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Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-7532 - ISSN (Online) 2366-7540
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Correction to: Long-term ABA Therapy Is Abusive: a Response to Gorycki,
           Ruppel, and Zane

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      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • Frontoparietal connectivity, Sensory Features, and Anxiety in Children and
           Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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      Abstract: Objectives Because atypical global neural connectivity has been documented in autistic youth, but only limited data are available regarding the association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), sensory features (SF), and neural connectivity between frontal and parietal brain regions, these links were investigated in a sample of male autistic children and adolescents. Methods Forty-one autistic males aged between 6 and 18 years and their mothers were recruited as volunteer participants from Queensland, Australia. Participants underwent 3 min of eyes-closed and 3 min of eyes-opened electroencephalography (EEG) under resting conditions. EEG connectivity was investigated using Granger causality between frontal and parietal regions in alpha (8–13 Hz) and beta (13–30 Hz) bands. Results There was a significant (p < .01) positive correlation between SF and GAD. GAD was associated with some characteristics of SF in the sample population. Additionally, there was a significant (p < .01) inverse correlation between directional frontoparietal connectivity and SF during the eyes-closed condition, specifically in relation to avoiding stimuli and sensitivity to the environment. Conclusions Reduced frontoparietal connectivity in association with higher anxiety and SF may demonstrate reduced relaxation due to greater sensitivity to sensory input.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Health and Wellness: Introduction to the Special Issue

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      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Standard Urotherapy for Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities:
           A Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Objectives Standard urotherapy (SU) is regularly used as a first-line intervention for children with incontinence. It is suggested that SU is also effective for children with neurodevelopment disabilities (NDs) when altered to the specific needs of these children. The aim of the review was to answer the following research questions: (a) what was the effectiveness of SU interventions in children with ND', (b) which procedures and protocols were utilized during SU', (c) what was the role of parents during SU', and (d) what was the current evidence base regarding SU and children with NDs' Methods Four electronic databases (i.e., Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science) were searched in accordance with the JBI methodology for mixed methods systematic reviews (MMRS) in the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) manual for Evidence Synthesis. The Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT) from JBI was utilized to determine the methodological quality of the studies. Results The search resulted in the inclusion of five articles related to SU in children with ND, indicating that research relating to SU and NDs is scarce. Results of the review indicate that SU resulted in a complete or partial positive response in 30% of the children with NDs (N = 114) based on the criteria listed by the International Children’s Continence Society (ICCS). When using criteria by the authors of the included articles, the results indicate that 59% of the children achieved full continence. Most importantly, the evidence suggests that most children showed improved symptoms (e.g., reduction in urinary/fecal accidents, schedule-dependent continence) even if full continence was not obtained. Conclusions The review indicated that SU could be beneficial as a first-line treatment for children with NDs. Individualizing treatment to the needs of the child, parental involvement, follow-up appointments, and adding adjuncts when SU alone is not effective seem to be beneficial for this specific population. However, research relating to this topic is scarce and therefore more research needs to be completed regarding the role of parents and effective guidelines specific to different NDs. Implications for future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
       
  • Sensory Processing Patterns Predict Problem Behaviours in Autism Spectrum
           Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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      Abstract: Objectives Sensory processing is the ability to discern and understand information from one’s sensory organs. Understanding sensory processing patterns in different clinical groups could elicit evidence that sensory processing patterns are a transdiagnostic mechanism in neurodevelopmental disorders. Furthermore, there is little evidence of how sensory processing patterns relate to behaviours, such as attention, social, and mood difficulties in autism and ADHD. The goals of this study were to directly compare sensory processing patterns in autism, ADHD, and typical development and to explore the association between sensory processing and behavioural outcomes. Methods Data were collected through the Province of Ontario Neurodevelopmental Network. The parents of 805 children with typical development, ADHD, or ASD completed measures of sensory processing and behavioural outcomes with the Short Sensory Profile and the Childhood Behaviour Checklist, respectively. Sensory processing was compared across groups and regression analyses were conducted to determine if behavioural patterns could be predicted by sensory processing patterns in the clinical sample. Results Overall, the results identified significant differences in sensory processing patterns between the diagnosed and undiagnosed participants. Autism and ADHD differed on all Sensory Profile subscales except auditory filtering and under-responsivity/sensory seeking. All behavioural outcomes were predicted by sensory processing patterns over and above the variance accounted for by the diagnostic group, suggesting that understanding sensory processing patterns is an important piece of a comprehensive understanding of the behavioural patterns observed across multiple clinical populations. Conclusions There is evidence that sensory processing is different in ASD and ADHD but that specific patterns of sensory processing are related to behavioural outcomes in both disorders. Better understanding sensory processing as a mechanism for behaviour can help to identify simple interventions across neurodevelopmental disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
       
