Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

POLLUTION (31 journals)

Showing 1 - 27 of 27 Journals sorted by number of followers
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Aerosol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy, Environment & Carbon Credits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Greenhouse Gases : Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Air Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Pengendalian Pencemaran Lingkungan     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Energy and Emission Control Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emerging Contaminants     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Pollution Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microplastics and Nanoplastics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Air Pollution and Health (رتبه علمی- پژوهشی)     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental     Open Access  
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research     Open Access  
Hidrobiológica     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Aerosol Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2510-375X - ISSN (Online) 2510-3768
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Trend Analysis for Different Types of Aerosols in Conjugation with
           Temperatures for the Indian Region During the Post-monsoon Season
           (1980–2019)

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      Abstract: Abstract This study has made an effort to understand the long-term changes of aerosol loadings as well as temperature in the post-monsoon season (October–November) over a long period of 40 years (1980–2019) for the Indian region using MERRA-2 reanalysis data. Special emphasis has been given on the highly populated and polluted cities of the country notably, Delhi, Mumbai, Kanpur, and Jaipur. The study focuses on the trends in total column optical depth for aerosols with specific reference to black carbon, organic carbon and sulphates. The rapid urbanisation and increasing population growth of the cities have brought tremendous amount of air pollution levels, and a substantial increase in aerosol optical depth levels, especially in the recent decades. The changes in temperature were analysed by studying the air temperature at 2 m height and the surface air temperature parameters. The long-term trend analysis of aerosols showed an increasing trend in rapid rise of the aerosol optical depth levels. Corresponding increase or decrease in temperature trends have been discussed.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Quantification of Aerosol Particle Radiative Forcing Under Cloud-Free
           Condition During Dry Season Period Over West Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract The significance of quantifying the interaction of other non-dust particles with solar radiation cannot be overemphasized. This paper presents the radiative forcing aerosol effects of some non-dust particles over four different climatic zones of West Africa. Aerosol radiative effects on solar radiation require accurate analysis of optical and radiative properties. Radiative forcing was determined by anthropogenic, dust, marine, and non-dust aerosols governed by their size distribution and concentration. A consistent increase in daily AOD values was observed with decreasing angstrom exponent. Results showed that high negative forcing was experienced in the Savanna and Guinea zones which can be attributed to the addition of black carbon and organic matter aerosols to the heavily deposited dust in the atmosphere. Non-dust and anthropogenic aerosols were found to be major contributors to the high atmospheric absorption. The result also shows that the observed variations in the aerosol properties indicate an increase in the surface cooling in the early days of February. Therefore, a larger quantity of anthropogenic and non-dust aerosols, apart from the predominant dust, could cause and boost the radiative forcing of aerosols over West Africa.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Indoor Air Quality in a Tertiary Institution: The Case of Federal College
           of Agriculture, Akure, Nigeria

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      Abstract: Abstract The Federal College of Agriculture in Akure, Nigeria, was the site of this study, which aimed to monitor indoor air quality (PM2.5 and PM10) and toxicity potential. The novelty of the study is: it is the first one in Africa to employ a cheap sensor called the Canāree A1 to measure the indoor air quality of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. The study offers baseline data for the next investigations and the formulation of policies regarding indoor air quality in Nigeria. Five distinct places were selected for the preliminary investigation, which lasted for 1 month. The protocols from the manufacturer were strictly followed. The findings revealed that while PM10 levels were 2.3–13.1 times greater than 2021 World Health Organization (WHO) standards, PM2.5 readings were 5.8–20.3 times higher. Additionally, it exceeded The National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) guidelines by 1.2–6.6 times for PM2.5 and 0.7–3.9 times for PM10, respectively. Other findings include the following: Toxicity Potential (TP) ranges from 5.28 to 33.14 for PM2.5 and 2.30–8.33 for PM10; Indoor air quality index (IAQIndex) ranges from 1.16 to 6.63 for PM2.5 and 0.69–3.91 for PM10; and PM size distribution is from 0.31 to 0.34 for PM1.0/PM2.5, 0.34–0.84 for PM2.5, and 0.25–0.34 for PM10, respectively. The findings indicated that the study’s study sites were contaminated, since the TP levels were higher than 1. An attempt should be made to lessen anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic activities’ indoors. It is crucial that all parties involved in environmental issues comprehend the causes, effects, and mitigations of climate change.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Prediction of Filtering Efficiency of an Air Filter Using Light Shading
           Rate

