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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
Showing 1 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 311)
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Social Policy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Violence and Victims     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
British Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Safer Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Health & Social Care In the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Critical Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Quality in Ageing and Older Adults     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of European Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Mental Health and Social Inclusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Global Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Qualitative Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Research on Social Work Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Social Policy & Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Social Work Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Occupational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Social Work Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Science and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Human Service Organizations Management, Leadership and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Community, Work & Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Philosophy & Social Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
The Milbank Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Family Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Critical and Radical Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Qualitative Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Social Work & Social Sciences Review     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Self and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Housing Policy Debate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Research on Language and Social Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Integrated Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Practice: Social Work in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Social Work Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Critical Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Society and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Public Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Social Work Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Work Education: The International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australian Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Grief Matters : The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Policy Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Social Work Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Contemporary Rural Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Social Science Japan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Forensic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Community Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Social Service Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Families in Society : The Journal of Contemporary Social Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Learning in Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Social Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Partner Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Service social     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Care Services Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Work With Groups     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Semiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Social Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Nordic Social Work Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Third World Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Global Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nouvelles pratiques sociales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ACOSS Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Care Management Journals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Third Sector Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Comparative Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Review of Social Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Public Policy and Aging Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counsellor (The)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Youth Studies Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Rights and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Social Work and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Action : The Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology     Free   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
National Emergency Response     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Parity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Specialists in Group Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geopolitical, Social Security and Freedom Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
HOLISTICA ? Journal of Business and Public Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Groupwork     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mundos do Trabalho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Islamic Counseling : Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling Islam     Open Access  
Tidsskriftet Norges Barnevern     Full-text available via subscription  
Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for omsorgsforskning     Open Access  
Nordisk välfärdsforskning | Nordic Welfare Research     Open Access  
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika     Open Access  
Revista Serviço Social em Perspectiva     Open Access  
ConCienciaSocial     Open Access  
Bakti Budaya     Open Access  
Voces desde el Trabajo Social     Open Access  
Janus Sosiaalipolitiikan ja sosiaalityön tutkimuksen aikakauslehti     Open Access  
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Leidfaden : Fachmagazin für Krisen, Leid, Trauer     Hybrid Journal  
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Prospectiva : Revista de Trabajo Social e Intervención Social     Open Access  
International Journal of Care and Caring     Hybrid Journal  
Volunteer Management Report     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Work / Maatskaplike Werk     Open Access  
Argumentum     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Guidance and Counseling     Open Access  
Trabajo Social Global - Global Social Work     Open Access  
Journal of Danubian Studies and Research     Open Access  
Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia     Full-text available via subscription  
unsere jugend     Full-text available via subscription  
Pedagogia i Treball Social : Revista de Cičncies Socials Aplicades     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Trabajo Social     Open Access  
Developmental Child Welfare     Hybrid Journal  
Nusantara of Research: Jurnal Hasil-hasil Penelitian Universitas Nusantara PGRI Kediri     Open Access  
Revista Internacional De Seguridad Social     Hybrid Journal  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access  
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Tempo Social     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
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Journal of European Social Policy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.119
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 36  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0958-9287 - ISSN (Online) 1461-7269
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Needs or obligations' The influence of childcare infrastructure and
           support norms on grandparents’ labour market participation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ariane Bertogg
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates how institutional and normative characteristics affect grandparents’ labour market participation. Previous studies indicate that providing regular grandchild care reduces labour market participation, and this linkage varies between European welfare states. Yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and no study has systematically disentangled cultural from institutional influence when investigating grandparents’ work–care reconciliation. Based on two mechanisms, needs and obligations, we investigate how (grandparental) support norms and childcare infrastructure jointly shape the labour market participation of active grandparents. We use six waves from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), investigating variation across 91 subnational regions in 18 countries. The results indicate that the regular provision of grandchild care increases the risk of exiting the labour market for both men and women. This linkage is stronger in contexts with stronger support norms, but also depends on the childcare infrastructure in contexts where norms are weaker.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T06:55:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221115668
       
