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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
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Global Social Welfare
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2196-8799
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Locked Down: Economic and Health Effects of COVID-19 Response on Residents
           of a South African Township

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      Abstract: Background Little research has examined how pandemics affect residents in under-resourced communities. This study investigated how COVID-19 and lockdown policies affected residents of Alexandra, one of Johannesburg, South Africa’s lowest-income townships. Methods We conducted a telephone survey May 11–22, 2020, while the lockdown and alcohol ban were in effect, of a spatially stratified sample of 353 adult Alexandra residents drawn randomly from voter registration, credit card application, and prior studies’ sampling frames. We examined economic consequences; health experiences, including COVID-19 exposure and mental health symptoms; alcohol use; and personal experiences with violence. Results Respondents were aged 18 to 89 and 47% female. About 70% of those employed before the lockdown were no longer working. Over half of households lost at least one source of income. About 50% of respondents reported stockpiling food. A majority reported price rises and declines in availability of food. Smaller percentages reported such changes for other items. Over 80% reported stress or anxiety, or depression due to the pandemic. The prevalence of past-week alcohol use fell from over 50% before the lockdown to less than 10% during the lockdown. Self-reported physical violence victimization increased. Discussion COVID-19 and the lockdown disrupted Alexandra residents’ lives through unemployment, lost income, mental health problems, and increased violence. The differences between these outcomes and those in more advantaged communities deserve investigation. Research should also seek to identify tailored responses to effectively address the challenges of marginalized communities that often have limited resources to deal with pandemics and policies to contain them.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Correction to: War-Affected South Sudanese in Settings of Preflight,
           Flight, and Resettlement: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of
           Trauma-Associated Mental Disorders

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      PubDate: 2022-07-28
       
  • Primary Health Care Providers Perceived Challenges in Detecting
           Psychiatric Disorders Among Adolescents in a Primary Health Care Facility
           in Kenya

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      Abstract: Purpose The objective of the study was to determine perceived health care provider factors that lead to undetected psychiatric diagnosis among adolescents. Study Design The study was a mixed method cross-sectional study. This paper is derived from the qualitative interviews. Methods Healthcare providers were assessed using a researcher-developed semi-structured questionnaire. The researcher read out the questions to the research participants and then wrote verbatim the responses on the space provided. Forty healthcare providers were purposively sampled and included both clinicians and nurses that attend to adolescents in the outpatient department at the Limuru health center facility. Results The participants identified various factors that contributed to low detection of psychiatric disorders among adolescents which included lack of adequate knowledge, lack of communication skills, shortage of consultation time, and lack of diagnostic supporting assessment tools. The most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders, by providers, were stress and psychosis. Most providers preferred to not give a psychiatric diagnosis, even when the index of suspicion was high, one to avoid “stigmatizing the patient,” and because they felt unsure of the precise diagnosis. Conclusion The study concluded that there were various perceived factors that led to low detection of psychiatric disorders among adolescents by clinicians at the primary health care level facilities, and these should be addressed. Study Implication This study provides a basis to push for further implementation of policies that support the integration of mental health at the primary health care level and to advice on the training curriculum used to train health care providers pre-service and in-service.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
       
  • War-Affected South Sudanese in Settings of Preflight, Flight, and
           Resettlement: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Trauma-Associated
           Mental Disorders