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      Abstract: Abstract There have been some studies on the theoretical formula for predicting the filtering efficiency of an air filter. However, accurate predictions remain challenging even today. Measurement of the filtering efficiency of an air filter requires multiple devices, including an air compressor, a particle generator, and a particle counter. Therefore, utilizing easily measurable performance parameters for prediction is advantageous as it eliminates the need for measuring equipment, resulting in significant cost reduction in manufacturing process for an air filter. This study focuses on the light shading rate (LSR) as a readily measurable parameter that potentially correlates with logarithm of penetration (− lnP). To predict the − lnP, an empirical formula using the LSR was attempted to be developed. Four types of test filters were produced using glass wool with different fiber diameters (df) as materials. The packing density (α), the thickness (T), the LSR, and the − lnP were measured and analyzed. In modeling the LSR, the number of fibers (Nf) for thickness direction was obtained by calculating the inter-fiber distance (Di) using the packing density and the fiber diameter. The LSR per fiber (LSR/Nf) was determined based on the number of fibers (Nf). The results of comparing calculated values with actual measurements showed a good fit. Additionally, an experimental formula was constructed to predict the − lnP based on the correlation between the LSR and the − lnP. The experimental formula for predicting the − lnP exhibited a high level of agreement. However, it should be noted that its effectiveness is limited to a certain range of fiber diameter, thickness, packing density, LSR, and transparent glass wool as the fiber material.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Time to Share Air Pollution Mitigation Experience with the Belt and
           Road Countries

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      Abstract: Abstract Global urban air quality and human health are under significant threat from air pollution. China, with its successful “Clean Air Act,” offers valuable expertise in mitigating air pollution over the past decade. The Belt and Road countries in the Indochina Peninsula confront severe air pollution from sources such as biomass burning. This pollution interacts with organic volatiles emitted from the Southeast Asian tropical forests, impacting the ecosystem and climate in the region. China is actively promoting the Belt and Road South-South Cooperation Initiative on climate change. The time has come for China to share its expertise in air pollution mitigation to the Belt and Road countries, with emphases on talent development, technical service export, and intergovernmental research cooperation. This initiative not only reduces cross-border air pollution transmission but also benefits local health in the broader Indochina region.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
       
  • Heterogeneous Nucleation of Vapor on Insoluble Particles Predicted by an
           Improved Classical Nucleation Theory

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      Abstract: Abstract The classical nucleation theory (CNT) plays an important role in the investigation of vapor heterogeneous nucleation on solid surfaces. However, the CNT relies on the macroscopic surface tension to describe the formation of a nano-sized embryo, which inevitably causes the model inaccuracy. In this study, an improved CNT is developed by integrating the microscopic surface tension as a function of the embryo size obtained using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to enhance the model accuracy. The important heterogeneous nucleation behaviors, including the Gibbs free energy of embryo formation, critical saturation ratio, and nucleation probability, are numerically investigated by the improved CNT. Compared with the CNT with the macroscopic surface tension, the improved CNT using the microscopic surface tension predicts lower Gibbs free energy of embryo formation, lower critical saturation ratio, and higher nucleation probability, particularly when the contact angle of the particle is large. The improved CNT proposed in this study is validated by comparing the numerically predicted critical saturation ratios for the heterogeneous nucleation of water vapor on planar surfaces and on nano- and micron-sized insoluble particles with the experimentally measured data published in literature.
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
       
  • Footprints of COVID-19 on PM2.5/PM10 Ratio in a Brazilian Tropical
           Metropolis