  • SOS incomes: simulated effects of COVID-19 and emergency benefits on
           individual and household income distribution in Italy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Giovanni Gallo, Michele Raitano
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      Using a static microsimulation model based on a link between survey and administrative data, this article investigates the effects of the pandemic on income distribution in Italy in 2020. The analysis focuses on both individuals and households by simulating through nowcasting techniques changes in labour income and in equivalized income, respectively. For both units of observations, we compare changes before and after social policy interventions, that is, automatic stabilizers and benefits introduced by the government to address the effects of the COVID-19 emergency. We find that the pandemic has led to a relatively greater drop in labour income for those lying in the poorest quantiles, which, however, benefited more from the income support benefits. As a result, compared with the ‘No-COVID scenario’, income poverty and inequality indices grow considerably when these benefits are not considered, whereas the poverty increase greatly narrows and inequality slightly decreases once social policy interventions are taken into account. This evidence signals the crucial role played by cash social transfers to contrast with the most serious economic consequences of the pandemic.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T06:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221115672
       
  • Indicators of familialism and defamilialization in long-term care: A
           theoretical overview and introduction of macro-level indicators

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ellen Verbakel, Karen Glaser, Yasmina Amzour, Martina Brandt, Marjolein Broese van Groenou
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      Many countries have been working on revising their long-term care (LTC) policies to meet the increasing demand for care. Generally, little attention is paid to the potential (unintended) consequences of LTC policies for inequality among care users or informal caregivers. Saraceno previously explicitly argued that differences in care use and provision depend on the type of LTC policy, and that policies with contrasting consequences for inequality can be implemented at the same time. We call upon future research to empirically test the impact of different types of LTC policies on socio-economic inequalities in care. To stimulate and facilitate such research, our aims are to outline theoretical arguments for the differential impact of LTC policies on socio-economic inequalities in care and to create macro-level indicators for different types of supportive LTC policies in European countries over time. Our study’s research question is: Can we find and capture different dimensions of LTC policies in macro-level indicators that are comparable over countries and time' In particular, we focus on supported familialism (for example, informal caregiver support), supported defamilialization through the market (for example, in-cash benefits for care users), and defamilialization through public provision (for example, availability of beds in residential care). Besides a summary of the literature on LTC policies and how they may affect socio-economic inequalities in care, we outline our search process for macro-level LTC indicators and present descriptive information on the different types of LTC policies and their correlations. We discuss the difficulties that arise when translating theoretical insights about different types of LTC policies into high-quality measures for many countries and time points.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T03:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221115669
       
  • Family as a redistributive principle of welfare states: An international
           comparison

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Patricia Frericks, Martin Gurín
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      Redistribution is one of the main characteristics of the welfare state, and welfare state research has dealt intensely with various facets of it. The main focus in analysing redistribution is on the redistributive logics of welfare states in terms of work-related rights. Family as a major principle of welfare state redistribution, though, has hardly been included in these welfare state analyses. It has mainly been addressed by analysing outcome data or by analysing care as the most relevant characteristic of the family. We argue, though, that comparative welfare state analysis that addresses differences in welfare state intended redistribution needs to also include family as a redistributive principle to gain a more complete picture of societal redistribution. In this study, we are analysing the redistributive logics of welfare states in terms of family. We answer the question of how and in how far welfare states institutionalize family as a redistributive principle. We examine by means of the tax–benefit microsimulation model EUROMOD and its Hypothetical Household Tool (HHoT) welfare state regulations on family for three countries that are generally classed as different regime types. We differentiate between a great variety of family forms (referring to marital status, children and different forms of couples’ income distribution) to adequately test our theoretical assumptions. The findings show that family is a major redistributive principle of the welfare states analysed here and applied in different redistributive logics to the various family forms. This, then, results in an increase in income for certain family forms and a decrease in income for other family forms. These differences are not the result of one coherent set of regulations, but of an interplay of in part contradictory regulations that reflect a great variety of family-related redistributive logics within the single countries. Thus our study provides new insights into the redistributive logics of welfare states, and may contribute to the analysis of welfare state complexity in terms of theory, methodology and empirics.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T03:29:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221115670
       
  • Sometimes needs change minds: Interests and values as determinants of
           attitudes towards state support for the self-employed during the COVID-19
           crisis

