Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

Showing 1 - 17 of 17 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Recycling & Waste Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Waste Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Clean Water     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Waste Management Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Waste Disposal & Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Water-Energy Nexus     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Worldwide Waste : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Waste Disposal & Sustainable Energy
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2524-7980 - ISSN (Online) 2524-7891
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Three-stage pyrolysis–steam reforming–water gas shift processing of
           household, commercial and industrial waste plastics for hydrogen
           production

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      Abstract: Five common single plastics and nine different household, commercial and industrial waste plastics were processed using a three-stage (i) pyrolysis, (ii) catalytic steam reforming and (iii) water gas shift reaction system to produce hydrogen. Pyrolysis of plastics produces a range of different hydrocarbon species which are subsequently catalytically steam reformed to produce H2 and CO and then undergo water gas shift reaction to produce further H2. The process mimics the commercial process for hydrogen production from natural gas. Processing of the single polyalkene plastics (high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP)) produced similar H2 yields between 115 mmol and 120 mmol per gram plastic. Even though PS produced an aromatic product slate from the pyrolysis stage, further stages of reforming and water gas shift reaction produced a gas yield and composition similar to that of the polyalkene plastics (115 mmol H2 per gram plastic). PET gave significantly lower H2 yield (41 mmol per gram plastic) due to the formation of mainly CO, CO2 and organic acids from the pyrolysis stage which were not conducive to further reforming and water gas shift reaction. A mixture of the single plastics typical of that found in municipal solid waste produced a H2 yield of 102 mmol per gram plastic. Knowing the gas yields and composition from the single plastics enabled an estimation of the yields from a simulated waste plastic mixture and a ‘real-world’ waste plastic mixture to be determined. The different household, commercial and industrial waste plastic mixtures produced H2 yields between 70 mmol and 107 mmol per gram plastic. The H2 yield and gas composition from the single waste plastics gave an indication of the type of plastics in the mixed waste plastic samples. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
       
  • Atomization characteristics of pyrolysis oil derived from waste tires

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      Abstract: The atomization characteristics play a key role in the highly efficient combustion of pyrolysis oil derived from waste tires. In this study, the fuel properties of tire pyrolysis oil (TPO) were initially studied, and then a high-speed camera and a phase Doppler particle analyzer were employed to characterize the atomization feature of TPO. The influence of pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on atomization characteristics such as spray angle, droplet velocity, and droplet size distribution was investigated. The results showed that TPO had a high calorific value of about 43.6 MJ/kg and a low viscosity of 3.84×10–6 m2/s at 40 °C, which made it have the potential to be used as an alternative fuel. Higher pressure expanded the spray angle and extended the spray in both the axial and radial directions. With increasing pressure, spray angle and droplet velocity raised, and the increase in crushing effect of air reduced the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of the droplets. To obtain proper atomization quality for combustion, the pressure is expected to be higher than 1.25 MPa. With increasing nozzle orifice diameter, droplet velocity increased, and the SMD of the droplets increased as well due to weakened crushing effect of the orifice. Therefore, the pressure must be increased to maintain the atomization quality when using a nozzle with a larger orifice. Due to the lower viscosity, the velocity and particle size distribution of TPO droplets after atomization were smaller than those of diesel droplets. The extremely small carbon black contained in TPO also contributed to the breaking of droplets and played a certain role in the size reduction of the oil droplets, but it may cause the risk of nozzle blockage. In summary, TPO showed great atomization characteristics for alternative fuel applications. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
       
  • An alternative approach to improve the compatibility of PCE in cement
           paste blend with coal gangue powder

