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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
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International Journal on Child Maltreatment : Research, Policy and Practice
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2524-5236 - ISSN (Online) 2524-5244
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Barriers to Child Protection and Mental Health Service Provision for
           Trauma-Affected Youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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      Abstract: Abstract In Tanzania, limited mental health service availability and structural flaws in child protection reporting and justice processes lead to significant underreporting of child victimization. A better understanding of help-seeking behaviors for trauma-affected youth and sociocultural barriers to help-seeking will inform screening, triage, and intervention design and inform policy-level child protection service processes, including linkages to health services. Participants included 30 youth (7–17 years) with trauma experiences and 15 child healthcare professionals (CHPs) with experience treating trauma-affected youth in Dar es Salaam, the most populous region in Tanzania. In-depth qualitative interviews explored (1) current help-seeking behaviors and (2) barriers to help-seeking for trauma-affected youth. Thematic analyses were conducted within an inductive qualitative approach. Four major themes emerged: (1) youth-reporting patterns of victimization and mental health needs, (2) child protection and mental health care system capacity in Dar es Salaam, (3) consequences of non-reporting, and (4) youth and CHP recommendations. Results highlight predictors of underreporting, leading to self-directed coping and increased risk of further traumatization. Multichannel interventions are needed to provide universal child rights education, promote child reporting and procedural justice, expand mental health care access and provision, and ultimately reduce traumatization in urban Tanzanian youth.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
       
  • Child Maltreatment, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and the Public Health
           Approach: A Systematic Literature Review

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      Abstract: Abstract This study provides a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed research articles from 2011 to 2021 that examine child maltreatment or adverse childhood experiences from a public health perspective. Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. The evidence was synthesized and reported following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis procedure (PRISMA). Researchers sought to understand how current literature applies a public health approach to child maltreatment and adverse childhood experiences, as well as how that research addresses primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of child maltreatment and adverse childhood experiences. The articles were categorized into one of the four steps of the commonly used public health model including surveillance; identification of risk and protective factors; development and testing of interventions; and implementation of effective prevention and control strategies. Two articles were also categorized outside of that model, with a focus on stakeholder engagement and collaboration. Some of the articles were categorized into multiple steps within the model. In addition, the articles encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies. Recommendations for policy, practice, and future research are included.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
       
  • Fusing the Poverty-Aware Paradigm with Public Health Approaches to Protect
           Children: a Case Study of an Israeli Social Services Department

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      Abstract: Abstract This article aims to explore the potential contribution of incorporating the Poverty-Aware Paradigm for Child Protection—a critical framework for child protection policy and practice—with public health approaches to protecting children. It focuses on one Israeli social services department that embraced the Poverty-Aware Paradigm as an overarching framework for all levels of practice and specifically in the context of child protection. Based on an in-depth case study of the department’s child protection practice, the findings outline and describe the primary, secondary, and tertiary services and interventions through which the department addresses child maltreatment. These services and interventions are explored in light of Higgins and colleagues’ conceptualization of the six core components of public health approaches to preventing child maltreatment. This exploration points to the compatibly of the two frameworks and suggests three potential contributions of the Poverty-Aware Paradigm to the development of a public health approach. First, it offers a holistic and critical framework that focuses on a multidimensional analysis of child maltreatment and makes it possible to link tertiary responses to primary-level interventions. Second, it provides a firm ethical foundation rooted in a commitment to resisting social oppression and standing by parents, children, and their relationships. Third, it infuses relational concepts and practices into the policy and practice of public health approaches.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
       
  • How Interviewers Navigate Child Abuse Disclosure After an Unproductive
           Start in Forensic Interviews

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      Abstract: Abstract Obtaining abuse disclosure from children in forensic interviews can be challenging for interviewers. The present study explored strategies interviewers used when children did not disclose abuse in response to the initial invitation to provide the interview purpose. The sample included 116 forensic interviews with 4- to 16-year-olds who ultimately disclosed abuse (85% sexual). Interviewer strategies were coded following the non-productive initial invitation until the point of children’s eventual disclosure. Four main types of strategies were found: re-phrasing the initial transition prompt, asking a follow-up question, introducing prior information, and using a minimal encourager (e.g., “Uh-huh”). Strategies were coded as high- or low-quality. Consistent with predictions, 85% of children’s disclosures followed high-quality strategies. In a cycle of effective communication, such interviewer strategies predicted informative child responses, which then led to subsequent high-quality interviewer strategies. Both interviewers and children demonstrated consistency in their question and response patterns, respectively. Coupled with additional exploratory sequential analyses of interviewer-child reciprocal communication and the prior research literature, the present data suggest practical ways that interviewers can break ineffective cycles of communication in the process of obtaining child abuse disclosures.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
       