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      Authors: Giuliano Bonoli, Flavia Fossati, Mia Gandenberger, Carlo Michael Knotz
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      This contribution investigates public attitudes toward providing financial help to the self-employed, a less well-researched area in the otherwise vibrant literature on welfare state attitudes. We analyse to what extent the self-employed themselves soften their general anti-statist stance in times of need, and how the public thinks about supporting those who usually tend to oppose government interventions. To answer these questions, we study public attitudes towards providing financial aid to the self-employed during the lockdowns adopted in response to the COVID pandemic in Switzerland, using survey data collected in the spring and in the autumn of 2020. The results show that most respondents favour the provision of financial support. In addition, the self-employed are the staunchest supporters of the more generous forms of help, like non-refundable payments. We conclude that, when exposed to significant economic risk, need and interests override ideological preferences for less state intervention.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T02:34:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221106977
       
  • The wage and career consequences of temporary employment in Europe:
           Analysing the theories and synthesizing the evidence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jonathan P Latner, Nicole Saks
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      In Europe, the consequences of temporary employment are at the centre of a social policy debate about whether there is a trade-off between efficiency and equity when deregulating labour markets. However, despite decades of research, there is confusion about the consequences of temporary employment on wage and career mobility. It is often stated that the consequences are ‘mixed’. We review the literature with a focus on synthesizing the evidence and analysing the theories. Our review shows that we know a lot more than is often understood about the consequences of temporary employment on wage and career mobility. We create clarity by organizing the evidence by geographic region, demographic group and reference group. While outcomes vary across these factors, there is less variation within these factors. At the same time, we know a lot less than is often understood about the mechanisms through which temporary employment affects mobility. Some common theories are not well specified in their application to temporary employment. We create new opportunities for development in the field by increasing the scope of the debate about some questions and decreasing the scope of the debate about other questions.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T02:30:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221106969
       
  • Moving towards fairer regional minimum income schemes in Spain

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      Authors: Adrián Hernández, Fidel Picos, Sara Riscado
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      Minimum income schemes aim at providing citizens with a minimum living standard. In some EU countries, their regulation and provision takes place at the subnational level. This is the case in Spain, where minimum income schemes are a heterogeneous and complex collection of regional benefits designed and implemented at the regional level, by the Autonomous Communities. In June 2020, a complementary nationwide minimum income scheme was implemented. In this context, we use the European microsimulation model EUROMOD, together with microdata from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions, to comprehensively assess the performance of the whole minimum income system. We simulate a sequence of theoretical scenarios, considering different degrees of coverage and adequacy of these benefits and show that extending the coverage of the regional schemes would significantly alleviate poverty. However, it would not be sufficient to eliminate it and further increases in the benefit amounts would also be required. Furthermore, the new nationwide minimum income can potentially reduce the shortfall in income from the poverty line, if cost-shifting practices from the regional to the national budgetary level are limited. We discuss the importance of this case study in light of the decentralization of minimum income policies and derive some general policy implications. JEL classification: H53, H75, I38.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T03:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221088174
       
  • Higher education in welfare regimes: Three worlds of post-Soviet
           transition

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      Authors: Sergey Malinovskiy, Ekaterina Shibanova
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      Higher education has generally been excluded from the welfare discourse, especially in transition countries. This article addresses existing research gaps by applying the ideas of decommodification and stratification to higher education in post-Soviet countries, within the comparative framework of welfare regime typology. The purpose of this study is to analyse the extent to which higher education relates to welfare state models in such countries. The research demonstrates that institutional settings and outcomes of higher education provision in Estonia, Georgia and Russia are evolving toward patterns of social-democratic, liberal and conservative models, respectively. Although the correspondence is incomplete, we argue that post-Soviet states are more similar to groups of countries representing these welfare regimes than to each other. This study argues against the assumption of a uniform post-Soviet pattern of higher education policy and shows that its structuring is embedded in the wider context of national welfare state models.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T02:57:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221101344
       
  • Activation: a thematic and conceptual review

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      Authors: Jochen Clasen, Clara Mascaro
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      Activation as a social policy topic has been investigated since the late 1990s and continues to be popular in academic analysis and discourse. In this review, we highlight the wide range of research aims and themes covered within relevant publications. We also identify a considerable degree of conceptual inconsistency and ambiguity across the literature. Informed by methodological considerations, we conclude by suggesting a parsimonious root concept of activation which would allow for a more consistent and less ambiguous application within and across different levels of analysis.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T09:42:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221089477
       