  • Gluten-Free and Casein-Free Diet for Children with Autism Spectrum
           Disorder: a Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Objectives The purpose of this review was to systematically search and critically analyse literature concerning the efficacy of gluten-free and/or casein-free diets in treating maladaptive behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder. Methods Eleven randomized clinical trials retrieved from PubMed and Cochrane Library databases and hand search were reviewed and assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool. Results Samples were mostly small, and few studies yielded evidence of statistically significant behavioural outcomes attributable to dietary interventions. Conclusions The results of this review imply that the efficacy of gluten-free and/or casein-free diets for individuals with autism spectrum disorder remains unsubstantiated. Larger and better designed studies focused on specific outcomes, and which are not dependent on unblinded researcher or parent report, are needed to establish whether gluten-free and/or casein-free diets are effective for children with autism spectrum disorder or any subgroup of such children. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO CRD42020142407.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
       
  • Cooper R. Woodard: Where Does Autism Come From' The Theory of
           “Almost I”. 2020, 190 pp

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      PubDate: 2022-06-27
       
  • Teachers’ Perceptions of an Early Intervention Coaching Program

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      Abstract: Objectives Inclusive preschools appear to be logical settings for the delivery of early intervention for young autistic children. Regular preschool teachers may also be well-suited to delivering early intervention. This study is part of a larger study, in which three preschool teachers participated in a coaching program based around the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), a promising early intervention model for young autistic children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate teachers’ perceptions regarding the social validity of the coaching program and the ESDM techniques. Methods A quantitative questionnaire and semi-structured qualitative interviews were used to explore teachers’ perceptions of the acceptability and effectiveness of the intervention. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Results Overall, findings suggest that teachers perceived the coaching program and the ESDM strategies to be highly acceptable and effective; however, there was some variation in teachers’ perceptions of specific elements and strategies. Teachers suggested that the program could be further improved through the provision of more targeted coaching support focused on behavioral teaching strategies and more time for one-on-one practice with target children. Conclusions This research could be viewed as providing preliminary support for the social validity of the focus intervention for this group of teachers. It seems important for future research to address the identified limitations in the present research and to examine in further detail the social validity of this intervention for ECE teachers in inclusive preschool settings. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): Registration no. 12618000324213.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • Changes of Gut Microbiota in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Common
           

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      Abstract: Objectives Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often occurs in children and seriously affects daily life. In recent years, many studies have shown that intestinal microbial imbalance and intestinal-brain dysfunction may be the critical mechanism for the formation of ASD. This article reviews the changes in the gut microbiota of patients and their impact mechanisms, and the current mechanisms of probiotic and traditional Chinese medicine therapies. Methods A review of contemporary peer-reviewed studies. Pubmed and Cnki were the databases used to identify the studies. Results The majority of the reviewed studies demonstrated that changes in the gut microbiota can directly or indirectly induce ASD by affecting the immune system, nervous system, and endocrine system. Probiotics can improve brain function by affecting the vagus nerve, and improve metabolism by regulating the expression of neuroendocrine hormones. According to the Chinese medicine theory, there are three leading causes of ASD such as deficiency of kidney essence, stagnation of liver qi, and malnutrition of heart spirit. Conclusions The fermentation of Chinese herbal medicine and probiotics can be further studied and may become a new type of treatment for ASD in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
       
  • A Parent-Mediated Intervention for Newborns at Familial Likelihood of
           Autism: Initial Feasibility Study in the General Population

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      Abstract: Objectives Developmental theory and previous studies support the potential value of prodromal interventions for infants at elevated likelihood of developing autism. Past research has supported the efficacy of parent-mediated prodromal therapies with infants from as early as 7 months. We outline the rationale for implementing interventions following this model from even earlier in development and report on the feasibility of a novel intervention developed following this model of parent-mediated infant interventions. Methods We report a feasibility study (n = 13) of a parent-mediated, video-aided intervention, beginning during pregnancy, focussed on parent-infant interactions. The study evaluated the feasibility of this intervention initially with a general population sample. Feasibility was assessed across four domains (acceptability, implementation, practicality and integration) using self-report questionnaire, semi-structured interviews with parents and therapists, attendance and assessment completion. Results Feasibility assessment shows that the intervention was acceptable, with all participants reporting that they had benefited from the program, with perceived positive benefits to their understanding of and communication with their infant, and that they had integrated program teachings into everyday life. The intervention was implemented as planned with 100% attendance for the core sessions. Changes to minimise the number of antenatal sessions was suggested to improve practicality. Conclusions This study found initial feasibility for this intervention in a general population sample. This suggests parent-mediated video feedback interventions are a promising format to be implemented within the perinatal developmental time period.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • Further Examination of the Children’s Psychological Flexibility
           Questionnaire (CPFQ): Convergent Validity and Age Appropriateness