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      Abstract: Abstract PM2.5/PM10 ratio is a metric that is used both to determine the main origin of particulate matter and to evaluate the concentration of one component in the absence of monitoring for the other. However, further research is required to fully understand the relationship between this ratio, its components, and meteorological conditions in various scenarios. This study analyzed the effect of COVID-19 restrictions on the PM2.5/PM10 ratio in Recife, Brazil. The data showed that the PM2.5/PM10 ratio significantly decreased in 2020 due to the reduction in urban mobility and human activities. The strictest restrictions were maintained in the state until August and as soon as the first major loosening took place, the ratio began to approach typical pollution levels. The average daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios for 2020, 2021 and 2022 were 0.52 ± 0.08, 0.58 ± 0.03 and 0.58 ± 0.02, respectively, lower than those found in other metropolitan areas. During the phases of greater restrictions, the PM2.5/PM10 ratio had an average value of 0.48 ± 0.08 and as restrictions were lifted, it became 0.56 ± 0.03. The results showed that the reductions observed in 2020 were directly related to the decrease in anthropogenic emissions of PM2.5. A machine learning approach was used to estimate the expected PM2.5/PM10 ratio, corrected for the meteorological conditions and it was found that the observed ratios were lower than expected even in this scenario. Furthermore, only temperature and wind speed presented significant correlation to the PM2.5/PM10 ratio in both the scenarios with and without restriction of activities. Our study provides valuable insights into the efficacy of restriction measures in the Brazilian tropical and coastal metropolis of Recife and also highlight the intrinsic relation between the ratio and the local meteorological variables.
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
       
  • The Nexus Between Air Pollution and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey:
           Further Insights from Wavelet Coherence Analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract The nexus of the ambient air quality and the COVID-19 pandemic is a topic that has attracted much attention and remains of current interest. The study area of Turkey is one of the countries with high case numbers, but there is no detailed investigation dealing with it in the literature. For this reason, the correlation and links between COVID-19 cases and deaths in Turkey with the air pollutants of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, CO, NO2 and O3 were determined between 1 April and 31 July 2021 using the statistical methods of cross-correlation and wavelet coherence analysis. According to the findings, for the COVID-19 pandemic parameters, there were positive significant correlations with PM2.5, SO2, CO, and NO2 and an inverse significant correlation with O3. Although the wavelet transform is not convincing to suggest a standalone coherence, it reveals that air pollution and the spread and mortality of the pandemic in Turkey have short-term periods of co-movement. Additionally, it is notable that the national air quality improved during full lockdown periods in the country. The findings obtained in this study are expected to attract the attention of legislating and enforcing authorities and support more decisive steps being taken to reduce environmental pollutants and to control air pollution.
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
       
  • Mineralogical Characteristics and Sources of Coarse Mode Particulate
           Matter in Central Himalayas

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the morphological and mineralogical characteristics of coarse mode particulate matter (PM10) over the Central Himalayan region of India (Nainital: 29.39°N, 79.45°E, 1958 m above mean sea level). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX) techniques were employed for morphological and mineralogical analysis of PM10 collected from January to December 2019. XRD and FTIR techniques identify crystalline phases, revealing minerals such as illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, quartz, dolomite, calcite, magnetite, hematite, gypsum, halite, mascagnite, augite, albite, wollastonite, and calcium aluminium silicate hydrate (C-A-S=-H) in PM10 samples. SEM–EDX analysis confirms the presence of major elements i.e., Si, Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, S, Na, Ba, Ti, Zn, and Cl in PM10, indicating the diverse mineral formations. Elemental composition variations are observed, with Si, and Al being predominant. The minerals' elemental composition suggests geogenic sources (e.g., dust storms, rock weathering) for quartz, dolomite, albite, augite, etc., containing Al, Si, Na, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Meanwhile, illite, montmorillonite, mascagnite, hematite, calcium aluminium silicate, etc., with elements like Ca, Al, Si, Fe, K, Zn, Ti, Ba, S, and Cl, are linked to anthropogenic sources (e.g., demolition, construction, combustion, industrial and vehicular emissions). These findings contribute to a better understanding of air quality, environmental conditions, and potential health implications in the Central Himalayan region.
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
       