  • Learning losses and educational inequalities in Europe: Mapping the
           potential consequences of the COVID-19 crisis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zsuzsa Blaskó, Patricia da Costa, Sylke V Schnepf
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      It is widely discussed that the pandemic has impacted educational inequalities across the world. However, in contrast to data on health or unemployment, data on education outcomes are not timely. Hence, we have extremely limited knowledge about pandemic-related learning losses at the national and cross-national levels. As it might take years to get suitable comparative data, this study uses the latest large-scale international achievement survey from before the pandemic, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2019, to answer two research questions. First, which European countries are most likely to have experienced higher learning loss among their children' Second, which European countries have most likely experienced the greatest increases in learning inequalities' Results based on 4th graders’ school achievements indicate that educational inequalities between and within countries are likely to have augmented substantially throughout Europe. Some European countries are probably already facing an education crisis.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-29T12:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221091687
       
  • Attitudes towards welfare and environmental policies and concerns: A
           matter of self-interest, personal capability, or beyond'

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      Authors: Kajsa Emilsson
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      In times of emergent emphases on how climate change will affect welfare societies, welfare policies and individuals’ welfare and vice versa, this study investigates public support for welfare and environmental policies and concerns. Since previous research and literature have pointed towards a socioeconomic divide between the welfare agenda and the environmental agenda in terms of public support, this article makes a thorough socioeconomic analysis of public welfare and environmental attitudes. The article analyses data from an original study in the context of Sweden (n = 1529). Through multinomial logistic regression analysis this study investigates if and which socioeconomic factors increase the likelihood of expressing mutual support for welfare and environmental policies and concerns compared to expressing support for welfare or environmental policies and concerns in isolation, as well as no support at all. The results indicate that both low and high socioeconomic status factors increase the likelihood of expressing mutual welfare and environmental support. These factors are low - to middle-range income levels, high educational attainment and low - to high-status occupations. Accordingly, this study finds that individuals expressing mutual welfare and environmental support are less easily placed in the low to high socioeconomic continuum. This suggests that we need to go beyond the two established theoretical perspectives of self-interest and personal capabilities when explaining mutual welfare and environmental support and, for example, direct the attention to factors and theoretical points of departure that take post-materialism and non-economic dimensions into account.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T05:37:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221101342
       
  • Beyond the European Semester: The supranational evaluation cycle for
           pensions

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      Authors: Igor Guardiancich, Mattia Guidi, Andrea Terlizzi
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      Pensions at the European level have been, since the sovereign debt crisis, affected by several decision-making innovations. Retirement policy has been embedded in the European Semester, which strengthened the hitherto inadequate European socioeconomic policy coordination mechanisms. Given that the additional powers bestowed upon the Commission were qualified, a supranational response followed. With the effect of strengthening its rational-legal authority, in line with neo-functionalist spillover assumptions, evidence-based standards have been progressively applied to EU retirement policy formation. This innovative turn warrants the employment of a policy analysis theoretical framework. In particular, the article applies the concepts underpinning policy evaluation to the study of pensions within the Semester. Using a mixed-methods approach, which combines case study with statistical analysis, and following a novel in-depth coding of country-specific recommendations and Country Reports, this article argues that member states’ pensions are now assessed within a structured, formal and polycentric evaluation cycle. This has been gradually constructed by increasing the coherence between the yearly interim ex post evaluations of pension policy output (the Country Reports) and the final ex post evaluations of pension policy outcomes (the Ageing and Pension Adequacy Reports) that are published every 3 years. The result is a streamlined, technocratic, knowledge-based approach to retirement policy at the supranational level. Even though the generation of technical knowledge is no substitute for toothless conditionality, greater reliance on evidence is aimed at socializing national decision-makers and may eventually influence their policy choices. The unconventional pension evaluation cycle that sprung up around the Semester may, hence, serve as a model applicable to other socioeconomic policy domains.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T05:35:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221101339
       
  • The persistence of legal uncertainty on EU citizens’ access to
           social benefits in Germany

