio of 1:1 (13.0 Ah g−1), compared to nm-Si-rGO, a higher SBR content is beneficial for the cycling behavior. Moreover, a comparison with graphite from the literature indicates that a rGO-matrix reduces the need for SBR.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050248
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 249: On the Relations between Lithium-Ion Battery
           Reaction Entropy, Surface Temperatures and Degradation

    • Authors: Lena Spitthoff, Markus Solberg Wahl, Jacob Joseph Lamb, Paul Robert Shearing, Preben J. S. Vie, Odne Stokke Burheim
      First page: 249
      Abstract: Understanding and mitigating the degradation of batteries is important for financial as well as environmental reasons. Many studies look at cell degradation in terms of capacity losses and the mechanisms causing them. However, in this study, we take a closer look at how degradation affects heat sources in batteries, thereby requiring dynamic cooling strategies for battery systems throughout the battery life. In this work, we have studied and compared reversible (entropy-related) and non-reversible heat sources in a commercial LCO-graphite lithium-ion battery (LIB) alongside measuring the surface temperature as a function of the State of Health (SoH). In addition, we studied the effect of different thermal management strategies on both degradation and cooling efficiency. We found that entropic heating plays a major role in overall heat generation. This causes large variations in heat generation and battery temperature over both State of Charge (SoC) and charge versus discharge. The maximum battery temperature increases when the cell degrades as irreversible heat generation increases. Temperature variations over the cell thickness are substantial and increase drastically when the cell degrades. In addition, significant increases in thickness were observed as a result of cell degradation. Furthermore, cycling at elevated temperatures resulted in a larger thickness increase with significant gas production.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050249
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 250: Design and Evaluation Framework for Modular
           Hybrid Battery Energy Storage Systems in Full-Electric Marine Applications

    • Authors: Zhenmin Tao, Rene Barrera-Cardenas, Mohsen Akbarzadeh, Olve Mo, Jasper De Smet, Jeroen Stuyts
      First page: 250
      Abstract: In the context of the maritime transportation sector electrification, battery hybridization has been identified as a promising manner of meeting the critical requirements on energy and power density, as well as lifetime and safety. Today, multiple promising battery hybridization topologies have been identified, while there is not a level playing field enabling comparison between different topologies. This study bridges this gap directly by proposing a generic hybrid battery energy storage system (HBESS) design and evaluation framework in full-electric marine applications that accounts for the key design requirements in the system topology conceptualization phase. In doing so, generalized key component models, such as battery cell models, aging models, power converter models, and thermal models, are established. Additionally, given the selected key requirements in this study, the case study comparing one baseline monotype design and two HBESS topologies has shown the clear advantage of battery hybridization. Furthermore, we find that, depending on the topology selection and the specific load scenario being considered, power converter devices can also worsen the key performance indexes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050250
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 251: Revealing Silicon’s Delithiation
           Behaviour through Empirical Analysis of Galvanostatic
           Charge–Discharge Curves

    • Authors: Frederik T. Huld, Jan Petter Mæhlen, Caroline Keller, Samson Y. Lai, Obinna E. Eleri, Alexey Y. Koposov, Zhixin Yu, Fengliu Lou
      First page: 251
      Abstract: The galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) behaviour of silicon (Si) is known to depend strongly on morphology, cycling conditions and electrochemical environment. One common method for analysing GCD curves is through differential capacity, but the data processing required necessarily degrades the results. Here we present a method of extracting empirical information from the delithiation step in GCD data for Si at C-rates above equilibrium conditions. We find that the function is able to quickly and accurately determine the best fit to historical half-cell data on amorphous Si nanowires and thin films, and analysis of the results reveals that the function is capable of distinguishing the capacity contributions from the Li3.5Si and Li2Si phases to the total capacity. The method can also pick up small differences in the phase behaviour of the different samples, making it a powerful technique for further analysis of Si data from the literature. The method was also used for predicting the size of the reservoir effect (the apparent amount of Li remaining in the electrode), making it a useful technique for quickly determining voltage slippage and related phenomena. This work is presented as a starting point for more in-depth empirical analysis of Si GCD data.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050251
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 252: Engineered Grain Boundary Enables the Room
           Temperature Solid-State Sodium Metal Batteries

    • Authors: Yang Li, Zheng Sun, Haibo Jin, Yongjie Zhao
      First page: 252
      Abstract: The NASICON-type (Sodium Super Ionic Conductor) Na3Zr2Si2PO12 solid electrolyte is one of the most promising electrolytes for solid-state sodium metal batteries. When preparing Na3Zr2Si2PO12 ceramic using a traditional high-temperature solid-state reaction, the high-densification temperature would result in the volatilization of certain elements and the consequent generation of impurity phase, worsening the functional and mechanical performance of the NASICON electrolyte. We rationally introduced the sintering additive B2O3 to the NASICON matrix and systemically investigated the influence of B2O3 on the crystal structure, microstructure, electrical performance, and electrochemical performance of the NASICON electrolytes. The results reveal that B2O3 can effectively reduce the densification sintering temperature and promote the performance of the Na3Zr2Si2PO12 electrolyte. The Na3Zr2Si2PO12-2%B2O3-1150 ℃ achieves the highest ionic conductivity of 4.7 × 10−4 S cm−1 (at 25 °C) with an activation energy of 0.33 eV. Furthermore, the grain boundary phase formed during the sintering process could improve the mechanical behavior of the grain boundary and inhibit the propagation of metallic sodium dendrite within the NASICON electrolyte. The assembled Na/Na3Zr2Si2PO12-2%B2O3/Na3V1.5Cr0.5(PO4)3 cell reveals the initial discharge capacity of 98.5 mAh g−1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 84.14% and shows a capacity retention of 70.3% at 30 mA g−1 over 200 cycles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050252
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 253: New Mass Transport Correlation for Vanadium
           Redox-Flow Batteries Based on a Model-Assisted Parameter Estimation

    • Authors: Maik Becker, Thomas Turek
      First page: 253
      Abstract: In this work, a two-dimensional mathematical model is applied to develop a new mass transport correlation for an SGL GFD4.6A carbon felt applied in a 100 cm2 single cell vanadium redox-flow battery under realistic flow conditions. Already published mass transport equations for carbon felt electrodes show a large variation for the resulting Sherwood numbers and are summarized in this work to narrow the probable range of mass transport parameters. A detailed investigation of electrolyte properties, impedance spectroscopic characterization for evaluation of kinetic properties, and the use of potential probe signals to identify the overpotential of positive and negative electrodes are carried out before mass transport parameter estimation by a comparison of model and experimental data. The model validation yields a good agreement between predicted and experimental data with the following new and reliable mass transport equation: Sh = 0.07 Re0.66Sc0.45 (0.0018 < Re < 0.11). The characteristic length applied for the Sherwood and Reynolds number is the diameter of the carbon felt fibers.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050253
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 254: Modified Biogeography Optimization Strategy
           for Optimal Sizing and Performance of Battery Energy Storage System in
           Microgrid Considering Wind Energy Penetration

    • Authors: Yingchun Shi, Shu Cheng, Chunyang Chen, Yu Luo, Jundong Zhao, Mohammad Ghiasi
      First page: 254
      Abstract: The nature of renewable energy resources (RERs), such as wind energy, makes them highly unstable, unpredictable, and intermittent. As a result, they must be optimized to reduce costs and emissions, increase reliability, and also to find the optimal size and location for RERs and energy storage systems (ESSs). Microgrids (MG) can be modified using ESSs to gradually reduce traditional energy use. In order to integrate RERs in a financially viable scheme, ESSs should be sized and operated optimally. The paper presents an enhanced biogeography-driven optimization algorithm for optimizing the operations and sizes of battery ESSs (BESSs) taking into account MGs that experience wind energy penetration in a way that migration rates are adaptively adjusted based on habitat suitability indexes and differential perturbations added to migration operators. An optimization problem was applied to a BESS to determine its depth of discharge and lifespan. This paper considers three different scenarios in using simulations and compares them to existing optimization methods for the purpose of demonstrating the effectiveness of the offered scheme. Out of all the case studies examined, the optimized BESS-linked case study was the least expensive. We also show that a BESS must be of an optimum size to function both economically and healthily. For economic and efficient functioning of MGs, it has been shown that finding the optimum size of the ESS is important and potentially extends battery lifespan. The IBBOA obtained a more precise size for BESS’s volume, and the final outcomes are compared in this paper with other methods.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050254
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 255: In Situ Solidification by γ−ray
           Irradiation Process for Integrated Solid−State Lithium Battery

    • Authors: Zhiqiang Chen, Xueying Yang, Nanbiao Pei, Ruiyang Li, Yuejin Zeng, Peng Zhang, Jinbao Zhao
      First page: 255
      Abstract: The safety concerns associated with power batteries have prompted significant interest in all−solid−state lithium batteries (ASSBs). However, the advancement of ASSBs has been significantly impeded due to their unsatisfactory electrochemical performance, which is attributed to the challenging interface between the solid−state electrolyte and the electrodes. In this work, an in situ polymerized composite solid−state electrolyte (LLZTO−PVC) consisting of poly(vinylene carbonate) (PVC) and Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (LLZTO) was successfully prepared by a γ−ray irradiation technique. The novel technique successfully solved the problem of rigidity at the interface between the electrode and electrolyte. The LLZTO−PVC electrolyte exhibited a notable ionic conductivity of 1.2 × 10−4 S cm−1 25 °C, along with good mechanical strength and flexibility and an electrochemical window exceeding 4.65 V. It was showed that the LiCoO2(LCO)/LLZTO−PVC/Li battery, which achieved in situ solidification via γ−ray irradiation, can steadily work at a current density of 0.2 C at 25 °C and maintain a retention rate of 92.4% over 100 cycles. The good interfacial compatibility between electrodes and LLZTO−PVC electrolyte designed via in situ γ−ray irradiation polymerization could be attributed to its excellent electrochemical performance. Therefore, the method of in situ γ−ray irradiation polymerization provides a vital reference for solving the interface problem.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050255
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 256: Battery Test Profile Generation Framework
           for Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Dongxu Guo, Hailong Ren, Xuning Feng, Xuebing Han, Languang Lu, Minggao Ouyang
      First page: 256
      Abstract: This paper proposes a framework for generating a battery test profile that accounts for the complex operating conditions of electric vehicles, which is essential for ensuring the durability and safety of the battery system used in these vehicles. Additionally, such a test profile could potentially accelerate the development of electric vehicles. To achieve this objective, the study utilizes a simplified longitudinal dynamics model that incorporates various factors such as the drivetrain efficiency, battery system energy conversion efficiency, and regenerative braking efficiency. The battery test profile is based on the China light-duty vehicle test cycle-passenger car (CLTC-P) and is validated through testing on an electric vehicle with a chassis dynamometer. The results indicate a high degree of consistency between the generated and measured profiles, confirming the efficacy of the simplified longitudinal dynamics model.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050256
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 257: In-Situ Plasticized LLZTO-PVDF Composite
           Electrolytes for High-Performance Solid-State Lithium Metal Batteries

    • Authors: Xinjie Yu, Pengbo Zhai, Ning Zhao, Xiangxin Guo
      First page: 257
      Abstract: Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are seen as the key component in the development of solid-state lithium batteries (SSLBs) by virtue of their good processability and flexibility. However, poor mechanical strength, low room-temperature lithium-ion (Li-ion) conductivity and unsatisfactory interfacial compatibility with electrodes limit their practical application. In this work, a composite electrolyte consisting of polyvinylidene fluoride and polyvinylidene carbonate with a Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12(LLZTO) active filler (PFPC: LLZTO-SPE) is reported to achieve excellent ionic conductivity (4.25 × 10−4 S cm−1 at 30 °C), a wide electrochemical window (>4.6 V), a high Li-ion transference number (tLi+ = 0.49) and good interfacial compatibility with the electrode. Incorporating LLZTO as an active filler not only increases the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, but also homogenizes Li-ion flux and stabilizes the electrode/electrolyte interface, thereby preventing lithium dendrites from piercing the electrolyte. As a result, Li/Li symmetrical cells using PFPC: LLZTO-SPEs deliver more than 800 h of cyclability at 0.1 mA cm−2 and a high critical current density (CCD) of 2.6 mA cm−2. The assembled Li/PFPC: LLZTO/LFP SSLBs achieve 87% capacity retention after 150 cycles at 0.2 C and 89% capacity retention for 100 cycles at 0.5 C. This work inspires new insights into designing high-performance SPEs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050257
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 258: Sustainable Approach for the Development of
           TiO2-Based 3D Electrodes for Microsupercapacitors

