A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.302
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 277  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0022-3514 - ISSN (Online) 1939-1315
Published by APA Homepage  [89 journals]
  • Presentation in self-posted facial images can expose sexual orientation:
           Implications for research and privacy.

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Recent research has found that facial recognition algorithms can accurately classify people’s sexual orientations using naturalistic facial images, highlighting a severe risk to privacy. This article tests whether people of different sexual orientations presented themselves distinctively in photographs, and whether these distinctions revealed their sexual orientation. I found significant differences in self-presentation. For example, gay individuals were on average more likely to wear glasses compared to heterosexual individuals in images uploaded to the dating website. Gay men also uploaded brighter images compared to heterosexual men. To further test how some of these differences drove the classification of sexual orientation, I employed image augmentation or modification techniques. To evaluate whether the image background contributed to classifications, I progressively masked images until only a thin border of image background remained in each facial image. I found that even these pixels classified sexual orientations at rates significantly higher than random chance. I also blurred images, and found that merely three numbers representing the brightness of each color channel classified sexual orientations. These findings contribute to psychological research on sexual orientation by highlighting how people chose to present themselves differently on the dating website according to their sexual orientations, and how these distinctions were used by the algorithm to classify sexual orientations. The findings also expose a privacy risk as they suggest that do-it-yourself data-protection strategies, such as masking and blurring, cannot effectively prevent leakage of sexual orientation information. As consumers are not equipped to protect themselves, the burden of privacy protection should be shifted to companies and governments. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Interdependence and cooperation in daily life. Correction to Columbus et
           al. (2020).

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Reports an error in "Interdependence and cooperation in daily life" by Simon Columbus, Catherine Molho, Francesca Righetti and Daniel Balliet (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2021[Mar], Vol 120[3], 626-650). In the article (https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000253), due to a mistake in generating Figure 4, two histograms were distorted as the tallest bar in each histogram was completely omitted. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2020-44813-001.) Philosophers and scientists have long debated the nature of human social interactions and the prevalence of mutual dependence, conflict of interests, and power asymmetry in social situations. Yet, there is surprisingly little empirical work documenting the patterns of interdependence that people experience in daily life. We use experience sampling to study how people think about 3 dimensions of interdependence in daily life and how these dimensions relate to cooperation. In Study 1, 139 romantic couples (n = 278) reported on situations experienced with their partner (k = 6,766); in Study 2, individuals (n = 284) reported on situations experienced with any other person (k = 7,248), over the course of 1 week. Across both samples, we found that most social interactions were perceived as containing moderate mutual dependence, equal power, and corresponding interests. When couples reported on the same situation (Study 1), they largely agreed on their experienced interdependence and cooperation, suggesting that their reports reflect an underlying shared reality. In daily interactions across both samples, higher mutual dependence and lower conflict of interests were associated with more cooperation, whereas relative power was not directly related to cooperation. These associations replicated in laboratory experiments (Study 2). In daily life, high mutual dependence and high relative power exacerbated the negative relation between conflict of interests and cooperation. Finally, prevalent patterns of interdependence and the experience of specific interdependent situations affected multiple relationship outcomes. Our findings stress the importance of studying a diverse array of interdependent situations—and especially situations with corresponding interests—to better understand cooperation in daily life. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000253) due to a mistake in generating Figure 4 two histograms were distorted as the ta
       
  • Who has different-race friends, and does it depend on context'
           Openness (to other), but not agreeableness, predicts lower racial
           homophily in friendship networks.