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      Authors: Angie Gago, Constantin Hruschka
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      Legal uncertainty may hinder the effective implementation of public policies. Still, the political and legal dynamics that underpin its persistence are underexplored. This article proposes that legal uncertainty is more likely to persist in multi-level political and legal systems where actors with authority on the same issue hold different interpretations of rules. Also, it suggests that, under these conditions, actors can use legal uncertainty as an opportunity to advance their own interests. We illustrate this argument by investigating the legal uncertainty concerning EU citizens’ access to social benefits in Germany. Through the analysis of social legislation and courts’ rulings, the article shows that different interpretations of EU law by domestic actors hindered the possibilities of settling uncertainty: national courts of different levels used litigation processes and referrals to the Court of Justice of the European Union to advance their legal interpretations and the German government profited from the uncertainty to exclude EU citizens from social benefits.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T08:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221095028
       
  • English ‘iron rod’ welfare versus Italian ‘colander’ welfare:
           understanding the intra-European mobility strategies of unaccompanied
           young migrants and refugees

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      Authors: Jennifer Allsopp
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      The experiences of unaccompanied young migrants and refugees challenge the idea of a common European asylum policy but also show that traditional welfare typologies used to account for differences in welfare across states fail to account for the lived experiences of this group. They do not consider the shifting categorizations of young migrants in institutional terms, nor how the stratification of their social rights plays out over place and time. Moreover, current welfare typologies give inadequate attention to the increasing intersection of the labour market and opportunities for regularization, the relative importance and role of the state in the welfare mix, and the nexus of access to welfare and immigration enforcement. This article draws on qualitative longitudinal research in England and Italy to argue that rather than experiencing welfare through the lens of Liberal (England) versus Conservative or Mediterranean (Italy) regimes, unaccompanied young migrants and refugees in these countries are better understood as navigating different systems of ‘iron rod welfare’ and ‘colander welfare’. In England, the nexus between welfare and legal status is policed by an iron rod on one side of which exists a plethora of social rights, but on the other the risk of a proactive detention and deportation regime. In Italy, meanwhile, the holes of the colander denote gaps in protection but also possibilities to navigate alternative welfare strategies independently of the state. The ability to act independently of the state is an important but under-theorized capability for this population, for whom the state is a more ambiguous actor than is traditionally considered in European social policy.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T11:19:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221095056
       
  • The welfare state in really hard times: Political trust and satisfaction
           with the German healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Marius R Busemeyer
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic represents an enormous challenge for healthcare systems around the globe. Using original panel survey data for the case of Germany, this article studies how specific trust in the healthcare system to cope with this crisis has evolved during the course of the pandemic and whether this specific form of trust is associated with general political trust. The article finds strong evidence for a positive and robust association between generalized political trust and performance perceptions regarding the efficiency and fairness of the crisis response as well as individual treatment conditions. The article also shows that specific trust in healthcare remained relatively stable throughout 2020, but declined significantly in the spring of 2021.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T03:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221085922
       
  • Between the territory and the legacies: The politicization of active
           labour market policy in southern Europe

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      Authors: Giovanni Amerigo Giuliani, Dario Raspanti
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      The literature concerning active labour market policy (ALMP) in advanced economies during the post-Fordist Age is very informative. Nevertheless, surprisingly, we know little about ALMP politicization. By focusing on two archetypes of the Mediterranean countries, Italy and Spain, this study argues that the geographical distribution of social stratification affects ALMP politicization at the national level. Analysing the party manifestos of the main nationwide parties in the most recent electoral turnouts (2013–2019), this article shows that while the issue is highly politicized in Spain, it is almost completely neglected in Italy. We demonstrate that when outsiderness is concentrated in a delimited geographical area, as in Italy, it hinders ALMP politicization on a national level, since it becomes a regional issue. On the contrary, when it is spread across the whole national territory, as in Spain, ALMP politicization is more likely, since the issue is nationally relevant. However, the concentration of outsiders is not sufficient to trigger a change in the electoral competition dynamic and the intervening effect of policy legacy may enhance or constrain ALMP politicization.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T07:24:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221095032
       
  • Populations trust in the child protection system: A cross-country
           comparison of nine high-income jurisdictions

