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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.302
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 316  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0022-3514 - ISSN (Online) 1939-1315
Published by APA Homepage  [89 journals]
  • Seeing you reminds me of things that never happened: Attachment anxiety
           predicts false memories when people can see the communicator.

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      Abstract: Previous research suggests that attachment avoidance is robustly linked to memory errors of omission—such as forgetting information or events that have occurred. Moreover, these avoidance-related errors of omission are the strongest for relational stimuli (e.g., avoidant people have trouble remembering relationship-related words, but not neutral ones). Conversely, an emerging body of studies has linked attachment anxiety to memory errors of commission—such as falsely remembering events that never actually happened. The present article describes three studies (Ns = 204, 651, 547) that replicate the correlation between attachment anxiety and false memories. Moreover, the present studies experimentally explored the boundary conditions under which anxiety might predict false memories. Results indicated that attachment anxiety predicts false memories only when participants could see a video of another person conveying information—but not when reading a text transcript of the same information or when listening to the audio only. This is consistent with prior studies which suggest that highly attachment-anxious individuals are hypervigilant to others’ emotional expressions and may use them to make incorrect inferences (which potentially become falsely encoded into memory). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000447
       
  • Not such a complainer anymore: Confrontation that signals a growth mindset
           can attenuate backlash.

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      Abstract: We report the first investigation of whether observers draw information about mindsets from behavior, specifically prejudice confrontation. We tested two questions across 10 studies (N = 3,168). First, would people who observe someone confront a biased comment (vs. remain silent) see them as endorsing more growth (vs. fixed) mindsets about prejudice and bias' If so, would the growth mindset perceptions that arise from confrontation (vs. remaining silent) attenuate the backlash that observers exhibit against confronters' We investigated these questions using scenarios (Studies 1, 2a–b, 4, 5a–d), naturalistic confrontations of national, race, and gender stereotypes reported retrospectively (Study 3), and an in-person laboratory experiment of actual confrontations of racial bias (Study 6). Correlational and experimental methods yielded support for our core hypotheses: People spontaneously imbue someone who confronts a biased comment with more growth mindset beliefs about prejudice and bias (Studies 1, 2a–b, 4, 6), regardless of whether participants observe the confrontation (Studies 1, 2a–b, 5a–d) or are being confronted themselves (Studies 2a–4, 6). The growth mindset perceptions arising from these confrontations suppress backlash, assessed by classic interpersonal perceptions (Studies 4–5) and judgments of interpersonal warmth and willingness to interact again in the future (Study 6), both when the confronter was a target of the biased behavior (Studies 1–5), and when they were an ally (Study 6), in both correlational studies (Study 3–4) and when growth mindset (about personality, Study 5; about prejudice, Study 6) was manipulated, confirming causality. We discuss implications for the study of mindsets, confrontation, and intergroup relations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000399
       
  • A critical examination and meta-analysis of the distinction between the
           dominance and antiegalitarianism facets of social dominance orientation.

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      Abstract: Social dominance orientation (SDO) holds a central position in social dominance theory. Since the development, validation, and publication of the SDO₇ scale in 2015, which was designed to distinguish between the dominance (SDO-D) and (anti-)egalitarianism (SDO-E) facets of SDO, it has become common in the literature to distinguish between these facets using the SDO₇. This is based on the theoretical proposition that SDO-D and SDO-E meaningfully differ and have different relationships with other constructs. However, the present study critically reviews the original validity evidence provided for the SDO₇’s distinction between SDO-D and SDO-E and notes conceptual and empirical reasons to question this distinction. Because a sizable number of studies have used the SDO₇ since the presentation of that original validity evidence, the present study uses meta-analysis to leverage this burgeoning literature to determine whether there has since been more convincing empirical evidence for the distinction between these facets. The meta-analysis finds that SDO-D and SDO-E have a magnitude of intercorrelation that would often be considered adequate for a reliability coefficient (mean ρ = .83), have extremely similar patterns and magnitudes of relationships with the variables in their nomological network, and have nearly identical means and standard deviations. Although the SDO₇ is a useful, reliable, and valid measure of overall SDO, its use to distinguish between SDO-D and SDO-E is not empirically supported. The present meta-analysis also provides insights into the nomological network of SDO-D, SDO-E, and overall SDO and the distributional characteristics of study participants’ SDO scale scores. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000432
       
  • Meta-analysis of the “ironic” effects of intergroup contact.