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      Abstract: Coal gangue (CG) is an environmental waste that faces an urgent demand for disposal in China. The utilization of CG in construction materials has broad application prospects and gained increasing interest. However, the poor compatibility of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE) with CG powder hinders its efficiency in a wide range of applications. Here, this paper attempts to improve the compatibility of PCE with CG powder in cement paste based on the regulation of aggregation and the adsorption behavior of PCE. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence spectroscopy tests were carried out to understand the improved mechanism. The results indicated that the addition of CG powder increases the ionic strengths of the cement liquid phase, which makes PCE tend to aggregate at a lower concentration compared with no CG powder introduction. Adding (CH3COO)2Cu is beneficial for enhancing the workability of cement paste by reducing PCE aggregation while maintaining the compressive strength of cement specimens. Therefore, (CH3COO)2Cu extra addition can be regarded as an effective and sustainable way to improve the workability of cement paste with CG powder. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
       
  • Beneficial use of mussel shell as a bioadditive for TPU green composites
           by the valorization of an aqueous waste

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      Abstract: Scientific studies have focused on environmentally friendly solutions as effective as the reuse of crop products owing to plastic-waste problems in recent years. This issue is the main driving force for upcoming academic research attempts in waste valorization-related studies. Herein, we integrated an aqua-waste, mussel shell (MS), as a bioadditive form into green thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) green composites. Tuning of the MS surface was performed to achieve strong adhesion between composite phases. The surface functionalities of MS powders were evaluated via infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Composite samples were prepared by melt-compounding followed by injection molding techniques. It was confirmed by morphological analysis that relatively better adhesion between the phases was achieved for composites involving surface-modified MS compared to unmodified MS. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of surface-modified MS-filled composites were found to be higher than those of unmodified MS, whereas the elongation at break shifted to lower values with MS inclusions. The shore hardness of TPU was remarkably improved after being incorporated with silane-treated MS (AS-MS). Stearic acid-treated MS (ST-MS) additions resulted in an enhancement in the thermal stability of the composites. Thermo-mechanical analysis showed that the storage moduli of composites were higher than those of unfilled TPU. ST-MS additions led to an increase in the characteristic glass transition temperature of TPU. Melt flow index (MFI) of neat TPU was highly improved after MS loading regardless of modification type. According to the wear test, surface modification of MS displayed a positive effect on the wear resistance of TPU. As the water absorption data of the composites were evaluated, the TPU/AS-MS composite yielded the lowest water absorption. The silane layer on MS inclusion promoted water repellency of composites due to the hydrophobicity of silane. The results of the biodegradation investigation demonstrated that adding unmodified and/or modified MS to the TPU matrix increased the biodegradation rate. The test results at the end of a 7-week period of biodegradation with a soft-rot fungus implied that the composite materials were more biodegradable than pure TPU. Silane modification of MS exhibited better performance in terms of the characterized properties of TPU-based composites. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
       
  • Performance and combustion study of a low heat rejection engine running
           with biogas–diethyl ether–diesel

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      Abstract: The present research focuses on addressing the faster depletion of fossil fuels and environmental pollution in addition to the energy crisis that hinders the progress of a nation. In the current research, waste banana leaves were considered as substrates for biogas production. Biogas is taken as the primary fuel in dual fuel (DF) operations to maximize possible diesel savings. The performance and combustion assessment were executed in a low heat rejection (LHR) engine using 5% diethyl ether by volume blended with diesel (5DEE) as pilot fuel. The combustion attributes of the engine reveal that the apex of net heat release rate (NHRR) curve retarded a bit as compared to apex of base result. The peak cylinder pressure was noted to be 6.19 MPa in the LHR engine running with 5DEE + biogas at 11.7° crank angle (CA) after top dead center (aTDC) compared to 5.23 MPa for the diesel alone operation at the same position. The apex point for NHRR was observed to be 54.51 J (°)−1 for 5DEE + biogas in LHR engine positioned at 3.2° aTDC. The brake thermal efficiency at full engine load operation decreased by 12.7% and 5.2% for biogas substitutions of 0.8 kg h−1 with diesel and 5DEE, respectively, compared to the base result. The smoke opacity and nitric oxide emissions were reduced during the DF run accompanied by diethyl ether as a fuel additive. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
       
