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Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-7532 - ISSN (Online) 2366-7540
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • A Parent-Mediated Intervention for Newborns at Familial Likelihood of
           Autism: Initial Feasibility Study in the General Population

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      Abstract: Objectives Developmental theory and previous studies support the potential value of prodromal interventions for infants at elevated likelihood of developing autism. Past research has supported the efficacy of parent-mediated prodromal therapies with infants from as early as 7 months. We outline the rationale for implementing interventions following this model from even earlier in development and report on the feasibility of a novel intervention developed following this model of parent-mediated infant interventions. Methods We report a feasibility study (n = 13) of a parent-mediated, video-aided intervention, beginning during pregnancy, focussed on parent-infant interactions. The study evaluated the feasibility of this intervention initially with a general population sample. Feasibility was assessed across four domains (acceptability, implementation, practicality and integration) using self-report questionnaire, semi-structured interviews with parents and therapists, attendance and assessment completion. Results Feasibility assessment shows that the intervention was acceptable, with all participants reporting that they had benefited from the program, with perceived positive benefits to their understanding of and communication with their infant, and that they had integrated program teachings into everyday life. The intervention was implemented as planned with 100% attendance for the core sessions. Changes to minimise the number of antenatal sessions was suggested to improve practicality. Conclusions This study found initial feasibility for this intervention in a general population sample. This suggests parent-mediated video feedback interventions are a promising format to be implemented within the perinatal developmental time period.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Teachers’ Perceptions of an Early Intervention Coaching Program

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      Abstract: Objectives Inclusive preschools appear to be logical settings for the delivery of early intervention for young autistic children. Regular preschool teachers may also be well-suited to delivering early intervention. This study is part of a larger study, in which three preschool teachers participated in a coaching program based around the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), a promising early intervention model for young autistic children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate teachers’ perceptions regarding the social validity of the coaching program and the ESDM techniques. Methods A quantitative questionnaire and semi-structured qualitative interviews were used to explore teachers’ perceptions of the acceptability and effectiveness of the intervention. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Results Overall, findings suggest that teachers perceived the coaching program and the ESDM strategies to be highly acceptable and effective; however, there was some variation in teachers’ perceptions of specific elements and strategies. Teachers suggested that the program could be further improved through the provision of more targeted coaching support focused on behavioral teaching strategies and more time for one-on-one practice with target children. Conclusions This research could be viewed as providing preliminary support for the social validity of the focus intervention for this group of teachers. It seems important for future research to address the identified limitations in the present research and to examine in further detail the social validity of this intervention for ECE teachers in inclusive preschool settings. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): Registration no. 12618000324213.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Parent Perceptions of Sleep-Related Stereotypy Within Sleep Problems in
           Children on the Autism Spectrum: Implications for Behavioral Treatment

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      Abstract: Objectives Sleep problems in children on the autism spectrum may be affected by core diagnostic characteristics, including stereotypy (restricted and repetitive behaviors). Little is known about the nature of sleep-related stereotypy and its role within sleep disturbance. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the types of sleep-related stereotypy, its potential role within sleep difficulties, and how parents manage night-time stereotypy, in children on the autism spectrum. Methods This qualitative study used thematic analysis to analyze clinical assessment reports obtained from 21 parents of children on the autism spectrum referred for behavioral sleep intervention. Five themes, including the types of stereotypy, timing within sleep problems, stereotypy as sleep-interfering, stereotypy as sleep-conducive, and parent-responses, were identified. A clinical case study illustrates the potential role of vocal stereotypy within night wakings, through functional assessment and treatment of sleep problems in a child on the autism spectrum. Results Stereotypy included vocal and motor behaviors and repetitive manipulation of objects. Parents perceived stereotypy as both problematic and as beneficial to sleep, which may differentially affect behavioral treatment. Parent responses to stereotypy were varied and included co-sleeping. The case study highlights the complexity of the sleep and stereotypy relationship and the difficulty in treating automatically maintained behavior in the sleep context. Conclusion The function that stereotypy serves in relation to sleep disturbance is unclear and may differ across and within children. It is important we seek to better understand the specific ways that stereotypy may affect sleep, and vice versa, to improve clinical management of sleep problems in children on the autism spectrum.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Telehealth Training in Naturalistic Communication Intervention for Mothers
           of Children with Angelman Syndrome