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      Abstract: Objectives The present study examines the correspondence between the Children’s Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (CPFQ) and three commonly used psychological flexibility measures between a sample of neurotypical children and adults. Methods One hundred and one children and 106 adults completed the CPFQ, Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM), Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire-Youth (AFQ-Y), and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), and results were compared within and between age groups. Results Correlations between scores on each measure were computed and yielded statistically significant correlations between the CPFQ and the CAMM (r = .553, p < .001), the AFQ-Y (r = − .646, p < .001), and the AAQ-II (r = − .563, p < .001). Conclusion The obtained measures of CPFQ suggest that the measure is appropriate for use with children and adult populations. The findings are consistent with patterns observed on established measures, establishing convergent validity among investigated measures. Implications for the age appropriateness of the language used on CPFQ and the CPFQ’s clinical utility are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • Routines as a Protective Factor for Emerging Mental Health and Behavioral
           Problems in Children with Neurodevelopmental Delays

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      Abstract: Objectives Children with neurodevelopmental delays show higher levels of externalizing behavioral problems, resulting in increased parental stress. This study aims to determine if the frequency of family routines moderates children’s externalizing problems and associated parental stress based on children’s cognitive ability longitudinally. Methods Children with neurodevelopmental delays and caregivers (N = 202) participated in assessments that included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Forth Edition, Child Behavior Checklist, Parent Daily Report, and Family Routines Inventory. Child participants were 28 to 72 months old (M = 48.00, SD = 10.652) and predominantly male (69.3%). Results Frequency of family routines at baseline (b =  − .375, SE = .112, p = .001) was associated with lower child externalizing behaviours at baseline (b =  − .104, SE = .047, p = .031). Frequency of family routines moderated parental stress for children with average (i.e., at the mean; b =  − .211, SE = .119, p = .08) and above average (i.e., 1SD above mean; b =  − .436, SE = .177, p = .02) nonverbal skills. Longitudinally, increased frequency of family routines (b =  − .193, SE = .092, p = .04) was associated with less child externalizing behaviors. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that routines may reduce parental stress, but the use of routines alone may be less practical for children with lower verbal skills. Additionally, the importance of routines for minimizing behavioral problems in children was significant for children with average or higher nonverbal skills at baseline, suggesting that nonverbal skills are protective for these children.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
       
  • Examination of School Absenteeism Among Preschool and Elementary School
           Autistic Students

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      Abstract: Objectives Recent estimates of school absenteeism for autistic students show higher than expected rates compared to non-autistic peers. There is a limited understanding of absenteeism for younger autistic students with co-occurring intellectual disability in the USA. Thus, this study examined the prevalence of school absenteeism for autistic preschool and elementary school students and identified reasons for absenteeism using school records. Methods An archival school attendance dataset for students between the ages of 3 and 11 years old who attended a special education school program was utilized. Twenty preschool and 54 elementary school students were included in the analyzed dataset. Results The median percent of school days missed for elementary participants was 9.1% and 17.1% for preschool students. Age was negatively correlated with median percent of days absent, r =  − .239, p = .040. Major reasons for excused absences included medical illness, doctor’s appointments, and sleep problems. A longitudinal analysis showed that average absence rates in year 3 were lower than year 1 for a sub-sample of elementary school students, Z =  − 2.480, p = 0.013. Conclusions Findings extended other research on absenteeism in older elementary autistic students and suggesting that absenteeism decreases over time. Results warrant increased attention to improved understanding of predictors of absenteeism for these age groups.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
       
  • A Preliminary Study of the Eye-Gaze Patterns and Reading Comprehension
           Skill of Students on the Autism Spectrum