    • Authors: Nathalie Poirot, Marie Gabard, Mohamed Boufnichel, Rachelle Omnée, Encarnacion Raymundo-Piñero
      First page: 258
      Abstract: This study reports a sustainable approach for developing electrodes for microsupercapacitors. This approach includes the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles via a green sol–gel method and the deposition of thin films of that electrochemically active material on three-dimensional (3D) Si substrates with a high area enlargement factor (AEF) via a simple, fast, and inexpensive spin-coating pathway. The thickness of the film was first optimized via its deposition over two-dimensional (2D) substrates to achieve high capacitances to provide high energy density but also to deliver a good rate capability to ensure the power density required for a supercapacitor device. A film thickness of ~120 nm realizes the best compromise between the electronic/ionic conductivity and capacitance in a supercapacitor device. Such layers of TiO2 were successfully coated onto 3D microstructured substrates with different architectures, such as trenches and pillars, and different aspect ratios. The spin-coating-based route developed here has been established to be superior as, on the one hand, a conformal deposition can be achieved over high AEF subtracts, and on the other hand, the 3D electrodes present higher surface capacitances than those obtained using other deposition techniques. The rate capability and appreciable cyclability ensure a reliable supercapacitor behavior.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050258
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 259: Recent Advances and Prospects of FeOOH-Based
           Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Youness El El Issmaeli, Amina Lahrichi, Shankara S. Kalanur, Sadesh Kumar Natarajan, Bruno G. Pollet
      First page: 259
      Abstract: Supercapacitors (SCs) offer a potential replacement for traditional lithium-based batteries in energy-storage devices thanks to the increased power density and stable charge–discharge cycles, as well as negligible environmental impact. Given this, a vast array of materials has been explored for SCs devices. Among the materials, iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) has gained significant attention in SC devices, owing to its superior specific capacitance, stability, eco-friendliness, abundance, and affordability. However, FeOOH has certain limitations that impact its energy storage capabilities and thus implicate the need for optimizing its structural, crystal, electrical, and chemical properties. This review delves into the latest advancements in FeOOH-based materials for SCs, exploring factors that impact their electrochemical performance. To address the limitations of FeOOH’s materials, several strategies have been developed, which enhance the surface area and facilitate rapid electron transfer and ion diffusion. In this review, composite materials are also examined for their synergistic effects on supercapacitive performance. It investigates binary, ternary, and quaternary Fe-based hydroxides, as well as layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Promising results have been achieved with binder-free Fe-based binary LDH composites featuring unique architectures. Furthermore, the analysis of the asymmetric cell performance of FeOOH-based materials is discussed, demonstrating their potential exploitation for high energy-density SCs that could potentially provide an effective pathway in fabricating efficient, cost-effective, and practical energy storage systems for future exploitations in devices. This review provides up-to-date progress studies of novel FeOOH’s based electrodes for SCs applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050259
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 260: Modification of Single-Walled Carbon

    • Authors: Yelyzaveta Rublova, Raimonds Meija, Vitalijs Lazarenko, Jana Andzane, Janis Svirksts, Donats Erts
      First page: 260
      Abstract: The changes in global energy trends and the high demand for secondary power sources, have led to a renewed interest in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. The selection of a suitable anode for aqueous media is a difficult task because many anode materials have poor cycling performance due to side reactions with water or dissolved oxygen. An effective method for improving the characteristics of anodes in aqueous electrolyte solutions is adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the electrode materials. For a better comprehension of the mechanism of energy accumulation and the reasons for the loss of capacity during the cycling of chemical current sources, it is necessary to understand the behaviour of the constituent components of the anodes. Although CNTs are well studied theoretically and experimentally, there is no information about their behaviour in aqueous solutions during the intercalation/deintercalation of lithium ions. This work reveals the mechanism of operation of untreated and annealed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) anodes during the intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ from an aqueous 5 M LiNO3 electrolyte. The presence of -COOH groups on the surface of untreated SWCNTs is the reason for the low discharge capacity of the SWCNT anode in 5 M LiNO3 (3 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles). Their performance was improved by annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere, which selectively removed the -COOH groups and increased the discharge capacity of SWCNT by a factor of 10 (33 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050260
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 261: Trends in Automotive Battery Cell Design: A
           Statistical Analysis of Empirical Data

    • Authors: Steffen Link, Christoph Neef, Tim Wicke
      First page: 261
      Abstract: Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have become the preferred power source for electric vehicles (EVs) due to their high energy density, low self-discharge rate, and long cycle life. Over the past decade, technological enhancements accompanied by massive cost reductions have enabled the growing market diffusion of EVs. This diffusion has resulted in customized and cost-effective Li-ion battery cell designs tailored to automotive requirements. This study describes design trends in Li-ion batteries from the pack to the electrode level based on empirical data, including pack energy, cell capacity, outer cell dimensions and formats, energy density, specific energy, and electrode properties, such as active material selection, porosities, and component thicknesses. Market share-weighted findings imply several trends, such as (1) increasing cell dimensions, with the longest cells reaching 500 mm (pouch) and almost 1000 mm (prismatic) in 2021, (2) increasing differentiation between either high-energy or low-cost cathode and anode materials, and (3) increasing cell energy, equivalent to gaining about 100% (energy density) and 70% (specific energy) compared to the 2010 and 2021 averages. Despite these improvements, this study finds that the widespread market diffusion of the latest cell technologies proceeds slower than industry announcements suggest and that several well-known, literature-proofed potentials are not yet fully exploited.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050261
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 262: A Self-Growing 3D Porous Sn Protective Layer
           Enhanced Zn Anode

    • Authors: Dezhi Kong, Qingwei Zhang, Lin Li, Huimin Zhao, Ruixin Liu, Ziyang Guo, Lei Wang
      First page: 262
      Abstract: Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) have received much attention because of their high safety, low pollution, and satisfactory energy density (840 mAh g−1), which is important for the research of new energy storage devices. However, problems such as short cell cycle life and low coulombic efficiency (CE) of zinc (Zn) anodes due to disorderly growth of Zn dendrites and side reactions of hydrogen corrosion have delayed the practical application of ZIBs. In this work, a new “self-growth” method is proposed to build a robust and homogeneous three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous structure of tin (Sn)-coated Zn anodes (ZSN) in just 10 min by a simple and fast reaction, which can largely raise the surface area of the electrode plate. The ZSN not only provides abundant Zn nucleation sites, but also reduces the corrosion current, thus alleviating the self-corrosion of the electrolyte, reducing the occurrence of hydrogen precipitation side reactions, and effectively inhibiting the growth of Zn dendrites during cycling. Thus, a symmetric cell with a ZSN anode can be stabilized with very low voltage hysteresis (30 mV) for 480 h of stable plating/stripping cycles and can operate well for 200 h even at high current densities of 10 mA cm−2. Supercapacitors and button cells were assembled, respectively, to verify the performance of ZSN electrodes in different energy storage tools. The ZSN AC supercapacitor exhibited superior capacity (75 mAh g−1) and high reversibility (98% coulombic efficiency) at a current density of 2 A g−1. With a MnVO (MVO) electrode as the cathode, the ZSN MVO full cell presents excellent cycling stability with a capacity retention of 95.4% after 500 cycles at 2 A g−1, which far exceeds that of the bare Zn cell.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050262
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 263: Dynamic Charge Acceptance Compared to
           Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Parameters: Dependencies on
           Additives, State of Charge, and Prior Usage

    • Authors: Sophia Bauknecht, Julia Kowal, Jochen Settelein, Markus Föhlisch, Eckhard Karden
      First page: 263
      Abstract: The goal of this work was to predict the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) for cells using different additives on the negative electrode from the evaluation of small-signal measurements by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Thereby, various operating points were evaluated, such as state of charge (SoC) and prior usage (charge or discharge). The 2V test cells under investigation utilized plates of enhanced flooded 3P2N battery cells (EFB). They contained three positive and two negative electrodes. The latter varied in their additive composition. In total, eight different negative electrodes were investigated, five including specially synthesized amorphous carbon as an additive, two with unknown additive mixes, and one including a commercially available carbon black. The best parameters for predicting the DCA were found within the first semicircle of the negative half-cell spectra measured during a superimposed charging current.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050263
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 264: State-of-Health Estimation and Anomaly
           Detection in Li-Ion Batteries Based on a Novel Architecture with Machine

    • Authors: Junghwan Lee, Huanli Sun, Yuxia Liu, Xue Li, Yixin Liu, Myungjun Kim
      First page: 264
      Abstract: Variations across cells, modules, packs, and vehicles can cause significant errors in the state estimation of LIBs using machine learning algorithms, especially when trained with small datasets. Training with large datasets that account for all variations is often impractical due to resource and time constraints at initial product release. To address this issue, we proposed a novel architecture that leverages electronic control units, edge computers, and the cloud to detect unrevealed variations and abnormal degradations in LIBs. The architecture comprised a generalized deep neural network (DNN) for generalizability, a personalized DNN for accuracy within a vehicle, and a detector. We emphasized that a generalized DNN trained with small datasets must show reasonable estimation accuracy during cross validation, which is critical for real applications before online training. We demonstrated the feasibility of the architecture by conducting experiments on 65 DNN models, where we found distinct hyperparameter configurations. The results showed that the personalized DNN achieves a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.33%, while the generalized DNN achieves an RMSE of 4.6%. Finally, the Mahalanobis distance was used to consider the SOH differences between the generalized DNN and personalized DNN to detect abnormal degradations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050264
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 265: Synthesis and Performance of
           NaTi2(PO4)3/VGCF@C Anode Composite Material for Aqueous Sodium-Ion

    • Authors: Bo Ding, Mingzhu Li, Fuzhou Zheng, Yangzhou Ma, Guangsheng Song, Xiulong Guan, Yi Cao, Cuie Wen
      First page: 265
      Abstract: This study combines self-prepared NaTi2(PO4)3 (NTP) with commercial vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF) using a solid state calcination, then coats it with carbon to synthesize the composite anode material NaTi2(PO4)3/VGCF@C (NTP/VGCF@C). The microstructure and electrochemical properties of the composite material were then analyzed using microstructure analysis and electrochemical testing equipment. Single phase NTP shows nanoparticles with a polyhedral structure, and there is good contact at the interface between the nanoparticles and the VGCFs. The carbon coating formed on the NTP particles displays a nearly 6.5 nm thick layer of amorphous carbon. From the coin-cell battery performance measurements, after 850 cycles, the composite material NTP/VGCF@C exhibits an excellent retention rate of 96.3% compared to that of the pure NTP material when the current density is 200 mA/g. As a result, the composite material and lithium manganate (denoted as LMO) were assembled into an LMO-NTP/VGCF@C aqueous sodium-ion soft pack full battery system. The full battery shows an initial capacity of 31.07 mAh at a rate of 0.5C, and a reversible discharge capacity retention rate of 95.8% after 480 cycles, exhibiting a good long-cycle stability performance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050265
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 266: State of Charge Estimation for Batteries
           Based on Common Feature Extraction and Transfer Learning

    • Authors: Xiaoyu Li, Jianhua Xu, Xuejing Ding, Hongqiang Lyu
      First page: 266
      Abstract: The state of charge (SOC) of a battery is a key parameter of electrical vehicles (EVs). However, limited by the lack of computing resources, the SOC estimation strategy used in vehicle-mounted battery management systems (V-BMS) is usually simplified. With the development of the new energy vehicle big data platforms, it is possible to obtain the battery SOC through cloud-based BMS (C-BMS). In this paper, a battery SOC estimation method based on common feature extraction and transfer learning is proposed for C-BMS applications. Considering the diversity of driving cycles, a common feature extraction method combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and a compensation strategy for C-BMS is designed. The selected features are treated as the new inputs of the SOC estimation model to improve the generalization ability. Subsequently, a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network is used to construct a basic model for battery SOC estimation. A parameter-based transfer learning method and an adaptive weighting strategy are used to obtain the C-BMS battery SOC estimation model. Finally, the SOC estimation method is validated on laboratory datasets and cloud platform datasets. The maximum root-mean-square error (RMSE) of battery SOC estimation with the laboratory dataset is 2.2%. The maximum RMSE of battery pack SOC estimation on two different electric vehicles is 1.3%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050266
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 267: Facile Synthesis of Nickel Phosphide @
           N-Doped Carbon Nanorods with Exceptional Cycling Stability as Li-Ion and
           Na-Ion Battery Anode Material

    • Authors: Fang Fu, Qiuchen He, Xuan Zhang, Julian Key, Peikang Shen, Jinliang Zhu
      First page: 267
      Abstract: Nickel phosphide (Ni2P), as an anode material for both lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, offers high theoretical specific and volumetric capacities. However, considerable challenges include its limited rate capability and low cycle stability arising from its volume change and degradation during cycling. To solve these issues, appropriate composite micro/nanoparticle designs can improve conductivity and provide confinement. Herein, we report a simple pyrolysis method to synthesize nitrogen-doped carbon-coated Ni2P nanorod arrays (Ni2P@NC) from nickel foam and an ionic resin as a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. The N-doped open-ended carbon shells provide Ni2P containment, good electrical conductivity, efficient electrolyte access and the buffering of bulk strain during cycling. Consequently, as a LIB anode material, Ni2P@NC has impressive specific capacity in long-term cycling (630 mAh g−1 for 150 cycles at 0.1 A g−1) and a high rate capability of 170 mAh g−1 for 6000 cycles at 5 A g−1. Similarly, as a SIB anode, Ni2P@NC retains a sizable 288 mAh g−1 over 300 cycles at 0.1 A g−1, and 150 mAh g−1 over 2000 cycles at 2 A g−1. Furthermore, due to a sizable portion of its capacity coinciding with adequately low voltage, the material shows promise for high volumetric energy storage in full-cell format. Lastly, the simple synthesis method has the potential to produce other carbon-coated metal phosphides for electrochemical applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050267
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 268: High-Energy and High-Power Primary Li-CFx
           Batteries Enabled by the Combined Effects of the Binder and the