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      Abstract:    Objectives  Young children with Angelman syndrome have significant delays in expressive communication. Parents of children with Angelman syndrome require training to support their child’s communication development. Unfortunately, parent training focused on the needs of families of children with rare genetic syndromes is unavailable to many families. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a telehealth parent training program on naturalistic communication intervention for young children with Angelman syndrome. Methods Using two single-case multiple baseline designs across a total of six parent–child dyads, we evaluated the effects of a telehealth parent training program on parent implementation fidelity of a naturalistic communication intervention, child communication, and child engagement. Results With the telehealth parent training program, parent implementation fidelity of naturalistic communication intervention improved, maintained and generalized to untrained home routines. Small effects on child communication and engagement were observed during the program. Conclusions Parents of children with Angelman syndrome were successfully taught via telehealth to implement a naturalistic communication intervention with their child at home. Additional research is needed to promote positive child communication outcomes through parent-mediated intervention.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • “It Was Such a Different Experience”: a Qualitative Study of Parental
           Perinatal Experiences When Having a Subsequent Child After Having a Child
           Diagnosed with Autism

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      Abstract: Objectives Children who have an older sibling diagnosed with autism have an increased likelihood of being diagnosed with autism or developing broader developmental difficulties. This study explored perinatal experiences of parents of a child diagnosed with autism, spanning pre-conception until the subsequent child’s early developmental period. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with ten parents of a child diagnosed with autism, and ten parents of a child with no neurodevelopmental diagnosis, each of whom had gone on to have a subsequent child. Thematic analysis occurred concurrently with data collection and involved comparisons between the two samples. Results Four themes were identified in relation to the perinatal period of a subsequent child following the autism diagnosis of an older child. These were parental experiences of “apprehension”, “adjustment”, and “adaptation”, underpinned by the “importance of support”. Many experiences of parenting were similar between the two groups, with comparison between the groups identifying the role of autism in an increased focus, concern, and hypervigilance to their child’s development. Conclusions Having a child diagnosed with autism intensifies some of the common experiences of parenting and infancy. The challenges identified by parents throughout the experience of parenting an infant after having a child diagnosed with autism indicate that the development of supports could help empower families in this situation going forwards.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • An Overview of the Adaptive Behaviour Profile in Young Children with
           Angelman Syndrome: Insights from the Global Angelman Syndrome Registry

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      Abstract: Objectives Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the expression of the UBE3A gene within the central nervous system that profoundly impacts neurodevelopment. Individuals with AS experience significant challenges across multiple adaptive behaviour domains including communication, motor skills, and the ability to independently perform daily functions such as feeding, and toileting. Furthermore, persons with AS can demonstrate specific behaviours that limit their ability to participate within their social environment that vary with age. The aim of this paper is to explore the adaptive behaviour profile through parent report from the Global Angelman Syndrome Registry. Methods Specific parent report data from the Global Angelman Syndrome Registry were analysed to explore the adaptive profile of 204 young children, under the age of 6 years old, with formal diagnoses of AS. Analysis of data focused on communication skills, gross and fine motor skills, daily self-care skills (feeding, toileting, and dressing), and behavioural characteristics. Several relationships were explored: (a) the age at which certain skills were first performed based on genotype; (b) abilities in motor and adaptive behaviours, according to age and genotype, and (c) the frequency at which children performed specific communication skills and the presence and frequency of challenging behaviours, across age and genotype. Results We visually present the ages at which frequent speech, walking, and independent dressing and toileting were first mastered by children. Additionally, we provide in-depth descriptives of expressive and receptive communication skills (including the use of alternative communication forms), fine and gross motor skills, eating, dressing, toileting, anxiety, aggression, and other behavioural characteristics. Conclusions This cross-sectional profile of adaptive skills in 204 young children with AS showcases that although many communication, motor and adaptive skills were determined by age, children with a non-deletion aetiology exhibited advantages in communication skills, which may have impacted upon subsequent adaptive skills. The use of parent report in the present study provides valuable insight into the adaptive behaviour profile of young children with AS.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • An Evaluation of Early Childhood Program Adaptations for Implementing the
           Pyramid Model for Children with and Without Developmental Disabilities