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      Abstract: Objectives To identify, using eye-tracking technology, if readers on the autism spectrum (AS) would exhibit longer mean fixation times during question-answering but similar levels of comprehension accuracy to typically developing (TD) individuals. Methods The eye-gaze behavior of two school-aged autistic children and two TD children with similar reading abilities, age, gender, and grade level, was tracked while they read age-appropriate passages and answered related comprehension questions. Results Both participants on the AS displayed longer mean fixations than TD participants during question-answering. Despite the longer fixations during question-answering, the accuracy of the participants on the AS was equal to or superior to those of the TD participants. Conclusions Longer mean fixation durations during question-answering did not result in lower reading comprehension scores.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Hope in Neurodiverse Adolescents: Disparities and Correlates

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      Abstract: Objectives Hope is reliably associated with positive outcomes in youth; however, prior literature has yet to explore hope in neurodiverse individuals. As adolescents with neurodevelopmental differences (ND) display distinct neurocognitive profiles and are at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, it is essential to understand how this marginalized group may vary in their own subjective ratings of hope, and how hope may relate to positive adjustment in this population. Further investigation of relational determinants, such as family characteristics and peer relationships, is also warranted to increase understanding of how various dimensions of social support relate to hope for different populations. Methods The current study assessed group differences in hope for ND adolescents on the autism spectrum and/or with intellectual disabilities, as compared to neurotypical (NT) adolescents. Additionally, correlates and predictors of hope were clarified across neurodiverse groups. Participants included 185 adolescents (NT: n = 96; ND: n = 89) and their mothers as part of a larger longitudinal study. Results Results indicated that adolescents with ND reported significantly lower hope than NT peers, t(183) = 3.31, p = .001, with autistic adolescents at highest risk. Regardless of neurodevelopmental status, greater hope was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms (F(1,178) = 12.35, p = .001) and higher quality of life (F(1,179) = 57.05, p < .001). Furthermore, maternal scaffolding and adolescent social skills were predictive of higher hope across groups. Conclusions Findings underscore the importance of hope in adolescence for all youth and highlight avenues for intervention.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Evaluating the Acceptability and Social Validity of a Caregiver-Led
           Technology-Based Menstrual Hygiene Management Intervention for Youth on
           the Autism Spectrum

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      Abstract: Objectives Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is a critical area of daily living skills for neurodiverse menstruators in which few evidence-based interventions exist. This study evaluated the acceptability and social validity of a caregiver-mediated intervention for youth on the autism spectrum utilizing behavior skills training, animated video modeling, task analysis, and telehealth services to improve changing a menstrual pad. Methods The consultant recruited three youth and caregiver dyads to test the intervention and collect acceptability and social validity assessments. Materials varied based on the phase of the study; however, a typical trial required data collection sheets, youth’s underwear, a menstrual pad, and, during intervention, the video model and hardware technology. A multiple baseline design across participants and reversal design were used to demonstrate experimental effects. Due to the sensitive nature of the study, independence and accuracy data were collected by caregivers and analyzed later by the consultant through visual analysis. Results Overall, youth participants improved their percentage of independent and accurate steps of changing a menstrual pad. Furthermore, caregivers reported moderate to high levels of acceptability of the telehealth service delivery and animated video modeling, as well as the overall MHM training program measured by the Technology Acceptability Model-Fast Form (FF-TAM) and the Behavior Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS), respectively. Youth reported high levels of acceptability of the MHM training program as measured by the Child Intervention Rating Profile (CIRP). Conclusions Results suggest that a technology-based, caregiver-mediated MHM intervention for neurodiverse youth would be considered acceptable and socially valid by caregiver and youth participants.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41252-022-00261-x
       
  • New Hematological Parameters as Inflammatory Biomarkers: Systemic Immune
           Inflammation Index, Platerethritis, and Platelet Distribution Width in
           Patients with Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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      Abstract: Objectives The potential role of neuroinflammation in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients has been investigated with peripheral hemogram-related inflammatory markers. Systemic immune inflammation index (SII) is defined as a new index that has been developed for the balance of inflammatory and immune status. Methods Our study was based on a prospective routine complete blood count(CBC) analysis of 74 Adult ADHD patients and 70 healthy participants. The DSM-5-Clinician version and Barratt impulsivity scale-11 were used to evaluate the participants. Results There was no statistical difference in the comparison of the SII ratios, platelet distribution width (PDW), and plateretritis (PCT) (p>0.05 for each) in a group of a young adults with ADHD and in a comparison control group. These inflammatory indicators were found to be similar between patients newly diagnosed with ADHD (n=40) and patients using methylphenidate (n=34) (p>0.05 for each). The relationship between ADHD clinical symptoms and severity and inflammation was evaluated. A significant negative correlation was observed between attention deficit scores and PCT (r=−0.301, p=0.009). A positive significant correlation was found between hyperactivity scores and SII (r=0.247, p=0.034). A significant positive correlation was found between Barrat motor scores and PDW(r=241, p=0.038). In the regression analysis, the PCT variable changed the attention deficit variable (β=.33, t(70)= −2.703, p=.009, pr2= .094) predicted negatively and significantly. Conclusions We demonstrated the association of SII, which is independently associated with adverse outcomes in many diseases, and the severity of hyperactivity symptoms in adult ADHD. The fact that PCT predicts attention deficit negatively and decisively shows the importance of inflammatory assessments specific to clinical presentations. The critical importance of platelets in inflammatory processes in ADHD has been demonstrated once again with inflammatory markers such as SII, PLT, and PDW, which can be accessed by an easily applicable complete blood count method.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41252-022-00258-6
       