  • Indoor Air Pollution in Kenya

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      Abstract: Abstract Indoor air pollution is an environmental health challenge in Kenya, particularly in rural households, and low-income urban areas. This review aims to provide an overview of the sources, health effects and mitigation strategies for indoor air pollutants in Kenya. The main goal of our study was to review existing literature on indoor air pollution in Kenya with the aim of identifying research gaps for future research. Our methodology involved a critical examination of the existing literature review. This is because traditional fuel burning for cooking and heating, and kerosene lamps are major sources of indoor air pollution. Exposure to air pollutants can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular disease among women and children who are more vulnerable. Despite efforts to improve indoor air quality, significant challenges remain including access to clean fuels and technologies, inadequate infrastructure, and low awareness of health impact of indoor air pollution. Mitigation strategies include the transition to cleaner cooking sources, solar lamps for lighting and education campaigns on health impacts. The review concludes that a multifaceted approach involving various stakeholders is necessary to effectively address indoor air pollution in Kenya and improve public health.
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
       
  • Investigations on Aerosol and Particulate Matter Dynamics During
           2001–2021 Using Satellite, In Situ, and Reanalysis Datasets over the
           Mining-Dominated State Odisha, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Investigating the aerosols and particulate matter (PM) dynamics in mining and industrial-dominated regions holds profound significance for understanding air quality, environmental dynamics, and human health. The present study investigates aerosols and PM dynamics in the mining-dominated state Odisha, India. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) aerosol product was used to analyze the long-term (2001–2021) annual and seasonal trends using Theil–Sen's slope test. Before trend analysis, MODIS-based AOD was also evaluated with the ground-based observations in the opencast mine site. Furthermore, the multiple regression models were developed to estimate the seasonal spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) using MODIS-based AOD, ground-based PM, and reanalysis weather datasets. The key findings of the study showed that MODIS-based AOD was moderately correlated with ground-based AOD at daily (r = 0.42, p < 0.01) and monthly (r = 0.60, p < 0.1) time scale with considerable RMSE (0.29 and 0.19, respectively) and MAE (0.22 and 0.15, respectively). The long-term (2001 to 2021) AOD trends analysis exhibited a significantly increasing annual AOD trend (0.047 units/year) over the entire Odisha state. The seasonal trend analysis showed that winter (December–January–February) has the utmost increasing AOD trend (0.056 units/year), followed by the pre-monsoon (March–April–May) (0.055 units/year) and post-monsoon (September–October–November) (0.031 units/year). Besides, the multiple-regression-based models to estimate the seasonal mean spatial distributions of PM2.5 and PM10 were statistically significant (p < 0.1) only for winter. The accuracy of the derived map for PM2.5 estimation was relatively better than the PM10 with low RMSE (16.28 µg/m3) and MAE (13.71 µg/m3) values compared to CPCB-based observations. The study's findings contribute to our understanding of regional aerosol and PM dynamics, with potential implications for policy and air quality management in mining and industrial-dominated regions.
      PubDate: 2024-02-03
       
  • Mist Generation Behavior in Ultrasonic Atomizer for Aerosol Jet®
           Printing

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      Abstract: Abstract Continuous ultrasonic atomization in a closed chamber is expected to generate a mist with an equilibrium droplet concentration and size distribution. Such a mist of microdroplets with controllable mist density has been used for Aerosol Jet® printing in the fabrication of a variety of additively manufactured microscale devices. Despite many unique capabilities demonstrated with the Aerosol Jet® printing technology, its ultrasonic atomization behavior appears to be rather sensitive to the ink properties with gaps in our understanding of the fundamental physics underlying its operation. In this work, we investigate some basic mechanisms in the Aerosol Jet® ultrasonic atomizer with a lumped-parameter kinetic coagulation model for highly concentrated mist. To mitigate the difficulty with unavailable knowledge about the complex turbulent flow inside the atomizer chamber, we present results for several orders of magnitude of the turbulent energy dissipation rates to examine a range of possibilities. The same approach is taken for analyzing the scavenging effect of the swirling bulk liquid. Our results also demonstrate the theoretical possibility for achieving a mist saturation condition where the mist output from the atomizer can become insensitive to process variables. As observed in experiments, such a saturated mist is highly desirable for Aerosol Jet® printing with maximized and well-controlled throughput in additive manufacturing.
      PubDate: 2024-01-09
       