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      Abstract: Objective This study sought to document the necessary adaptations to early childhood education program policies, procedures, and funding allocations to fully implement the Pyramid Model framework with fidelity. Methods An administrative interview including both quantitative and qualitative data was developed for the purposes of the research. Ten program directors and administrative staff from 6 CSEFEL and TACSEI demonstration site programs in 4 states across the USA participated. Results Quantitative results revealed that program administrators reported either altering (70.44%) or creating (60.52%) a new policy, procedure, or budget item for a majority of all interview item categories to fully implement the Pyramid Model. Across interview items, more than half of demonstration programs (69%) reported altering or creating a program policy, procedure, or budget item. Over half of programs (58%) also reported that these policies, procedures, or related budget items were documented in writing. Qualitative results suggested that program administrators viewed (1) program alterations reflecting alignment specifically with Pyramid Model practices; (2) intra-program collaboration and collaboration between program staff and stakeholders; and (3) written documentation of program policies, procedures, or budget items as highly important for fully implementing the Pyramid Model with fidelity. Conclusions Results provide detailed information regarding specific ways that administrators adapted program policies, procedures, and related budget items to fully implement the Pyramid Model with fidelity. These findings can prove useful for administrators aiming to successfully implement the Pyramid Model framework in their early childhood programs to support children with developmental disabilities and typically developing children.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Use of a mHealth Mobile Application to Reduce Stress in Adults with
           Autism: a Pre-Post Pilot Study of the Stress Autism Mate (SAM)

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      Abstract: Objectives Adults with autism often need support to detect their stress and to apply adequate coping strategies for dealing with daily stress. The personalized mobile application Stress Autism Mate (SAM) is developed for and by adults with autism to detect and cope with daily life stress. SAM measures stress four times daily, generates an overview of the patients’ stress level and gives personalized advice to reduce stress. Methods With a pre-to post-treatment design, the level of perceived stress, coping self-efficacy and self-rated quality of life (QoL) was assessed at baseline (pre-test), after the four-week intervention (post-test) and after eight-week follow-up. Data was analysed using multilevel analysis taking within subject variance into account. Results At post-test measurement, there was a significant decrease in perceived stress. At post-test as well as follow-up, a significant improvement in coping self-efficacy and improvement in self-rated QoL was seen. Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that the personalized mHealth tool SAM can support adults with autism in detecting stress, improving their stress coping skills and improving their self-rated quality of life. In practice, SAM can be seen as an external stress monitor that can easily be integrated in the lives of adults with autism, to detect and cope with stress.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Evaluating a Two-Tiered Parent Coaching Intervention for Young Autistic
           Children Using the Early Start Denver Model

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      Abstract: Objectives Early intervention can improve the outcomes of young autistic children, and parents may be well placed to deliver these interventions. The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is a naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention that can be implemented by parents with their own children (P-ESDM). This study evaluated a two-tiered P-ESDM intervention that used a group parent coaching program, and a 1:1 parent coaching program. We evaluated changes in parent use of the ESDM and parent stress, as well as child engagement, communication, and imitation. Methods Seven autistic or probably autistic children (< 60 months old) and their parents participated. A multiple-baseline design was used to compare individual changes between Baseline 1, Group Coaching (Tier 1), Baseline 2, and 1:1 Coaching (Tier 2). Parent and child behaviors were analyzed from weekly videos and graphed. Parenting stress was measured. Results All parents improved in their use of ESDM strategies after the Tier 1 intervention. Changes in parent fidelity during Tier 2 were mixed, but all parents maintained higher than baseline levels of fidelity. Six parents demonstrated above 75% ESDM fidelity in at least one session. There were positive changes in parent stress levels pre- post-intervention. Positive results were found for most children’s levels of engagement, imitation, and communication. There were significant positive relationships between parent fidelity and both child engagement and child functional utterances. Conclusions Group P-ESDM is a promising approach for improving parent fidelity and some child outcomes. Future randomized and controlled studies of group P-ESDM, using standardized outcome measures, are warranted.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Self-compassion Intervention for Parents of Children with Developmental
           Disabilities: A Feasibility Study

