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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
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Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-0266 - ISSN (Online) 1648-2425
Published by Vilnius University Homepage  [38 journals]
  • Social integration of migrants from Ukraine and Belarus in Lithuania

    • Authors: Daiva Skučienė, Žygimantas Poškus, Beatričė Kazakevičiūtė
      Pages: 37 - 49
      Abstract: The phenomena of migration in today’s society is not surprising, but how often do we think about immigrants and their interactions with the local population, within themes of language, culture, social life, employment and general integration. International organizations say that although basic rights and protection of immigrants is ensured in Lithuania, immigrants in our country still do not have the opportunity to participate in public life as well as they should. The aim of this article is to refresh our knowledge of migrants' own experiences with regards to social integration and their own subjective welfare, by specifically examining the two largest groups of immigrants, Ukrainians and Belarusians. For the purpose of the study, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted, of which 10 were with Ukrainians and 10 with Belarusians. The study revealed that language is an important factor in the formation of a new identity and social integration. It was also noted that immigrants from Ukraine and Belarus have varying degrees of success entering the local labor market and they usually have to work in lower-skilled jobs. It is also worth mentioning that immigrants support their immigration efforts by way of similar culture and adaptation in their national communities, churches or social networks. Lastly, immigrants from Ukraine and Belarus are satisfied with life in Lithuania and notice positive differences compared to their country of origin, such as transparency and order in the country, a well-functioning banking and public transport system. They also note that the mentality of local Lithuanians and their own is similar, which is a development that has happened due to a shared Soviet experience and proficiency in the Russian language.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.15388/STEPP.2022.45
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2023)
  • Youth in Elderly Care Sector – Mission Impossible'

    • Authors: Sandra Krutulienė, Laima Okunevičiūtė, Boguslavas Gruževskis
      Pages: 8 - 21
      Abstract: The aging of population leads to the outcome that number of social care sector clients grows steadily. Hence the research highlighted that average age of the workforce in social care sector is also rising. An important question is how to attract and retain young people in the care sector for the elderly in the context of an aging society with the growing importance of the care economy. The study aims to reveal the factors motivating young people (18-29 years old) to employ and their attitudes towards work in the elderly care sector to. The research investigated the links between prosocial motivation and the attitudes of unemployed young people registered in the Employment Service toward work in the elderly care sector. The results of the study identified main directions, which could encourage more young people to get involved in the elderly care sector: promoting prosocial motivation of the individuals, increasing the flexibility of social services for the elderly and ensuring good working conditions. The study revealed significant role of the employment service as an intermediary between the young person and the institution providing social services and changing public attitudes towards work in the care sector for the elderly.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.15388/STEPP.2022.43
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2022)
  • External Communication of Institutions Providing Social Services during
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Egle Šumskienė, Sigita Banevičiūtė - Čirgelienė
      Pages: 22 - 36
      Abstract:  Crisis communication in social service organizations is an under-researched area. Nevertheless, this topic is very relevant, given the increasing threats to individuals and society. In the face of these threats, there is a growing need for effective communication in organizing and delivering social assistance. The outbreak of COVID-19 has changed interpersonal communication and the very nature of organizations’ work. This unprecedented situation has prompted an analysis of the level of preparedness of social services organizations to adapt in the long run to an acute, changed reality. This paper aims to investigate how daycare centers and residential care institutions were prepared to act during a crisis, with a particular focus on communication through the organization’s external channels – websites and social networks. The desk-based method was applied to analyze the external communication of 387 organizations providing social care and daycare services to children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities from all Lithuanian municipalities. In assessing the capabilities and responsibility of institutions providing social services to ensure consistent external communication, this study ranks alongside others that have examined social service provision practices during the COVID-19 outbreak. However, this study differs from others by highlighting the responsibilities of social workers in combating misinformation and fake news. The research emphasizes the need for consistent, continuous, clearly presented information. It identifies systemic and organizational gaps in the external communication skills of social service providers. It can be concluded that due to these gaps, social service provision institutions were unable to counterweigh fake news, which became “mainstream news” (Wiswanath et al., 2020) and posed a threat to public health, public safety, and human lives. The voice of social services’ providers was also missing in the wider socio-political context. Here, technological, legal, and political prerequisites emerged to address the knowledge gap and the technological exclusion of those at the margins of communication. Nevertheless, the study showed a lack of active participation of social service providers in this discourse, although they were closest to those experiencing the digital divide. The pandemic significantly adjusted the point of view on the importance of communication in social work, its goals and nature. The main weight has shifted from the pursuit of therapeutic goals toward technological, information dissemination, and risk management aspects.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.15388/STEPP.2022.44
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2022)
  • Motives for Assuming and Continuing Family Care: Family Caregivers’

