A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  First | 1 2        [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
Showing 201 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Society and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Tempo Social     Open Access  
The Milbank Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Third Sector Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Third World Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for omsorgsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskriftet Norges Barnevern     Full-text available via subscription  
Trabajo Social Global - Global Social Work     Open Access  
unsere jugend     Full-text available via subscription  
Violence and Victims     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Voces desde el Trabajo Social     Open Access  
Volunteer Management Report     Full-text available via subscription  
Youth Studies Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2        [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-7532 - ISSN (Online) 2366-7540
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Self-compassion Intervention for Parents of Children with Developmental
           Disabilities: A Feasibility Study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DDs) experience greater psychological distress (e.g., stress and depression) compared to parents of children without DDs. Self-compassion (i.e., responding with compassion to oneself during times of stress and difficulty) is associated with greater self-care as well as lower levels of stress, depression, and internalized stigma among parents of children with DDs. In this study, we tested the feasibility of a 4-week brief, asynchronous, online intervention targeting self-compassion among parents of children with DDs. Methods Participants were fifty parents (48 mothers; 2 fathers) of children with DDs. Participants’ ages ranged from 25 to 62 years (M = 42.1 years, SD = 7.9 years), and 88% of participants had one child with a DD, and the remaining parents had two or more children with DDs. Child diagnoses included Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. Feasibility was assessed in five domains (i.e., acceptability, demand, implementation, practicability, and limited efficacy) using a combination of self-report measures, qualitative feedback, and data on attrition. Results Most parents (84%) completed ≥ 3 modules, and 74% completed all four modules. Almost all parents (> 90%) reported that they would recommend the intervention to others. Paired-samples t-tests demonstrated significant pre-intervention to post-intervention increases in self-compassion and well-being, and significant reductions in parent depression and stress. Conclusions Overall, data support feasibility of the 4-week intervention targeting parent self-compassion and provide preliminary efficacy data that need to be followed up in a larger randomized control trial.
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
       
  • Practical Approaches and Socially Valid Assessment Considerations for
           Learners with Emergent Communication and Severe Intellectual Disability

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract:    Objectives Assessment strategies for communication in learners with severe ID who are at the emergent stage of language development have evolved since first applied from speech act theory over 50 years ago. These efforts have resulted in measures that have increasingly been able to document the wide range of communicative abilities of learners with severe ID to inform intervention planning. In this paper, we indicate how assessment strategies for communication in learners with severe ID who are at the emergent stage of language development have evolved. Methods We review literature from speech act theory over 50 years ago and consider measures that have increasingly been able to document the wide range of communicative abilities of learners with severe ID to inform intervention planning. Results Emergent communication has been described as serving a number of functions and may include a number of forms, such as nonintentional behaviors interpreted by others (perlocutionary communication), purposeful nonsymbolic signals (illocutionary), or representational symbol forms (locutionary). This knowledge has motivated and informed a variety of clinical practices for learners who use emergent communication and furthered developments in systematic assessment procedures to observe and document this range of communication ability. As a result, the abilities of learners with severe ID have been realized and supported through intervention planning. Conclusions To continue to optimize opportunities for communication development, it is proposed that comprehensive assessment practices moving forward should be grounded in an identity-focused and interprofessional framework. A number of practical strategies that target family interviews, observation and sampling across contexts, formal test administration, and new technologies for assessment could be used for learners regardless of their ability to communicate with intention. These strategies, when grounded in an identity-focused framework with the support of an interprofessional team may best ensure socially valid data is collected for intervention planning.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Functional Communication Training for Toddlers At-Risk for Autism with
           Early Problem Behavior