  • A Novel Strategy for Increasing Utilization of Earned Income Tax Credits
           and Reducing Adverse Childhood Experiences: The EITC Access Project

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      Abstract: Abstract EITC has positive impacts, including reduced mental health problems and stress, on parents and caregivers. These impacts also affect children. Notably, EITC is associated with decreased child maltreatment (Berger et al. Review of Economics of the Household, 15(4), 1345–1372, 2017; Biehl & Hill, 2018; Klevens et al. Public Health Reports (1974), 132(4), 505–511, 2017; Rostad et al. Child Maltreatment, 25(4), 393–397, 2020). In addition, in a study of financial literacy among IPV survivors, it was found that knowledge of EITC was limited (Postmus, 2011). Unfortunately, one in five families eligible for EITC does not receive it (Internal Revenue Service, 2019). The EITC Access Project involves a two-level strategy across 43 counties in the State of Michigan. Level 1 is a public health strategy, which includes culturally appropriate flyers and informational materials regarding EITC. Level 2 includes the community-education strategy but also includes one-on-one concentrated benefits advocacy. The benefits advocacy is layered into existing Parents As Teachers home visiting programs and involves motivational interviewing techniques, EITC information, and financial empowerment activities. Outcomes are expected to influence the provision of community education surrounding public benefits and the practice of home visiting. This manuscript describes the goals, objectives, and evaluation plan of the EITC Access Project.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
       
  • Harsh Physical Discipline: Prevalence and Associated Factors Among Primary
           Caregivers of Pre-school Children in Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Harsh parental discipline is ineffective and potentially harmful to children, yet it is still common, particularly in many African countries. Culturally responsive education programs are needed to shift parenting practices in African countries, but there is limited baseline research to inform such efforts. This study’s objectives were to establish the baseline prevalence of harsh physical discipline practices among primary caregivers of pre-school children in Ethiopia and to identify associated factors to inform intervention efforts. The well-established Parent–Child Conflict Tactics Scale section on physical assault was translated and administered to primary caregivers of 1139 pre-school children aged 4–6 years sampled from four regions of Ethiopia. Trained interviewers also collected basic socio-demographic data. Based on caregiver report, 52.5% (n = 598) of the children had experienced harsh physical discipline and an additional 12.7% (n = 145) experienced moderate physical discipline in their lifetimes. After controlling for covariates, the factors significantly related to increased likelihood of harsh discipline were geographic region, female caregivers, lack of employment, at least moderate perceived social status, and non-Muslim religion. These data establish a baseline from which to evaluate the impact of future educational interventions designed to shift practices. Information about the correlates can be used to tailor such intervention efforts toward those most likely to use harsh discipline practices.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
       
  • Correction to: Adolescent Mother Maltreatment Perpetrators’ Past
           Experiences with Child Protective Services

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      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-022-00117-w
       
  • Holding It Together' Professional Perspectives on the Role of
           Relationships when Relocating Young People due to Extra-familial Harm

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      Abstract: Abstract When young people come to harm in extra-familial contexts, professionals may move them a distance from their home community to protect them, and in doing so disrupt relationships in which they have encountered harm. However, relocations can also fracture young people’s protective relationships with family, peers, and professionals; relationships that have been positioned as targets for intervention in cases of extra-familial harm. The extent to which these relationships are considered during relocations is under-explored. Utilising semi-structured interviews with 16 social work professionals in England and Wales, we assessed their accounts of using relationships prior to, during, and following relocations in cases of extra-familial harm. Three themes emerged: using relationships during relocations to provide consistency, to collaborate, and to create safety. Professional accounts prioritised young people’s relationships with practitioners, over relationships with families, peers, and their wider communities, when using/seeking opportunities to offer consistency and to collaborate on safety plans. They also depicted a struggle to engage with the complex web of family, peer, and community relationships associated to young people’s protection in both their home communities and those they had been moved to; relationships that were critical for creating safety. Implications for practice and future research are discussed, highlighting the potential merits of offering integrated research and practice frameworks that hold together young people’s relationships with families, peers, communities, and professionals, in response to extra-familial harm.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Associations Between Micro-neighborhood Greening and Child Maltreatment