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: People form relationships with people from their own racial groups, a phenomenon called racial homophily, which reduces interracial contact and exacerbates inequality and prejudice. Although viewed as arising from environmental factors, we argue that racial homophily also involves individual choice and, thus, personality factors. We address three major issues. First, are interpersonal concerns (Agreeableness) and intergroup concerns (Openness) differentially relevant to cross-race friendships' Second, are current conceptions of Openness sufficient, or do we need lower-level facets more attuned to intergroup concerns' Third, can we specify the interplay between personality and contextual factors in different settings' Across four studies (total N = 1,820), Agreeableness failed to predict more cross-race friendships, in both self- and peer reports, suggesting that interpersonal kindness was not sufficient to overcome racial homophily. In contrast, Openness and Openness to Other (O2, a new social facet of Openness) consistently predicted cross-race friendship. However, the O2 facet had the stronger and only unique effect, suggesting it is the “active ingredient.” High-O2 individuals had an almost equal 1:1 ratio of same-to-different-race network members, whereas low-O2 individuals had 4:1 same-race. These results held for both college students and middle-aged adults, both friends and new acquaintances in the network, and both networks established before and at a diverse university. Finally, when moving to a more diverse environment, high-O2 individuals seemed to take advantage of the new environmental affordances, adding more different-race members to their networks. Overall, these studies advance understanding of person–environment transactions, showing how personality traits matter to the structure of people’s social networks. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The development of the rank-order stability of the Big Five across the
           life span.

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Several studies have suggested that the rank-order stability of personality increases until midlife and declines later in old age. However, this inverted U-shaped pattern has not consistently emerged in previous research; in particular, a recent investigation implementing several methodological advances failed to support it. To resolve the matter, we analyzed data from two representative panel studies and investigated how certain methodological decisions affect conclusions regarding the age trajectories of stability. The data came from Australia (N = 15,465; Study 1) and Germany (N = 21,777; Study 2), and each study included four waves of personality assessment. We investigated the life span development of the rank-order stability of the Big Five for 4-, 8-, and 12-year intervals. Whereas Study 1 provided strong evidence for an inverted U-shape with rank-order stability declining past age 50, Study 2 provided more mixed results that nonetheless generally supported the inverted U-shape. This developmental trend held for single personality traits as well as for the overall pattern across traits; and it held for all three retest intervals—both descriptively and in formal tests. Additionally, we found evidence that health-related changes accounted for the decline in rank-order stability in older age. This suggests that if analyses are implicitly conditioned on health (e.g., by excluding participants with missing data on later waves), the decline in stability in old age will be underestimated or even missed. Our results provide further evidence for the inverted U-shaped age pattern in personality stability development but also extend knowledge about the underlying processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Refining the maturity principle of personality development by examining
           facets, close others, and comaturation.

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Across adulthood, people tend to experience psychologically adaptive personality trait change, a robust finding known as the maturity principle of personality development. We identify three open areas of inquiry regarding personality maturation and address them in a preregistered study, using a sample of U.S. adults ages 30–70 who completed a battery of personality questionnaires and were rated by two close others twice over an 11- to 16-year period (Nwave1 = 1,785, Nwave2 = 401). First, it is unclear whether the maturity principle applies to narrower facet-level traits, as there has been little research into facet development across adulthood. We examined 47 facet scales and found that most developed adaptively across ages 30–70, but some did not mature, and three healthy facets (activity, openness to feelings, and social potency) declined significantly across adulthood, counter to the maturity principle. Second, no longitudinal research has tested whether personality maturation is perceived similarly by close others. We compared self- and other-rated development and found that close others perceived greater maturation than the self in Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and five facets. Finally, few studies have examined whether traits comature in adulthood. We found that correlated change between healthy facets was small in magnitude. Additionally, we found tighter comaturation in other-reported development than self-reported development. We use these results and past research to expand and refine our understanding of personality maturation across adulthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Who would mourn democracy' Liberals might, but it depends on
           who’s in charge.

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Despite widespread support for the principles of democracy, democratic norms have been eroding globally for over a decade. We ask whether and how political ideology factors into people’s reactions to democratic decline. We offer hypotheses derived from two theoretical lenses, one considering ideologically relevant dispositions and another considering ideologically relevant situations. Preregistered laboratory experiments combined with analyses of World Values Survey (WVS) data indicate that there is a dispositional trend: Overall, liberals are more distressed than conservatives by low democracy. At the same time, situational factors also matter: This pattern emerges most strongly when the ruling party is conservative and disappears (though it does not flip into its mirror image) when the ruling party is liberal. Our results contribute to ongoing debates over ideological symmetry and asymmetry; they also suggest that, if democracy is worth protecting, not everyone, everywhere will feel the urgency. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A threatening opportunity: The prospect of conversations about
           race-related experiences between Black and White friends.