    • Authors: Haobin Huo, Sivaviswa Radhakrishnan, Leon L. Shaw, Károly Németh
      First page: 268
      Abstract: Several effective methods have been developed recently to demonstrate simultaneous high energy and high power density in Lithium - carbon fluoride (Li-CFx) batteries. These methods can achieve as high as a 1000 Wh/kg energy density at a 60–70 kW/kg power density (40–50 C rate) in coin cells and a 750 Wh/kg energy density at a 12.5 kW/kg power density (20 C rate) in pouch cells. This performance is made possible by an ingenious nano-architecture design, controlled porosity, boron doping, and electrolyte additives. In the present study, we show that a similarly great performance, a 931 Wh/kg energy density at a 59 kW/kg power density, can be achieved by using a polyacrylonitrile binder and a LiBF4 electrolyte in Li-graphite fluoride coin cells. We also demonstrate that the observed effect is the result of the right combination of the binder and the electrolyte. We propose that the mechanistic origin of the observed phenomena is an electro-catalytic effect of the polyacrylonitrile binder. While our proposed method has a competitive performance, it also offers a simple implementation and a scalable production of high-energy and high-power primary Li-CFx cells.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050268
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 269: LiBH4 as a Solid-State Electrolyte for Li
           and Li-Ion Batteries: A Review

    • Authors: Pier Paolo Prosini
      First page: 269
      Abstract: In this paper, the methods used to enhance the conductivity of LiBH4, a potential electrolyte for the construction of solid-state batteries, are summarized. Since this electrolyte becomes conductive at temperatures above 380 K due to a phase change, numerous studies have been conducted to lower the temperature at which the hydride becomes conductive. An increase in conductivity at lower temperatures has generally been obtained by adding a second component that can increase the mobility of the lithium ion. In some cases, conductivities at room temperature, such as those exhibited by the liquid electrolytes used in current lithium-ion batteries, have been achieved. With these modified electrolytes, both lithium metal and lithium-ion cells have also been constructed, the performances of which are reported in the paper. In some cases, cells characterized by a high capacity and rate capability have been developed. Although it is still necessary to confirm the stability of the devices, especially in terms of cyclability, LiBH4-based doped electrolytes could be employed to produce solid-state lithium or lithium-ion batteries susceptible to industrial development.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050269
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 270: Effectively Elevating Ceramic Fillers’
           Dispersity in Gel Hybrid Electrolyte through Bridge–Linked
           Construction for High–Performance Lithium Metal Batteries

    • Authors: Minghua Chen, Wannian Liu, Ziyu Yue, Yang Wang, Yixin Wu, Yu Li, Zhen Chen
      First page: 270
      Abstract: Gel polymer-ceramic hybrid electrolytes (GHEs) have emerged as desirable candidates for preparing high energy density and excellent practicability gel batteries. However, the agglomeration of ceramic particles in polymer matrix leads to a decrease in cycling stability and low mechanical properties of GHEs. Here, we present a feasible method for improving the dispersity of Li0.24La0.59TiO3 (LLTO) nanorods in the polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF)/poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) co-blended matrix (K–LLTO/PVDF/PPC) by γ-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propytrimethoxysilane (KH560) surface treatment. The as-prepared GHE with 10% K–LLTO filler (10% GHE) exhibits a high ionic conductivity (3.01 mS cm−1) and an appropriate lithium-ion transference number (0.55). The Li 10% GHE Li symmetric cell shows an exceptional lithium stripping-plating lifetime of > 2000 h at 0.1 mA cm−2. The assembled LiFePO4 (LFP) 10% GHE Li full cells show satisfactory cycling stability in the 2.5–4.2 V electrochemical window by recovering 84% of the initial capacity at 2 C over 500 cycles. The uniformly dispersed K–LLTO within the polymer matrix is ascribed to the formation of a bridge-linked network via Si–O–Ti bonds between KH560 and LLTO, and plenty of hydrogen bonds within the polymer matrix. This modification method provides a feasible strategy for fabricating GHEs with good repeatability, which may easily adapt to the high requirements of commercial production.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050270
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 271: Design of Sodium Titanate Nanowires as
           Anodes for Dual Li,Na Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Silva Stanchovska, Mariya Kalapsazova, Sonya Harizanova, Violeta Koleva, Radostina Stoyanova
      First page: 271
      Abstract: The bottleneck in the implementation of hybrid lithium-sodium-ion batteries is the lack of anode materials with a desired rate capability. Herein, we provide an in-depth examination of the Li-storage performance of sodium titanate nanowires as negative electrodes in hybrid Li,Na-ion batteries. Titanate nanowires were prepared by a simple and reproducible hydrothermal method. At a low reaction pressure, the well-isolated nanowires are formed, while by increasing the reaction pressure from 2 to 30 bar, the isolated nanowires tend to bundle. In nanowires, the local coordinations of Na and Ti atoms deviate from those in Na2Ti3O7 and Na2Ti6O13 and slightly depend on the reaction pressure. During the annealing at 350 °C, both Na and Ti coordinations undergo further changes. The nanowires are highly defective, and they easily crystallize into Na2Ti6O13 and Na2Ti3O7 phases. The lithium storage properties are evaluated in lithium-ion cells vs. lithium metal anode and titanate electrodes fabricated with PVDF and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binders. The Li-storage by nanowires proceeds by a hybrid capacitive-diffusive mechanism between 0.1 and 2.5 V, which enables to achieve a high specific capacity. Sodium titanates accommodate Li+ by formation of mixed lithium-sodium-phase Na2−xLixTi6O13, which is decomposed to the distinct lithium phases Li0.54Ti2.86O6 and Li0.5TiO2. Contrary to lithium, the sodium storage is accomplished mainly by the capacitive reactions, and thus the phase composition is preserved during cycling in sodium ion cells. The isolated nanowires outperform bundled nanowires with respect to rate capability.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050271
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 272: Control-Oriented Electrochemical Model and
           Parameter Estimation for an All-Copper Redox Flow Battery

    • Authors: Wouter Badenhorst, Christian M. Jensen, Uffe Jakobsen, Zahra Esfahani, Lasse Murtomäki
      First page: 272
      Abstract: Redox flow batteries are an emergent technology in the field of energy storage for power grids with high renewable generator penetration. The copper redox flow battery (CuRFB) could play a significant role in the future of electrochemical energy storage systems due to the numerous advantages of its all-copper chemistry. Furthermore, like the more mature vanadium RFB technology, CuRFBs have the ability to independently scale power and capacity while displaying very fast response times that make the technology attractive for a variety of grid-supporting applications. As with most batteries, the efficient operation of a CuRFB is dependent on high-quality control of both the charging and discharging process. In RFBs, this is typically complicated by highly nonlinear behaviour, particularly at either extreme of the state of charge. Therefore, the focus of this paper is the development and validation of a first-principle, control-appropriate model of the CuRFBs electrochemistry that includes the impact of the flow, charging current, and capacity fading due to diffusion and subsequent comproportionation. Parameters for the proposed model are identified using a genetic algorithm, and the proposed model is validated along with its identified parameters using data obtained from a single-cell CuRFB flow battery as well as a simpler diffusion cell design. The proposed model yields good qualitative fits to experimental data and physically plausible concentration estimates and appears able to quantify the long-term state of health due to changes in the diffusion coefficient.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050272
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 273: Controlling the Molar Ratios of Cation to
           Anion of Precursors for High Performance Capacitive Properties of MnO2
           Hybridized Carbon-Based Materials Electrode

    • Authors: Wein-Duo Yang, Yi-Rong Chou, Cheng-Ching Kuo, Yu-Min Kang
      First page: 273
      Abstract: Controlling the cation to anion (Mn2+/MnO4−) molar ratios of the precursors was used to obtain a highly performance capacitive properties of nanostructural MnO2 hybridized carbon-based materials on nickel foam (NF) through successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technology. SEM, XRD, BET, and XPS analyses are utilized to investigate the influence of cation/anion molar ratios of precursors on the as-obtained MnO2 electrode materials. At a lower molar ratio of cation/anion of 1, the prepared manganese oxide deposited on the NF with obvious δ-MnO2 phase. The average pore size distribution of BET analysis of the as-obtained δ-MnO2 is about 4.6 nm, the specific surface area is 155.7 m2 g−1, exhibiting a mesoporous structure. However, when the molar ratio of cation/anion is higher than 5, the deposited film produced by the reaction exhibits a γ-MnO2 crystal phase. The capacitance of δ-MnO2/NF electrode is 280 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 in a 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte solution. In addition, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) mixed with multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was added to synthesize γ-MnO2/rGO-MWCNT/NF electrode, which has a high capacitance of 377.4 F g−1 under the charge/discharge current density at 1 A g−1.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050273
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 274: Influence of Lithium-Ion-Battery Equivalent
           Circuit Model Parameter Dependencies and Architectures on the Predicted
           Heat Generation in Real-Life Drive Cycles

    • Authors: Marcus Auch, Timo Kuthada, Sascha Giese, Andreas Wagner
      First page: 274
      Abstract: This study investigates the influence of the considered Electric Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) parameter dependencies and architectures on the predicted heat generation rate by using the Bernardi equation. For this purpose, the whole workflow, from the cell characterization tests to the cell parameter identification and finally validation studies, is examined on a cylindrical 5 Ah LG217000 Lithium-Ion-Battery (LIB) with a nickel manganese cobalt chemistry. Additionally, different test procedures are compared with respect to their result quality. For the parameter identification, a Matlab tool is developed enabling the user to generate all necessary ECMs in one run. The accuracy of the developed ECMs is evaluated by comparing voltage prediction of the experimental and simulation results for the highly dynamic World harmonized Light vehicle Test Cycle (WLTC) at different states of charges (SOCs) and ambient temperatures. The results show that parameter dependencies such as hysteresis and current are neglectable, if only the voltage results are compared. Considering the heat generation prediction, however, the neglection can result in mispredictions of up to 9% (current) or 22% (hysteresis) and hence should not be neglected. Concluding the voltage and heat generation results, this study recommends using a Dual Polarization (DP) or Thevenin ECM considering all parameter dependencies except for the charge/discharge current dependency for thermal modeling of LIBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050274
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 275: Calorimetric Studies on Chemically
           Delithiated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2: Investigation of Phase Transition, Gas
           Evolution and Enthalpy of Formation

    • Authors: Wenjiao Zhao, Julian Gebauer, Thomas Bergfeldt, Magnus Rohde, Carlos Ziebert, Yong Du, Hans J. Seifert
      First page: 275
      Abstract: Li1.11(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2 powders were chemically delithiated by (NH4)2S2O8 oxidizer to obtain Lix(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2 powders. The thermal behavior of two delithiated specimens, Li0.76Ni0.41Mn0.42Co0.17O2.10 and Li0.48Ni0.38Mn0.46Co0.16O2.07, was studied compared to the pristine specimen. Phase transitions at elevated temperatures were investigated by simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and the gas evolution accompanying the phase transitions was analyzed by mass spectroscopy and an oxygen detector. The enthalpy of two delithiated samples and a pristine specimen were measured by a high temperature drop solution calorimeter. Based on these results, the enthalpies of formation were calculated.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050275
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 276: Hybrid Ionically Covalently Cross-Linked
           Network Binder for High-Performance Silicon Anodes in Lithium-Ion

    • Authors: Xuejian Zeng, Hongyan Yue, Jina Wu, Chao Chen, Lichun Liu
      First page: 276
      Abstract: Silicon has gained considerable attention as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. However, the significant volume changes that occur during lithiation/delithiation processes often result in poor cycling stability of silicon anodes. In this study, a hybrid ionically covalently cross-linked network binder carboxymethylcellulose-hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (CMC-HBPEI) is successfully constructed by “switching” ionic bonds and partially “converting” them to covalent bonds to buffer the volume variation of silicon anodes. In this hybrid cross-linked network, the covalently cross-linked network is responsible for maintaining the structural integrity of the anode, while the ionically cross-linked network utilizes the bonding reversibility to sustainably dissipative the mechanical stress and self-heal the structural breakages generated from the lithiation expansion of silicon. By changing the drying temperature of the anode, the ratio of covalent and ionic bonds in the hybrid cross-linked network can be adjusted to balance the mechanical stability and bonding reversibility of the CMC-HBPEI binder. Even after 300 cycles of charging/discharging under a current density of 500 mAg−1, the specific capacity of the optimized Si/CMC-HBPEI anode remains at 1545 mAhg−1.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050276
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 277: Battery Performance, Ageing, Reliability and

    • Authors: Pascal Venet
      First page: 277
      Abstract: The development of portable equipment, electric or electrified vehicles and renewable energy is associated with the development of efficient Energy Storage Systems (ESS), such as batteries or supercapacitors [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050277
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 278: Model-Based Analysis and Optimization of
           Acidic Tin–Iron Flow Batteries

    • Authors: Fuyu Chen, Ying Wang, Ying Shi, Hui Chen, Xinzhi Ma, Qinfang Zhang
      First page: 278
      Abstract: Acidic tin–iron flow batteries (TIFBs) employing Sn/Sn2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ as active materials are regarded as promising energy storage devices due to their superior low capital cost, long lifecycle, and high system reliability. In this paper, the performance of TIFBs is thoroughly investigated via a proposed dynamic model. Moreover, their design and operational parameters are comprehensively analyzed. The simulation results show that (i) a flow factor of two is favorable for practical TIFBs; (ii) about 20% of the system’s efficiency is decreased as the current density increases from 40 mA cm−2 to 200 mA cm−2; (iii) the optimal electrode thickness and electrode aspect ratio are 6 mm and 1:1, respectively; and (iv) reducing the compression ratio and increasing porosity are effective ways of lowering pump loss. Such in-depth analysis can not only provide a cost-effective method for optimizing and predicting the behaviors and performance of TIFBs but can also be of great benefit to the design, management, and manufacture of tin–iron flow batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050278
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 279: Mediating Lithium Plating/Stripping by
           Constructing 3D Au@Cu Pentagonal Pyramid Array