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      Abstract: Abstract We conducted a longitudinal observational study of 9873 micro-neighborhoods in a Midwestern city from 2015 to 2018 and estimated multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial models to evaluate if seasonal lawn maintenance of vacant properties was associated with a reduction in microneighborhoods’ annual summer maltreatment rates. We found a between-micro-neighborhood effect of maintenance whereby micro-neighborhoods where the entire area was maintained for the full duration of all summers had a maltreatment rate 0.43 (95% CI 0.25, 0.73) times that of micro-neighborhoods that received no maintenance. We also found a within-micro-neighborhood effect, whereby when a given micro-neighborhood had the entire area maintained the full duration of a summer, it was expected to have a maltreatment rate 0.43 (95% CI 0.19, 0.97) times that of when the same micro-neighborhood had no area maintained. Future cluster-randomized controlled trials are needed to determine if this association is causal.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Steven Walker: Children Forsaken: Child Abuse from Ancient to Modern Times

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      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-022-00116-x
       
  • The Housing Pathways and Experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
           Islander Youth as They Transition from out of Home Care in Victoria and
           Western Australia

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      Abstract: Abstract It is well established that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people are over-represented in Australian child protection and out-of-home care systems. Despite this, there has been limited analysis of their exit from care pathways. This study, based on interviews with 10 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth from Victoria and Western Australia (who were a sub-set of a larger study of 34 care leavers), examined their transition experiences and outcomes in relation to accessing stable and affordable housing. While all care leavers spoke of poor or non-existent transition planning, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participants were more likely to report incidences of homelessness and more complex experiences in a range of areas. Importantly, the group identified a need for culturally appropriate service models which built on and enhanced cultural and kinship connections.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-022-00115-y
       
  • Teaching Professionals about Trauma-Informed Practice for Children and
           their Families: a Toolkit for Practitioners

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      Abstract: Abstract Trauma-informed care has become the gold standard for treating children and families who have been exposed to traumatic events. However, it is not always clear to practitioners what such care involves. This article describes a training program for professionals designed by the Haruv Institute in Jerusalem, Israel, which teaches the elements of trauma-informed interventions. The program includes theoretical knowledge regarding trauma and its effects on children and parents and parenting, as well as skills that may be employed when working with this population. It is presented as a toolkit whose various elements may be added to the professional’s therapeutic repertoire. This training program has been well received and, for many, is considered a “game changer” regarding how professionals see their therapeutic role. However, it often creates a need for more intensive training in some of the elements of the intervention, such as talking with children about trauma, psycho-educational groups, and interventions that promote emotional regulation. Thus, the trauma-informed training program may be seen as a base to which additional, more advanced training modules may be added.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-022-00114-z
       
  • Correction to: Examining the Prospects for Developing a National Child
           Maltreatment Surveillance System in Ireland

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      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-021-00101-w
       
  • Invited Commentary: How Does Culture Matter in Child Maltreatment

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      Abstract: Abstract This invited commentary considers how the cultural context matters in understanding child maltreatment.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-021-00100-x
       
  • Escalation of Police Efficiency Diminishes POCSO Incidences—Myth or
           Reality' Evidence from Indian States

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      Abstract: Abstract The sexual abuse of children is an under-reported offence in India. In reality, child sexual abuse has outreached to epidemic status. The present study aims to explore how much police efficiency and other social, economic and demographic factors influence child sexual abuse, registered under the “Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO)” Act, for Indian states and union territory. The study is entirely based on the latest available cross-sectional secondary data mainly compiled from National Crime Record Bureau, India, for 2018. The empirical analysis is facilitated by utilising “data envelopment analysis”, “ordinary least square regression” and “quantile regression”. The empirical results suggest that higher police efficiency helps in reducing reported POCSO incidences. The quantile regression analysis reveals a paradoxical result that a higher literacy rate enhances reported POCSO incidences. The children are found to be vulnerable to the crime committed by the known persons. This effect is found to be stronger in the upper quantile of depression than the median quantile. The study ends with suitable policy suggestions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-021-00104-7
       
  • The Prevention of Child Maltreatment: Using SafeCare® to Highlight
           Successes and Needs for Improvement in Prevention Efforts

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      Abstract: Abstract Child maltreatment is a public health problem of considerable magnitude. Though substantial progress has been made in the prevention of child maltreatment, one incident of maltreatment is one too many. Intervention and/or prevention efforts must always be dynamic. In this commentary, we highlight recent prevention and policy efforts in the United States, using SafeCare, an evidence-based parent support program with a focus on the prevention of neglect, as an example. We describe broad-scale implementation efforts and offer a vision for what the field must do to realize public heath impact, highlighting recent advances of parent support models in policy, advocacy, and programs. Strategies that might improve current efforts are suggested to ensure the field not become static.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-021-00090-w
       