  • Effect of different operation conditions on PCDD/F inhibition by ammonium
           dihydrogen phosphate: concentrations, distributions and mechanisms

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      Abstract: Phosphorus-containing compounds are considered as the potential alternatives of traditional inhibitors for suppressing the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), but the suppression characteristics are scarcely studied. In this study, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) was selected as the inhibitor to inhibit the PCDD/F formation via de novo synthesis at 350 °C. The influence of oxygen content and addition method on PCDD/F inhibition was systematically investigated by means of statistical analysis and morphological characterization. The results showed that oxygen enhanced the formation of PCDD/Fs from 1470 ng g−1 (9.78 ng I-TEQ g−1) to 2110 ng g−1 (14.8 ng I-TEQ g−1). ADP significantly inhibited the PCDD/F formation, with inhibition efficiencies ranging from 82.0% to 97.7%. Herein, a higher oxygen content and the premixed way intensified the suppression effect. Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD)/dibenzofuran (DF) chlorination was proven to be effectively suppressed while chlorophenol (CP) route was not obviously influenced. With the addition of ADP, Cl source was significantly reduced and the formation of organic Cl was effectively inhibited. Also, it decreased the proportion of C–O/C=N and C=O, revealing the efficient inhibition of carbon oxidation. Meanwhile, the formation of copper phosphate and copper pyrophosphate was observed in XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) spectra, indicating that the catalytic metal Cu was chelated and passivated by ADP. The premixed way had a better effect on reducing Cl resources, inhibiting oxidation and chelating metals, due to the direct contact with inhibitor. However, the separation method could only depend on the decomposed gases, resulting in a lower inhibition efficiency. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
       
  • Review of construction and demolition waste management tools and
           frameworks with the classification, causes, and impacts of the waste

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      Abstract: Abstract This review looks over the current construction and demolition waste management (C&DWM) situations by scrutinizing the definition, classification, components, compositions, generated sources and causes, impacts of generated construction and demolition wastes (C&DWs), waste management hierarchy (WMH), 3R principles (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle), Circular Economy (CE), frameworks, tools, and approaches of C&DWM. After reviewing the literature this study contributes to the literature by the following means: (a) suitable working definitions of C&DW and C&DWM are provided, (b) an expanded WMH for construction and demolition operations is presented, (c) frameworks of C&DWM are identified and listed as follows: frameworks based on WMH, including 3R principles and CE concept, frameworks focusing on the quantification, estimation, and prediction of generated C&DW, frameworks focusing on effective and sustainable C&DWM, frameworks focusing economic, social, and environmental performance assessment, frameworks based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA), frameworks based on post-disaster recovery period, and other miscellaneous frameworks, and (d) four categories of tools utilized in C&DWM are identified and explained, namely, approaches employed in C&DWM, information technology (IT) tools employed in C&DWM, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tools employed in C&DWM, and C&DWM technologies. Moreover, this study also found that CE, and green rating system (GRS) are widely used approaches, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Geographic Information System, and Big Data are the extensively used IT tools, Analytical Hierarchy Process, FUZZY, TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution), Weighted Summation, Elimination and Choice Expressing the Reality II, Elimination and Choice Expressing the Reality III, Evaluation of Mixed Data, and REGIME (REG) are the widely used MCA tools in C&DWM, and Prefabricated Construction and Modular Construction are broadly used C&DWM technologies. Furthermore, it has been observed that the application of the Analytic Networking Process (ANP) and hybridization of ANP, FUZZY, and TOPSIS tools do not catch considerable attention in the literature for conducting MCA, although it yields more precise outcomes. Additionally, most previous research has focused on the estimation of generated C&DW, but less attention has been given to forecasting the generated C&DW due to inadequate available C&DW data. This review article also assists C&DWM practitioners, academics, stakeholders, and contractors in choosing appropriate frameworks and tools for C&DWM while managing C&DW.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
       
  • Application of microalgal-ZnO-NPs for reusing polyester/cotton blended
           fabric wastes after modification by cellulases enzymes