    • Authors: Yaohua Liang, Wei Ding, Bin Yao, Fan Zheng, Alevtina Smirnova, Zhengrong Gu
      First page: 279
      Abstract: Lithium (Li) metal is perceived as the “holy grail” of anodes for secondary batteries due to its innate merits. Regrettably, the commercial application of Li metal anodes (LMAs) has been hampered by problems derived from the uncontrollable growth of Li dendrites, which could result in formation of short-circuits, thereby leading to fatal safety accidents. Here, a three-dimensional lithiophilic gold (Au)-coated copper (Cu) pentagonal pyramid array (Au@CuPPA) is constructed on planar Cu foil via electrodeposition followed by a chemical reduction method. Owing to the features of the lithiophilic layer and 3D porous structure, the proposed Au@CuPPA can not only facilitate Li-ion migration and charge transfer, but also effectively diminish the nucleation overpotential. Consequently, an even and steady Li plating/stripping process for up to 460 h and with a charge capacity of 3 mAh cm−2 is accomplished by using the Au@CuPPA current collector. The Li@Au@CuPPA LiFePO4 full cell achieves a high Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 99.4% for 150 cycles at 0.5 C with a capacity retention of 92.4%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050279
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 280: Transfer Learning Based on Transferability
           Measures for State of Health Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Zemenu Endalamaw Amogne, Fu-Kwun Wang, Jia-Hong Chou
      First page: 280
      Abstract: Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are considered to be one of the ideal energy sources for automotive and electronic products due to their size, high levels of charge, higher energy density, and low maintenance. When Li-ion batteries are used in harsh environments or subjected to poor charging habits, etc., their degradation will be accelerated. Thus, online state of health (SOH) estimation becomes a hot research topic. In this study, normalized capacity is considered as SOH for the estimation and calculation of remaining useful lifetime (RUL). A multi-step look-ahead forecast-based deep learning model is proposed to obtain SOH estimates. A total of six batteries, including three as source datasets and three as target datasets, are used to validate the deep learning model with a transfer learning approach. Transferability measures are used to identify source and target domains by accounting for cell-to-cell differences in datasets. With regard to the SOH estimation, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the three target batteries are 0.0070, 0.0085, and 0.0082, respectively. Concerning RUL prediction performance, the relative errors of the three target batteries are obtained as 2.82%, 1.70%, and 0.98%, respectively. In addition, all 95% prediction intervals of RUL on the three target batteries include the end-of-life (EOL) value (=0.8). These results indicate that our method can be applied to battery SOH estimation and RUL prediction.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050280
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 281: Integration of Flexible Supercapacitors with
           Triboelectric Nanogenerators: A Review

    • Authors: Yin Lu, Tong Wu, Zimeng Ma, Yajun Mi, Zequan Zhao, Fei Liu, Xia Cao, Ning Wang
      First page: 281
      Abstract: The ever-growing interest in wearable electronic devices has unleashed a strong demand for sustainable and flexible power sources that are represented by the combination of flexible energy harvesting with storage devices/technologies. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG), which harvest mechanical energy and charge their matching supercapacitors (SCs), may form a distributed power system with flexibility to tap their potential applications in powering wearable electronic devices. This review aims to cover the recent progress in the integration of TENG with flexible SC in terms of operation principle, material selection, device configuration and power management, with an accent on the application scenario in flexible wearable electronics. Further, the current shortcomings, challenges and new prospects for future developments in the emerging field of integrated flexible TENG-SCs for self-powered wearable electronics are discussed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050281
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 282: A Polyacrylonitrile Shutdown Film for
           Prevention of Thermal Runaway in Lithium-Ion Cells

    • Authors: Jonathan Peter Charles Allen, Marcin Mierzwa, Denis Kramer, Nuria Garcia-Araez, Andrew L. Hector
      First page: 282
      Abstract: The electrodeposition of a polymer (polyacrylonitrile, PAN) is used to reduce the risk of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries, which is the most important cause of battery accidents and fires. PAN was electrodeposited on a graphite battery electrode, using cyclic voltammetry or chronoamperometry, in a solution with acrylonitrile as the solvent. The electrodeposited PAN film was characterised by Raman spectroscopy, microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis, and it was found that the film thickness could be controlled by the amount of charge passed in the electrochemical experiments. The PAN-coated graphite battery electrode was then tested in lithium half-cells, obtaining capacities close to the uncoated graphite sample (ca. 360 mA h g−1) for thin (<10 µm) polymer coatings at 25 °C. Interestingly, for thicker polymer coatings (>20 µm) it was found that the capacity decreased drastically as the temperature increased beyond 80 °C. Such suppression in capacity has applications for thermal runaway protection since the electrochemical reactions of degradation of the electrolyte in contact with the electrode are the root cause of the thermal runaway process. Further work should look into alternative polymer and liquid electrolyte formulations to achieve the desired suppression of electrochemical capacity at high temperatures while retaining high capacities at the operational temperature range.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050282
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 283: Prefabrication of a Lithium Fluoride
           Interfacial Layer to Enable Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition

    • Authors: Jie Ni, Yike Lei, Yongkang Han, Yingchuan Zhang, Cunman Zhang, Zhen Geng, Qiangfeng Xiao
      First page: 283
      Abstract: Lithium metal is one of the most attractive anode materials for rechargeable batteries. However, its high reactivity with electrolytes, huge volume change, and dendrite growth upon charge or discharge lead to a low CE and the cycle instability of batteries. Due to the low surface diffusion resistance, LiF is conducive to guiding Li+ deposition rapidly and is an ideal component for the surface coating of lithium metal. In the current study, a fluorinated layer was prepared on a lithium metal anode surface by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In the carbonate-based electrolyte, smooth Li deposits were observed for these LiF-coated lithium anodes after cycling, providing excellent electrochemical stability for the lithium metal anode in the liquid organic electrolyte. The CE of Li Cu batteries increases from 83% for pristine Li to 92% for LiF-coated ones. Moreover, LiF-Li LFP exhibits a decent rate and cycling performance. After 120 cycles, the capacity retention of 99% at 1C is obtained, and the specific capacity is maintained above 149 mAh/g. Our investigation provides a simple and low-cost method to improve the performance of rechargeable Li-metal batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050283
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 284: Recent Progress in Electrolyte Additives for
           Highly Reversible Zinc Anodes in Aqueous Zinc Batteries

    • Authors: Qibin Shen, Yuanduo Wang, Guanjie Han, Xin Li, Tao Yuan, Hao Sun, Yinyan Gong, Taiqiang Chen
      First page: 284
      Abstract: Aqueous zinc batteries (AZBs) are one of the most promising large-scale energy storage devices by virtue of their high specific capacity, high degree of safety, non-toxicity, and significant economic benefits. However, Zn anodes in aqueous electrolyte suffer from zinc dendrites and side reactions, which lead to a low coulombic efficiency and short life cycle of the cell. Since electrolytes play a key role in the Zn plating/stripping process, versatile strategies have been developed for designing an electrolyte to handle these issues. Among these strategies, electrolyte additives are considered to be promising for practical application because of the advantages of low cost and simplicity. Moreover, the resulting electrolyte can maximally preserve the merits of the aqueous electrolyte. The availability and effectiveness of additives have been demonstrated by tens of research works. Up to now, it has been essential and timely to systematically overview the progress of electrolyte additives in mild acidic/neutral electrolytes. These additives are classified as metal ion additives, surfactant additives, SEI film-forming additives, and complexing additives, according to their functions and mechanisms. For each category of additives, their functional mechanisms, as well as the latest developments, are comprehensively elaborated. Finally, some perspectives into the future development of additives for advanced AZBs are presented.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050284
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 285: Readily Accessible M-Ferrocenyl-Phenyl
           Sulfonate as Novel Cathodic Electrolyte for Aqueous Organic Redox Flow

    • Authors: Dawei Fang, Junzhi Zheng, Xi Li, Diandian Wang, Yuxuan Yang, Zhuling Liu, Zongren Song, Minghua Jing
      First page: 285
      Abstract: Ferrocene derivatives are amongst the most promising electroactive organic electrolytes. The bottleneck problems of their application in aqueous redox flow batteries are their poor solubility and lower potential as well as the complexity of the modification methods to solve these problems. In this study, a benzenesulfonic acid group is easily introduced into the ferrocene structure by a mature diazotization reaction, and the synthesized sodium m-phenylferrocene sulfonate BASFc is used as the novel cathodic electroactive electrolyte for AORFB. The hydrophilicity and the electron-absorbing effect of the introduced benzenesulfonic group can effectively improve the water solubility and redox potential of ferrocene. Moreover, the introduction of phenyl extends the conjugated structure of ferrocene and increases its structural dimension, which may be conducive to reducing its membrane permeability and improving the structural stability to some extent. The physical structure and the electrochemical properties of BASFc are studied systematically; the feasibility of its application as a cathodic electrolyte in AORFBs is verified by assembling the half-cell and full-cell. The results verify the good electrochemical reaction kinetics of BASFc in acid electrolyte and the corresponding AORFB shows satisfactory efficiency and stability.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050285
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 194: Interface Engineering of a NASICON-Type
           Electrolyte Using Ultrathin CuS Film for Lithium Metal Batteries

    • Authors: Shengnan Zhang, Dongming Liu, Lin Zhang, Jianwei Li, Guoqing Zhao, Lijie Ci, Guanghui Min
      First page: 194
      Abstract: NASICON-type Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 (LAGP) is a remarkable solid-state electrolyte due to its high ionic conductivity and excellent air stability. However, the weak LAGP Li interfacial compatibility (e.g., chemical instability of LAGP with Li metal and lithium dendrite growth) limits its practical application. Herein, an ultrathin CuS layer was fabricated on the surface of the LAGP electrolyte by magnetron sputtering (MS). Then, an in situ Li2S/Cu nano-layer formed via the conversion reaction between CuS and molten Li was constructed at the LAGP Li interface. The Li2S/Cu nano-layer enables effective hindering of the reduction reactions of LAGP with Li metals and the suppression of lithium dendrite growth. The assembled Li symmetric battery with the Li2S/Cu@LAGP electrolyte shows a promising critical current density (CCD) of 0.6 mA cm−2 and a steady battery operation for over 700 h. Furthermore, the full LiFePO4 battery comprising the Li2S/Cu@LAGP electrolyte shows excellent capacity retention of 94.5% after 100 cycles, providing an appropriate interface modification strategy for all-solid-state Li metal batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040194
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 195: Influence of Cell Selection and Orientation
           within the Traction Battery on the Crash Safety of Electric-Powered

    • Authors: Alessio Sevarin, Markus Fasching, Marco Raffler, Christian Ellersdorfer
      First page: 195
      Abstract: The crash safety of lithium-ion traction batteries is a relevant concern for electric vehicles. Current passive safety strategies of traction batteries usually come at the cost of their volumetric or gravimetric energy density. This work analyses the influence of the variables cell selection and orientation within the traction battery on the crash safety of an electric-powered two-wheeler. These two variables do not negatively influence the traction battery’s volumetric or gravimetric energy density in the design process. Metamodels and numerical simulations are used to evaluate the crash safety of an electric-powered two-wheeler’s traction battery in a potentially dangerous crash scenario. The influence of the variable’s cell selection and orientation is evaluated through the internal short circuit risk of the integrated cells. The comparison of the metamodels shows that the cell orientation reduces the internal short circuit risk by up to 51% on average in the analysed crash scenario. The cell selection reduces it only up to 21% on average. The results show that crash safety can be increased in the design process, and a combination with the current protection strategies can increase crash safety further.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040195
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 196: Thermal Modelling and Simulation Studies of
           Containerised Vanadium Flow Battery Systems

    • Authors: Bing Shu, Logan S. Weber, Maria Skyllas-Kazacos, Jie Bao, Ke Meng
      First page: 196
      Abstract: With increasing commercial applications of vanadium flow batteries (VFB), containerised VFB systems are gaining attention as they can be mass produced and easily transported and configured for different energy storage applications. However, there are limited studies on the thermodynamic modelling of containerised vanadium redox flow battery systems, and thermal control designs. In this paper, a dynamic thermal model is developed for containerised VFB systems, based on which thermal design options are evaluated using simulation studies.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040196
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 197: Off-Resonant Dicke Quantum Battery: Charging
           by Virtual Photons

    • Authors: Giulia Gemme, Gian Marcello Andolina, Francesco Maria Dimitri Pellegrino, Maura Sassetti, Dario Ferraro
      First page: 197
      Abstract: We investigate a Dicke quantum battery in the dispersive regime, where the photons trapped in a resonant cavity are much more energetic with respect to the two-level systems embedded into it. Under such off-resonant conditions, even an empty cavity can lead to the charging of the quantum battery through a proper modulation of the matter–radiation coupling. This counterintuitive behaviour has its roots in the effective interaction between two-level systems mediated by virtual photons emerging from the fluctuations of the quantum electromagnetic field. In order to properly characterize it, we address relevant figures of merit such as the stored energy, the time required to reach the maximum charging, and the averaged charging power. Moreover, the possibility of efficiently extracting energy in various ranges of parameters is discussed. The scaling of stored energy and power as a function of the number N of two-level systems and for different values of the matter–radiation coupling is also discussed, showing, in the strong coupling regime, performances in line with what is reported for the Dicke quantum battery in the resonant regime.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040197
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 198: An Adaptive Cutoff Frequency Design for
           Butterworth Low-Pass Filter Pursuing Robust Parameter Identification for
           Battery Energy Storage Systems

