Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

Showing 1 - 17 of 17 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Recycling & Waste Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Waste Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
npj Clean Water     Open Access  
Open Waste Management Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Waste Disposal & Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Water-Energy Nexus     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Worldwide Waste : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Exposure and Health
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2451-9766 - ISSN (Online) 2451-9685
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Occurrence and Exposure Assessment of Bisphenol Analogues Through
           Different Types of Drinking Water in Korea

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      Abstract: Presence of endocrine disruptors in drinking water is a public and global concern. Bisphenol A (BPA) has been primarily used for polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Due to domestic and global regulations on BPA, other bisphenol analogues (BPs) have been introduced as alternatives. Despite this, few studies have been conducted for human health risks of BPA and their alternatives, such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), through the consumption of drinking water. The present study aimed to determine seven BPs in three types of drinking water (tap water, purified water, and bottled water) to assess the occurrence, regional differences, source tracking, and potential health risks of BPs. BPA and BPF were detectable in almost all drinking water samples. The BPA concentration in tap water was significantly higher than that observed in purified water, whereas the BPF concentration in purified water was higher than those observed in tap water and bottled water. This result provides a wake-up call to improve the safety of purified water for emerging contaminants, such as BPF. The highest BP concentrations were observed for regions with intensive industrial activities and human populations. The concentration ratios of BPF/BPA in all tap water samples were greater than 1, indicating replacement of BPA with BPF in industrial markets. Boiling increased BPA and decreased BPF and BPS concentrations in tap water. The estimated daily intakes of BPA through consumption of drinking water for all age groups and scenarios (0.36–0.72 ng/kg bw/day) were lower than the tolerable daily intake (4.0 µg/kg bw/day) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority, implying a limited health risk. Toddlers were the highest exposure group for all BPs and scenarios. This is the first comprehensive survey of several BPs in different types of drinking water. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Trace Elements and Arsenic Speciation of Field and Market Rice Samples in
           contrasting Agro-climatic Zones in Sri Lanka

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      Abstract: Rice is a major source for micro-elements for the Sri Lankan population, across all agro-climatic zones. This current study was conducted to investigate the variation of the metal(loid)s and As speciation in rice grains collected from wet, intermediate and dry zones of Sri Lanka. Field rice (brown rice) and market rice (polished rice) samples were analysed for total elemental profile and As speciation using ICP-MS and IC-ICP-MS, respectively. As, Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn in field grain samples varied across climatic zones. Highest median Cd, Cu, Mo, P, Rb, Se and Zn from wet zone; Co, Fe, Mn from intermediate zone; and As and Sr from dry zone were reported. Field rice (As, 0.3%; Cd, 1%) and market rice (As, 0%; Cd, 3%) samples exceeded maximum permissible levels of As and Cd. However, higher concentrations of both fields, 18% samples for As and 21% samples for Cd, and market, 7% samples for As and 38% samples for Cd, rice exceeded the recommended permissible levels of As and Cd in infant food according to EU regulations. The high per capita consumption and the chronic exposure to As and Cd through rice may cause adverse effects on Sri Lankan children and adults.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Integration of Heavy Metal Pollution Indices and Health Risk Assessment of
           Groundwater in Semi-arid Coastal Aquifers, South Africa

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      Abstract: The heavy metal contaminated groundwater results in serious health issues and hence this study attempts to address its sources of contamination using integrated techniques including indexed and statistical methods and its related health hazards. Groundwater pH varied from 5.3 to 8.3 indicating acidic to alkaline in nature. The heavy metal pollution index shows that the groundwater samples vary from low to high pollution class and 21% of the samples exceed the critical limit of 100 implying that they are highly polluted with respect to heavy metals and are unfit for human consumption. The heavy metal evaluation index reveals that all the groundwater samples fall under low pollution. The synthetic pollution index reveals that 2%, 74% and 24% of the samples are suitable, slightly and moderately polluted, respectively, with heavy metals. The water quality index reveals that 19% and 2% of the groundwater samples belong to the poor and very poor water quality category and are spatially situated on the central, northern and southern parts of the study region. Correlation matrix and principal component analysis revealed that weathering of aquifer matrix and anthropogenic activities are accountable for the release of heavy metals into groundwater. Furthermore, R-mode and Q-mode cluster analysis revealed two clusters that are linked to mixed sources including weathering and anthropogenic activities. Based on the hazard quotient, the order of heavy metal impact is Co>Pb>Cd>Zn>As>Mn>Cu>Cr>Fe>Ni for both children and adults. The hazard index values varied from 0.06 to 8.16 for children and from 0.02 to 2.14 for adults. In this study, it is discovered that 43% and 26% of groundwater samples pose a non-carcinogenic health risk in children and adults, respectively. This study highly recommends treatment of contaminated groundwater before consumption in order to protect and maintain public health. The results from this study can be useful for the local municipalities and the policy makers while considering management and mitigation plan to maintain the water quality and to control its adverse effect on human health.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater Aquifers and Associated Health
           Hazard Risk Mapping Using Ensemble Data Driven Model in a Water Scares
           Plateau Region of Eastern India