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      Abstract: Polyester/cotton (PET/C) blended fabric wastes are produced daily in huge amounts, which constitutes an economic loss and an environmental threat if it is not reused appropriately. Modern textile waste recycling technologies put much effort into developing fabric materials with unique properties, such as bioactivity or new optical goods based on modern technologies, especially nano-biotechnology. In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were biosynthesized using the aqueous extract of Dunaliella sp. and immobilized on PET/C waste fabrics after enzymatically activated with cellulases. The produced Dunaliella-ZnO-NPs (10–20 nm with a spherical shape) were characterized by High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDAX), and some functional groups, such as CH, CO, NH, and CN (due to the presence of carboxyl, proteins and hydroxyl groups), were detected, revealing the biosynthesis of ZnO-NPs. The analysis showed that the resulting ZnO-NPS had potent antimicrobial effects, Ultraviolet (UV) protection capabilities, and no cytotoxic effects on the normal human fibroblast cell line (BJ1). On the other hand, enzymatic treatments of PET/C fabric waste with cellulases enhanced the immobilization of biosynthetic nanoparticles on their surface. Modified PET/C fabrics loaded with Dunaliella-ZnO-NPs showed antibacterial and UV protection capabilities making them an eco-friendly and cost-effective candidate for numerous applications. These applications can include the manufacture of active packaging devices, wastewater treatment units, and many other environmental applications. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
       
  • Study of ground ozone and precursors along with particulate matter at
           residential sites in the vicinity of power plant

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      Abstract: Abstract Emission source characterization and meteorological influence are the key aspects to gain insight into the ground ozone governing mechanisms. Receptor-based data analysis techniques help in comprehending local ozone fluctuations in the lack of accurate information on the emission characteristics. Through sophisticated data analysis, the current study offers insight into the key factors influencing the ozone changes in the vicinity of power plants. Ground ozone (O3) and its precursor variables carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene (BTEX) along with the particulate matter of size less than 10 and 2.5 micron (PM10 and PM2.5) and meteorological variables have been studied at a residential site near the coal-fired power plant in the two cities; Chandrapur and Nagpur during 2016–2019. O3 is observed to be not correlated significantly (r<0.16 and <0.1 in Nagpur and Chandrapur, respectively) with any of its precursor variables in two cities. On a finer time scale, however, an association of O3 with CO, NO, NO2 and BTEX suggested that the O3 formation mechanism is driven by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (mainly BTEX), CO and NOx. On the coarser scale, however, seasonality and other factors have distorted the correlation. Random forest model with O3 concentration as the response variable and NO2, NO, SO2, CO, BTEX, PM10 and PM2.5 as independent variables suggested that PM10, NO, CO and solar radiation are highly important variables governing the O3 dynamics in Chandrapur. In Nagpur, wind direction, relative humidity, temperature, toluene and NO2 are more important. Qualitative analysis to assess the contribution of emission sources suggested the influence of traffic emissions in Nagpur and the dominance of non-traffic related emissions, mainly power plant and mining activities in Chandrapur. The hazard quotient is observed to be >1 in both cities suggesting a health hazard to the residents living in the area.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
       
  • Effect of the MgO/SiO2 ratio on MgO–silica binders solidifying MSWI
           fly ash

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      Abstract: Abstract To improve the effect of MgO–SiO2 binders solidifying municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA), MSWI FA solidified bodies with five MgO/SiO2 ratios (0.41 ~ 3.77) were investigated. The leaching behavior of solidified bodies was evaluated by leaching toxicity tests and pH-dependent experiments. In addition, hydration products in solidified bodies were analyzed by thermodynamic modeling and microstructure characterizations. The results showed that the variation in the MgO/SiO2 ratio had a significant effect on the leaching toxicity of the solidified bodies, because it affected the leachate pH and the composition of the hydration products of the solidified bodies. The acid and alkali resistance of the MSWI FA was enhanced through solidification with MgO–SiO2 binders. MgO can improve the alkalinity of the solidified bodies and facilitate the chemical precipitation of heavy metals. Moreover, silica fume, an industrial waste, can serve as a cost-effective measure. Overall, MgO–SiO2 binders demonstrated great potential as promising candidates for encapsulating MSWI FA.
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
       