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      Abstract: Background South Sudanese have experienced prolonged exposure to conflict and displacement regionally and globally, with studies in different settings yielding vastly inconsistent rates of trauma-associated mental disorders. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the methodological approach and quality, trauma exposure, risk and protective factors, and aggregate available data on the prevalence of trauma-associated mental disorders among South Sudanese in different settings to gain better understanding of the impact of war trauma in this population. Methods Guided by the new (2020) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies published from 1981 to 2021.The main inclusion criteria were as follows: studies published in English, present prevalence rates on anxiety, depression, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and number of traumatic events, and have a sample size of 30 or more. We calculated pooled prevalence, 95% confidence intervals, and I2 statistic to test heterogeneity between studies in MedCalc statistical software. Results We reviewed a total of nine reports from eight unique studies with total of 6138 participants. All studies were cross-sectional in design with six designated as low quality and two as moderate quality. South Sudanese experienced on average nine war-related traumatic events. Consequently, the overall pooled rates of trauma-associated mental disorders are high: anxiety = 25.2% (95% CI: 14.0, 38.5); depression = 24.2% (8.4, 45.0); and PTSD = 34.0% (29.0, 39.1). Overall prevalence of PTSD was 40% in both preflight and flight settings; however, aggregate rate of just 14% was recorded in resettlement settings. Risk factors include female gender, advanced age, severity, and recency of traumatic events, and cultural adjustment difficulties. Protective factors include urban residency, social support, religion, higher annual household income, household possessions, and history of migration. Conclusions This systematic review and meta-analysis reveals that prolonged exposure to war trauma has negatively impacted the psychological wellbeing of South Sudanese in refugee camps and those still in their homeland. However, the prevalence appears to be lower among those resettled in developed countries.
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
       
  • Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Among US-Born Children of South
           Sudanese Parents Resettled as Refugees

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      Abstract: Abstract Youth from resettled refugee families have elevated risk of developing serious mental health challenges. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature in that studies that investigate mental problems among youth in resettled refugee communities seldom distinguish between those who were resettled in the USA as refugees themselves and those born in the USA to refugee parents. This distinction is crucial because serious mental disorders and other emotional and behavioral challenges may be high in the two groups through different mechanisms including biological, sociodemographic, and environmental factors. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine rates of various emotional and behavioral problems. Our study sample consisted of 76 youth born in the USA to South Sudanese mothers resettled in Nebraska and Tennessee. In this study, the rates of emotional and behavioral problems were 6.6% (depressive symptoms), 7.9% (antisocial behavior), 7.9% (anxiety symptoms), 10.5% (PTSD), and 11.8% (aggressive behavior). Risk factors for behavioral and emotional problems included number of siblings (OR = 1.5 to 1.9), maternal divorced marital status (OR = 6.2 to 13.7), and mother’s low level of education (OR = 5.0). This study found that youth born in the USA to resettled refugee parents from South Sudan had high level of emotional and behavioral problems suggesting this vulnerable population warrants research scrutiny to develop interventions to address their mental health challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
       
  • Barriers to Help-Seeking for Domestic Violence in Kyrgyzstan: Perspectives
           of Criminal Justice, Social, Health, and Educational Professionals

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      Abstract: Purpose Research with survivors of domestic violence (DV) suggests that most do not seek supportive services from formal organizations. The purpose of this study is to understand the structural and legal barriers that prevent survivors of DV from seeking help in Kyrgyzstan from the perspectives of professionals within the areas of law enforcement, judicial system, social, health, and educational sectors working directly with survivors. Methods We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews and 8 focus groups with 83 professionals who are employed as domestic violence or legal advocates, psychologists, healthcare providers, educators, and law enforcement officials who had worked with the survivors of DV in their current positions. We analyzed the data using a multistep strategy derived from grounded theory methods. Results The findings of the study highlighted six structural barriers: (1) financial dependence on the abuser, (2) stigma and shame of seeking help, (3) few crisis centers and rigid acceptance criteria for temporary protection, (4) the normalization and societal acceptance of abuse, (5) a lack of property rights for women, and (6) distrust of formal services. The participants indicated five legal barriers, including the following: (1) insufficient sanctions for abusers, (2) unclear provisions and inadequate enforcement of law, (3) a low likelihood of prosecution, (4) poor procedures, stereotypes of survivors, and revictimization during investigations, and (5) protection for abusers who work in positions of power. Conclusions The structural and legal barriers that survivors face when seeking help are formidable challenges that will require extensive support from professionals working in the fields of criminal justice, social work, and public health. Findings suggest that both short-term and longer-term interventions that require sustainability of prevention efforts are necessary to address barriers to help-seeking identified in the study.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • Formative Evaluation of Rehabilitative Post-surgical Care for Children in
           Tanzania: “They Arrive with Sorrows, but they Leave Happily”