    • Authors: Cong-Sheng Huang
      First page: 198
      Abstract: Energy storage systems are key to propelling the current renewable energy revolution. Accurate State-of-Charge estimation of the lithium-ion battery energy storage systems is a critical task to ensure their reliable operations. Multiple advanced battery model-based SOC estimation algorithms have been developed to pursue this objective. Nevertheless, these battery model-based algorithms are sensitive to measurement noises since the measurement noises affect the accuracy of battery model identification, thus leading to inaccurate battery SOC estimation consequently due to modeling error. The Butterworth low-pass filter has proven effectiveness in measurement noise filtering for accurate parameter identification, while the cutoff frequency design relies on prior knowledge of lithium-ion batteries, making its capability limited to general cases. To overcome this issue, this paper proposes an adaptive cutoff frequency design algorithm for the Butterworth low-pass filter. Simulation results show that the low-pass filter functions properly in the presence of multiple scales of measurement noises adopting the proposed work. Consequently, the parameters of the battery model and the SOC of the battery are both identified and estimated accurately, respectively. In detail, the parameters: R0, R1, C1, and the time constant τ are all identified accurately with low relative identification errors of 0.028%, 11.12%, 6.21%, and 5.94%, respectively, in an extreme case. Furthermore, the SOC of the battery can thus be estimated accurately, leaving a low of 0.081%, 0.97%, and 0.14% in the mean and maximum absolute SOC estimation error and the standard deviation, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040198
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 199: Tragacanth, an Exudate Gum as Suitable
           Aqueous Binder for High Voltage Cathode Material

    • Authors: Daniele Versaci, Oana D. Apostu, Davide Dessantis, Julia Amici, Carlotta Francia, Marco Minella, Silvia Bodoardo
      First page: 199
      Abstract: The improvements in future-generation lithium-ion batteries cannot be exclusively focused on the performance. Other aspects, such as costs, processes, and environmental sustainability, must be considered. Research and development of new active materials allow some fundamental aspects of the batteries to be increased, such as power and energy density. However, one of the main future challenges is the improvement of the batteries’ electrochemical performance by using “non-active” materials (binder, current collector, separators) with a lower cost, lower environmental impact, and easier recycling procedure. Focusing on the binder, the main goal is to replace the current fluorinated compounds with water-soluble materials. Starting from these considerations, in this study we evaluate, for the first time, tragacanth gum (TG) as a suitable aqueous binder for the manufacturing process of a cobalt-free, high-voltage lithium nickel manganese oxide (LNMO) cathode. TG-based LNMO cathodes with a low binder content (3 wt%) exhibited good thermal and mechanical properties, showing remarkably high cycling stability with 60% capacity retention after more than 500 cycles at 1 C and an outstanding rate capability of 72 mAh g−1 at 15 C. In addition to the excellent electrochemical features, tragacanth gum also showed excellent recycling and recovery properties, making this polysaccharide a suitable and sustainable binder for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040199
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 200: Electrochemical Modelling of Na-MCl2 Battery
           Cells Based on an Expanded Approximation Method

    • Authors: Nils Büttner, Foelke Purr, Clara Sangrós Giménez, Maria Richter, Laura Nousch, Sabrina Zellmer, Alexander Michaelis
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Battery models are mathematical systems that aim to simulate real battery cell sufficiently accurately. Finding a comprise between complexity, computational effort and accuracy is thereby key. In particular, modelling sodium–nickel–chloride/iron-chloride cells (Na-NiCl2/FeCl2), as a promising alternative for stationary energy storage, bears some challenges. The literature shows a few interesting approaches, but in most of them the second active material (NiCl2 or FeCl2) or the entire discharging/charging cycle is not considered. In this work, an electrochemical and thermal model of Na-NiCl2/FeCl2 battery cells is presented. Based on an equivalent circuit approach combined with electrochemical calculations, the hybrid model provides information on the performance of the cell for charging and discharging with a constant current. By dividing the cathode space into segments, internal material and charge flows are predicted, allowing important insights into the internal cell processes. Besides a low calculation effort, the model also allows a flexible adaption of cathode composition and cell design, which makes it a promising tool for the development of single battery cells as well as battery modules and battery systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040200
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 201: Preparation of Electrospun Membranes and
           Their Use as Separators in Lithium Batteries

    • Authors: Mariasole Di Carli, Annalisa Aurora, Antonio Rinaldi, Noemi Fiaschini, Pier Paolo Prosini
      First page: 201
      Abstract: In this work, electrospun nanofiber membranes are investigated as separators for lithium batteries. Membrane consisting of polyacrylonitrile-polycaprolactone mixtures were produced following a combinatorial approach inspired by design of experiments to identify the relationships between process parameters and microstructural properties. The microstructure of the non-woven fibrous mats was characterized by scanning electron microscopy to measure thickness and fiber distribution. Temperature and relative humidity during membrane deposition were also tracked to include them in the statistical analysis and highlight their influence on the properties of the resulting membranes. The functional evaluation of the membranes was conducted by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, after soaking the membrane in the electrolyte, to measure ion transport properties. All the separators showed specific conductivities higher than 1.5 × 10−3 S. The electrochemical performance was also evaluated when the membranes were used as actual separators in coin-cells assembled in-house, stacking the electrolyte-soaked membranes between a lithium anode and a LiFePO4-based cathode. Among all, the PAN/PCL 50:50 showed excellent cycling stability, with a high initial capacity of 150 mAhg−1 and a coulombic efficiency of 99.6%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040201
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 202: High-Performance Supercapacitors: A
           Comprehensive Review on Paradigm Shift of Conventional Energy Storage

    • Authors: K. C. Seetha Lakshmi, Balaraman Vedhanarayanan
      First page: 202
      Abstract: The enormous demand for energy due to rapid technological developments pushes mankind to the limits in the exploration of high-performance energy devices. Among the two major energy storage devices (capacitors and batteries), electrochemical capacitors (known as ‘Supercapacitors’) play a crucial role in the storage and supply of conserved energy from various sustainable sources. The high power density and the ultra-high cyclic stability are the attractive characteristics of supercapacitors. However, the low energy density is a major downside of them, which is also responsible for the extensive research in this field to help the charge storage capabilities thrive to their limits. Discoveries of electrical double-layer formation, pseudocapacitive and intercalation-type (battery-type) behaviors drastically improved the electrochemical performances of supercapacitors. The introduction of nanostructured active materials (carbon-/metal-/redox-active-polymer/metal-organic/covalent-organic framework-based electrode materials), electrolytes (conventional aqueous and unconventional systems) with superior electrochemical stability and unprecedented device architectures further boosted their charge storage characteristics. In addition, the detailed investigations of the various processes at the electrode–electrolyte interfaces enable us to reinforce the present techniques and the approaches toward high-performance and next-generation supercapacitors. In this review, the fundamental concepts of the supercapacitor device in terms of components, assembly, evaluation, charge storage mechanism, and advanced properties are comprehensively discussed with representative examples.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040202
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 203: Advances in Cathodes for High-Performance
           Magnesium-Sulfur Batteries: A Critical Review

    • Authors: Ying Ying Yao, Yang Zhan, Xin Yu Sun, Zhao Li, Hao Xu, Richard M. Laine, Jian Xin Zou
      First page: 203
      Abstract: Large-scale energy storage with high performance and at a reasonable cost are prerequisites for promoting clean energy utilization. With a high theoretical energy density of 1722 Wh·kg−2, high element abundance (e.g., Mg of 23,000 ppm, S of 950 ppm on earth), and low theoretical cost, Mg-S batteries offer considerable potential as candidates for electrical energy storage. However, due to the intrinsic complex reaction chemistry of sulfur cathodes and metal anodes, such as slow diffusion of the divalent ion, the shuttle of soluble polysulfide, and irreversible deposition of Mg ions on metal electrodes, Mg-S batteries still need further optimization to meet requirements for practical applications. In addition to stabilizing metal anodes, developing a suitable sulfur cathode is desperately needed. This review summarizes recent research progress in sulfur cathodes, interlayers, and non-nucleophilic electrolytes, highlighting the main challenges and corresponding strategies for electrode material designs. Notably, we emphasize a fundamental understanding of the structure-composition relationship. Furthermore, state-of-the-art characterization techniques are described that help reveal the pertinent electrochemical mechanisms whereby Mg-S cells function. Finally, possible research directions are discussed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040203
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 204: Thermal Management for Battery Module with
           Liquid-Cooled Shell Structure under High Charge/Discharge Rates and
           Thermal Runaway Conditions

    • Authors: Kangdi Xu, Hengyun Zhang, Jiajun Zhu, Guojun Qiu
      First page: 204
      Abstract: In this paper, the thermal management of a battery module with a novel liquid-cooled shell structure is investigated under high charge/discharge rates and thermal runaway conditions. The module consists of 4 × 5 cylindrical batteries embedded in a liquid-cooled aluminum shell with multiple flow channels. The battery module thermal management and the suppression of thermal propagation were experimentally examined. The temperature rise of the battery in the discharging process is significantly greater than that in the charging phase. As the coolant flow speed increases, the maximum temperature of the battery module decreases slightly, while the temperature difference remains at the same level, at the expense of a much-increased pressure drop. With the presented liquid-cooled shell, the suppression of thermal propagation was investigated for both internal and corner battery thermal runaway. It is found that the temperature of the adjacent battery can be maintained at under 70 °C, indicating that the propagation of thermal runaway can be successfully suppressed by heat dissipation through the surrounding liquid flow. In addition, the electrically induced thermal profile along the battery interconnection was identified through thermal imaging. Hot spots were found on the confluence busbars of the batteries in series connection. In order to improve the safety of battery modules, a parallel battery connection in the battery module is recommended, which can reduce the busbar temperature by 4.86 °C, as determined through numerical simulations. Experimental measurements were also conducted to verify the simulation results.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040204
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 205: High-Conductive Multilayer TiOX-Ti3C2TX
           Electrocatalyst for Longevous Metal-Oxygen Battery under a High Rate

    • Authors: Zhihui Sun, Shuai Zhao, Jixiong Zhang
      First page: 205
      Abstract: Metal-oxygen batteries (especially Li-O2 battery) with ultrahigh theoretical energy density are of great promise for long-range vehicle electrification. However, the limited enduring stability and low-rate property further restricted the large-scale commercial application of metal-oxygen batteries. We firstly report the fabrication of a TiOX@Ti3C2TX with multilayer structure and its utilization as cathode for Li-O2 batteries. The TiOX protective layer was fabricated in situ to directly optimize surface properties of Ti3C2TX, as well as to strengthen surface active functional groups. The initial discharge capacity of as-prepared TiOX@Ti3C2TX cathode reaches 7100 mAh g−1 at 2500 mA g−1, as well as delivers impressive cycling stability (>100 cycles) at 2500 mA g−1. Experimental analysis reveals that the in situ TiOX protective layer enhanced active functional-groups and the improved complete decomposition of discharge products Li2O2 are three critical factors for promoting the electrochemical performance of LOBs. This work exhibits a new insight into the design of MXene electrocatalysts for metal-oxygen batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040205
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 206: Experimental Investigation for the Phase
           Change Material Barrier Area Effect on the Thermal Runaway Propagation
           Prevention of Cell-to-Pack Batteries

    • Authors: Kai Shen, Jieyu Sun, Chengshan Xu, Shaw Kang WONG, Yuejiu Zheng, Changyong Jin, Huaibin Wang, Siqi Chen, Xuning Feng
      First page: 206
      Abstract: Thermal runaway propagation (TRP) is a primary safety issue in lithium-ion battery (LIB) applications, and the use of a thermal barrier is considered to be a promising solution for TRP prevention. However, the operating conditions of the battery are extremely complicated, such as fast charging, low-temperature heating and thermal runaway. To date, there is no consistent answer as to how to choose the appropriate thermal barrier for such a complicated working environment. In this study, the characteristics of hydrogel based on sodium polyacrylate are explored, and the impact of thermal barrier area on TRP is investigated through experiments. Due to the prismatic battery structure, thermal barriers placed between cells are designed with different areas (148 × 98 mm, 128 × 88 mm, and 108 × 78 mm). The results indicate that test 1 without a placed thermal barrier quickly completes the TRP process, and the thermal runaway (TR) behavior is more violent. With a thermal barrier that does not have full area coverage placed between cells (test 2 and test 3), the propagation time is prolonged, but TRP still occurs. Compared with test 1, the triggered temperature of T2 F (the front surface of cell 2) is reduced by 207.6 °C and 295.2 °C, respectively. The complete area coverage thermal barrier successfully prevents TRP, and the T2 F of cell 2 only reaches 145.4 °C under the phase change by the hydrogel. This study may suggest a safety design for battery modules and prevent propagation among batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040206
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 207: Material and Waste Flow Analysis for
           Environmental and Economic Impact Assessment of Inorganic Acid Leaching
           Routes for Spent Lithium Batteries’ Cathode Scraps