  • Quantifying the Effects of the National Clean Air Programme on Air Quality
           Parameters in Chandigarh: A Scientific Assessment

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      Abstract: Abstract Air pollution is a pressing contemporary concern, particularly in urban areas. While various strategies have been deployed to address this issue, the implementation of sector-specific measures has emerged as a pivotal approach. The National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) is a notable initiative designed to mitigate air pollution, with a specific goal of reducing Particulate Matter (PM) pollution by 20–30% by the year 2024 revised as 40% reduction by 2026. This study delves into the nuanced impact of the NCAP on the air quality characteristics of Chandigarh, focusing on the period between 2021 and 2022. Analysis reveals that concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and CO exhibited an increase in 2022 compared to 2021. However, the rate of this increase has been constrained due to the targeted implementation of sector-specific actions outlined in the NCAP. These measures encompassed a subsidy scheme for Battery-Operated Vehicles, stringent enforcement of Pollution Under Control Certificates for all vehicles, augmenting the city's green cover, establishing cycle tracks, and promoting their use to reduce emissions from slow-moving vehicular traffic. Nevertheless, the city faces a recurring challenge in the form of stubble burning from neighboring areas, which significantly escalates pollutant concentrations during the winter season, exacerbated by atmospheric stability conditions. In response to these findings, this study proposes micro-level action points designed to enhance the effectiveness of efforts to mitigate PM10 pollution and other pollutants. These recommendations aim to supplement existing strategies, contributing to a more comprehensive approach to address air quality issues in Chandigarh.
      PubDate: 2023-12-16
       
  • To Detect Aerosols Optical Depth (AOD) Local Hotspot Region:
           Spatiotemporal Characteristics over Indian Regions

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      Abstract: Abstract India’s geographic and climatic characteristics make it a key region for the description of atmospheric aerosol optical properties around the globe. Spatiotemporal variations of Aerosol’s Optical Depth (AOD) are significant in understanding aerosols’ characteristics. The study’s primary focus is to show the variation of MODIS AOD along with the Dust Column mass density over the selected study regions. MODIS AOD at 550 nm of five major significant regions from India was selected using aerosol products from January 2001 to December 2020. To evaluate the optical properties of aerosols, satellite-based measurements offer greater geographical and temporal coverage due to the dearth of ground observations across the entirety of India, particularly over the Eastern region. The present study also compares dust column mass density obtained from the MERRA-2 database monthly averages for five major regions in India. Results show that the highest annual mean AOD is observed in the eastern Indian region (especially the IGB region), possibly due to air mass from the Thar desert. At the same time, values in other parts of the country are much lower. The eastern Indian region has indeed been identified as a local hot spot for aerosols, significantly affecting the local area’s air quality. Although, from April to August, the AOD levels are much more significant, when dust occurrences are more frequent throughout Southwest India, high AOD over the eastern Indian region is significantly associated with frequent dust outbursts throughout the year. Peak AOD (~ 0.6 to 0.7) values have been observed in other largely urbanized areas between mid-winter and mid-spring as a result of high aerosol emissions from fossil fuel burning coupled with thin atmospheric boundary-layer depths, which result in the development of a rigorous mass of aerosols near the surface. However, the AOD (~ 0.2) least observed from August to November shows a relatively higher value due to the MODIS algorithm not working correctly during the monsoon period. Average AOD over India shows increasing trends in 2016 (~ 1.2) for the eastern region and decreasing trends in 2003 (~ 0.2–0.4) throughout the study period.
      PubDate: 2023-12-11
       
  • Estimation of Particle Emission Rates and Calculation of Human Dose from
           Arc Welding and Cutting of Stainless Steel in a Simulated Confined
           Workspace