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      Abstract: Abstract Health hazard risk mapping (HHRM) is an important technique used to estimate the potential health risk of an individual, a group, or an entire community of a region. To further progress this work, 67 samples were collected through field investigation in the dry season i.e., from March to early June of 2021 from different parts of hardy rock dominated Purulia district. In this study, 14-health hazard causative factors were considered such as Depth (m), pH, EC (μS/cm), HCO3 (mg/L), As (μg/l), Ca2+ (mg/L), Cl− (mg/L), F− (mg/L), K+ (mg/L), Mg2+ (mg/L), Na+ (mg/L), NO3 (mg/L), PO42−(mg/L), SO42− (mg/L). All of these parameters are selected using multi-collinearity and Pearson’s correlation test. Furthermore, three important machine learning algorithms namely bagging, random forest (RF), and an ensemble of bagging and RF were employed to assess the HHRM. The outcome of the learning models were evaluated by statistical validating methods such as AUC-ROC, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, F-score, kappa, and Taylor diagram. The result of validating techniques ensure that ensemble technique is more reliable in training (AUCROC-0.934, sensitivity-0.917, specificity-0.925, accuracy-0.921, precision-0.925, F-score-0.922 and kappa-0.851) and validating dataset (AUCROC-0.911, sensitivity-0.904, specificity-0.905, accuracy-0.902, precision-0.907, F-score-0.907 and kappa-0.819) with Taylor diagram (r = 0.94) followed by bagging and RF. The produced result shows the central part of the study area especially the districts of Bagmundi, Balarampur, Arsha, Purulia I and II, Raghunathpur are significantly susceptible to the health hazard due to poor water quality that covers around 15% of the total area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
       
  • Medical Geology and Medical Geochemistry: An Editorial Introduction

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      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
  • Human Exposure Assessment of Mixed Metal/Loids at and Near Mega-Scale Open
           Beaching Shipwrecking Activities in Bangladesh

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      Abstract: Abstract Pollution from shipwrecking is growing into a major occupational and environmental health concern worldwide, especially in the lower-middle-income countries where workers and residents may be exposed to potentially high levels of dispersed metal/loids due to decades of improper waste disposal. This study is the first to report the urinary biomarkers estimating the exposure of metal/loids and associated significant determinants in residents working and/or living at and near a major open beaching shipwrecking yard in Bangladesh. The concentrations of 17 elements were measured in urine and drinking water samples (125 each) using a validated ICP-MS method. Hydration variations of urine were best adjusted by specific gravity. Significantly higher (p < 0.001) urinary metal/loids load including cadmium and molybdenum in the occupational (70–80% of shipwrecking workers) and environmental exposure groups (72–75% of the local population) compared to the control site and international reference values suggest a significant health threat. Gender and age effects on the variation of urinary metal/loid concentrations were insignificant. However, fertilizer/pesticide users had higher nickel concentrations. Quantile regression analyses suggested the impacted locations with shipwrecking activities are significant predictors of exposure. The participants from the shipwrecking yards and the adjoining east, north, and south sites experienced significant exposure to metal/loids, which may be largely governed by wind-associated dispersion of contaminants. Water metal/loid concentrations were lower than the guideline values set by WHO and Bangladesh except for manganese in 63% of water samples. However, the elevated urinary concentrations of cadmium and thallium were significantly correlated to their concentration in water. This biomonitoring approach could be used as a background study to facilitate a more detailed exposure and health risk assessment to inform a management strategy for residents exposed to contaminated environmental matrices and dietary sources.
      PubDate: 2022-04-16
       