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objective Problem behavior typically emerges in early childhood as part of human development. Current approaches to intervention wait to see if child maturation will naturally lead to reduction of behavior. However, for children at-risk for autism, there is may be a need to provide intervention during this early phase to prevent escalation of problem behavior and promote functional communication. Functional communication training (FCT) is an evidence-based intervention that consists of identifying the function of problem behavior, and teaching a functional communication response (FCR) that serves the same function as the problem behavior. In this study, researchers evaluated the use of FCT to teach toddlers at risk for autism to appropriately request for caregiver attention instead of engaging in early problem behavior (EPB) when the caregiver withdrew their attention. Methods Four children participated in this study. Researchers used a non-concurrent multiple baseline design to evaluate the effects of FCT on participant FCR and EBP. Sessions occurred twice a week for up to 15 weeks. Results EPB decreased for all participants from 100% of trials in baseline to 0% of trials in intervention. The use of functional communication increased in all participants from 0% of trials in baseline to 100% of trials in intervention. Two of the four participants maintained their treatment gains during the reversal phase. Conclusions This study replicates previous FCT research by extending the evidence-based practice to very young children (under 3 years old) who meet criteria to be identified as at-risk for autism.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Early Assessment and Intervention: Introduction to the Special Issue

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
  • Comparing Low Dosages of ABA Treatment on Children’s Treatment Gains
           and School Readiness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives The current study analyzed the data from a 1-year pragmatic clinical trial on the effectiveness of a naturalistic implementation of the PEAK Relational Training System in a public school setting. Methods We accessed student records from two classrooms at the same grade level within one public school. Students’ assignments in these two classrooms were based on the severity of their diagnosis. Students in both classrooms received conventional special education services and applied behavior analysis intervention based on the PEAK Relational Training System. Post hoc analyses were conducted after one school year to compare students’ behavior skill levels, school readiness skills, and their relationship with their daily dosage of ABA intervention. Results Post hoc analyses indicated a significant difference in students’ behavior skill level and school readiness skills at the beginning of the school year. Significant differences were also found in the amount of PEAK interventions delivered to each classroom. At the end of the school year, all students demonstrated improvements on the PEAK pre-assessment (p < .001) and the Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA; p < .001). A secondary analysis examined variables that predicted students’ progress and showed that their daily ABA dosage (R2 = .278) was a significant predictor of their BSRA improvement. Conclusions The current study added to a growing body of research demonstrating the utility and feasibility of implementing PEAK-based interventions in special education settings. Behavior interventions along with special education practices produced significant outcomes on students’ overall skill level and school readiness. Implications of applying a low dosage of ABA intervention are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
       
  • FDA Black Box Warning for SSRI: Reexamining the Role of High-Functioning
           Autism as a Confounder

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract It is two decades since the start of controversy around the FDA’s warnings of SSRI use in children and adolescents. A detailed review of these debates provides information on many serious methodological limitations, omissions, and commissions. In the last decade, the knowledge of highly comorbid conditions with MDD like ASD has grown exponentially. The higher-than-ever prevalence and diagnostic overshadowing in higher functioning ASD are now widely accepted; likewise, late and missed diagnoses are common and more in females with HF-ASD. The FDA signal has clinical implications, and if a small proportion of undiagnosed ASD comorbid with MDD was confounded in the data remains unanswered. A scientific inquiry is needed to understand the relationship between ASD, affective illness, and suicide.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
       
  • Emerging Verbal Functions in Early Infancy: Lessons from Observational and
           Computational Approaches on Typical Development and Neurodevelopmental
           Disorders

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives Research on typically developing (TD) children and those with neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes was targeted. Specifically, studies on autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, Rett syndrome, fragile X syndrome, cerebral palsy, Angelman syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, Williams-Beuren syndrome, Cri-du-chat syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and West syndrome were searched. The objectives are to review observational and computational studies on the emergence of (pre-)babbling vocalisations and outline findings on acoustic characteristics of early verbal functions. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature was performed including observational and computational studies focusing on spontaneous infant vocalisations at the pre-babbling age of TD children, individuals with genetic or neurodevelopmental disorders. Results While there is substantial knowledge about early vocal development in TD infants, the pre-babbling phase in infants with neurodevelopmental and genetic syndromes is scarcely scrutinised. Related approaches, paradigms, and definitions vary substantially and insights into the onset and characteristics of early verbal functions in most above-mentioned disorders are missing. Most studies focused on acoustic low-level descriptors (e.g. fundamental frequency) which bore limited clinical relevance. This calls for computational approaches to analyse features of infant typical and atypical verbal development. Conclusions Pre-babbling vocalisations as precursor for future speech-language functions may reveal valuable signs for identifying infants at risk for atypical development. Observational studies should be complemented by computational approaches to enable in-depth understanding of the developing speech-language functions. By disentangling features of typical and atypical early verbal development, computational approaches may support clinical screening and evaluation.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
       