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to estimate the particle emission rates, human dose and retention from two arc welding processes and cutting of stainless steel. The two arc welding processes were Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG). In a simulated confined workspace of experimental chamber under controlled conditions, four different scenarios were considered, including the use of filtering face piece respirator (FFR), leaving or staying in the workspace after the emission. Deposited and retained dose in the respiratory tract was assessed for the different regions of the human respiratory tract using a dosimetry model (ExDoM2). The three investigated processes generated high particle number concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 3.6 × 106 particles/cm3 and were the highest during TIG. Among all three processes, PM10 concentrations from cutting reached the highest levels [11 and 22 (× 103) μg/m3], while SMAW had the highest contribution of fine particles [~ 4.1 (× 103) μg/m3], consisting mostly of PM1–2.5. The examination of different scenarios revealed that there is only a slight difference in respect to deposited dose while staying in the workspace for the entire investigated time period (4 h) with or without use of Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR). It would be more beneficial in respect to deposited dose if the exposed subject was not wearing a FFR during the emission process and would leave the polluted workspace immediately after the emission period. In the first two scenarios (staying 4 h in the polluted workspace with and without FFR), both welding processes had higher cumulative deposited (~ 23%) and retained dose (~ 20%) in thoracic region compared to cutting (~ 9% and ~ 7%). These results demonstrate that even a short emission period can cause a considerable increase in concentrations of harmful respirable particles, thus increasing the human dose. The approach applied in this study could be used for the determination of personal exposure and dose to particles of known composition particularly in confined workspaces.
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-023-00192-7
       
  • Investigation of the Artificial Saliva and Saline Droplet Size Measurement
           Accuracy for COVID-19 Infection Control

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      Abstract: Abstract The size of human speech or cough droplets decides their air-borne transport distance, life span and virus infection risk. We have investigated the measurement accuracy of artificial saliva and saline droplet size for more effective COVID-19 infection control. A spray generator was used for polydisperse droplet generation and a special test chamber was designed for droplet measurement. Saline and artificial saliva were gravimetrically prepared and used to generate droplets. The droplet spray generator and the test chamber were circulated among four metrology institutes (NMC, CMS/ITRI, NIM and KRISS) for droplet size measurement and evaluation of deviations. The composition of artificial saliva was determined by measuring the mass fraction of the inorganic ions. The density of dried artificial saliva droplets was estimated using its composition and the density of each non-volatile component. The volume equivalent diameter (VED) of droplets have been measured by aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and optical particle size spectrometer (OPSS). As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, this is the first time that a comparative study among four metrology institutes has been conducted to evaluate the accuracy of saliva and saline droplet size measurement. For artificial saliva droplets measured by OPSS, the deviations from the reference VED (~ 4 μm) were below 5.3%. For saline droplets measured by APS, the deviations from the reference VED were below 10.0%. The potential droplet size measurement errors have been discussed. This work underscores the need for new reference size standards to improve the accuracy and establish traceability in saliva and saline droplet size measurement.
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-023-00190-9
       
  • Correction: Characterization from Diesel and Renewable Fuel Engine
           Exhaust: Particulate Size/Mass Distributions and Optical Properties

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      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-023-00199-0
       
  • Pollen Dispersion and Deposition in Real-World Urban Settings: A
           Computational Fluid Dynamic Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Due to concern with the health and environmental impacts of allergic pine pollen on an urban community in Las Vegas, Nevada, a computation fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling framework was established for investigating the dispersion and deposition of pollen emitted from inventoried pine trees. The framework employs a Eulerian–Lagrangian approach with mesh grids of < 10 m to simulate wind flows and track pollen particle movements around real-world building blocks. The initial assessment focused on a spring pollen episode and a low period following the episode. Model results highlighted that building structures constrained pollen transportation by reducing wind speeds, especially during the low period, and altered pollen distributions, creating hot spots and cold spots at the windward and leeward sides of buildings, respectively, on the pollen trajectories. The majority of pollen particles appear to deposit onto the ground or buildings 1–3 km downwind from the sources through gravitational settling. Multiple model validations are presented, while limitations and potential applications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-023-00198-1
       
  • Ambient Air Quality Measurements Along High- and Low-Density Traffic
           Routes in Southwestern Nigeria