    • Authors: Yi-Chin Tang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Chih-Ming Chou, Yun-Hwei Shen
      First page: 207
      Abstract: With the development trend and technological progress of lithium batteries, the battery market is booming. This means that the demand for lithium batteries has increased significantly, resulting in a large number of discarded lithium batteries. The consumption of plenty of lithium batteries may lead to the scarcity and expending of relevant raw material metal resources, as well as serious heavy metal environmental pollution. Therefore, it is of great significance to recycle valuable metal resources from discarded lithium batteries. The proper recycling of these valuable metals can reduce the shortage of mineral resources and environmental hazards caused by a large number of scrapped vehicle batteries. Recently, different systematic approaches have been developed for spent lithium battery recovery. However, most of these approaches do not account for the hidden costs incurred from various processing steps. This work is determined by the concept of material flow cost accounting (MFCA). Hence, in this research, a MFCA-based approach is developed for the leaching process of spent lithium batteries recovery, taking into consideration the hidden costs embedded in process streams. In this study, hydrochloric acid had the worst leaching efficiency due to its high solid-to-liquid ratio and the lowest acid concentration, so it was excluded in the first stage selection. It takes TWD 16.03 and TWD 24.10 to leach 10 g of lithium battery powder with sulfuric acid and nitric acid, respectively. The final sulfuric acid was the acid solution with the highest leaching efficiency and relatively low cost among inorganic acids.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040207
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 208: A High-Performance Vortex Adjustment Design

    • Authors: Gang Zhao, Xiaolin Wang, Michael Negnevitsky, Chengjiang Li, Hengyun Zhang, Yingyao Cheng
      First page: 208
      Abstract: To boost the performance of the air-cooling battery thermal management system, this study designed a novel vortex adjustment structure for the conventional air-cooling battery pack used in electric vehicles. T-shape vortex generating columns were proposed to be added between the battery cells in the battery pack. This structure could effectively change the aerodynamic patterns and thermodynamic properties of the battery pack, including turbulent eddy frequency, turbulent kinetic energy, and average Reynolds number, etc. The modified aerodynamic patterns and thermodynamic properties increased the heat transfer coefficient with little increase in energy consumption and almost no additional cost. Different designs were also evaluated and optimized under different working conditions. The results showed that the cooling performance of the Design 1 improved at both low and high air flow rates. At a small flow rate of 11.88 L/s, the Tmax and ΔT of Design 1 are 0.85 K and 0.49 K lower than the conventional design with an increase in pressure drop of 0.78 Pa. At a relative high flow rate of 47.52 L/s, the Tmax and ΔT of the Design 1 are also 0.46 K and 0.13 K lower than the conventional design with a slight increase in pressure drop of 17.88 Pa. These results demonstrated that the proposed vortex generating design can improve the cooling performance of the battery pack, which provides a guideline for the design and optimization of the high-performance air-cooling battery thermal management systems in electric vehicles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040208
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 209: Chemo-Mechanical Coupling Measurement of
           LiMn2O4 Composite Electrode during Electrochemical Cycling

    • Authors: Huijie Yu, Jiangtao Li, Hainan Jiang, Wei Li, Guorui Li, Dawei Li
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Real-time monitoring of the mechanical behavior of cathode materials during the electrochemical cycle can help obtain an in-depth understanding of the working mechanism of lithium-ion batteries. The LiMn2O4 composite electrode is employed as the working electrode in this artificial cell, which is conceived and produced along with a chemo-mechanical coupling measurement system. The multi-layer beam composite electrode made of LiMn2O4 is monitored in real time using a CCD camera to track its curvature deformation. Experiments show that the curvature of the LiMn2O4 electrode decreases with the extraction of lithium ions and increases during the lithiation process. In the meantime, a theoretical framework was developed to examine the connection between curvature change and mechanical characteristics. Thus, the elastic modulus, strain, and stress of the LiMn2O4 composite electrode were extracted by combining the bending deformation and theoretical model. The results show that the elastic modulus of the LiMn2O4 composite electrode decreases from 59.61 MPa to 12.01 MPa with the extraction of lithium ions during the third cycle. Meanwhile, the stress decreases from 0.46 MPa to 0.001 MPa, and the strain reduces from 0.43 to 0. Its changes reverse during the lithiation process. Those findings could have made a further understanding of the mechanical properties in lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040209
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 210: Evaluation of Glyoxal-Based Electrolytes for
           Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    • Authors: Sebastian Kirchhoff, Christian Leibing, Paul Härtel, Thomas Abendroth, Susanne Dörfler, Holger Althues, Stefan Kaskel, Andrea Balducci
      First page: 210
      Abstract: Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) are among the most promising next generation battery technologies. First prototype cells show higher specific energies than conventional Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and the active material is cost-effective and ubiquitously abundant. However, Li-S batteries still suffer from several limitations, mainly the cycle life, inflation of cells, and also the lack of a component production value chain. As this battery system is based on a complex conversion mechanism, the electrolyte plays a key role, not only for specific energy, but also for rate capability, cycle stability and costs. Herein, we report on electrolytes based on glyoxylic-acetal based solvents, Tetraethoxyglyoxal (TEG) and Tetramethoxyglyoxal (TMG). These solvents have been examined before for supercapacitors and LIBs, but never for LSBs, although they exhibit some beneficial properties, and the production value chain has already been well established as they are precursors for several chemicals. A specially adapted electrolyte composition is established by adjusting solvent ratio and LiTFSI concentration in a TXG:DOL solvent blend. The obtained electrolytes show long cycle life as well as high coulombic efficiencies without the use of LiNO3, a component leading normally to cell inflation and safety issues. In addition, a successful evaluation in a multilayer Li-S-pouch cell was performed. The electrolytes were thoroughly characterized, and their sulfur conversion mechanism is discussed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040210
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 211: Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Based on
           Redox-Flow Batteries: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Future

    • Authors: Christina Schubert, Wiem Fekih Hassen, Barbara Poisl, Stephanie Seitz, Jonathan Schubert, Estanis Oyarbide Usabiaga, Pilar Molina Gaudo, Karl-Heinz Pettinger
      First page: 211
      Abstract: Recently, the appeal of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESSs) has been growing in multiple application fields, such as charging stations, grid services, and microgrids. HESSs consist of an integration of two or more single Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) to combine the benefits of each ESS and improve the overall system performance, e.g., efficiency and lifespan. Most recent studies on HESS mainly focus on power management and coupling between the different ESSs without a particular interest in a specific type of ESS. Over the last decades, Redox-Flow Batteries (RFBs) have received significant attention due to their attractive features, especially for stationary storage applications, and hybridization can improve certain characteristics with respect to short-term duration and peak power availability. Presented in this paper is a comprehensive overview of the main concepts of HESSs based on RFBs. Starting with a brief description and a specification of the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of common electrochemical storage technologies suitable for hybridization with RFBs, HESS are classified based on battery-oriented and application-oriented KPIs. Furthermore, an optimal coupling architecture of HESS comprising the combination of an RFB and a Supercapacitor (SC) is proposed and evaluated via numerical simulation. Finally, an in-depth study of Energy Management Systems (EMS) is conducted. The general structure of an EMS as well as possible application scenarios are provided to identify commonly used control and optimization parameters. Therefore, the differentiation in system-oriented and application-oriented parameters is applied to literature data. Afterwards, state-of-the-art EMS optimization techniques are discussed. As an optimal EMS is characterized by the prediction of the system’s future behavior and the use of the suitable control technique, a detailed analysis of the previous implemented EMS prediction algorithms and control techniques is carried out. The study summarizes the key aspects and challenges of the electrical hybridization of RFBs and thus gives future perspectives on newly needed optimization and control algorithms for management systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040211
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 212: Fast Ion Transfer Associated with
           Dehydration and Modulation of Hydration Structure in Electric Double-Layer
           Capacitors Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Experiments

    • Authors: Shunsuke Hasumi, Sogo Iwakami, Yuto Sasaki, Sharifa Faraezi, Md Sharif Khan, Tomonori Ohba
      First page: 212
      Abstract: Carbon materials, such as graphite and activated carbon, have been widely used as electrodes in batteries and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). Graphene, which has an extremely thin sheet-like structure, is considered as a fundamental carbon material. However, it was less investigated as an electrode material than graphite and activated carbons. This is because graphene is a relatively new material and is difficult to handle. However, using graphene electrodes can enhance the performance of nanodevices. Here, the performance of EDLCs based on single-layer and bilayer graphene electrodes in LiCl, NaCl, and KCl aqueous electrolyte solutions was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the charging mechanism was evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations. KCl aqueous solution provided the highest capacitance compared to LiCl and NaCl aqueous solutions in the case of single-layer graphene electrodes. In contrast, the dependence of the capacitance on the ion species was hardly observed in the case of bilayer graphene. This indicates that Li and Na ions also contributed to the capacitances. The high EDLC performance can be attributed to the fast ion transfer promoted by the dehydration and modification of the second hydration shell on the bilayer graphene because of the relatively strong interaction of ions with the bilayer graphene.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040212
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 213: Fractional-Order Sliding-Mode Observers for
           the Estimation of State-of-Charge and State-of-Health of Lithium Batteries

    • Authors: Minghao Zhou, Kemeng Wei, Xiaogang Wu, Ling Weng, Hongyu Su, Dong Wang, Yuanke Zhang, Jialin Li
      First page: 213
      Abstract: Lithium batteries are widely used in power storage and new energy vehicles due to their high energy density and long cycle life. The accurate and real-time estimation for the state-of-charge (SoC) and the state-of-health (SoH) of lithium batteries is of great significance to improve battery life, reliability, and utilization efficiency. In this paper, three cascaded fractional-order sliding-mode observers (FOSMOs) are designed for the estimation of SoC by observing the terminal voltage, the polarization voltage, and the open-circuit voltage of a lithium cell, respectively. Furthermore, to calculate the value of the SoH, two FOSMOs are developed to estimate the capacity and internal resistance of the lithium cell. The control signals of the observers are continuous by utilizing fractional-order sliding manifolds without low-pass filters. Compared with the existing sliding-mode observers for SoC and SoH, weaker chattering, faster response, and higher estimation accuracy are obtained in the proposed method. Finally, the experiment tests demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed observer design method.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040213
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 214: Switched Discharge Device for Enhanced
           Energy Extraction from Li-Ion 18650

    • Authors: Vasile Surducan, Olivia-Ramona Bruj
      First page: 214
      Abstract: All autonomous electrically powered devices require a continuous power supply from batteries. Increasing the discharge performance is the top priority in the Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) battery field and pulsed discharge is proving numerous advantages. In this paper, the maximum efficiency of pulsed discharge method on a constant load while the cells are alternately switched with dead-time is thoroughly studied. Therefore, a novel Li-Ion charge/discharge and measurement device (SWD) using fast switching MOSFET was designed and fabricated. The device can alternately switch up to 8.3 kHz two Li-Ion 18650 batteries, generating continuous power to the programmable load and monitor the parameters that impact the capacity of the battery. An EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) analysis is employed to evaluate the impedance and the behavior of the cells at frequencies up to 10 kHz. Experimental results reveal that a maximum discharge time is determined when two cells are switched at a frequency of 5.8 kHz. As a consequence, the total capacity of two switched batteries in a single discharge cycle is increased by 16.6%. Pulsed discharge efficiency is visible starting from 70% State of Charge (SOC) and is correlated with the rest time, reduced heat loss and inductance, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040214
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 215: Modeling and Simulation of Non-Aqueous Redox
           Flow Batteries: A Mini-Review

    • Authors: Haotian Zhou, Ruiping Zhang, Qiang Ma, Zhuo Li, Huaneng Su, Ping Lu, Weiwei Yang, Qian Xu
      First page: 215
      Abstract: Redox flow batteries (RFBs) have been widely recognized in the domain of large-scale energy storage due to their simple structure, long lifetime, quick response, decoupling of capacity and power, and structural simplicity. Because of the limited open circuit voltage (OCV) by hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions, together with the relatively low solubility of active species, RFBs with aqueous electrolytes are challenging to reach high energy densities. Researchers have been trying to develop new solvent systems without water to remove the electrochemical window limitation of water and pursue higher cell potential. However, non-aqueous solvents are also hindered by some key problems, such as high viscosity and poor safety. Meeting these challenges require a comprehensive understanding of relevant structural design parameters and multi-variable operation in the non-aqueous flow battery (NAFB) system. Modeling and simulation are not only an effective way to understand the basic mechanism of flow batteries at different scales of size and time but also an ideal tool for optimizing the reaction process, battery assembly, and the whole flow battery installation. This review paper introduces the development of the non-aqueous flow battery, the challenges it faces, and the research progress of related modeling and simulation for verification or optimization. Finally, the future development prospects of the non-aqueous flow battery model are pointed out, especially for those systems and fields that have not yet been explored.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040215
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 216: Identification and Error Analysis of
           Lithium-Ion Battery Oriented to Cloud Data Application Scenario