  • Non-carcinogenic Health Outcomes Associated with Polycyclic Aromatic
           Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Exposure in Humans: An Umbrella Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected as human carcinogens and have been associated with various types of cancer. However, less is known for their non-carcinogenic health effects and available evidence is often inconsistent. We conducted this umbrella review to synthesize the findings of selected eligible reviews on the non-carcinogenic health outcomes associated with PAH exposures in human populations. PubMed and Scopus were searched to identify eligible reviews according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria developed a priori. Following the quality assessment of each identified review, their findings were categorized by the type of the health outcomes and synthesized. A total of 29 review papers were determined eligible for this study, and these included 4 meta-analysis papers, 7 systematic reviews, 16 literature reviews, and 2 scoping reviews. Key non-carcinogenic health outcomes of humans associated with PAH exposure could be grouped as neurodevelopment, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), reproduction related effects, and endocrine outcomes. Overall, the selected reviews supported the associations of PAH exposure with lowered IQ, impaired cognitive development, decreased pulmonary function, hypertension, preterm birth, and delayed fetal growth. However, association was either null or inconsistent for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), behavioral problems, asthma, and hypertension (only in occupational setting). For other health effects such as some respiratory diseases (bronchitis, allergic reactions), CVDs (myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, heart rate variation, cardiac autonomic dysfunction), obesity, and infertility, only least amount of information is available, and more evidence are warranted. Several challenges were identified: many primary studies were based on the exposure to mixtures with other chemical groups and hence did not represent the outcomes associated with PAHs alone. Moreover, exposure assessment based on biomonitoring data failed to include many PAHs that have been frequently found in food and other major sources. Therefore, exposure is likely to be underestimated and the conclusion could be biased. This definitive, comprehensive analysis of the reported evidence showed clear associations of PAHs with some adverse reproduction and neurodevelopmental outcomes in humans. Knowledge gaps in exposure assessment, e.g., difficulties in interpreting mixture exposure and limited coverage of biomonitoring data, were identified and should be considered for design and interpretation of the association studies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
       
  • A High Concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Umbilical Cord
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have detrimental effects on human health. Embryos are particularly susceptible to environmental insults such as PAHs. We examined the association between prenatal exposure to PAHs and the risk for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). A case–control study was conducted with 119 NTD cases and 119 controls. A total of 16 PAHs in umbilical cord tissue, determined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, were used as in utero exposure markers. Logistic regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were performed to evaluate the individual and overall effects of PAH exposure on the risk for NTDs, respectively. Median concentrations of 10 PAHs were significantly higher in cases than in controls. In logistic regression, concentrations of four PAHs above the median of all participants were significantly associated with an increased NTD risk, even when potential covariates were adjusted for: phenanthrene, 2.35-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–5.34); fluoranthene, 2.37-fold (95% CI 1.02–5.48); pyrene, 2.41-fold (95% CI 1.04–5.62); and benzo(b)fluoranthene, 2.95-fold (95% CI 1.27–6.86). In BKMR, although the risk for NTD was increased with PAH concentrations above the 50th percentile, it was only when PAH concentrations exceeded the 65th percentile, the association between PAH concentration and risk for NTDs became statistically significant, while no statistical association between a single compound and NTD risk was observed when the remaining nine PAHs were taken into consideration simultaneously. The use of an indoor stove for heating and use of coal or wood for cooking were positively correlated with PAH levels in cord tissue. In conclusion, these results show that prenatal PAH exposure may be a risk factor for NTDs in offspring.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
       
  • Associations Between Essential Elements in Fingernails and Bone Quality in
           Populations Exposed to Chronic Fluoride in Drinking Water