  • A Teacher-Facilitated Peer-Mediated Intervention to Support Interaction
           Between Students with and without Autism

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract:   Objectives Within the autism intervention literature, there is a need for research focused on training teachers to implement and monitor the use of evidence-based strategies in regular classroom settings. This study assessed the effects of a teacher facilitated peer-mediated intervention (PMI) on the cooperative play, initiations, and responses of three upper elementary students with autism and three typically developing peers attending a Title 1 school. Methods Using a concurrent multiple probe across dyads design, we implemented a cascading coaching model and behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach one special educator to train peers in strategies to support and maintain play and interaction with their classmates with autism. Fidelity and social validity were assessed. Results A functional relation between the intervention and cooperative play was demonstrated. Initiations increased for all peers. Participant initiations and responses increased but were variable, with substantial increases for two participants and modest increases for one participant. Peers implemented the support strategies with a high degree of fidelity, and the teacher accurately monitored peer strategy use and intervention effects. Feedback from the teacher, participants, and peers demonstrated a high level of social validity and satisfaction with the training procedures, intervention, and outcomes. Conclusion A cascading coaching model using BST is a promising approach for training teachers to implement and monitor PMI in the natural classroom environment. Limitations and considerations for practice and future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
       
  • The Use of Neuronal Response Signals as Early Biomarkers of Dyslexia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives Brain imaging techniques have broadened our understanding of structural and functional properties of neuronal networks in children with developmental disabilities. The present work examines current models of neuronal response properties implicated in dyslexia and reading difficulties. Methods This review analyzes the use of functional techniques (fMRI and EEG) employed in the assessment of neuronal markers associated with reading ability. Results Neuro-imaging studies have provided evidence of neuronal networks involved in the emergence of reading fluency. Using this information, it is now possible to employ physiological assessments in the screening of reading ability before behavioral evaluations can be conducted. Conclusions Analyses of neuro-imaging studies show that abnormal neuronal activation in specific brain areas can be used to help identify reading impairments in children. These neuronal assessments permit earlier identification of dyslexia than those requiring behavioral assessments.
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
       
  • Augmentative and Alternative Communication Assessment Practices Followed
           in a School Setting: A Survey of Cypriot-Greek Speech and Language
           Pathologists

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives Many countries throughout the world have achieved significant advances in Augmentative and Alternative Communication, whereas in Cyprus the evidence suggests that it is still in its early stages of development. The focus of this study was on assessment methods, which are the foundation for a successful intervention. Methods For the study objectives, aspects from the participation model relating to opportunity and access barriers and existing literature on AAC assessment were used to create a questionnaire with multiple-choice answers. A total of 89 speech and language therapists working in a public school setting participated in the study. Results The results show that AAC assessment is mainly for pupils with autism spectrum disorder. During the evaluation process, participants used various stimuli, but mostly hearing and visual, whilst using touch, smell, and taste to a much lesser extent. As part of the evaluation process, the participants reported that they focused on whether the individual could express yes/no and voice their basic needs, whereas language domains were not thoroughly assessed. Lastly, the participants focused on the ability of pupils to follow instructions, with other behaviors being assessed to a lesser extent. Conclusion Various ideas have emerged regarding how to improve AAC assessment practices in schools.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
       
  • Single-Subject Design Studies of Mindfulness Interventions for Behavior
           Change: A Scoping Review and Behavioral Conceptualization

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives We aimed to analyze the state of mindfulness-related single-subject design research through a behavior analytic lens. Methods Studies included empirical, quantitative, peer-reviewed single-subject design experiments training on mindfulness meditation, mindfulness-based practices, or mindfulness activities as a behavior change strategy for individuals. We excluded studies assessing effects of spillover or mindfulness only in combination with other techniques. Results Data from 28 studies included participant demographics, setting, implementor characteristics, dependent and independent variables, training techniques, and practice descriptions, and intervention relations, research methods, replicability, experimental design, reported reliability, validity, fidelity, generalization, and analyses of functional control. Some authors hypothesized the behavior change principles’ underlying outcomes. Few included treatment adherence or integrity data; behavioral repertoires were somewhat unclear. Many demonstrated functional control between intervention and behavior, but none examined contingencies related to training. Conclusions Several studies reported decreased problem behaviors or increased desirable behaviors, particularly for people with learning, behavior, or developmental differences. All authors described results somewhat behaviorally, but questions remain about repertoires of practice, underlying principles, and measurement. Cross-disciplinary practitioners can explore new procedures, clarify aspects of studies, and enhance methodology. We call for further development of a behavioral model of mindfulness interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
       