  • The Neglect of Children: Food for Thought and Action

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      Abstract: Abstract This commentary highlights several challenges concerning the conceptualization of child neglect and the approach to this prevalent problem, with the goal of stimulating further thought and hopefully action. Examples include consideration of potential harm, the role of culture, intentionality, and new forms of neglect related to new knowledge of children’s needs. Assessment of possible neglect, interviewing children, use of motivational interviewing, and the importance of identifying families’ strengths are additional issues. Finally, the commentary addresses alternative response systems, resilience, prevention, and advocacy. We suggest ways to tackle these challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-022-00113-0
       
  • Child Abuse Evaluations at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali
           (CHUK): Medical Education and Experience

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      Abstract: Abstract Child maltreatment is a poorly recognized phenomenon worldwide, and many pediatric healthcare professionals do not receive adequate training in child abuse and neglect evaluations. In response to the paucity of child maltreatment literature on low- to middle-income countries, this study aims to determine the education and training needs of medical professionals at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK) with respect to child abuse and neglect identification, investigation, evaluation, and case management. Data collection took place in July and August 2019 at CHUK in Kigali, Rwanda. A mixed-methods approach was employed, including semi-structured qualitative interviews with sixteen healthcare professionals (3 pediatricians, 7 pediatric residents, 2 nurses, and 4 social workers) at CHUK and a systematic chart review of child maltreatment cases evaluated at the hospital from July 2015 to July 2019. Interviews with professionals revealed perceived gaps in training regarding child maltreatment case evaluation, reporting, and management. Study participants noted the need for standardized, hospital-wide protocols for the handling of confirmed abuse and neglect cases as well as expanded curriculum on the topic throughout professional education. Chart reviews demonstrated inconsistent and sparse documentation of maltreatment cases in hospital records. In conjunction with our findings, we provide informant-based suggestions for the improvement of child abuse and neglect case management at CHUK,  including consistent training modules, inter-departmental collaboration, and systematic documentation. Beyond the hospital, participants widely agreed that child maltreatment awareness and prevention measures should be implemented at the community level with professionals from CHUK getting involved in local efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-021-00107-4
       
  • Rethinking Child Maltreatment: Children’s Perceptions of Physical and
           Emotional Maltreatment—Initial Findings

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      Abstract: Abstract The definition of child maltreatment (CM) has a direct impact on operationalization in research, on practice, and on policy formulation. While children are the main focus of the field of CM, it seems that their voices are rarely heard and that they have been excluded from the research and the process of formulating the definition of CM. The current study strives to bring to the forefront the general population of children’s perception of physical and emotional maltreatment and to gain an understanding regarding the differences and similarities of children’s perceptions and the current professional and academic perceptions of the phenomenon. Data was collected from 4 and 6th graders in 30 different schools in Israel: 21 Jewish schools and 9 Arab schools. In total, 2,536 children responded to a questionnaire composed of closed questions only and rated which parental behaviors are considered physical or emotional maltreatment. The research findings clearly indicate that children are reliable and important sources of knowledge regarding the phenomenon of CM. It seems that while they differentiate between parental discipline and CM in a similar way to the current professional view, they view the severity of CM—especially emotional maltreatment—in a way that differs from the common professional views. Moreover, the research shows that there are differences in the severity perceptions among different subgroups of children, for example, Arab and Jewish children and boys and girls.
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-021-00108-3
       
  • Child Maltreatment in Asian American and Pacific Islander Families: The
           Roles of Economic Hardship and Parental Aggravation

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      Abstract: Abstract Parents face various stressors in their daily lives, and their child discipline practices are likely to be affected by the stressors. Existing research suggests that parental stress is a significant contributor to child maltreatment, but more research is needed, particularly among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) families. This study examined the relationship between economic hardship and aggravation in parenting and three types of child maltreatment (i.e., psychological aggression, physical assault, and neglect) in AAPI families through secondary data analysis of a longitudinal de-identified data set. This study analyzed a sample size of 146 AAPI children, with mothers as the primary caregiver. Economic hardship was positively associated with psychological aggression (β = 3.104, p < .01) and physical assault (β = 1.803, p < .05). Aggravation in parenting was positively associated with neglect (β = 0.884, p < .05). The findings suggest that AAPI parents are more likely to use certain child maltreatment methods when they experience specific stressors. Researchers and practitioners should consider the various stressors that AAPI families face and how other social or economic challenges can compound these stressors.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s42448-021-00111-8
       
 
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