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      Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that intergroup contact, psychology’s most-researched paradigm for reducing prejudice, has the “ironic” effect of reducing support for social change in disadvantaged groups. We conducted a preregistered meta-analytic test of this effect across 98 studies with 140 samples of 213,085 disadvantaged-group members. As predicted, intergroup contact was, on average, associated with less perceived injustice (r = −.07), collective action (r = −.06), and support for reparative policies (r = −.07). However, these associations were small, variable, and consistent with alternative explanations. Across outcomes, 25%–36% of studies found positive associations with intergroup contact. Moderator analyses explained about a third of the between-sample variance, showing that, at least for perceived injustice, associations with intergroup contact were most consistently negative in studies that measured direct, qualitatively positive contact among adults. We also found evidence for an alternative explanation for the apparent “ironic” effects of intergroup contact as, after controlling for the positive association of negative contact with support for social change, positive contact was no longer associated with any of the outcomes. We close by discussing the strengths and limitations of the available evidence and by highlighting open questions about the relationship between intergroup contact and support for social change in disadvantaged groups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000404
       
  • Well-being in social interactions: Examining personality-situation
           dynamics in face-to-face and computer-mediated communication.

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      Abstract: Decades of research show that people’s social lives are linked to their well-being. Yet, research on the relationship between social interactions and well-being has been largely inconclusive with regard to the effects of person–situation interactions, such as the interplay between contextual factors (e.g., interactions occurring in physical vs. digital contexts, different interaction partners) and dispositional tendencies (e.g., Big Five personality traits). Here, we report on exploratory and confirmatory findings from three large studies of college students (Study 1: N = 1,360; Study 2: N = 851; Study 3: N = 864) who completed a total of 139,363 experience sampling surveys (reporting on 87,976 social interactions). We focus on the effects of different modes of communication (face-to-face [FtF] interactions, computer-mediated communication [CMC], and mixed episodes [FtF + CMC]), and types of interaction partners (close peers, family members, and weak ties). Using multilevel structural equation modeling, we found that FtF interactions and mixed episodes were associated with highest well-being on the within-person level, and that these effects were particularly pronounced for individuals with high levels of neuroticism. CMC was related to lower well-being than FtF interactions, but higher well-being than not socializing at all. Regarding the type of interaction partner, individuals reported higher well-being after interactions with close peers than after interactions with family members and weak ties, and the difference between close peers and weak ties was larger for FtF interactions than for CMC. We discuss these findings with regard to theories of person–situation interactions and research on well-being and social interactions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000422
       
  • Mapping the self: A network approach for understanding psychological and
           neural representations of self-concept structure.

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      Abstract: How people self-reflect and maintain a coherent sense of self is an important question that spans from early philosophy to modern psychology and neuroscience. Research on the self-concept has not yet developed and tested a formal model of how beliefs about dependency relations amongst traits may influence self-concept coherence. We first develop a network-based approach, which suggests that people’s beliefs about trait relationships contribute to how the self-concept is structured (Study 1). This model describes how people maintain positivity and coherence in self-evaluations, and how trait interrelations relate to activation in brain regions involved in self-referential processing and concept representation (Study 2 and Study 3). Results reveal that a network-based property theorized to be important for coherence (i.e., outdegree centrality) is associated with more favorable and consistent self-evaluations and decreased ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation. Further, participants higher in self-esteem and lower in depressive symptoms differentiate between higher and lower centrality positive traits more in self-evaluations, reflecting associations between mental health and how people process perceived trait dependencies during self-reflection. Together, our model and findings join individual differences, brain activation, and behavior to present a computational theory of how beliefs about trait relationships contribute to a coherent, interconnected self-concept. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspa0000315
       
  • Beautiful seems good, but perhaps not in every way: Linking attractiveness
           to moral evaluation through perceived vanity.