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      Abstract: Purpose Tanzanian children with surgically correctable disabilities face challenges in accessing healthcare and cultural and societal stigma and prejudice. This paper provides insight into the staff perceptions from one rehabilitation center in Tanzania, The Plaster House, pertaining to disability, treatment, and change broadly for children with disabilities who receive treatments. Methods This was a qualitative content analysis. As part of a program evaluation, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 staff members of The Plaster House, gaining perceptions about change for children with disabilities receiving treatments. The Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) Matrix was utilized to organize the data into categories and form results. Results Themes were identified and organized within the following categories in the CBR Matrix: health, rehabilitation, education, social roles, and empowerment. Each was associated with the child or family caregiver experience at The Plaster House. Conclusion Findings provided rare insight from Tanzanian staff on the valuable social, emotional, and physical impacts of specialized treatment for children with disabilities and their parents. Transformational changes are possible for children with disabilities and their families despite poverty and limited access to services.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00218-3
       
  • Gendered Public Spaces and the Geography of Fear in Greater Cairo Slums

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      Abstract: Abstract As gender relations have spatial implications, girls’ and women’s daily activities are overshadowed by social, economic, and physical risks that limit their access to the public sphere and hence to opportunities. However, the lack of comparable and representative data still restricts the analysis of women’s and girls’ lived realities. This study utilizes a two-pronged qualitative methodological approach: 48 in-depth-interviews to understand how spaces become gendered, how they shape social norms, and what impact this process has on the mobility of different youth segments by sex, education, age, and employment status, and 12 participatory community mapping exercises to understand how young women and men use and perceive public space differently. The study demonstrates how sexual and gender-based violence render public spaces, in two slum areas of Greater Cairo, inaccessible to women and girls. Significantly different patterns of access to public spaces among males and females are recorded. Males cover far more ground than females in both areas of study and have access to more destinations, such as entertainment and sports facilities, whereas women constantly needed to legitimize their occupation of public spaces based on traditional gender roles. Additionally, the coping mechanisms that girls and women adopt to mitigate the constant threat of sexual violence further gender the public space by mainstreaming the notion that sexual violence is a normal part of any girl or woman’s experience of public space—forcing women to retreat further.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00216-5
       
  • Social Work Practice During COVID-19: Client Needs and Boundary Challenges

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      Abstract: Abstract While information and communication technologies (ICTs) permeated social work practice long before the onset of COVID-19, the abrupt need to close non-essential workplaces resulted in an unparalleled incorporation of digital technology into practice across the globe. The onset of COVID-19 occurred during phase two of research in which we were investigating social workers’ informal use of ICT with clients. Prior to COVID-19, we were conducting interviews with practitioners and clients from four agencies serving diverse client populations in a large city in Canada. With the onset of COVID-19, we adapted to the COVID-19 context and amended the questions to investigate ICT use during the pandemic. In addition, with ethics approval, we conducted second interviews with practitioners interviewed prior to COVID-19 with a revised guide to address the pandemic context; and we continued to recruit and interview practitioners and clients using an amended interview guide incorporating pandemic-related questions. The sample comprised 27 practitioners and 22 clients. Eleven practitioners participated in interviews prior to and during COVID-19. Analysis of transcribed interviews revealed that the COVID-19 context had led to a paradigm shift in practitioners’ ICT use, with two key themes identified: (1) boundary challenges and (2) clients’ diverging ICT needs. We discuss these themes and present implications for policy and practice in a post-COVID-19 world.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00219-2
       
  • Gender and Family Relations: Experiences of Highly Educated Eritrean
           Migrants in the UK