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      Abstract: Objectives Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DDs) experience greater psychological distress (e.g., stress and depression) compared to parents of children without DDs. Self-compassion (i.e., responding with compassion to oneself during times of stress and difficulty) is associated with greater self-care as well as lower levels of stress, depression, and internalized stigma among parents of children with DDs. In this study, we tested the feasibility of a 4-week brief, asynchronous, online intervention targeting self-compassion among parents of children with DDs. Methods Participants were fifty parents (48 mothers; 2 fathers) of children with DDs. Participants’ ages ranged from 25 to 62 years (M = 42.1 years, SD = 7.9 years), and 88% of participants had one child with a DD, and the remaining parents had two or more children with DDs. Child diagnoses included Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. Feasibility was assessed in five domains (i.e., acceptability, demand, implementation, practicability, and limited efficacy) using a combination of self-report measures, qualitative feedback, and data on attrition. Results Most parents (84%) completed ≥ 3 modules, and 74% completed all four modules. Almost all parents (> 90%) reported that they would recommend the intervention to others. Paired-samples t-tests demonstrated significant pre-intervention to post-intervention increases in self-compassion and well-being, and significant reductions in parent depression and stress. Conclusions Overall, data support feasibility of the 4-week intervention targeting parent self-compassion and provide preliminary efficacy data that need to be followed up in a larger randomized control trial.
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
       
  • Practical Approaches and Socially Valid Assessment Considerations for
           Learners with Emergent Communication and Severe Intellectual Disability

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      Abstract:    Objectives Assessment strategies for communication in learners with severe ID who are at the emergent stage of language development have evolved since first applied from speech act theory over 50 years ago. These efforts have resulted in measures that have increasingly been able to document the wide range of communicative abilities of learners with severe ID to inform intervention planning. In this paper, we indicate how assessment strategies for communication in learners with severe ID who are at the emergent stage of language development have evolved. Methods We review literature from speech act theory over 50 years ago and consider measures that have increasingly been able to document the wide range of communicative abilities of learners with severe ID to inform intervention planning. Results Emergent communication has been described as serving a number of functions and may include a number of forms, such as nonintentional behaviors interpreted by others (perlocutionary communication), purposeful nonsymbolic signals (illocutionary), or representational symbol forms (locutionary). This knowledge has motivated and informed a variety of clinical practices for learners who use emergent communication and furthered developments in systematic assessment procedures to observe and document this range of communication ability. As a result, the abilities of learners with severe ID have been realized and supported through intervention planning. Conclusions To continue to optimize opportunities for communication development, it is proposed that comprehensive assessment practices moving forward should be grounded in an identity-focused and interprofessional framework. A number of practical strategies that target family interviews, observation and sampling across contexts, formal test administration, and new technologies for assessment could be used for learners regardless of their ability to communicate with intention. These strategies, when grounded in an identity-focused framework with the support of an interprofessional team may best ensure socially valid data is collected for intervention planning.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Functional Communication Training for Toddlers At-Risk for Autism with
           Early Problem Behavior

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      Abstract: Objective Problem behavior typically emerges in early childhood as part of human development. Current approaches to intervention wait to see if child maturation will naturally lead to reduction of behavior. However, for children at-risk for autism, there is may be a need to provide intervention during this early phase to prevent escalation of problem behavior and promote functional communication. Functional communication training (FCT) is an evidence-based intervention that consists of identifying the function of problem behavior, and teaching a functional communication response (FCR) that serves the same function as the problem behavior. In this study, researchers evaluated the use of FCT to teach toddlers at risk for autism to appropriately request for caregiver attention instead of engaging in early problem behavior (EPB) when the caregiver withdrew their attention. Methods Four children participated in this study. Researchers used a non-concurrent multiple baseline design to evaluate the effects of FCT on participant FCR and EBP. Sessions occurred twice a week for up to 15 weeks. Results EPB decreased for all participants from 100% of trials in baseline to 0% of trials in intervention. The use of functional communication increased in all participants from 0% of trials in baseline to 100% of trials in intervention. Two of the four participants maintained their treatment gains during the reversal phase. Conclusions This study replicates previous FCT research by extending the evidence-based practice to very young children (under 3 years old) who meet criteria to be identified as at-risk for autism.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Early Assessment and Intervention: Introduction to the Special Issue

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      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
  • Comparing Low Dosages of ABA Treatment on Children’s Treatment Gains
           and School Readiness