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Similarities are foundational to building and maintaining friendships, but for cross-race friends, differences in experiences related to race are also inevitable. Little is known about how friends approach talking about race-related experiences. We suggest that these conversations are a threatening opportunity. Across five studies, we show that they can enhance closeness and intergroup learning among Black and White friends but that these benefits can be accompanied, and sometimes prevented by identity threat. In Study 1, Black (N = 57) and White (N = 59) adults anticipated both benefits and risks of such conversations, though more benefits than risks. In Study 2A (N = 143) and Study 2B (N = 149), Black participants reported less willingness to disclose race-related experiences to extant White friends than Black friends and anticipated feeling less comfortable doing so, controlling for closeness. However, they also desired to be understood by Black and White friends equally. In Study 3 (N = 147) and Study 4 (N = 172), White participants also felt less comfortable when an imagined Black friend disclosed race-related versus nonrace-related experiences to them. However, they felt closer to their friend after the race-related disclosure. Additionally, they felt more comfortable hearing about race-related experiences from a friend than through a third party and they reported learning more when the race-related experience was a friend’s than a stranger’s. Taken together, the studies highlight the benefits as well as the risks of conversations about race for cross-race friends and the need for future studies that track real-time conversations and test strategies to help friends engage in these conversations productively. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Why benefiting from discrimination is less recognized as discrimination.

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Discrimination continues to plague society, creating stark inequities between groups. While existing work has considered the role of prejudice in perpetuating discrimination, we draw on emerging research on privilege and inequity frames to offer an overlooked, complementary explanation: Objectively discriminatory decisions that are described as favoring, compared with disfavoring, are less likely to be recognized as discrimination. We further theorize this is because favoring decisions are perceived to be motivated by positive intentions. We find support for our hypotheses across eight studies. First, using both qualitative (Studies 1a-b) and experimental approaches (Studies 2–7), across a range of discrimination contexts including race, sex, nationality, and age, we find that inequity frames affect perceptions of discrimination. Further, we find that even human resource employees are less likely to recognize discrimination when described as favoring (Study 3), in turn affecting their reporting behaviors: They are less likely to report potentially discriminatory decisions for review. Next, sampling language from U.S. Supreme Court cases, we find that people support litigation less when discrimination uses a favoring frame, versus disfavoring frame (Study 4). Then, we find that this pattern is driven by inequity frames shaping perceived intentions, rather than perceived harm (Studies 5–6). Finally, we find some evidence that inequity frames regarding a discriminatory decision committed by an organization may affect candidates’ job pursuit behaviors (Study 7). This work contributes to a nascent perspective that advantaging mechanisms are critical for creating group inequity: given individuals are less likely to recognize favoritism as discriminatory, favoritism may especially contribute to the persistence of inequity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Sep 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Narrow prototypes and neglected victims: Understanding perceptions of
           sexual harassment.

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Sexual harassment is pervasive and has adverse effects on its victims, yet perceiving sexual harassment is wrought with ambiguity, making harassment difficult to identify and understand. Eleven preregistered, multimethod experiments (total N = 4,065 participants) investigated the nature of perceiving sexual harassment by testing whether perceptions of sexual harassment and its impact are facilitated when harassing behaviors target those who fit with the prototype of women (e.g., those who have feminine features, interests, and characteristics) relative to those who fit less well with this prototype. Studies A1–A5 demonstrate that participants’ mental representation of sexual harassment targets overlapped with the prototypes of women as assessed through participant-generated drawings, face selection tasks, reverse correlation, and self-report measures. In Studies B1–B4, participants were less likely to label incidents as sexual harassment when they targeted nonprototypical women compared with prototypical women. In Studies C1 and C2, participants perceived sexual harassment claims to be less credible and the harassment itself to be less psychologically harmful when the victims were nonprototypical women rather than prototypical women. This research offers theoretical and methodological advances to the study of sexual harassment through social cognition and prototypicality perspectives, and it has implications for harassment reporting and litigation as well as the realization of fundamental civil rights. For materials, data, and preregistrations of all studies, see https://osf.io/xehu9/. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.235.176.80
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-