  • Caregiver Satisfaction with Delivery of Telehealth Autism Services

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      Abstract: Objective The purpose of this study was to assess satisfaction with telehealth interventions for a large nonprofit organization that transitioned interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to telehealth during a pandemic. Services provided via telehealth included applied behavior analysis (ABA), speech and language, and occupational therapies. A secondary survey evaluated reasons for declining telehealth services. Methods A survey was administered to 10,567 families who were receiving autism interventions. A total of 440 respondents answered all the questions on the survey, and their results were included in this study. A secondary survey was administered to 223 individuals who declined to have telehealth autism interventions. Results There was not a clinically meaningful difference in satisfaction across service types. Although all ratings were in the high range, caregivers ranked speech therapists as more dependable than ABA therapists, and this difference was statistically significant. The findings suggested that the majority of caregivers were generally satisfied with services provided in a telehealth format. For those who declined services, the majority indicated a discomfort with the use of technology. Conclusions The participants of telehealth autism interventions reported high general satisfaction and indicated an improvement in their quality of life. Results provide suggestive evidence that increased satisfaction of telehealth services may allow for further acceptability and access for participants. Future research should evaluate participant and clinician satisfaction with telehealth versus in-person interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s41252-022-00256-8
       
  • Investigation of Genetic Polymorphism in Autism Spectrum Disorder: a
           Pathogenesis of the Neurodevelopmental Disorder

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      Abstract: Objectives Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition marked by stereotyped behavior and poor social interaction. Although the etiology of this illness is unknown, research clearly shows that it has a genetic foundation due to complicated inheritance. It affects about 52 million individuals worldwide. Several risk factors for autism converge into possible pathways for other neurodevelopmental diseases, with onsets occurring at various stages of development. Methods In the study’s literature review, the genes included were identified in articles published over the previous 30 years in databases such as the web of sciences, PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and other databases. Candidate genes associated with ASD are CHD8, SHANK3, SLC6A4, RELN, DISC1, and ITGB3. Results Several prenatal risk factors cause neurological vulnerability, which increases the probability of autism and other neurodevelopmental problems. Genomic research has allowed tremendous progress in discovering ASD risk genes during the last decade. Recent technological advancements have demonstrated that certain genetic mutations and modifications may serve as useful biological markers, risk indicators, and therapeutic targets for illnesses. Conclusions In large cohorts, high-throughput next-generation sequencing uncovers a varied and complicated genetic landscape of new risk genes. More studies are needed to understand better the environmental variables that play a crucial role in disease development. Currently, there is less clinical data to support the function of ASD. However, the prevailing research facts for many researched ASD new candidate genes support their links and identify ASD etiologic processes for establishing an early diagnostic marker.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s41252-022-00251-z
       
  • Wrong Brains at the Wrong Time' Understanding ADHD Through the
           Diachronic Constitution of Minds

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      Abstract: Objectives The purpose of this theoretical analysis of current research on ADHD is to provide an account integrating executive functional profiles with its broader structural neurodevelopmental profile. Methods Comparative theoretical analyses between executive functional deficit disorder models of ADHD and results from default mode network fMRI data. This was followed by an analysis of the temporal profile of ADHD and phase synchronous neural assemblies. Results Comparative analyses suggest disparities within executive functional deficit disorder models and discontinuities between executive functional and structural profiles of ADHD. Analysis of the temporal signature of ADHD provides a potential avenue for integrating different profiles by means of anchoring executive functions within inherent diachronic neurocognitive organization. Conclusions The analyses provided suggest that executive functional deficits in ADHD arise from much broader idiosyncrasies, rooted within the inherent diachronic organization of neurocognitive function, and whose challenges must be understood in conjunction with socio cultural environmental factors.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s41252-022-00244-y
       
 
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