    • Authors: Jūratė Charenkova
      Pages: 50 - 61
      Abstract: Studies have shown that the circumstances and motivation for becoming a caregiver are closely related to the caregiver’s well-being and the quality of care provided, which, in turn, affects the quality of life of the person receiving the care. This article aimed to reveal the motives behind decisions related to an aging relative’s care – motives to assume the caregiving duties and motives to remain in the caregiving role. In total, seven family caregivers participated in semi-structured interviews. Two main themes related to caregiving motivation were revealed: (1) motives to assume the caregiver role, and (2) motives to continue with family care. The results of the research were interpreted using the perspective of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000; 2017). This study revealed that key motivational drivers of caregiving decisions were associated with the satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs – autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Meeting these needs in the context of caregiving not only strengthened the caregivers’ motivation to take on the caregiving role but also motivated them to continue with family care, even after the autonomy of care recipients had increased significantly.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.15388/STEPP.2022.47
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2022)
  • Modern Technologies and Transformation of Social Work Profession and
           Education: Insights of Teachers of the Lithuanian and Japanese Higher
           Education Institutions

    • Authors: Laimutė Žalimienė, Juratė Charenkova, Eglė Šumskienė, Donata Petružytė, Miroslavas Seniutis, Violeta Gevorgianienė, Mai Yamaguchi
      Pages: 84 - 103
      Abstract: This article explores the attitudes of Japanese and Lithuanian social work program teachers towards the challenges posed by modern technologies that may transform social work profession and studies. Study data revealed that scientists from both countries admit that “taming” technologies and optimally “cooperating” with them is the main challenge of social work practice and studies. On the one hand, belief that technological development will provide more opportunities to fulfil the mission of social work was prevalent among the study participants, on the other hand, they had expressed concern that eventually the use of technology will change the essence of social work as a profession of human relations or will create modified forms of social exclusion. Additionally, a niche for the new role of the social worker was identified: to help the world “occupied” by technology remain “social”. Attitudes of research participants from both Lithuania and Japan can be linked to traditional concept of sociality and vision of social work as profession that belongs exclusively to area of human relations. B. Latour’s asocial sociality concept can be applied for broader look into this situation. This concept states that efforts to trace the contribution of actors of an inhuman nature to what belongs in the human world may be more successful when one ceases to view the world exclusively through human eyes and tries to reveal the inner perspectives of phenomena of a mixed nature.
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.15388/STEPP.2021.39
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2022)
  • Editorial Board and Table of Contents

    • Authors: Laimutė Žalimienė
      Pages: 1 - 7
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2021)
  • Marriage Intentions Among Cohabiters in Lithuania

    • Authors: Irma Dirsytė
      Pages: 26 - 40
      Abstract: Living together in one household without being married in modern society is one of the defining features characterizing the transformations of the modern family, mentioned alongside late-age marriage, late-age childbearing, or frequent divorces. Marriage is still a major life transformation, but the pressure to marry today is lighter than ever before and many young couples in Europe start family life from living together in one household and not being married. However, cohabitation has not a universal meaning and role in family formation process and couples cohabit for different reasons and motives. Existing research proves, that union formation pattern depends on socioeconomical and sociodemographic characteristics, it varies by country and changes by time. In the research literature, cohabitation diffusion process is mainly based on the two arguments: cultural value changes which leads to “less marriage” and economic restrains which leads to postponed marriage until economic stability. The aim of this article is to investigate the intentions of cohabitors to marry and the factors modelling these intentions in Lithuania. The empirical analysis is based on the current Family and Inequality Survey (2019) data set about 1970-1984 birth cohort who lived in an extramarital partnership at the time of the research. The data consists rich information on the partnership and fertility, but also social and economic standing. Analysis of the data shows that, most of the cohabiting individuals in the analyzed cohort in Lithuania still undecided about marriage and could not name their intentions in the future. Descriptive statistics suggests that more man than women plan to marry their partner in the future. In addition, cohabitors with the lowest education level do not intend to marry their partner more than any another education level group. The multinomial regression results suggest that factors predicting marriage in the future are sex, partnership satisfaction and education. That leads to assume that in Lithuania cohabitation is only a prelude to marriage and individuals satisfied with the quality of their relationship intends to marry rather than continuing cohabitation as an alternative to marriage. Cohabitation can be chosen as a prelude to marriage to check the strength of a relationship and to accumulate economic and social resources. On another hand, having one child has a negative effect on the marriage intentions among cohabitors.
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.15388/STEPP.2021.35
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2021)
  • Procreational Desires and Their Realization: A Study of Target Groups with