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      Authors: Marit Skivenes, Rami Benbenishty
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we examine the trust placed by the populations of nine jurisdictions in their child protection systems. These systems protect children’s rights and grant authority for invasive interventions to curtail or even terminate parental rights and responsibilities. We have representative samples of the populations of each jurisdiction. The results show that about 40–50% of respondents express trust in the child protection agencies, social workers and judges who make decisions. There are clear differences between jurisdictions, with the Anglo-American countries at the lower end of the trust scale. Examining the impact of institutional context, we find that institutional context matters for the degree of peoples’ trust in the child protection system. This indicates that the typology of child protection systems has relevance, and more empirical studies are encouraged. Some demographic characteristics (age, having children, income, education) and ideological variables (political orientation) are also correlated with trust levels.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T01:21:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221088172
       
  • Does social policy change impact on politics' A review of policy
           feedbacks on citizens’ political participation and attitudes towards
           politics

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      Authors: Margherita Bussi, Claire Dupuy, Virginie Van Ingelgom
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      This article asks how the most prominent recent changes in European welfare states are relevant for citizens’ political participation and attitudes toward politics, specifically citizens’ political efficacy, political interest, political trust and attribution of responsibility. We consider changes in benefits, in the form of generosity levels and conditionality, and changes in modes of delivery, including both marketization and rescaling. Reviewing the policy feedback on mass publics literature, a mainly US-centric scholarship, the article suggests that the mostly negative impacts that are theoretically expected are to be qualified in the European contexts. The article thereby reflects on the contributions and limits to what can be learned from this body of research to illuminate European cases; and it derives a research agenda to study policy feedbacks on mass publics in western Europe.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T01:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221089478
       
  • Unequal but balanced: Highly educated mothers’ perceptions of
           work–life balance during the COVID-19 lockdown in Finland and the
           Netherlands

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      Authors: Mara A. Yerkes, Chantal Remery, Stéfanie André, Milla Salin, Mia Hakovirta, Minna van Gerven
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      One year after the European work–life balance directive, which recognises the need for work–family policy support, measures to slow the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic began shaping parents’ work–life balance in significant ways. Academically, we are challenged to explore whether existing theoretical frameworks hold in this new environment with combined old and new policy frameworks. We are also challenged to understand the nuanced ways in which the first lockdown affects the combination of paid work and care. We address both of these issues, providing a cross-sectional comparative analysis of highly educated mothers’ perceptions of work–life balance during the COVID-19 pandemic in Finland and the Netherlands. Our findings show that highly educated Finnish mothers have more difficulty combining work and care during the first lockdown than Dutch mothers. The absence of state-provided care during the lockdown creates greater difficulty for full-time working Finnish mothers in a dual-earner/state-carer system than an absence of such care in the Dutch one-and-a-half earner system, where most mothers work part time. Further analyses suggest variation in part-time and (nearly) full-time hours mitigates the work–life balance experiences of highly educated Dutch mothers. Additional factors explaining cross-country variation or similarities include the presence of young children and the presence of a partner. We discuss these findings in light of current theoretical frameworks and highlight avenues for future research.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T06:29:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221080411
       
  • What’s not to like' Benefit design, funding structure and support
           for universal basic income

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      Authors: Leire Rincón, Tim Vlandas, Heikki Hiilamo
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      After decades of debates on the economic and philosophical merits and shortcomings of a universal basic income (UBI), more recent literature has started to investigate the politics of a UBI. While several studies shed new light on the individual characteristics associated with higher or lower support for a UBI, we still do not know what features of a UBI itself are attractive or not to people, nor whether other slightly different policy alternatives like means-tested and minimum incomes would be more popular. This article addresses this gap by employing a conjoint experiment fielded in Finland, where a UBI has received significant media and political attention. Our findings show that the most contentious dimension of a UBI is – surprisingly – not its universality, but instead its unconditional nature. Individuals are more likely to support policies that condition receipts upon searching for employment or being genuinely unable to work, and less likely to support policies that are fully unconditional. On the funding side, support tends to be lower for a UBI that is linked to reducing existing benefits, but higher if the UBI is to be funded by increasing taxes, especially on the rich. These findings contribute to a wider literature on the politics of UBI and to our understanding of the potential popularity of competing policy reform alternatives.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T05:52:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287211072638
       
  • Local cultural context as a moderator of the impact of childcare on
           maternal employment: Evidence from a natural experiment