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      Abstract: Abstract Many essential/beneficial elements including Ca, Mg, Sr, B, and F− play an important role in bone health. While elevated levels of F− are known to cause adverse health effects on bone, variations of these elements in nails that can be influenced by F− toxicity are unclear. This study aims to assess the relationship between the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Sr, and B in fingernails and bone quality of F−exposed individuals in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Bone quality was determined using an ultrasonic method that measures the magnitude of speed of sound (SOS) conduction in cortical bones. We collected fingernails of individuals aged 10 to 70 years old (144 males and 123 females) in 25 communities drinking water from wells with F− concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 15.5 mg/L (mean 7 ± 4.7 mg/L). Fluoride concentrations in drinking water were measured using the ion selective electrode (ISE) method. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Sr, and B in fingernails were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mean Ca, Mg, Sr, and B concentrations (mg/kg) in fingernails were 740 ± 425, 98 ± 89, 1.33 ± 1.6, and 0.63 ± 1.2, respectively. Each element was categorized by F− concentrations (mg/L) in drinking water as groups: 1 (< 2), 2 (> 2–6), 3 (> 6–10), and 4 (> 10–15.5). The mean concentrations of these elements in fingernails increased with the increase in F− concentrations in drinking water, and significant differences were observed in the means of groups 1 and 4 for all elements, group 2 for Sr, and group 3 for B. The correlation trends for SOS measurements with these elements in fingernails at different age groups decrease with high F− exposure and the negative associations are more pronounced at older (51–70) ages. These associations suggest F−related bone deterioration in the studied subjects, which is noticeable with the increase in age. The study demonstrates the effect of F− exposure on bone quality, and the studied fingernail elemental variations in populations chronically exposed to F− in drinking water.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
       
  • Integrated Geochemical and Mineralogical Investigation of Soil from the
           Volcanic Fogo Island (Cape Verde): Implications for Ecological and
           Probabilistic Human Health Risks

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      Abstract: Abstract Volcanic regions are associated with increased environmental and human health risks due to elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Fogo Island, Cape Verde, experienced recent volcanic eruptions, which raised the questions around the potential for local soils to pose such risks. In order to better understand the relationships between local mineralogy and geochemistry, and environmental and probabilistic human health risks, we (i) present the distribution of selected PTEs based on 136 soil samples, (ii) determine major associations between minerals and geological units based on a principal component analysis, (iii) calculate the potential ecological risk index and potential ecological risk and (iv) model human health risks based Monte Carlo simulations. The soils overlaying the older units yield higher contents of secondary minerals, with relative enrichment is some PTEs. The soils covering more recent units are enriched with primary minerals and show elevated concentrations of Pb. The results show that (i) As, Pb, Cd and Hg pose considerable to very high ecological risks, (ii) metal(oid)s are unlikely to cause a non-carcinogenic health risk, although As may pose a cancer risk for children. This research also provides health and environmental authorities with a toll to manage such risks.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
       
  • To Waste or Not to Waste: Questioning Potential Health Risks of Micro- and
           Nanoplastics with a Focus on Their Ingestion and Potential Carcinogenicity
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) are recognized as emerging contaminants, especially in food, with unknown health significance. MNPs passing through the gastrointestinal tract have been brought in context with disruption of the gut microbiome. Several molecular mechanisms have been described to facilitate tissue uptake of MNPs, which then are involved in local inflammatory and immune responses. Furthermore, MNPs can act as potential transporters (“vectors”) of contaminants and as chemosensitizers for toxic substances (“Trojan Horse effect”). In this review, we summarize current multidisciplinary knowledge of ingested MNPs and their potential adverse health effects. We discuss new insights into analytical and molecular modeling tools to help us better understand the local deposition and uptake of MNPs that might drive carcinogenic signaling. We present bioethical insights to basically re-consider the “culture of consumerism.” Finally, we map out prominent research questions in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
       
  • Exposure to Bisphenol A, S, and F and its Association with Obesity and
           Diabetes Mellitus in General Adults of Korea: Korean National
           Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2015–2017