  • Shared Challenges and Cooccurrence of Maladaptive Daydreaming and Autism
           Spectrum Disorder

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives Maladaptive daydreaming (MD) is a condition involving excessive, highly immersive daydreaming. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of the occurrence of MD in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the overlapping characteristics between the conditions. Methods We surveyed broad ASD traits, MD symptoms, sense of presence in daydreaming, loneliness, emotion regulation difficulties, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 609 adults without a diagnosis of ASD and a sample of 235 adults with a diagnosis of ASD. We also examined the occurrence of MD in the ASD sample using a structured interview. Results A path analysis revealed that broad ASD traits were associated with MD symptoms via the mediating effects of loneliness and emotion regulation difficulties. Moreover, 43% of adults with ASD reported experiences of MD, and hierarchical regression analysis revealed that these symptoms were associated with loneliness and emotion regulation difficulties. A multivariate analysis of covariance to compare groups showed that individuals with co-occurring ASD and MD scored highest on measures of loneliness, emotion regulation difficulties, restricted and repetitive behaviors, and sense of presence in daydreaming, compared to individuals with either ASD or MD alone or those with neither condition. Conclusions This research indicates that experiences of MD are common among adults with ASD and are associated with high degrees of loneliness and emotion regulation difficulties. Future research should further explore the unique presentation of MD in ASD and the associated challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
       
  • Literacy and Numeracy in Children on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives The variability in patterns of acquisition of literacy and numeracy skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently not well understood. In the present study, we investigated these skills in cognitively able children with ASD ages 7–12 years. Methods Using independent samples t test, we compared autistic children’s scores on word reading, spelling, and numerical operations with those of typically developing children in the same age group. A paired-samples t test was used to assess whether reading, spelling, and numerical operations scores were comparable within the ASD group. Finally, we tested whether verbal IQ mediated the effect of diagnostic status on these scores. Results The main findings of the study are that autistic children had worse scores on numerical operations than the control group (t(54.112) =  − 3.326, p = .002, d =  − .314), but the groups’ scores were similar in word reading and spelling. The autistic children had significantly better scores on word reading and spelling than on numerical operations. All scores of autistic children were positively associated with their verbal IQ scores. Verbal IQ mediated the effect of diagnostic status on all outcome variables. Conclusion These findings extend current understanding of patterns of acquisition of literacy and numeracy skills in young children with ASD, suggesting a critical role of verbal abilities in the acquisition of numerical skills.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
       
  • Improving the Journey Before, During and After Diagnosis of a
           Neurodevelopmental Condition: Suggestions from a Sample of Australian
           Consumers and Professionals

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives The current study used a transdiagnostic approach to explore experiences of consumers and professionals on how the process of assessing and diagnosing neurodevelopmental conditions can be improved. Methods Individuals with personal and/or professional experience of this clinical pathway were invited to complete an online survey. A convenience sample of 117 Australian participants provided qualitative data describing how to improve this clinical pathway, including 71 consumers and 53 professionals (seven participants held both roles). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the characteristics of the participants and two researchers analyzed the qualitative responses using a template approach. Results Participants described a five-stage “journey” spanning before, during and after diagnosis of a neurodevelopmental condition. They progressed through “searching” for an explanation, “waiting” for the diagnostic evaluation, “investigating” the signs and symptoms, “knowing” that their child has a neurodevelopmental condition and “accessing” support. Participants also suggested nine key improvements to this process that were named “awareness” through professional training and empathy, “clearer pathways” through professional checklists and plans, “acceptable timeframes” through reduced local waitlists, “more holistic” through assessment and supports, “more collaboration” through communication with key parties, “stability and consistency” through continuous and coordinated services, “generic community programs” through early needs-based support, “understanding” through meaningful diagnostic disclosure and “addressing their needs” through further targeted supports. Conclusions The findings from this study provide a foundation for future work to improve the diagnostic journey for neurodevelopmental conditions through a collaborative effort between consumers, professionals, researchers and policy makers. These findings highlight the importance of a transdiagnostic and comprehensive clinical pathway that spans the entire journey, where supports are readily available to consumers before, during and after diagnosis. Further research is required to explore the experience of consumers and professionals from more diverse backgrounds, as a limitation of this study was that almost all participants were females and very few identified as belonging to a specific cultural group.
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
       