  • The Martin moving grate technology

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      Abstract: Abstract The thermal treatment of waste using grate-based systems has gained global acceptance as the preferred method for sustainable management of residual waste. This is because the energy content of the waste is utilized and quality products and residues are produced. Modern Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are extremely complex. Sound knowledge of “fuel” waste and its effects on the design and operation of WtE plants is crucial for the successful planning and operation of these plants. To respond to new challenges and/or priorities, developing and implementing innovative technologies is necessary. With long-term global partnerships and innovative grate and combustion technologies, Martin guarantees that in future, residual waste will be treated following ecological and economic constraints and in compliance with international legal requirements.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
       
  • Emission control and phase migration of PCDD/Fs in a rotary kiln
           incinerator: hazardous vs medical waste incineration

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      Abstract: Abstract This study was carried out in a full-scale (50 t/d) rotary kiln incinerator to explore the removal characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) by different units of air pollution control devices (APCDs), and special interest was focused on the “memory effect” phenomenon of PCDD/Fs in the wet scrubber (WS), which usually caused an undesirable rise in PCDD/F emission concentrations. The general removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs by APCDs was 99.4% (from 14.11 at exhaust heat boiler (EHB) outlet to 0.09 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 at stack) under medical waste (MW) incineration condition, and 99.2% (from 19.91 to 0.16 ng I-TEQ/Nm3) under hazardous waste (HW) incineration condition. The PCDD/F concentrations in flue gas decreased along the APCDs except for WS, in which the “memory effect” was observed. In detail, WS largely increased the I-TEQ concentration of gas-phase PCDD/Fs from 0.047 to 0.188 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 in the flue gas, and the concentration of particulate-phase PCDD/Fs increased from 0.003 to 0.030 ng I-TEQ/Nm3. In addition, this study found that phase migration promoted the accumulation of PCDD/Fs in scrubbing water, and the flow entrainment phenomenon played a great role in causing the “memory effect”. The PCDD/F concentrations of fly ash collected from cyclone and fabric filter (FF) were as high as 4.23 and 6.99 ng I-TEQ/g, respectively, which had exceeded the national landfill limitation (3 ng I-TEQ/g) in China. The system balance calculations revealed that APCDs promoted the migration of PCDD/Fs from the gas-phase to the particulate-phase, which caused fly ash to be the main carrier of PCDD/Fs and led to excessive emissions. The results of this study can contribute to the optimized design of combustion conditions and system cleaning for controlling PCDD/F emissions from rotary kiln incinerators.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
       
  • Potential of organic waste to energy and bio-fertilizer production in
           Sub-Saharan Africa: a review

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      Abstract: Abstract Many growing cities of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are marred by the inefficient collection, management, disposal and reuse of organic waste. The purpose of this study was to review and compare the energy recovery potential as well as bio-fertilizer perspective, from the organic waste volumes generated in SSA countries. Based on computations made with a literature review, we find that the amount of organic wastes varies across countries translating to differences in the energy and bio-fertilizer production potentials across countries. Organic wastes generated in SSA can potentially generate about 133 million GWh of energy per year. The organic waste to bio-fertilizer production potentials range from 11.08 million tons to 306.26 million tons annually. Ghana has the highest energy and bio-fertilizer potential among the SSA countries with a total per capita of 630 MWh/year and 306.26 million tons, respectively. The challenges and technical considerations for energy and bio-fertilizer approaches in the management of organic waste in SSA have also been discussed. This study is of help to the readers and strategic decision makers in understanding the contribution of bioenergy and bio-fertilizer to achieving sustainable development goals, namely, 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy) and 13 (Climate Action) in SSA.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
       