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      Authors: Lukas Fervers, Anna Kurowska
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      In spite of increasing levels of female employment, having a child below school age often goes along with a substantial decrease in employment engagement for women. Consequently, previous family policy research suggests that increasing childcare availability might be a promising tool to facilitate maternal employment as it increases the economic incentive to take up work. Another line of reasoning highlights that cultural attitudes towards maternal employment are equally important in shaping the employment decisions of mothers. In this article, we combine insights of both approaches and argue that culture, in addition to its direct effect on maternal employment, moderates the impact of childcare policies. In particular, we argue that the positive effect of childcare may be weaker in more conservative cultural contexts. To assess this question empirically, we exploit the implementation of a centralised childcare reform in Poland as a natural experiment by means of a regression discontinuity design. Relying on individual-level data on employment and regional-level information on the influence of conservatism in a certain region, we run multilevel regressions with cross-level interaction terms to estimate the effect of the reform depending on the local cultural context. Consistent with our theoretical expectations, the impact of the reform is rather strong in less conservative areas but fades away in increasingly conservative contexts. Supplementary analyses reveal that the effect also differs with regard to household composition, with smaller families displaying larger gains in maternal employment. These findings confirm that conservative cultural attitudes appear to suppress the positive effect of increasing childcare availability.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T11:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221080395
       
  • Public policies supporting families with children across welfare regimes:
           An empirical assessment of six European countries

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      Authors: Pezer Martina
      First page: 254
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      Public policies supporting families with children differ among countries but with the same goal of improving the well-being of children. Using a microsimulation model, this article assesses the cash support which families receive for their children in Croatia, Greece, Germany, the Slovak Republic, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The impact of policies across the income distribution on different family sizes, child-rearing cost compensation and child poverty is estimated. A method for the calculation of child-contingent payments for each child by order of birth in the family is proposed as a complementary indicator of policy design. The results confirm that a combination of universal and targeted support (either from family or social assistance benefits) is the most effective in poverty reduction and cost compensation. While high support for larger families greatly reduces poverty, generous universal or even lower support for large families has proved to be at least equally effective.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-04-16T05:20:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221080700
       
  • The (in)equality dynamic of childcare-related policy development in
           post-Yugoslav countries

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      Authors: Ivana Dobrotić
      First page: 270
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the (in)equality dynamic of childcare-related policy reforms in post-Yugoslav countries to expose ‘silent’ cleavages embedded in parenting leaves and early childhood education and care policies design that may challenge or reinforce parental (in)equalities in employment and care opportunities. It is guided by the principles and (sub-)questions of intersectionality-based policy analysis to determine who benefits and/or is excluded from the policy goals and allocation of childcare-related resources. All former Yugoslav republics initially relied on gendered and selective childcare-related policy design, empowering only a fraction of working mothers. In the last three decades only Slovenia equalized the potential of childcare-related policy allowing various parents to more easily engage in care and employment. The other post-Yugoslav countries that were more exposed to the post-1990 societal re-traditionalization and cost-containment measures mostly exacerbated the existing or created new layers of inequalities and (dis)advantages intersecting along gender, class, ethnical and spatial lines. While enacting more socially inclusive leaves, they also amplified the systematic exclusion of some parents from access to childcare-related rights and the opportunity to work and care. Parents, particularly mothers in precarious employment, ethnic minorities and ‘new’ migrants, as well as those living in less developed areas, were the most affected by the (absence of) reforms.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T09:15:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221088167
       
  • A new poverty indicator for Europe: The extended headcount ratio

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      Authors: Tim Goedemé, Benoit Decerf, Karel Van den Bosch
      First page: 287
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      The methodology currently used to measure poverty in the European Union faces some important limitations. Capturing key aspects of poverty is done using a dashboard of indicators, which often tell conflicting stories. We propose a new income-based measure of poverty for Europe that captures in a consistent way in a single indicator the level of relative poverty, the intensity of poverty, poverty with a threshold anchored in time and a pan-European perspective on poverty. To do so, we work with a recently developed poverty index, the extended headcount ratio (EHC) and derive the relevant poverty lines to apply the index to poverty in Europe. We show empirically that our measure consistently captures the aspects typically monitored using a variety of indicators and yields rankings that seem more aligned with intuitions than those obtained by these individual indicators. According to our measure, Eastern Europe has a much higher level of poverty than Southern Europe, which, in turn, has a considerably higher level of poverty than North-Western Europe. In North-Western Europe, the evolution of our measure over time correlates most strongly with the at-risk-of-poverty rate, while in Southern and Eastern Europe, it correlates most strongly with at-risk-of-poverty with the threshold anchored in time.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T05:40:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221080414
       