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      Abstract: Abstract Using the concept of intersectionality and narrative interviews with eighteen highly educated Eritrean migrants in the UK, this phenomenological study puts gender and family at the centre of socio-cultural integration of migrants. The research findings indicate that migration increases the economic power and freedom of women, helping them improve their social status and lead independent lives. However, there is a conflict within households relating to the need to maintain traditional patriarchal values and recognise women as equal partners. This, among other factors, has hindered the women’s gender equality and emancipation from patriarchal oppression within the host country. Most of the women participants in this study experienced more exclusion and mistreatment than men. They often shoulder career and familial responsibilities. Some of the women even shift to part-time jobs or interrupt their careers to take care of their children as they lack family support and could not afford to pay for childcare. The study contributes to a better understanding of migrants’ socio-cultural experiences in their host country.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00217-4
       
  • Factors Associated with Child Malnutrition in the Somali Region of
           Ethiopia: a Cross-Sectional Survey

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      Abstract: Abstract In Ethiopia, malnutrition contributes to more than one-third of under-five child deaths. This cross-sectional study aimed at identifying risk factors for child malnutrition by examining the role of underlying determinants such as food insecurity and water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions (WASH). A total of 116 households with under-five children in the Somali region of Ethiopia were recruited using a simple random sampling technique. Data was collected using a questionnaire that assessed socioeconomic status, child anthropometrics, household food insecurity, dietary diversity, and WASH. SPSS version 24 and R version 3.5.1 were used to conduct analysis. Most (71.56%) of children were malnourished. A majority of households reported food insecurity (70.69%) and consumed a diet with limited dietary diversity (80.17%). Most households did not have access to improved drinking water sources (72.42%) and sanitation facilities (98.28%). Maternal self-employment status was a risk factor for child wasting (OR = 3.80, 95% CI [1.04, 13.84], p = .05) and underweight (OR = 4.90, 95% CI [1.58, 15.17], p = .01). Child wasting was associated with household income (OR = .62, 95% CI [.42, .91], p = .03) and open defecation (OR = 11.17, 95% CI [1.57, 79.39], p = .02). While low household dietary diversity was a risk factor for child stunting (OR = 5.33, 95% CI [1.85, 16.55], p < .01), maternal hand washing practices after defecation were a protective factor for child stunting (OR = .28, 95% CI [.12, .68], p = .01). These findings underscore the importance of developing an integrated approach between different sectors in Nutrition, Health, WASH, and Food Security for health promotion among young children.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00212-9
       
  • Exploring the Hierarchies: Multilevel Correlates of Child Mortality in
           Nigeria and Implications for Interventions

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      Abstract: Abstract This study examined the multilevel correlates of childhood mortality among women (aged 15–49 years) in Nigeria using pooled data from the 2003, 2008 and 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys. This study considered 25,685 women who stated that they never lived outside their communities. Descriptive and multilevel regression analyses were performed. About 38% of the women reported losing at least a child. The individual-level correlates of childhood mortality were age, age at first birth, years of education, marital status and ethnicity. Household variables such as number of male children ever born (aIRR = 1.031; 95% CI = 1.026–1.036; p = 0.001), no bed net (aIRR = 1.052; 95% CI = 1.011–1.094; p = 0.012) and using biomass/charcoal (aIRR = 1.223; 95% CI = 1.013–1.475; p = 0.036) were positively associated with childhood mortality while wealth index was negatively correlated with childhood mortality. At the community level, lower childhood mortality was observed in South South region (aIRR = 0.853; 95% CI = 0.767–0.949; p = 0.003), but it was higher in North East (aIRR = 1.143; 95% CI = 1.050–1.244; p = 0.002), North West (aIRR = 1.440; 95% CI = 1.318–1.574; p = 0.001) and South East (aIRR = 1.156; 95% CI = 1.028–1.300; p = 0.016) respectively. Higher childhood mortality was associated positively with community poverty (medium: aIRR = 1.107; 95% CI = 1.013–1.210; p = 0.024), low ownership of piped water (aIRR = 1.128; 95% CI = 1.047–1.215; p = 0.002) and problematic distance to health facility (aIRR = 1.046; 95% CI = 1.006–1.088; p = 0.025). There is a need for more interventions to tackle multilevel drivers of child mortality in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-022-00225-y
       