  • Alkaline earth metal-based minerals/wastes-catalyzed pyrolysis of
           poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) for
           benzenes-enriched oil production

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      Abstract: Abstract The pyrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) catalyzed by five alkaline earth metal-based minerals/wastes, namely calcined dolomite, calcite, magnesite, calcium carbide slag (CCS), and ophicalcitum, was conducted by a pyrolyzer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (Py-GC-MS) with the objective of recovering benzenes-enriched oil. Compared with magnesium-based catalysts and pure CaO, the calcium-based catalysts with calcium hydroxide as the main component performed better catalytic effect, which could simultaneously promote the hydrolysis of ester products and the decarboxylation of aromatic acids after hydrolysis. For PET, the addition of solid base catalysts at 600 °C promoted the complete degradation of aromatic acids and aryl esters, which accounted for 32.6% and 30.7% of the pyrolysis oil, respectively. The content of benzene in oil increased from 8.8% to 31.7%–78.8%. For PBT, the addition of solid base catalysts at 600 °C completely decomposed the aromatic acids, which accounted for 67.1% of the pyrolysis oil, and the content of benzene in oil increased from 12.3% to 34.5%–81.0%. During the deoxygenation of polyester pyrolysis products, increasing temperature was more effective for the decomposition/conversion of acetone and tetrahydrofuran, while increasing the alkalinity of the reaction environment contributed to the rapid decrease in acetaldehyde and aryl ketone contents.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
       
  • Development of waste-to-energy through integrated sustainable waste
           management: the case of ABREN WtERT Brazil towards changing status quo in
           Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract In the context of circular economy, it is known that once waste is generated, it should be subject to proper treatment for recovering material or energy before being disposed. Many countries worldwide, especially developing countries such as Brazil, have been struggling to effectively apply sustainable waste management in municipalities and still rely on dumpsites and unsuitable landfills. Misinformation, a weak legal framework, lack of financial resources and poor infra-structure as well as pressure from organizations profiting from the expansion of landfills are some factors contributing to the preservation of the negative status quo: the “landfill culture”. Material recovery, i.e., recycling and composting, is applied to less than 5% of Brazilian municipal waste, while 95% is disposed of in landfills or dumpsites. In this context, ABREN WtERT (Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council) Brazil was created in 2019 as the first permanent organization formed to promote the development of energy and material recovery from waste focused on the waste-to-energy (WTE) market. In this paper, the strategy proposed and implemented by the organization towards changing the status quo in Brazil through an integrated sustainable waste management approach is described. The proposed strategy integrates the concepts of Sustainability and Circular Economy for minimizing landfill disposal (avoiding methane emissions) and maximizing material/energy recovery. Among others, the approach focuses on changing the public opinion regarding thermal treatment facilities, mainly incinerators, which has been wrongly linked to pollution, excessive public expenditures and considered a harm to the recycling industry. The activities performed by ABREN include engaging public and private institutions, enhancing education, leading the publication of research and business studies, gathering industry members and academy experts, as well as creating strategic alliances with players around the globe. As a result, within a few years, major outcomes were achieved in Brazil, such as: (i) changes in the legal framework, (ii) launching of a specific public auction category for sponsoring electricity production from WTE facilities, and (iii) establishment of official targets for municipalities to decrease landfill disposal and increase recycling/biological treatment and energy recovery from thermal treatment. Among the national goals, it should be highlighted the target regarding the increase from zero to 994 MW of electricity production from municipal solid waste, which will require building dozens of new WTE facilities. Global outcomes are expected as well since Brazil is the seventh largest country of the globe and the most influential in Latin America. International and national business deals should thrive due to the need of operational skills and technology imports, and the avoidance of carbon emissions will positively reflect the world climate. In parallel, there is also potential for the academy to benefit from research projects and investments if the WTE national industry is to be developed in the long term.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
       
  • Environmental standards and beneficial uses of waste-to-energy (WTE)
           residues in civil engineering applications