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      Abstract: Abstract Health concerns on bisphenol A (BPA) have led to the increasing use of its substitutes, such as bisphenol S (BPS) and F (BPF), worldwide. While association of BPA with obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently reported, those of BPS and BPF are not well understood. We employed an adult population (n = 3780) participating in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2015–2017 (Cycle 3), and assessed the associations of urinary BPA, BPS, and BPF concentrations with obesity, DM, and metabolic parameters. The detection frequencies of BPA, BPS, and BPF in the urine of the adult population were 99.8%, 55.2%, and 44.1%, respectively. Survey-weighted geometric means (geometric standard errors) were 1.180 (1.058), 0.032 (1.045), and 0.111 (1.043) μg/L, respectively. After adjusting for relevant covariates, a unit increase of the covariates-standardized urinary BPA level (1 μg/L) was associated with the increase of BMI by 1.28 kg/m2 (95% CI 1.15–1.45) in the current population. Among the participants with detectable levels of urinary BPS, the odds of a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 increased as the BPS tertile increased (p = 0.048). For DM, urinary BPA level showed a borderline significance (p for trend = 0.049). Among the participants with concentrations above LOD, BPS in the highest tertile also showed significantly elevated DM odds (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.29–3.50, p = 0.003) compared to the lowest tertile. For BPF, however, association with DM was not observed. In addition, BPA levels were positively associated with serum triglyceride levels (β = 0.02, p = 0.049), and BPS levels with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (β = 0.80, p = 0.015). Our observation on a representative adult population of Korea supports significant association of BPA with obesity, and to lesser extent with DM. Moreover, urinary BPS levels are associated with obesity and DM among the participants with the concentrations above LOD. As the use of alternative bisphenols is expected to rise, further studies are warranted to confirm these observations.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
       
  • Phthalate Mixture Exposure is Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure in
           Chinese Children: A Panel Study

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      Abstract: Abstract There is unclearly epidemiological evidence regarding relations of phthalates (PAEs) with children’s blood pressure (BP) and its potential mechanism. We designed a panel study with up to 3 repeated visits over 3 seasons. Total of 103 children aged 4–13 years were available with 287 measurements of urinary PAEs metabolites (mPAEs), BP and serum cytokines. We evaluated associations of mPAEs, either as individual or as mixture, with systolic/diastolic BP (SBP/DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and hypertension, and in which the role of serum cytokines played. After multiple comparisons, positive associations of mono-iso-butyl phthalate with SBP, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) with DBP, MEP with MAP were the most robust (P-FDR < 0.05), while a marginal relation of MECPP and hypertension was also observed (P-FDR = 0.07). Such relationships showed in a dose–response manner and were stronger in children with dyslipidemia. Meanwhile, weighted quantile sum regression analyses indicated the associations of mPAEs mixture with DBP and MAP elevation, which were dominated by MEP, MECPP and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP). Furthermore, BP-related mPAEs were positively linked with multiple cytokines, however, only PDGF, IL-16 respectively mediated 7.76% and 12.23% in MEP-related MAP elevation. Accordingly, urinary PAEs were dose-responsive related to elevated BP and risk of hypertension with the highest weight in MEP, MECPP and MEHHP, in which PDGF, IL-16 might be partly involved among children.
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12403-022-00471-7
       
  • Small Polymeric Toys Placed in Child-Dedicated Chocolate Food
           Products—Do They Contain Harmful Chemicals' Examination of Quality
           by Example of Selected VOCs and SVOCs

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      Abstract: Abstract This study was focused on child-dedicated chocolate food products that contain a plastic package with a small toy inside (also known as chocolate eggs). Three types of these products that are commercially available on the Polish market, with different prices, chocolate composition, and main types of polymers used in the toy manufacturing process, were investigated. The polymers were identified using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis and emissions of selected toxic volatile organic compounds of toy and packaging samples were identified using stationary emission micro-chamber. Total volatile organic compounds emissions were also estimated. Moreover, the content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as bioaccumulative semi-volatile organic compounds was checked in all parts of the cheapest product. The highest PBDE concentrations, which ranged from 5.32 ± 0.79 to 1768 ± 289 ng/g, were recorded in chocolate samples. This demonstrates the need for consumer knowledge on the safety of such products available on the Polish market to be broadened. This is one of the many examples of studies showing that products sold on the European market do not always comply with the Conformité Européenne (CE) declaration of conformity. Furthermore, the presence of phased-out PBDEs in toys may provide evidence of wrong recycling practices. Forward-looking considerations showed that, based on assessments of the hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk of BDE-209 and assuming each child has contact with one toy and eats one of the studied chocolate products per day, there is no high risk associated with the exposure of children to PBDEs.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12403-021-00428-2
       
  • Content of Selenium and Other Elements, Water Quality, Health Risks and
           Utilization Prospect in Natural Water of Southern Qinling-Daba Mountains,
           Southern Shaanxi, China