  • Impacts of COVID-19 on the Coping Behaviours of Canadian Women
           Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

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      Abstract: Background Strict public health measures central to slowing the spread of COVID-19 have, unintentionally, exacerbated risks for women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) while impeding their usual coping strategies. The goal of this study was to understand how coping was influenced by COVID-19 for women who have experienced IPV and identify changes in coping strategies and gaps that need to be addressed to support coping. Methods A qualitatively driven, sequential, cross-sectional design, where quantitative data informed and was embedded within qualitative data collection, was used to explore the experiences of IPV (CAS-R-SF scale) and coping (Brief-COPE scale) specific to IPV of 95 Canadian women. A subset of 19 women was invited to complete an interview exploring coping strategies identified within the survey to contextualize and validate these findings. Results Survey data subjected to quantitative content analysis identified ten themes, all of which were explored in semi-structured interviews. Thematic interview findings included (1) influence of COVID-19 on coping, (2) coping during COVID-19, and (3) needed coping strategies. Conclusion COVID-19 had important impacts on the experiences and coping strategies of women who experience IPV. To better support this population in pandemic circumstances, in-person services should be prioritized with an emphasis on accessible and empathetic care. Public health measures in response to COVID-19, and the eventuality of future pandemics, should aim to be gender- and violence-informed.
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-022-00224-z
       
  • A Case Study of Community-based, Cross-sectoral Crisis Response to the
           COVID-19 Pandemic: Serving Racialized Immigrant Communities

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      Abstract: Abstract Crises—such as the COVID-19 pandemic—bring about myriad problems in magnitude (severity), dynamism (quality), and urgency (timing). Collaborative models that bring together actors from both the public and private sector have thus emerged for institutionalized and community-based crisis response. Such models aim particularly to reach vulnerable, hard-to-reach communities, such as racialized immigrant communities that are among those disproportionately impacted at times of crisis. This paper presents a case study of a community-based, cross-sectoral collaborative formed to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and specifically targeting immigrant communities. Findings inform a conceptual framework that illustrates the integration of two spheres of service: crisis supports, characterized by a short-term approach, broad-based reach and general objectives; and settlement supports, characterized by their long-term approach, trust relations and targeted objectives, such as language supports and culturally appropriate outreach.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-022-00223-0
       
  • Author Correction: Known by the Children’s Condition: Associative Stigma
           Among Family Carers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

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      Abstract: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00205-8
       
  • Nutritional Deficiencies and Maternal Depression: Associations and
           Interventions in Lower and Middle-Income Countries: a Systematic Review of
           Literature

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      Abstract: Background Nutrition deficiencies are common among pregnant and lactating women in middle- and low-income countries. At the same time, maternal mental disorders, mainly depression is highly prevalent during this period suggesting some connection between the two. The objective of this review is to determine the associations between nutritional deficiencies and maternal depression and identify the role of diet in depression to facilitate further research. Methods A literature search included PubMed databases and Google Scholar search engine published from June 2008 to June 2019 and published in English. Medical subject heading terms was used to identify all relevant studies. All titles and abstracts identified by the search were screened then reviewed the full-text articles which were potentially eligible for inclusion. Results The original search identified 1250 articles but with cascaded elimination, based on quality. Twenty five met the inclusion criteria, of which 13 were cross-sectional, eight were prospective cohort study, and four were intervention studies. Most (95%) of these studies reported positive associations between nutrition deficiencies, poor diet, and maternal depression; thus, only 5% did not show associations between nutrition and depression. Conclusion Our review findings suggest that nutritional interventions are some of the most promising intercessions for mental health illnesses. Not all studies consistently associate poor diet quality with poor maternal and offspring mental health outcomes, and the majority of those that show are cross-sectional. Considering that most of these associations are cross-sectional, studies devoid of exposing causal relationship; thus, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the associations towards sufficing as a window of opportunity for reducing the risk of mental disorders in mothers and offspring alike.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-020-00199-9
       