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      Abstract: Abstract Ambient air quality measurements were carried out between November 2018 and October 2019 along high- and low-traffic density routes in Lagos and Ile-Ife in southwestern Nigeria in order to evaluate the air pollution loads at each airshed. Four sampling points were established during dry and wet season periods over an averaging period of 24 h, while meteorology and ambient measurements were carried out simultaneously at each of the sampling points. Particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations were measured using air metric particulate matter sampler, while ambient gaseous concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured using CO data logger, Ogawa sampler, and 3 M air monitor badge. The samples collected using the Ogawa sampler and 3 M air monitor badge were analyzed using ion chromatography and gas chromatography. The measured ambient mean PM2.5 concentration in Lagos was 152.6 ± 61.7 µg/m3, while that of Ile-Ife was 93.1 ± 2.2 µg/m3. The measured concentrations of NO2 in Lagos ranged from 22.0 to 65.0 µg/m3 and that for Ile-Ife ranged from 10.0 to 55.0 µg/m3. SO2 concentration ranged from 20.6 to 58.1 µg/m3 in Lagos and 16.4 to 60.7 µg/m3 in Ile-Ife. CO concentrations in Ile-Ife sampling points ranged from 1030.7 to 3000.4 µg/m3, while that of Lagos sampling points ranged from 1030.7 to 3664.6 µg/m3. Higher average level (40.0 ± 8.5 µg/m3) of VOC was recorded in Lagos than Ile-Ife with an average value of 17.3 ± 5.5 µg/m3. All ambient pollutant values were below Federal Ministry of Environment and World Health Organization limits except PM2.5 and SO2. Therefore, toxicity potential data are useful for better air quality management in compliance with local statutory limit.
      PubDate: 2023-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-023-00197-2
       
  • Chemical Characterization and Health Risk Assessment of Particulate Matter
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Air pollution is one of the major concerns of India as it is the second leading risk factor, with pollutants being released faster than they can be absorbed and dispersed, contributing to one-quarter of the global disease burden. Both urban and semi-urban regions face pollution due to increased private transportation, resource exploration, industrial development, and improved living standards but studies have only focused on outdoor air pollution in urban areas, while the entire country of India is not merely urban, it also affects the nonurban areas just as much as the urban location. The current study was an attempt to measure ambient air quality in terms of PM2.5 and associated heavy metals (Al, Ca, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, and K) collected from two different locations (semi-urban and urban) near very busy crossing on National Highway with the help of fine particulate dust sampler (APM-550) during the study period July and August 2020. From the outcomes, it was determined that the influence of PM2.5 concentrations was greater at the semi-urban than at urban sites. Concentrations of PM2.5 have been compared with World Health Organization, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards and were found to be exceeded the prescribed limit. The correlation was done between the fine particulate concentrations and meteorological parameters which shows an inverse relation in both sites. Among analyzed heavy metals, Ca (11.65 µg/m3) showed the highest concentration due to various construction materials, such as cement, brick lime, and concrete as well as road dust, accompanied by Al (1.39 µg/m3) and Fe (0.97 µg/m3). The enrichment factor (EF) values concluded that Al, K, Fe, and Mn is less enriched (EF < 10), while Co and Pb had been classified as very highly enriched (EF > 100). Risk characterization for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects was evaluated through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation pathway posed by heavy metals in fine particulate matter, the results showed that Co showed non-carcinogenic risk at both urban and semi-urban locations from different pathways (USEPA in Part A, Human health evaluation manual; Part E, Supplemental Guidance for dermal risk assessment; Part F, Supplemental Guidance for inhalation risk assessment 1. Part E Access available online—risk assessment guidance for superfund (RAGS): Part E US EPA, Part F, Risk assessment guidance for superfund (RAGS): Part F US EPA, 2011), whereas Ni from the different sites showed an insignificant health risk for both children and adults (HQ ≤ 1) while, Cr, Pb, and Co cause the highest carcinogenic as exceeding the benchmark limit of 1 × 10–6 as prescribed by USEPA (2011), but Ni was found to be safe at both locations.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-023-00195-4
       
 
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Jurnal Pengendalian Pencemaran Lingkungan     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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