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      Abstract: Abstract The selenium (Se) poisoning, arsenic (As) poisoning and fluorine (F) poisoning have occurred in some areas of Ankang city in South Qinling Mountains which belong to the Eastern Qinling-Kunlun tectonic belt. In order to study the content of Se and other elements, water quality, health risks and utilization prospect in natural water of the Southern Qinling-Daba mountains, 77 natural water samples in Langao County, Ankang City, Shaanxi in South Qinling-Daba area. Additional 36 water samples from other major tectonic units in China were collected and analyzed with element contents for comparison. The results showed that the average concentration of Se (0.03–41.19 μg/L) in natural water is 7.93 μg/L (World is 0.2 µg/L), which have abundant natural Se-rich water resources. The hydrochemical type of natural water in Langao County of the Southern Qinling-Daba Mountain is mainly Ca–HCO3−, and the water chemical composition is mainly controlled by carbonate rocks weathering. Higher concentration of Se, Mo and Cd of fissure water sample in Langao County, might be affected by Se-rich geological background, water–rock interaction, and less affected by environmental factors. The natural water in Langao County has a relatively low impact on human health and fissure water quality was good. The natural water in Langao County of South Qinling-Daba Mountain is pure and contains high contents of beneficial elements (especially Se and Sr), and this area has potential value for high-quality Se-type and Sr-type mineral water development. The study results are beneficial for water resources management in the mountainous area, and as a reference for relevant studies in other regions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12403-021-00416-6
       
  • Co-exposure to Heavy Metals and Hypertension Among Adults in South Korea

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      Abstract: Abstract The effect of exposure to metal mixtures on blood pressure or hypertension is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between blood concentrations of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd), and blood pressure and the risk of hypertension among adults in South Korea. A nationwide population-based study was conducted using data from 10,566 participants aged 19 years and older collected in the 2010–2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for hypertension after adjustment for potential confounders. Weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression models were used to evaluate the association between blood concentrations of metal mixture and the risk of hypertension. Higher blood concentrations of Pb, Hg, or Cd were associated positively with increasing levels of blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension (p for trend < 0.001). The increase in blood Pb concentration significantly increased the risk of hypertension. However, the correlation between blood Hg or Cd and the risk of hypertension showed different results depending on the adjustment of the covariates, including the concentration of metals concomitantly exposed to or the inclusion of subjects with a family history of hypertension. In the WQS regression analysis, the WQS index, wherein Pb was the most predominant, was found to be significantly and positively associated with hypertension. The findings of this study suggest that co-exposure to these three metals may collectively increase the risk of hypertension in Korean adults.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12403-021-00423-7
       
  • Polystyrene and Polyethylene Microplastics Decrease Cell Viability and
           Dysregulate Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers of MDCK and L929
           Cells In Vitro

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      Abstract: Abstract Microplastics are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are a growing concern to many ecosystems, as well as human health. Many of the effects of microplastics on mammalian cells and tissues remain unknown. To address this, we treated L929 murine fibroblasts and Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell lines with 1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, or 20 μg/mL of polyethylene (PE) or polystyrene (PS) microspheres in vitro for 6 and 24 h and measured the resulting changes in cell viability, metabolism, and transcriptional expression of inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant enzymes. We observed dose-dependent decreases in cell viability corresponding to increases in doses of both PE and PS. We conducted cell metabolism assays and observed dose-dependent increases in metabolism per cell with increasing doses of both PE and PS. Similarly, we also observed increased expression of the superoxide dismutase-3 gene (SOD3), indicating oxidative stress caused by the microplastics treatments. We also observed increased expression of TNFα, but decreased expression of IFNβ, suggesting different mechanisms by which the microplastics regulate inflammatory responses in mammalian cells. Our results contribute new data to the growing understanding of the effects of microplastics on mammalian cells and indicate complex cellular stress responses to microplastics in the environment.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12403-021-00419-3
       
  • Human Exposure to Environmental Pollutants and Associations with
           Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Review