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      Abstract: The waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies are now recovering energy and materials from over 300 million tonnes of municipal solid wastes worldwide. Extensive studies have investigated substituting natural construction materials with WTE residues to relieve the environmental cost of natural resource depletion. This study examined the beneficial uses of WTE residues in civil engineering applications and the corresponding environmental standards in Europe, the U.S., and China. This review presents the opportunities and challenges for current technical approaches and the environmental standards to be met to stabilize WTE residues. The principal characteristics of WTE residues (bottom ash and fly ash) and the possible solutions for their beneficial use in developed and developing countries are summarized. The leaching procedures and environmental standards for pH, heavy metals, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) are compared. The current practice and engineering properties of materials using WTE residues, including mixtures with stone aggregate or sand, cement-based or hot-mix asphalt concrete (pavement), fill material in the embankments, substitute of Portland cement or clinker production, and ceramic-based materials (bricks and lightweight aggregate) are comprehensively reviewed. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s42768-023-00140-8
       
  • Pore-structure regulation and heteroatom doping of activated carbon for
           supercapacitors with excellent rate performance and power density

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      Abstract: Abstract Activated carbon (AC) has attracted tremendous research interest as an electrode material for supercapacitors owing to its high specific surface area, high porosity, and low cost. However, AC-based supercapacitors suffer from limited rate performance and low power density, which mainly arise from their inherently low electrical conductivity and sluggish ion dynamics in the micropores. Here, we propose a simple yet effective strategy to address the aforementioned issue by nitrogen/fluorine doping and enlarging the micropore size. During the treatment, the decomposition products of NH4F react with the carbon atoms to dope the AC with nitrogen/fluorine and simultaneously enlarge the pores by etching. The treated AC shows a higher specific surface area of 1826 m2 g−1 (by ~ 15%), more micropores with a diameter around 0.93 nm (by ~ 33%), better wettability (contact angle decreased from 120° to 45°), and excellent electrical conductivity (96 S m−1) compared with untreated AC (39 S m−1). The as-fabricated supercapacitors demonstrate excellent specific capacitance (26 F g−1 at 1 A g−1), significantly reduced electrical resistance (by ~ 50%), and improved rate performance (from 46.21 to 64.39% at current densities of 1 to 20 A g−1). Moreover, the treated AC-based supercapacitor achieves a maximum energy density of 25 Wh kg−1 at 1000 W kg−1 and a maximum power density of 10,875 W kg−1 at 15 Wh kg−1, which clearly outperforms pristine AC-based supercapacitors. This synergistic treatment strategy provides an effective way to improve the rate performance and power density of AC-based supercapacitors.
      PubDate: 2023-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s42768-023-00155-1
       
  • The acceleration degradation processes of different aged refuses with the
           forced aeration for landfill reclamation

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      Abstract: Abstract Forced aeration is one of the promising ways to accelerate landfill reclamation, and understanding the relation between aeration rates and waste properties is the prerequisite to implementing forced aeration under the target of energy saving and carbon reduction. In this work, landfill reclamation processes with forced aeration were simulated using aged refuses (ARs) of 1, 4, 7, 10, and 13 disposal years, and the potential of field application was also investigated based on a field project, to identify the degradation rate of organic components, the O2 consumption efficiency and their correlations to microbes. It was found that the removal rate of organic matter declined from 20.3% (AR1) to 12.6% (AR13), and that biodegradable matter (BDM) decreased from 5.2% to 2.4% at the set aeration rate of 0.12 L O2/kg waste (Dry Matter, DM)/day. A linear relationship between the degradation rate constant (K) of BDM and disposal age (x) was established: K = − 0.0002193x + 0.0091 (R2 = 0.854), suggesting that BDM might be a suitable indicator to reflect the stabilization of ARs. The cellulose/lignin ratio decrease rate for AR1 (18.3%) was much higher than that for AR13 (3.1%), while the corresponding humic-acid/fulvic-acid ratio increased from 1.44 to 2.16. The dominant bacteria shifted from Corynebacterium (9.2%), Acinetobacter (6.6%), and Fermentimonas (6.5%), genes related to the decompose of biodegradable organics, to Stenotrophomonas (10.2%) and Clostridiales (3.7%), which were associated with humification. The aeration efficiencies of lab-scale tests were in the range of 5.4–11.8 g BDM/L O2 for ARs with disposal ages of 1–13 years, and in situ landfill reclamation, ARs with disposal ages of 10–18 years were around 1.9–8.8 g BDM/L O2, as the disposal age decreased. The increased discrepancy was observed in ARs at the lab-scale and field scale, indicating that the forced aeration rate should be adjusted based on ARs and the unit compartment combined, to reduce the operation cost.
      PubDate: 2023-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s42768-023-00156-0
       