  • (De)legitimization of single mothers’ welfare rights: United States,
           Britain and Israel

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      Authors: Anat Herbst-Debby
      First page: 302
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      This article contributes to the theoretical discussion of the historical legitimacy of single mothers by examining the construction of relationships between single motherhood and welfare policy. Specifically, the study analyzes the changing discourse regarding single mothers, and the social policy designed for them, in the US, UK and Israel from the 1970s to the 2000s. These three countries are similar in terms of the embeddedness, extension and institutionalization of neoliberal ideology in their welfare policies and public discourse, together with welfare legislation affecting single mothers, yet they differ in terms of policy implementation and the history of policy development. The study examines institutional intersectionality along with cultural perceptions of single mothers in each country. Looking at both the development and the withdrawal of social rights over time, we deepen understanding of how the image of the single mother is created in the neoliberal welfare regime.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T04:13:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221076743
       
  • Political party families and student social rights

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      Authors: Krzysztof Czarnecki
      First page: 317
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      The article conceptualizes student funding systems in order to investigate their ideological and political underpinnings. Using different long-term measures of cumulative power of four-party families and their combinations, and the newly created Student Support and Fees Dataset, it shows that the variety of student social rights in 32 high-income democracies in 2015 can be linked to past partisan politics. Decommodification, understood as making higher education study unconditional on labour income of students and their families, was positively associated with the rule of pro-welfare parties and negatively with the rule of Conservative parties, in the preceding two decades. Individualization, that is the state support for student transition to independent adulthood, was positively associated with the rule of left-wing parties. This, however, applies only to their long-term impact in older democracies and is to a large extent conditional on a country’s wealth. Third, social rights distribution characterized by a low degree of targeting and large recipiency rate was similarly related to the Left rule, while the Conservatives ruling in the last two decades contributed to increasing inequalities in student social rights.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T06:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221080704
       
  • Care home closure and the influence of domiciliary care supply: Evidence
           from England

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      Authors: Stephen Allan
      First page: 333
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      There is a general trend of increased marketization of long-term care (LTC) services across Europe, with the natural consequence that market forces will affect the supply of LTC. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase in the use of home-based provision for those requiring LTC support. However, there is little evidence about what the effects of growing domiciliary care provision has on the markets for institutional forms of care. This is important from a policy point of view in terms of managing local markets, access to services, the quality of services and inequality. Using data from England for all care homes and domiciliary care providers registered to provide care to older people during 2014–2016, we assessed if increased domiciliary care supply was linked to increased likelihood of care home closure. Using Cox proportional hazard models of care home closure controlling for care home characteristics including quality and local area measures of needs and income, the findings provide no evidence that domiciliary care provision is a substitute for care homes. In some specifications, there was even a complementary relationship between the two forms of social care: increased domiciliary care supply significantly reduced the likelihood of care home closure. Potential reasons for the complementary relationship and implications for European LTC policy are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T08:52:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221083835
       
  • Determinants of (in-)voluntary retirement: A systematic literature review

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      Authors: Philipp Stiemke, Moritz Hess
      First page: 348
      Abstract: Journal of European Social Policy, Ahead of Print.
      Involuntary retirement transitions have a variety of negative consequences for individuals and society as they can lead to poorer health or lower wellbeing. Therefore, it is of high relevance to better understand the factors influencing the voluntariness of retirement transitions. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify the known determinants of the voluntariness of retirement. Our final review includes 14 studies that empirically investigate this topic. Differentiated by micro-, meso- and macro-levels, we present the identified factors and discuss different ways of operationalizing voluntary or involuntary retirement. We found that most studies analyse individual factors. There is a gap in research on influencing factors at the company level as well as the welfare state level. In addition, it is of interest to examine whether and to what extent pension and labour market policy reforms have led to changes over time.
      Citation: Journal of European Social Policy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T08:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09589287221089465
       
 
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