  • Physical Activity Preference and Parent Report of Experiences for Children
           on the Autism Spectrum with Complex Communication Need

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives Limited research has examined the experiences of children on the autism spectrum who have verbal expressive language, and no research to date has explored the physical activity (PA) preferences of children and the autism spectrum with complex communication needs (CCN). This exploratory qualitative study aimed to understand the PA preferences of children on the autism spectrum with CCN, based on previous PA experiences and the PA experiences of these families. Methods A picture preference chart interview was utilized to capture the PA preferences of the child participants. Pictures were coded based on activity type to explore themes in preferences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the children’s parents to explore PA experiences for the family and coded using thematic analysis. Results Children on the autism spectrum with CCN were able to express preferences for certain physical activities. Preferences were triangulated with semi-structured parent interviews and parental perceived child preferences. Additional semi-structured parental interviews presented the following themes regarding PA participation for family engagement: (a) the importance of PA and exercise, (b) sensory experiences participating in PA, and (c) atypical struggles. Conclusions Children on the autism spectrum with CCN were able to convey PA preferences (as triangulated by parental reports), and their opinions should be incorporated when designing physical activity programs and physical education experiences. PA participation of families who have a child on the autism spectrum with CCN provides for unique challenges, and more support is needed to promote engagement and improve health outcomes for both these affected individuals and their families.
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
       
  • How Might Indices of Happiness Inform Early Intervention Research and
           Decision Making'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives The child-caregiver relationship is the foundation for which intervention occurs. Therefore, the acceptability of the intervention should be considered for both parties. Indices of happiness (IOH) have shown to be effective in assessing social validity and providing insight to improving interventions to promote better quality of life. However, to date, there is limited attention to the integration of IOH in very early caregiver-led intervention. The purpose of this study is to explore how researchers and clinicians might collect direct data on IOH to assess the acceptability of an intervention. Methods Participants in this study included 4 children, ages 19–26 months old, identified as “at-risk” for autism, and their caregivers. Caregiver-led intervention focused on pairing, play, and following the child’s lead. IOH data was collected on both child and caregiver using 10 s partial-interval recording. Data analysis from the intervention is presented using three different approaches: pre/post-analysis on an individual level, pre/post-analysis on a dyad level, and during intervention as a primary dependent variable. Results Variations were seen in levels of happiness, both on an individual level and dyad level. IOH for caregivers increased in relation as their fidelity increased but child IOH decreased as they acquired the targeted skill. Conclusions Direct observation of happiness data is likely to provide valuable insight into participants perception of an intervention. And retrospective analysis may be a valuable tool for reflection and guidance and planning of future interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
       
  • REAC Noninvasive Neurobiological Stimulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder
           for Alleviating Stress Impact