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      Abstract: Objectives The current study analyzed the data from a 1-year pragmatic clinical trial on the effectiveness of a naturalistic implementation of the PEAK Relational Training System in a public school setting. Methods We accessed student records from two classrooms at the same grade level within one public school. Students’ assignments in these two classrooms were based on the severity of their diagnosis. Students in both classrooms received conventional special education services and applied behavior analysis intervention based on the PEAK Relational Training System. Post hoc analyses were conducted after one school year to compare students’ behavior skill levels, school readiness skills, and their relationship with their daily dosage of ABA intervention. Results Post hoc analyses indicated a significant difference in students’ behavior skill level and school readiness skills at the beginning of the school year. Significant differences were also found in the amount of PEAK interventions delivered to each classroom. At the end of the school year, all students demonstrated improvements on the PEAK pre-assessment (p < .001) and the Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA; p < .001). A secondary analysis examined variables that predicted students’ progress and showed that their daily ABA dosage (R2 = .278) was a significant predictor of their BSRA improvement. Conclusions The current study added to a growing body of research demonstrating the utility and feasibility of implementing PEAK-based interventions in special education settings. Behavior interventions along with special education practices produced significant outcomes on students’ overall skill level and school readiness. Implications of applying a low dosage of ABA intervention are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
       
  • FDA Black Box Warning for SSRI: Reexamining the Role of High-Functioning
           Autism as a Confounder

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      Abstract: Abstract It is two decades since the start of controversy around the FDA’s warnings of SSRI use in children and adolescents. A detailed review of these debates provides information on many serious methodological limitations, omissions, and commissions. In the last decade, the knowledge of highly comorbid conditions with MDD like ASD has grown exponentially. The higher-than-ever prevalence and diagnostic overshadowing in higher functioning ASD are now widely accepted; likewise, late and missed diagnoses are common and more in females with HF-ASD. The FDA signal has clinical implications, and if a small proportion of undiagnosed ASD comorbid with MDD was confounded in the data remains unanswered. A scientific inquiry is needed to understand the relationship between ASD, affective illness, and suicide.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
       
  • Emerging Verbal Functions in Early Infancy: Lessons from Observational and
           Computational Approaches on Typical Development and Neurodevelopmental
           Disorders

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      Abstract: Objectives Research on typically developing (TD) children and those with neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes was targeted. Specifically, studies on autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, Rett syndrome, fragile X syndrome, cerebral palsy, Angelman syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, Williams-Beuren syndrome, Cri-du-chat syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and West syndrome were searched. The objectives are to review observational and computational studies on the emergence of (pre-)babbling vocalisations and outline findings on acoustic characteristics of early verbal functions. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature was performed including observational and computational studies focusing on spontaneous infant vocalisations at the pre-babbling age of TD children, individuals with genetic or neurodevelopmental disorders. Results While there is substantial knowledge about early vocal development in TD infants, the pre-babbling phase in infants with neurodevelopmental and genetic syndromes is scarcely scrutinised. Related approaches, paradigms, and definitions vary substantially and insights into the onset and characteristics of early verbal functions in most above-mentioned disorders are missing. Most studies focused on acoustic low-level descriptors (e.g. fundamental frequency) which bore limited clinical relevance. This calls for computational approaches to analyse features of infant typical and atypical verbal development. Conclusions Pre-babbling vocalisations as precursor for future speech-language functions may reveal valuable signs for identifying infants at risk for atypical development. Observational studies should be complemented by computational approaches to enable in-depth understanding of the developing speech-language functions. By disentangling features of typical and atypical early verbal development, computational approaches may support clinical screening and evaluation.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
       
  • The Use of Neuronal Response Signals as Early Biomarkers of Dyslexia

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      Abstract: Objectives Brain imaging techniques have broadened our understanding of structural and functional properties of neuronal networks in children with developmental disabilities. The present work examines current models of neuronal response properties implicated in dyslexia and reading difficulties. Methods This review analyzes the use of functional techniques (fMRI and EEG) employed in the assessment of neuronal markers associated with reading ability. Results Neuro-imaging studies have provided evidence of neuronal networks involved in the emergence of reading fluency. Using this information, it is now possible to employ physiological assessments in the screening of reading ability before behavioral evaluations can be conducted. Conclusions Analyses of neuro-imaging studies show that abnormal neuronal activation in specific brain areas can be used to help identify reading impairments in children. These neuronal assessments permit earlier identification of dyslexia than those requiring behavioral assessments.
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
       
  • Improving the Journey Before, During and After Diagnosis of a
           Neurodevelopmental Condition: Suggestions from a Sample of Australian
           Consumers and Professionals