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      Abstract: Abstract The incidence rate of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is currently increasing within Canada as well as worldwide. Environmental pollutants are ubiquitous in the environment and can potentially increase an individual’s risk of developing NHL. The goal of this literature review was to identify environmental pollutants associated with diagnosis of NHL and summarize their current levels in human populations. Sixteen environmental pollutants were identified as having associations with NHL diagnosis, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), carbon tetrachloride, and various pesticides. PCB levels in human breast milk were highest in developed countries, while DDT levels were highest in malaria-endemic countries. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and glyphosate levels were highest in individuals who were occupationally exposed to these chemicals. Humans are mainly exposed to the identified pollutants through food. PCBs were found within animal products such as milk and cheese, and a variety of pesticides were found in various fruits and vegetables. Individuals who followed vegan and vegetarian diets had lower levels of non-pesticide pollutants in their body due to limited consumption of animal products but had higher pesticide levels due to increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, organic diets proved to mitigate this issue. Further research needs to be conducted on a wider variety of pollutants to gain a comprehensive understanding of the effects of these pollutants in association with NHL.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12403-021-00421-9
       
  • Impact of Volatile and Semi-volatile Organic Compounds from Farming
           Environments on Allergy-Related Cellular Processes

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      Abstract: Abstract Allergic diseases are an increasing global burden. Epidemiological and in vivo studies showed that farming environments could protect from allergic asthma. Studies explaining this protective effect mainly focused on the influence of chemical compounds in the molecular size range of proteins and endotoxins. Our study aimed at deciphering the possible role of small-sized semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) of farming aerosols in immunomodulation processes. Bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to aerosol extracts of particulate matter (PM2.5) from farming environments. These cell exposures revealed a decisive effect of the smaller sized fraction (< 3 kDa) compared to extracts including the larger sized fraction. We demonstrated that smaller compounds can induce regulations of inflammatory and allergy-related genes including interleukin-8, xanthine dehydrogenase and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Additionally, we performed a comprehensive chemical investigation of two typical farming aerosols (cow vs. sheep) by applying comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We were able to identify several SVOCs characteristic for the protective cow sheds environment including four key components. Cell exposure with the two farming extracts showed a distinct regulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase PELI2 gene and TLR2 by cow shed extracts. Finally, the regulation of TLR2 corresponded to the regulation that was observed after exposing cells to an artificial mixture of the four key components identified in the cow sheds. In summary, we were able to demonstrate the importance of smaller particle-bound SVOCs found in farming environments concerning their possible contribution to a protective farm effect.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12403-021-00429-1
       
  • Spatiotemporal Distributions of Fluoride and Arsenic in Rivers with the
           Role of Mining Industry and Related Human Health Risk Assessments in
           Kyrgyzstan

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      Abstract: Abstract To determine the spatiotemporal distributions of fluoride and arsenic in the rivers within the mining districts of Kyrgyzstan and health risks associated with the use of these rivers, a total of 169 water samples were collected from the main rivers and tributaries of Kyrgyzstan from 2016 to 2018. Through the cold and hot spot analysis, multivariate statistical analysis and health risk assessment model, the results indicated that the fluoride and arsenic concentrations in river waters increased year by year from 2016 to 2018. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines, 0%, 1.09% and 1.06% of the analyzed samples exceeded the limit for fluoride (1.5 mg/L), and 0%, 1.09% and 2.13% of the samples exceeded the limit for arsenic (10 µg/L) in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. The gathering areas for high fluoride concentrations were mainly distributed in the Issyk-Kul Basin, Chu River Valley and Fergana Basin, while high arsenic concentrations were mainly observed in the Chu River Valley and southern Fergana Basin. Although fluoride and arsenic were not found to exceed the limits simultaneously, the two pollutants accumulated high values in the southern Fergana Basin in 2018, which indicated the risk of joint poisoning. From 2016 to 2018, arsenic concentrations in the river water of Kyrgyzstan created a high risk of carcinogenesis by the ingestion intake exposure route, which resulted in the total risk of health hazards to children and adults caused by fluoride and arsenic to exceed the maximum acceptable ranges. Therefore, the national environmental protection department in Kyrgyzstan should strengthen the dynamic monitoring of arsenic concentration in the rivers, and related scientific research institutions should conduct more in-depth research on the migration and transformation process of pollutants, the toxic mechanism, and even the substantive countermeasures in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12403-021-00417-5
       
 
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