    • Authors: Fang Zhang, Tao Sun, Bowen Xu, Yuejiu Zheng, Xin Lai, Long Zhou
      First page: 216
      Abstract: The label-less characteristics of real vehicle data make engineering modeling and capacity identification of lithium-ion batteries face great challenges. Different from ideal laboratory data, the raw data collected from vehicle driving cycles have a great adverse impact on effective modeling and capacity identification of lithium-ion batteries due to the randomness and unpredictability of vehicle driving conditions, sampling frequency, sampling resolution, data loss, and other factors. Therefore, data cleaning and optimization is processed and the capacity of a battery pack is identified subsequently in combination with the improved two-point method. The current available capacity is obtained by a Fuzzy Kalman filter optimization capacity estimation curve, making use of the charging and discharging data segments. This algorithm is integrated into a new energy big data cloud platform. The results show that the identification algorithm of capacity is applied successfully from academic to engineering fields by charge and discharge mutual verification, and that life expectancy meets the engineering requirements.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040216
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 217: Degradation-Conscious Multiobjective Optimal
           Control of Reconfigurable Li-Ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    • Authors: Dulmini Karunathilake, Mahinda Vilathgamuwa, Yateendra Mishra, Paul Corry, Troy Farrell, San Shing Choi
      First page: 217
      Abstract: Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems are made from sets of battery packs that are connected in series and parallel combinations depending on the application’s needs for power. To achieve optimal control, advanced battery management systems (ABMSs) with health-conscious optimal control are required for highly dynamic applications where safe operation, extended battery life, and maximum performance are critical requirements. The majority of earlier research assumed that the battery cells in these energy storage systems were identical and would vary uniformly over time in terms of cell characteristics. However, in real-world situations, the battery cells might behave differently for a number of reasons. Overcharging and over-discharging are caused by an electrical imbalance that results from the cells’ differences in properties and capacity. Therefore in this study, a stratified real-time control scheme was developed for the dual purposes of minimizing the capacity fade and the energy losses of a battery pack. Each of the cells in the pack is represented by a degradation-conscious physics-based reduced-order equivalent circuit model. In view of the inconsistencies between cells, the proposed control scheme uses a state estimator such that the parametric values of the circuit elements in the cell model are determined and updated in a decentralized manner. The minimization of the capacity fade and energy losses is then formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem, from which the resulting optimal control strategy is realized through the switching actions of a modular multilevel series-parallel converter which interconnects the battery pack to an external AC system. A centralized controller ensures optimal switching sequence of the converter leading to the maximum utilization of the capacity of the battery pack. Both simulation and experimental results are used to verify the proposed methodologies which aim at minimizing the battery degradation by reconfiguring the battery cells dynamically in accordance with the state of health (SOH) of the pack.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040217
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 218: Experimental Investigation on Reversible
           Swelling Mechanisms of Lithium-Ion Batteries under a Varying Preload Force

    • Authors: Emanuele Michelini, Patrick Höschele, Simon Franz Heindl, Simon Erker, Christian Ellersdorfer
      First page: 218
      Abstract: The safety of lithium-ion batteries has to be guaranteed over the complete lifetime considering geometry changes caused by reversible and irreversible swellings and degradation mechanisms. An understanding of the pressure distribution and gradients is necessary to optimize battery modules and avoid local degradation bearing the risk of safety-relevant battery changes. In this study, the pressure distribution of two fresh lithium-ion pouch cells was measured with an initial preload force of 300 or 4000 N. Four identical cells were electrochemically aged with a 300 or 4000 N preload force. The irreversible thickness change was measured during aging. After aging, the reversible swelling behavior was investigated to draw conclusions on how the pressure distribution affected the aging behavior. A novel test setup was developed to measure the local cell thickness without contact and with high precision. The results suggested that the applied preload force affected the pressure distribution and pressure gradients on the cell surface. The pressure gradients were found to affect the locality of the irreversible swelling. Positions suffering from large pressure variations and gradients increased strongly in thickness and were affected in terms of their reversible swelling behavior. In particular, the edges of the investigated cells showed a strong thickness increase caused by pressure peaks.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040218
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 219: Deep Reinforcement Learning-Based Method for
           Joint Optimization of Mobile Energy Storage Systems and Power Grid with
           High Renewable Energy Sources

    • Authors: Yongkang Ding, Xinjiang Chen, Jianxiao Wang
      First page: 219
      Abstract: The joint optimization of power systems, mobile energy storage systems (MESSs), and renewable energy involves complex constraints and numerous decision variables, and it is difficult to achieve optimization quickly through the use of commercial solvers, such as Gurobi and Cplex. To address this challenge, we present an effective joint optimization approach for MESSs and power grids that consider various renewable energy sources, including wind power (WP), photovoltaic (PV) power, and hydropower. The integration of MESSs could alleviate congestion, minimize renewable energy waste, fulfill unexpected energy demands, and lower the operational costs for power networks. To model the entire system, a mixed-integer programming (MIP) model was proposed that considered both the MESSs and the power grid, with the goal of minimizing costs. Furthermore, this research proposed a highly efficient deep reinforcement learning (DRL)-based method to optimize route selection and charging/discharging operations. The efficacy of the proposed method was demonstrated through many numerical simulations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040219
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 220: Numerical Study on Cross-Linked Cold Plate
           Design for Thermal Management of High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery

    • Authors: Huizhu Yang, Zehui Wang, Mingxuan Li, Fengsheng Ren, Binjian Ma
      First page: 220
      Abstract: Liquid cooling strategies such as cold plates have been widely employed as an effective approach for battery thermal management systems (BTMS) due to their high cooling capacity and low power consumption. The structural design of the cold plates is the key factor that directly determines the thermal performance of the liquid cooling system. In this study, seven Z-type parallel channel cold plate and two novel cross-linked channel cold plate designs are proposed for the cooling of high-power lithium-ion batteries using two different cooling strategies. The average battery temperature, battery temperature uniformity and energy consumption of all designs are firstly analyzed holistically by three-dimensional conjugated simulation under the scheme of continuous cooling. Two selected designs that demonstrated superior performance (i.e., a Z-type parallel channel cold plate with 8-branches and an improved cross-linked channel design) are further analyzed to explore their integrative performance under different cooling schemes. The results show that within a battery temperature limit of 40 °C, employing the delayed cooling strategy can save 23% energy consumption compared to the continuous cooling strategy. Besides, the cold plate with an improved cross-linked channel configuration requires 13% less pumping power and provides a better temperature uniformity than the Z-type parallel channel cold plate with 8-branches. These results are of great significance to advance the cooling design of BTMS.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040220
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 221: An Overview of the Design and Optimized
           Operation of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries for Durations in the Range of
           4–24 Hours

    • Authors: Vilayanur V. Viswanathan, Alasdair J. Crawford, Edwin C. Thomsen, Nimat Shamim, Guosheng Li, Qian Huang, David M. Reed
      First page: 221
      Abstract: An extensive review of modeling approaches used to simulate vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) performance is conducted in this study. Material development is reviewed, and opportunities for additional development identified. Various crossover mechanisms for the vanadium species are reviewed, and their effects on its state of charge and its state of health assessed. A stack design focusing on flow fields and an electrode design tailored to various flow fields are reviewed. An operational strategy that takes these parameters into account is reviewed for various operating envelopes, chosen based on end user preference in terms of minimizing capital cost or operation and maintenance cost. This work provides a framework for the design and operation of a VRFB for various grid services.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040221
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 222: Grain Boundary Characterization and
           Potential Percolation of the Solid Electrolyte LLZO

    • Authors: Shuo Fu, Yulia Arinicheva, Claas Hüter, Martin Finsterbusch, Robert Spatschek
      First page: 222
      Abstract: The influence of different processing routes and grain size distributions on the character of the grain boundaries in Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) and the potential influence on failure through formation of percolating lithium metal networks in the solid electrolyte are investigated. Therefore, high quality hot-pressed Li7La3Zr2O12 pellets are synthesised with two different grain size distributions. Based on the electron backscatter diffraction measurements, the grain boundary network including the grain boundary distribution and its connectivity via triple junctions are analysed concerning potential Li plating along certain susceptible grain boundary clusters in the hot-pressed LLZO pellets. Additionally, the study investigates the possibility to interpret short-circuiting caused by Li metal plating or penetration in all-solid-state batteries through percolation mechanisms in the solid electrolyte microstructure, in analogy to grain boundary failure processes in metallic systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040222
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 223: Advances in Strategic Inhibition of
           Polysulfide Shuttle in Room-Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Batteries via
           Electrode and Interface Engineering

    • Authors: Anupriya K. Haridas, Chun Huang
      First page: 223
      Abstract: Room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries (RT-NaSBs) with high theoretical energy density and low cost are ideal candidates for next-generation stationary and large-scale energy storage. However, the dissolution of sodium polysulfide (NaPS) intermediates and their migration to the anode side give rise to the shuttle phenomenon that impedes the reaction kinetics leading to rapid capacity decay, poor coulombic efficiency, and severe loss of active material. Inhibiting the generation of long-chain NaPS or facilitating their adsorption via physical and chemical polysulfide trapping mechanisms is vital to enhancing the electrochemical performance of RT-NaSBs. This review provides a brief account of the polysulfide inhibition strategies employed in RT-NaSBs via physical and chemical adsorption processes via the electrode and interfacial engineering. Specifically, the sulfur immobilization and polysulfide trapping achieved by electrode engineering strategies and the interfacial engineering of the separator, functional interlayer, and electrolytes are discussed in detail in light of recent advances in RT-NaSBs. Additionally, the benefits of engineering the highly reactive Na anode interface in improving the stability of RT-NaSBs are also elucidated. Lastly, the future perspectives on designing high-performance RT-NaSBs for practical applications are briefly outlined.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040223
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 224: A Multi-Stage Adaptive Method for Remaining
           Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Swarm
           Intelligence Optimization

    • Authors: Qihao Bao, Wenhu Qin, Zhonghua Yun
      First page: 224
      Abstract: The accuracy of predicting the remaining useful life of lithium batteries directly affects the safe and reliable use of the supplied equipment. Since the degradation of lithium batteries can easily be influenced by different operating conditions and the regeneration and fluctuation of battery capacity during the use of lithium batteries, it is difficult to construct an accurate prediction model of lithium batteries. Therefore, research into high-precision methods of predicting the remaining useful life has been a popular topic for the whole-life management system of lithium batteries. In this paper, a new hybrid optimization method for predicting the remaining useful life of lithium batteries is proposed. The proposed method incorporates two different swarm intelligence optimization algorithms. Firstly, the whale optimization algorithm is used to optimize the variational mode decomposition (WOAVMD), which can decompose the historical life data into several trend components and non-trend components. Then, the sparrow search algorithm is applied to optimize the long short-term memory neural network (SSALSTM) to predict the non-trend component and the autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) is used to predict trend components. Finally, the prediction results of each component are integrated to evaluate the remaining useful life of lithium batteries. Results show that better prediction accuracy is obtained in the prediction experiments for several types of batteries in both the NASA and CALCE battery datasets. The generalization ability of the algorithm has also been effectively improved owing to the optimization of parameters of the variational mode decomposition (VMD) and the long short-term memory neural network (LSTM).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040224
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 225: Battery Sharing: A Feasibility Analysis
           through Simulation

    • Authors: Mattia Neroni, Erika M. Herrera, Angel A. Juan, Javier Panadero, Majsa Ammouriova
      First page: 225
      Abstract: Nowadays, several alternatives to internal combustion engines are being proposed in order to reduce CO2 emissions in freight transportation and citizen mobility. According to many experts, the use of electric vehicles constitutes one of the most promising alternatives for achieving the desirable reductions in emissions. However, popularization of these vehicles is being slowed by long recharging times and the low availability of recharging stations. One possible solution to this issue is to employ the concept of battery sharing or battery swapping. This concept is supported by important industrial partners, such as Eni in Italy, Ample in the US, and Shell in the UK. This paper supports the introduction of battery swapping practices by analyzing their effects. A discrete-event simulation model is employed for this study. The obtained results show that battery sharing practices are not just a more environmentally and socially friendly solution, but also one that can be highly beneficial for reducing traffic congestion.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040225
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 226: Impact of Surface Structure on SEI for
           Carbon Materials in Alkali Ion Batteries: A Review

    • Authors: Xvtong Zhao, Ying Chen, Hao Sun, Tao Yuan, Yinyan Gong, Xinjuan Liu, Taiqiang Chen
      First page: 226
      Abstract: Due to their low cost, suitable working potential and high stability, carbon materials have become an irreplaceable anode material for alkali ion batteries, such as lithium ion batteries, sodium ion batteries and potassium ion batteries. During the initial charge, electrolyte is reduced to form a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the carbon anode surface, which is an electron insulator but a good ion conductor. Thus, a stable surface passivation is obtained, preventing the decomposition of electrolyte in the following cycles. It has been widely accepted that SEI is essential for the long-term performance of batteries, such as calendar life and cycle life. Additionally, the initial coulombic efficiency, rate capability as well as safety of the batteries are dramatically influenced by the SEI. Extensive research efforts have been made to develop advanced SEI on carbon materials via optimization of electrolytes, including solutes, solvents and additives, etc. However, SEI is produced via the catalytic decomposition of electrolyte by the surface of electrode materials. The surface structure of the carbon material is another important aspect that determines the structure and property of SEI, which little attention has been paid to in previous years. Hence, this review is dedicated to summarizing the impact of the surface structure of carbon materials on the composition, structure and electrochemical performance of the SEI in terms of surface atoms exposed, surface functionalization, specific surface area and pore structure. Some insights into the future development of SEI from the perspective of carbon surface are also offered.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040226
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 227: Descriptor-Based Graded Electrode
           Microstructures Design Strategies of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Enhanced
           Rate Performance