  • Pyrolytic gas analysis and evaluation from thermal plasma pyrolysis of
           simulated oil-based drill cuttings

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      Abstract: Oil-based drill cuttings (OBDCs) are hazardous wastes generated during shale gas exploration, and the rapid, efficient and safe disposal methods for OBDCs have attracted the attention of many researchers. Plasma pyrolysis technology is widely used in solid waste treatment due to its extremely high temperature and reaction activity. A laboratory-scale thermal plasma pyrolysis system was built to investigate the plasma pyrolysis mechanism of simulated OBDCs. The thermal decomposition characteristics of OBDCs were studied by thermogravimetric-derivative thermo gravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DTG-DSC) analysis in the range of 50–1300 °C. The thermal decomposition process of OBDCs was divided into the following four stages: evaporation of water and light oil, evaporation and decomposition of heavy oil, carbonate decomposition, and phase change reaction from solid to liquid. The effects of the oil ratio, water content, and water/oil (W/O) ratio of OBDCs on the composition and gas selectivity of pyrolytic gas were investigated. The results show that thermal plasma can crack the mineral oil in the OBDCs into clean gases such as H2, CO and C2H2, while water can promote the decomposition of the heavy oil molecules and enhance the H2 production. The energy consumption model calculation for the pyrolysis and melting of OBDCs shows that the highest energy utilization and the lowest molar energy consumption of H2 were achieved at a W/O ratio of 1:4. Based on the thermal plasma pyrolysis system used in this study, the commercial application prospects and economic benefits of the plasma pyrolysis of OBDCs were discussed. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s42768-023-00153-3
       
  • Plasma cascaded solid wastes for possible adsorption of NO2 in diesel
           exhaust

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      Abstract: Abstract Extensive use of fossil fuel has led to an increase in solid and gaseous particulates in the environment, which in turn necessitated newer, effective, and economical control strategies to abate pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. In the current research work, focus has been placed on utilizing industry wastes to adsorb nitrogen oxides present in diesel engine exhaust, which is pre-treated by plasma. Sampled exhaust from a 5 kW diesel generator is exposed to discharge plasma where the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide occurs, which is then made to flow through another reactor filled with industry wastes drawn from agriculture, foundry, utility, marine industry, etc., comprising mulberry waste, rice husk, wheat husk, areca nut husk, sugarcane bagasse, coffee husk, foundry sand, lignite ash, red mud, and oyster shells. While the adsorption of nitrogen dioxide was observed in all the wastes, reduction of nitric oxide was observed in metallic compound-based industry wastes. At about 184 J/L, specific energy plasma cascaded industrial waste red mud yielded 98% NOx removal efficiency, and that with agriculture rice husk waste yielded 53% NOx removal. TiO2/Fe2O3 present in industry wastes might have exhibited photo-catalysis in visible light resulting in the possible reduction of NO. A new pathway for recycling the waste can be expected through nitrogen dioxide adsorption, and the results are further discussed with respect to plasma-alone and cascaded plasma adsorbent systems.
      PubDate: 2023-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s42768-023-00158-y
       
 
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