    • Authors: Vilma Ražauskienė, Lina Šumskaitė
      Pages: 41 - 53
      Abstract: Scientific research has shown that the procreational intentions and the actual number of children born may not coincide (Lutz 2020; Stankūnienė et al 2013; Testa 2013). Although the most common ideal number of children in European Union is two, not a single country has the total fertility rate of two (Beaujoun ir Sobotka 2014). The aim of current research is, first, to ascertain what procreational desires people have and, second, to shed some light on possible factors that influence the realization of those procreational desires. Three focus group discussions were conducted with parents 26 – 44 years of age (ten participants in total). It was found out that the procreational desires are not static and early determined: they change depending on the circumstances of the family creation, self-realisation in one‘s occupation and the reconciliation of the procreational desires of the partners. In accordance to other studies on the topic of procreational desires and their fulfillment, the results of this study demonstrate that the common obstacles that arise while trying to realize one‘s procreational desires are of social, financial and medical nature. Also, the results show that state support for families may have an impact on the number of children a family has if the family has been enduring some financial difficulties.
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.15388/STEPP.2021.36
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2021)
  • Why People Emigrate to Work in Elder Care'

    • Authors: Gražina Rapolienė, Liat Ayalon
      Pages: 54 - 67
      Abstract: Emigration is one of the sorest problems in Lithuania. Emigrants from Lithuania most often fill the sector of unskilled labour in the target countries, one of which is elder care. Financial factors are considered the main motivation for emigration; however, migration is a complex phenomenon and requires a more nuanced investigation. The aim of this article is to analyse subjectively identified reasons of emigration from Lithuania to work in the elder care sector and motivation in choosing a particular country. The thematic data analysis of 13 semi-structured interviews revealed that emigration is motivated by an entirety of reasons: beside financial factors other „push“ (family, health) and „pull“ (knowledge about the country, family formation) factors are important. The move also is facilitated by the chain migration factors. The importance of the economic reasons for migration is revealed in cases of financial insecurity (loss of employment, threat of company bankruptcy, financial difficulties in the parents’ family etc.). Economic considerations become significant again, when comparing the job options and working conditions available to migrants. Work in the care sector for older people is seen as relatively easy, accessible and well paid. Other “push” factors were related to an unsatisfactory life situation, including stressful employment, and unsatisfying family relationships. The desire to get to know a foreign country, the opportunity to start a family or establish oneself there can work as „pull“ factors. The decision to emigrate was supported by the chain migration factors – encouragement, help and support of previously established immigrants. In some cases, it emerged as an independent factor of migration people emigrated, invited by relatives or acquaintances from abroad even though they did not initially plan to migrate. With the rapidly growing share of older people in Lithuania and the underdeveloped care services, the opportunity to retain potential emigrants by creating attractive working conditions for them in Lithuania, remains untapped. Policies should aim to improve the working conditions and opportunities in the care sector in Lithuania in order to encourage Lithuanians to stay in the country. In addition, regulations to better absorb (returning) migrants should be in place, given the ongoing movement between countries.
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.15388/STEPP.2021.37
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2021)
  • Care Centers and Professional Caregivers: from the Project to a
           Sustainable Social Child Care Policy

    • Authors: Rasa Genienė, Jovita Nedvecka
      Pages: 68 - 83
      Abstract: In Lithuania the deinstitutionalisation of children left without parental care is being implemented since 2014. The term of transformation is more recognizable in the political context of the country. Various alternative services to institutional care are being developed during the transformation process, but some have become massive and overly institutional in nature (e.g., community children living homes), while the institute of professional caregivers has not gained popular attention when comparing child care rates across different alternatives. This article presents and discusses the activities of care centers that train permanent guardians (caregivers) and professional guardians. The article presents a research during which the staff of the care center evaluated the effectiveness of the activities of the care center and the guardians on duty. The results of the study revealed that care centers face the risk of projectivity at both micro and macro levels. Cooperation and support between the Ministry of Social security and labout and municipalities and other institutions is also very important for the effectiveness of care centers.
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.15388/STEPP.2021.38
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2021)
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