    • Authors: Qiang Shan, Yuwen Liu, Shengli Chen
      First page: 227
      Abstract: Microstructure engineering of electrodes is one of the efficient routes to improve rate performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Currently, there is a lack of descriptors to rationally guide the regional electrode design. Here, we propose two descriptors, the time differential of the average state of lithium (SoL) and the span of SoL in individual particles, to identify the rate performance constraints across the electrode depth. 3D microstructure-based electrochemical simulations are performed on a homogeneous electrode, and the predictability of the microstructure-based model is verified with the experimental measurement on a LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 electrode. At electrode level, the descriptors divide the electrode into four regions, namely, a solid-state transport (SST)-controlled region, two mixed SST and liquid-state transport (LST)-controlled regions (SST-dominant and LST-dominant, respectively), and an LST-controlled region. Based on these insights, dual-gradient electrodes are designed with smaller particles in the SST-controlled region and graded porosity increasing from current collector to the separator. Results show that the optimized dual-gradient electrode has significantly more excellent LST capability compared to the homogeneous electrode, thus improving the utilization of particles near the collector. As a result, the capacity performance of the optimized dual-gradient electrode increases by 39% at 5C without sacrificing the gravimetric energy density.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040227
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 228: Machine-Learning Approaches for the
           Discovery of Electrolyte Materials for Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    • Authors: Shengyi Hu, Chun Huang
      First page: 228
      Abstract: Solid-state lithium batteries have attracted considerable research attention for their potential advantages over conventional liquid electrolyte lithium batteries. The discovery of lithium solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) is still undergoing to solve the remaining challenges, and machine learning (ML) approaches could potentially accelerate the process significantly. This review introduces common ML techniques employed in materials discovery and an overview of ML applications in lithium SSE discovery, with perspectives on the key issues and future outlooks.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040228
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 229: Manganese, Fluorine, and Nitrogen Co-Doped
           Bronze Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes with Improved Lithium-Ion Storage

    • Authors: Denis P. Opra, Sergey L. Sinebryukhov, Evgeny B. Modin, Alexander A. Sokolov, Anatoly B. Podgorbunsky, Albert M. Ziatdinov, Alexander Y. Ustinov, Vitaly Y. Mayorov, Sergey V. Gnedenkov
      First page: 229
      Abstract: Because of the unique crystal framework, bronze TiO2 (or TiO2(B)) is considered the prospective choice for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes. Nevertheless, TiO2(B) requires efficient modification, e.g., suitable doping with other elements, to improve the electronic properties and enhance the stability upon insertion/extraction of guest ions. However, due to the metastability of TiO2(B), doping is challenging. Herein, for the first time, TiO2(B) co-doped with Mn, F, and N were synthesized through a successive method based on a hydrothermal technique. The prepared doped TiO2(B) consists of ultrathin nanotubes (outer diameter of 10 nm, wall thickness of 2–3 nm) and exhibits a highly porous structure (pore volume of up to 1 cm3 g−1) with a large specific surface area near 200 m2 g–1. The incorporation of Mn, F, and N into TiO2(B) expands its crystal lattice and modifies its electronic structure. The band gap of TiO2(B) narrows from 3.14 to 2.18 eV upon Mn- and N-doping and electronic conductivity improves more than 40 times. Doping with fluorine improves the thermal stability of TiO2(B) and prevents its temperature-induced transformation into anatase. It was found that the diffusivity of Li is about two times faster in doped TiO2(B). These properties make Mn, F, and N co-doped TiO2(B) nanotubes promising for application as high-performance anodes in advanced lithium-ion batteries. In particular, it possesses a good reversible capacity (231.5 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 70 mA g−1) and prominent rate capability (134 mAh g−1 at 1500 mA g−1) in the half-cell configuration. The (Mn, F, N)-doped TiO2(B) possesses a remarkable low-temperature Li storage performance, keeping 70% of capacity at −20 °C and demonstrating potentialities to be employed in full-cell configuration with LiMn2O4 cathode delivering a reversible capacity of 123 and 79 mAh g−1 at 35 and 1500 mA g−1, respectively, at a voltage of ~2.5 V. This research underlies that regulation of electronic and crystal structure is desired to uncover capabilities of nanoparticulate TiO2(B) for electrochemical energy storage and conversion.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040229
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 230: Apparent Aging during Accelerated Cycling
           Aging Test of Cylindrical Silicon Containing Li-Ion Cells

    • Authors: Pablo Morales Torricos, Christian Endisch, Meinert Lewerenz
      First page: 230
      Abstract: Accelerated cyclic aging tests are very important for research and industry to quickly characterize lithium-ion cells. However, the accentuation of stress factors and the elimination of rest periods lead to an apparent capacity fade, that can be subsequently recovered during a resting phase. This effect is attributed to the inhomogeneous lithium distribution in the anode and is observable with differential voltage analysis (DVA). We tested cylindrical 18,650 cells with Li(NixCoyAlz)O2-graphite/silicon chemistry during two cycling and resting phases. The capacity, the pulse resistance, the DVA, and the capacity difference analysis are evaluated for cells cycled at different average SOC and current rates. An apparent capacity loss of up to 12% was reported after 200 FCE for cells cycled under the presence of pressure gradients, while only 1% were at low-pressure gradients. The subsequent recovery was up to 80% of the apparent capacity loss in some cases. The impact of silicon cannot be estimated as it shows no features in the dV/dQ curves. We observe a recovery of apparent resistance increase, which is not reported for cells with pure graphite anodes. Finally, we demonstrate the strong impact of apparent aging for the lifetime prediction based on standard accelerated cyclic aging tests.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040230
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 231: Material Flow Analysis of Lithium-Ion
           Battery Recycling in Europe: Environmental and Economic Implications

    • Authors: Martina Bruno, Silvia Fiore
      First page: 231
      Abstract: This study aimed at a quantitative analysis of the material flows associated with End of Life (EoL) lithium-ion batteries’ (LIBs) materials in Europe. The European electric vehicles fleet in 2020 was taken as a case study, assuming a 10-year lifetime for the batteries and that the related EoL LIBs would be processed by existing recycling plants via pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, or their combination in sequence. The economic implications (recycling operative costs compared to the revenues from the sales of the recycled metals) and the environmental performances (CO2 eq. emitted, energy demand and circularity performances) were assessed. Based on the gathered results, the existing European recycling capacity will overlook over 78% of the forecasted EoL LIBs. The treatment efficiencies of the full-scale recycling processes allow for the recovery of over 90% of copper, cobalt, nickel, and manganese, 87% of aluminum, and only 42% of lithium and 35% of iron entering the recycling facilities. In overall, LIBs recycling in 2030 will involve the emission of 3.7 Mt of CO2 eq. and an energy demand of 33.6 GWh. Hydrometallurgy presents the best economic and environmental trade-off compared to other recycling strategies. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that current European LIBs’ recycling infrastructure will be inadequate in the near future and the direction (i.e., hydrometallurgy) that its strengthening should pursue.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040231
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 232: How Cell Design Affects the Aging Behavior:
           Comparing Electrode-Individual Aging Processes of High-Energy and
           High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries Using High Precision Coulometry

    • Authors: Sebastian Michael Peter Jagfeld, Kai Peter Birke, Alexander Fill, Peter Keil
      First page: 232
      Abstract: The aging behavior of lithium-ion batteries is crucial for the development of electric vehicles and many other battery-powered devices. The cells can be generally classified into two types: high-energy (HE) and high-power (HP) cells. The cell type used depends on the field of application. As these cells differ in their electrical behavior, this work investigates whether both cell types also show different aging behavior. More precisely, the occurring capacity loss and internal side reactions are analyzed via the charge throughput. For comparison, aging tests are carried out with a high-precision battery tester, allowing the application of High Precision Coulometry (HPC). This enables early detection of aging effects and also allows us to break down the capacity loss into electrode-individual processes. A total of two sub-studies are performed: (1) a cyclic study focusing on lithium plating; and (2) an accelerated calendar aging study. It is found that HE cells exhibit stronger cyclic aging effects (lithium plating) and HP cells exhibit stronger calendar aging effects. The higher lithium plating can be explained by the higher diffusion resistance of the lithium ions within the electrodes of HE Cell. The higher calendar aging fits to the larger electrode surfaces of the HP cell. These results give deep insights into the proceeding aging in a novel way and are interesting for the selection of the appropriate cell type in the context of battery development. In a next step, the measured capacity losses could also be used for a simple parameterization of battery aging models.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040232
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 233: Towards Determining an Engineering
           Stress-Strain Curve and Damage of the Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Battery
           Using the Cylindrical Indentation Test

    • Authors: George Z. Voyiadjis, Edris Akbari, Bartosz Łuczak, Wojciech Sumelka
      First page: 233
      Abstract: Mechanical internal short circuit (ISC) is one of the significant safety issues in lithium-ion battery design. As a result, it is possible to subject LIB cells to thorough mechanical abuse tests to determine when and why failure may occur. The indentation test is a recommended loading condition for evaluating mechanical damage and ISC. In this study, 18,650 cylindrical battery cells underwent indentation tests and a voltage reduction following the peak force identified by the ISC. Due to the complexity of the contact surface shape between two cylinders (LIB cell and indenter), a new phenomenological analytical model is proposed to measure the projected contact area, which the FEM model confirms. Moreover, the stress-strain curve and Young’s modulus reduction were calculated from the load-depth data. In contrast to previously published models, the model developed in this paper assumes anisotropic hyperelasticity (the transversely isotropic case) and predicts the growing load-carrying capacity (scalar damage), whose variation is regulated by the Caputo-Almeida fractional derivative.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040233
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 234: Structural and Dynamic Characterization of
           Li–Ionic Liquid Electrolyte Solutions for Application in Li-Ion
           Batteries: A Molecular Dynamics Approach

    • Authors: Michele A. Salvador, Rita Maji, Francesco Rossella, Elena Degoli, Alice Ruini, Rita Magri
      First page: 234
      Abstract: Pyrrolidinium-based (Pyr) ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as electrolyte components in lithium-ion batteries (LiBs), mainly due to their higher electrochemical stability and wider electrochemical window. Since they are not naturally electroactive, in order to allow their use in LiBs, it is necessary to mix the ionic liquids with lithium salts (Li). Li–PF6, Li–BF4, and Li–TFSI are among the lithium salts more frequently used in LiBs, and each anion, namely PF6 (hexafluorophosphate), BF4 (tetrafluoroborate), and TFSI (bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)azanide), has its own solvation characteristics and interaction profile with the pyrrolidinium ions. The size of Pyr cations, the anion size and symmetry, and cation–anion combinations influence the Li-ion solvation properties. In this work, we used molecular dynamics calculations to achieve a comprehensive view of the role of each cation–anion combination and of different fractions of lithium in the solutions to assess their relative advantage for Li-ion battery applications, by comparing the solvation and structural properties of the systems. This is the most-comprehensive work so far to consider pyrrolidinium-based ILs with different anions and different amounts of Li: from it, we can systematically determine the role of each constituent and its concentration on the structural and dynamic properties of the electrolyte solutions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040234
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 235: A Review of Nb2CTx MXene: Synthesis,
           Properties and Applications

    • Authors: Guozhen Guan, Fengmei Guo
      First page: 235
      Abstract: Nb2CTx is an important member of MXene family. It has attracted widespread attention because of its abundant functional groups, high hydrophilicity, high electrical conductivity as well as low ion transport barrier, showing great potential in various applications. In order to utilize the advantages of Nb2CTx MXene, the progress of preparation, properties and applications are reviewed in this work. This work focuses on different methods of Nb2CTx preparation and applications in electrochemical energy storage (supercapacitors and secondary batteries), electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, sensors, etc. Additionally, the main problems of self-stacking and prospect of Nb2CTx MXene are discussed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040235
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 236: Preparation and Characterization of a
           LiFePO4- Lithium Salt Composite Cathode for All-Solid-State Li-Metal

    • Authors: Debabrata Mohanty, Pin-Hsuan Huang, I-Ming Hung
      First page: 236
      Abstract: This study develops a composite cathode material suitable for solid-state Li-ion batteries (SSLIB). The composite cathode consists of LiFePO4 as the active material, Super P and KS-4 carbon materials as the conductive agents, and LiTFSI as the lithium salt. An LiFePO4/LATP-PVDF-HFP/Li all-solid-state LIB was assembled using Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP)/ poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) as the solid-state electrolyte and lithium metal as the anode. The structure of the synthesized LATP was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, and the microstructure of the composite cathode and solid electrolyte layer was observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The electrochemical properties of the all-solid-state LIB were analyzed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and a charge–discharge test. The effect of the composition ratio of the fabricated cathode on SSLIB performance is discussed. The results reveal that the SSLIB fabricated using the cathode containing LiFePO4, Super P, KS-4, PVDF, and LiTFSI at a weight ratio of 70:10:10:7:3 (wt%) and a LATP/PVDF-HFP solid electrolyte layer containing PVDF-HFP, LiTFSI, and LATP at a weight ratio of 22:33:45 (wt%) exhibited the optimal performance. Particularly, the SSLIB fabricated using the cathode containing 3% LiTFSI exhibited a discharge capacity of 168.9 mAhg−1 at 0.1 C, which is close to the theoretical capacity (170 mAhg−1), and had very good stability. The findings of this study suggests that the incorporation of an appropriate amount of LiTFSI can significantly enhance the electrochemical performance of SSLIB batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9040236
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-