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      Abstract: Objectives The current study used a transdiagnostic approach to explore experiences of consumers and professionals on how the process of assessing and diagnosing neurodevelopmental conditions can be improved. Methods Individuals with personal and/or professional experience of this clinical pathway were invited to complete an online survey. A convenience sample of 117 Australian participants provided qualitative data describing how to improve this clinical pathway, including 71 consumers and 53 professionals (seven participants held both roles). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the characteristics of the participants and two researchers analyzed the qualitative responses using a template approach. Results Participants described a five-stage “journey” spanning before, during and after diagnosis of a neurodevelopmental condition. They progressed through “searching” for an explanation, “waiting” for the diagnostic evaluation, “investigating” the signs and symptoms, “knowing” that their child has a neurodevelopmental condition and “accessing” support. Participants also suggested nine key improvements to this process that were named “awareness” through professional training and empathy, “clearer pathways” through professional checklists and plans, “acceptable timeframes” through reduced local waitlists, “more holistic” through assessment and supports, “more collaboration” through communication with key parties, “stability and consistency” through continuous and coordinated services, “generic community programs” through early needs-based support, “understanding” through meaningful diagnostic disclosure and “addressing their needs” through further targeted supports. Conclusions The findings from this study provide a foundation for future work to improve the diagnostic journey for neurodevelopmental conditions through a collaborative effort between consumers, professionals, researchers and policy makers. These findings highlight the importance of a transdiagnostic and comprehensive clinical pathway that spans the entire journey, where supports are readily available to consumers before, during and after diagnosis. Further research is required to explore the experience of consumers and professionals from more diverse backgrounds, as a limitation of this study was that almost all participants were females and very few identified as belonging to a specific cultural group.
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
       
  • How Might Indices of Happiness Inform Early Intervention Research and
           Decision Making'

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      Abstract: Objectives The child-caregiver relationship is the foundation for which intervention occurs. Therefore, the acceptability of the intervention should be considered for both parties. Indices of happiness (IOH) have shown to be effective in assessing social validity and providing insight to improving interventions to promote better quality of life. However, to date, there is limited attention to the integration of IOH in very early caregiver-led intervention. The purpose of this study is to explore how researchers and clinicians might collect direct data on IOH to assess the acceptability of an intervention. Methods Participants in this study included 4 children, ages 19–26 months old, identified as “at-risk” for autism, and their caregivers. Caregiver-led intervention focused on pairing, play, and following the child’s lead. IOH data was collected on both child and caregiver using 10 s partial-interval recording. Data analysis from the intervention is presented using three different approaches: pre/post-analysis on an individual level, pre/post-analysis on a dyad level, and during intervention as a primary dependent variable. Results Variations were seen in levels of happiness, both on an individual level and dyad level. IOH for caregivers increased in relation as their fidelity increased but child IOH decreased as they acquired the targeted skill. Conclusions Direct observation of happiness data is likely to provide valuable insight into participants perception of an intervention. And retrospective analysis may be a valuable tool for reflection and guidance and planning of future interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
       
  • Australian Clinicians’ Considerations When Choosing an Assessment of
           Functioning Tool for Children with Neurodevelopmental Conditions

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      Abstract: Objectives In the Australian disability context, the assessment of children with neurodevelopmental conditions’ functioning (across all domains) is of increasing importance, particularly since the introduction of the National Disability Insurance Scheme. Currently, there is wide variability across assessment of functioning practices, including the choice and use of published tools for assessment. Therefore, we sought to identify the tool characteristics and other factors clinicians consider when selecting an assessment of functioning tool for use with children with neurodevelopmental conditions. Methods Using workshops and an online survey, 45 Australian medical and allied health clinicians (predominantly occupational therapists and psychologists) identified what they thought was ‘most important’ when selecting assessment of functioning tools for children with neurodevelopmental conditions. These qualitative responses were analysed using template analysis. Results Five main themes relating to a tool’s characteristics were identified: easy, feasible, fair, holistic, and useful. Within these themes, considerations relating to the measure itself, the clinician administering the tool and the individual being assessed were identified. Conclusions Characteristics raised by the clinicians align with frameworks described in the literature, pointing to the potential utility of these frameworks in guiding the development and evaluation of future assessment of functioning tools.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
       
 
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