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      Abstract: For almost 50 years, psychologists have understood that what is beautiful is perceived as good. This simple and intuitively appealing hypothesis has been confirmed in many ways, prompting a wide range of studies documenting the depth and breadth of its truth. Yet, for what is arguably one of the most important forms of “goodness” that there is—moral goodness—research has told a different story. Although greater attractiveness is associated with a host of positive attributes, it has been only inconsistently associated with greater perceived morality (or lesser immorality), and meta-analyses have suggested the total effect of beauty on moral judgment is near zero. The current research documents one plausible reason for this. Across nine experiments employing a variety of methodological and measurement strategies, we show how attractiveness can be perceived as both morally good and bad. We found that attractiveness causally influences beliefs about vanity, which translates into beliefs that more attractive targets are less moral and more immoral. Then, we document a positive association between attractiveness and sociability—the nonmoral component of warmth—and show how sociability exerts a countervailing positive effect on moral judgments. Likewise, we document findings suggesting that vanity and sociability mutually suppress the effects of attractiveness on each other and on moral judgments. Ultimately, this work provides a comprehensive process account of why beauty seems good but can also be perceived as less moral and more immoral, highlighting complex interrelations among different elements of person perception. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspa0000317
       
  • Fact or artifact' Demand characteristics and participants’ beliefs
           can moderate, but do not fully account for, the effects of facial feedback
           on emotional experience.

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      Abstract: The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that an individual’s facial expressions can influence their emotional experience (e.g., that smiling can make one feel happier). However, a reoccurring concern is that supposed facial feedback effects are merely methodological artifacts. Six experiments conducted across 29 countries (N = 995) examined the extent to which the effects of posed facial expressions on emotion reports were moderated by (a) the hypothesis communicated to participants (i.e., demand characteristics) and (b) participants’ beliefs about facial feedback effects. Results indicated that these methodological artifacts moderated, but did not fully account for, the effects of posed facial expressions on emotion reports. Even when participants were explicitly told or personally believed that facial poses do not influence emotions, they still exhibited facial feedback effects. These results indicate that facial feedback effects are not solely driven by demand or placebo effects. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 26 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspa0000316
       
  • Actor and partner power are distinct and have differential effects on
           social behavior.

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      Abstract: Interpersonal power involves how much actors can influence partners (actor power) and how much partners can influence actors (partner power). Yet, most theories and investigations of power conflate the effects of actor and partner power, creating a fundamental ambiguity in the literature regarding how power shapes social behavior. We demonstrate that actor and partner power are distinct and have differential effects on social behavior. Six studies (total N = 1,787) tested whether actor and partner power independently predicted behavioral inhibition (expressive suppression) and communal behavior (prioritization of partners’ needs) within close relationships, including during couples’ daily life (Study 1), lab-based social interactions (Studies 1–5; 1,012 dyadic interactions), and general responses during conflict (Studies 5 and 6). Actor power was negatively associated with behavioral inhibition, indicating that actors’ low power prompts self-focused inhibition to prevent negative outcomes that low power actors are unable to control. Partner power was positively associated with actors’ communal behavior, indicating that high partner power prompts other-focused behavior that prioritizes partners’ needs and goals. These differential effects of actor and partner power replicated in work-based relationships with bosses/managers (Study 6). Unexpectedly, partner power was negatively associated with actors’ behavioral inhibition within close relationships, consistent with a desire to prevent negative outcomes for low power partners. We present a framework that integrates the approach-inhibition and agentic–communal theories of power to account for the differential effects of actor and partner power. We describe the implications of this framework for understanding the effects of power in both close and hierarchical relationships. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 26 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000398
       
  • Personality traits, cognitive states, and mortality in older adulthood.

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      Abstract: Research suggests that personality traits are associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and mortality risk, but the timing of when traits are most important in the progression to dementia and the extent to which they are associated with years of cognitive health span are unclear. This project applied secondary data analysis to the Rush Memory and Aging Project (N = 1954; baseline Mage = 80 years; 74% female) over up to 23 annual assessments. Multistate survival modeling examined the extent to which conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion, assessed using the NEO Five Factor Inventory, were associated with transitions between cognitive status categories and death. Additionally, multinomial regression models estimated cognitive health span and total survival based on standard deviation units of personality traits. Adjusting for demographics, depressive symptoms, and apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4, personality traits were most important in the transition from no cognitive impairment (NCI) to MCI. For instance, higher conscientiousness was associated with a decreased risk of transitioning from NCI to MCI, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78, 95% CI [0.72, 0.85] and higher neuroticism was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from NCI to MCI, HR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.21]. Additional significant and nonsignificant results are discussed in the context of the existing literature. While personality traits were not associated with total longevity, individuals higher in conscientiousness and extraversion, and lower in neuroticism, had more years of cognitive health span, particularly female participants. These findings provide novel understanding of the simultaneous associations between personality traits and transitions between cognitive status categories and death, as well as cognitive health span and total longevity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000418
       
 
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