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms can become more evident because of different factors. Among these, depression, anxiety, and stress play an important role. Additionally, several studies have revealed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on participants with ASD. In previous studies, two noninvasive neurobiological stimulation treatments with radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technology, called neuropostural optimization (NPO) and neuropsychophysical optimization (NPPO), were shown to be effective in improving the subjective response to environmental stressors in the general population and in ASD population. Based on the proven efficacy of REAC NPO and NPPOs treatments in alleviating anxiety, stress, and depression, the purpose of this study is to verify how these treatments can reduce the severity of ASD symptoms expression, which is aggravated by depression, anxiety, and stress. The treatments’ effects were perceived by caregivers and assessed by the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Methods This study involved 46 children with a previous diagnosis of ASD made using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. The participants received one session of NPO treatment and one NPPOs treatment cycle of 18 sessions, administered within approximately 3 weeks. The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) was used to evaluate the efficacy of the REAC treatments. ATEC allows to evaluate four clusters (speech or language communication; sociability; sensory or cognitive awareness; and health/physical/behavior) through a numerical scale that measures increasing levels of ASD severity. Results The comparison between the scores of the ATEC administered pre- and post-REAC treatments highlighted an improvement of ASD symptoms in each of the four clusters of ATEC. Conclusions The results confirm the usefulness of REAC treatments to optimize the individual response to environmental stressors and reduce the symptomatic expression and deficits present in ASD.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Australian Clinicians’ Considerations When Choosing an Assessment of
           Functioning Tool for Children with Neurodevelopmental Conditions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives In the Australian disability context, the assessment of children with neurodevelopmental conditions’ functioning (across all domains) is of increasing importance, particularly since the introduction of the National Disability Insurance Scheme. Currently, there is wide variability across assessment of functioning practices, including the choice and use of published tools for assessment. Therefore, we sought to identify the tool characteristics and other factors clinicians consider when selecting an assessment of functioning tool for use with children with neurodevelopmental conditions. Methods Using workshops and an online survey, 45 Australian medical and allied health clinicians (predominantly occupational therapists and psychologists) identified what they thought was ‘most important’ when selecting assessment of functioning tools for children with neurodevelopmental conditions. These qualitative responses were analysed using template analysis. Results Five main themes relating to a tool’s characteristics were identified: easy, feasible, fair, holistic, and useful. Within these themes, considerations relating to the measure itself, the clinician administering the tool and the individual being assessed were identified. Conclusions Characteristics raised by the clinicians align with frameworks described in the literature, pointing to the potential utility of these frameworks in guiding the development and evaluation of future assessment of functioning tools.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
       
  • Systematic Review of Virtual Reality in Behavioral Interventions for
           Individuals with Autism

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives Virtual reality technology is able to simulate real life environments and has been used to facilitate behavioral interventions for people with autism. This systematic review aims to evaluate the role of virtual reality (VR) technology in the context of behavioral interventions designed to increase behaviors that support more independent functioning (e.g., teach vocational skills, adaptive behavior) or decrease challenging behaviors that interfere with daily functioning for individuals with autism. Methods We conducted a systematic search in four databases followed by a reference search for those articles identified by the systematic database search. We also conducted a quality review using the evaluative method for evaluating and determining evidence-based practices in autism. Results We identified 23 studies with a majority of the studies (n = 18; 75%) utilizing group experimental or quasi-experiment research design and the remaining (n = 5; 21.74%) utilizing single-case research design. Of those studies, targeted behavior includes vocational skills (n = 10), safety skills (n = 4), functional behaviors (n = 2), and challenging behavior (n = 7). Of the 23 studies, 11 met the quality criteria to be classified as “strong” or “adequate” and can offer evidence on the integration of VR technology into behavioral interventions. Conclusions The use of VR to provide behavioral interventions to teach driving skills and to teach interview skills can be considered an evidence-based practice.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
       
  • Evaluation of the Eat and Exercise to Win Program: Improving Healthy
           Behaviors of Adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Objectives The goals of this study were to evaluate the Eat and Exercise to Win (EE-2-Win) Program, an obesity prevention program for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and to assess the feasibility of photo journals to document change in eating and exercise behaviors of adults with IDD. Methods Participants were five adults with IDD, seven parents of adults with IDD, and eight direct care staff for adults with IDD. Parents and staff participated in individual interviews to evaluate their perceptions of the EE-2-Win Program. Adults with IDD completed photo journals developing goals and then changing eating and exercise behaviors. An open coding approach was used to determine themes in interview data and photo journals. Results Findings indicated that parents and staff believed the program was helpful and related to positive change in eating and exercise behaviors. Young adults were eating more fruits and were more aware of the need to eat healthy foods. Adults engaged in more low-intensity exercise, which often was a social experience. Conclusions Picture-based teaching methods, such as classes from the EE-2-Win Program and photo journals, showed promise in changing eating and exercise behaviors for young adults with IDD. Future research using innovative visual methods may reach a group in need of access to information about obesity prevention.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.201.99.222
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-