  • Strengthening System and Implementation Research Capacity for Child Mental
           Health and Family Well-being in Sub-Saharan Africa

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      Abstract: Background Children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) experience high rates of mental health problems, and the region has limited access to mental health resources and research capacity to address the needs. Despite the success of numerous evidence-based interventions (EBIs) and emerging methodology from the field of implementation science for addressing child mental health needs, most EBIs and implementation science methodology have not been applied in SSA contexts. The SMART-Africa Center aims to address these child welfare, mental health, services, and EBI implementation research gaps by establishing a regional trans-disciplinary collaborative center and studying strategies to strengthening mental health system and implementation research capacity. Our paper describes the overall framework and strategies that SMART-Africa team developed to strengthen capacity in three SSA countries (Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda) while focusing on its contextualization for the Kenyan school-community mental health settings. Methods to document the progress and impacts are also described. Methods The design of the system and research strengthening activities is guided by a SMART-Africa Capacity Building framework. Two areas of capacity are focused. Mental health system capacity focuses on building political wills, leadership, transdisciplinary partnership, and stakeholders’ global competency in evidence child mental health policy, intervention, and service implementation research. Implementation research capacity building focuses on building researchers’ implementation research competency by carrying out an EBI implementation research (using a Hybrid Type II effectiveness-implementation). For illustration purpose, we describe how the system strengthening strategies has been applied in Kenya and how the mixed methods design applied to assess the value and impacts of the capacity building activities. Feedback data and evaluation data collection using qualitative and quantitative methods for both areas of capacity building are still ongoing. Data will be analyzed and compared across countries in 2020–2021. Conclusion Our work has shown some feasibility of applying the theory-guided system strengthening model in improving child mental health service system and research capacity in one of the three SMART-Africa partnering countries. Our mental health landscape and resource mapping in Kenya also illustrated that capacity building in SSA countries involved complex dynamic, history, and some overlap efforts with multiple partnerships, and these are critical to consider in training activity and evaluation design.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00204-9
       
  • The Social Network and Adjustment of Indian Women in Taiwan: a Qualitative
           Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Social networking is recognized as one of the major supplies in human life progression. This social form significantly influences the altercation of needs as well as supports. There are various types of social networks that vary as the function of respect to the mass of networking members, contact frequency, geographical vicinity, and subsequent arrangements. Herein, the present analysis examines mainly the workplace influences on the social networking structures within the prosperous immigrants, the types of support (i.e., social, emotional, or instrumental) they get from their co-workers, and the various approaches of women to create and maintain the social relationships. Therefore, the main targets of the present research are the following: highlighting their important strategies for life adaptation in Taiwan and their methodology to create daily life social networking. Herein, around ten women were selected randomly, and their detailed in-depth interview had been taken. As for analysis, the researchers inductively analyzed various essential parameters, such as identifying categories, themes, and outlines, which are mainly appeared from the data. In this course, six relevant and understandable wide themes are mainly appeared via analyzing the interviews. These six themes related to the social networking of Indian women staying in Taiwan are as follows: communication, thinking about Taiwan society, the similarity between India and Taiwan society, differences between India and Taiwan society, social life, and women autonomy and working culture. A major issue for respondents is some have difficulties in communicating their own view and their idea related to the matter because of language problems. However, this place is safe and local people are kind and very helpful in nature. The status of Indian women is excellent, and they feel comfortable, safe, and happy to stay and work in Taiwan.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-020-00197-x
       
  • Social Work Organizations’ Role in the Social Capital Building in China:
           A Case Study Among Rural Migrant Workers in Xiamen

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      Abstract: Abstract Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are considered important actors in promoting social capital, social welfare, and social work organizations (SWOs) and are fast-developing in China. This research adopted a case study to look into SWOs’ (Social Work Organization’s) capacity to build social capital among rural migrant workers (RMWs) in Xiamen, China. It is found that SWOs’ capacity in linking social capital is still weak. Their capability in social networking and trust and norms building is over-shaped by the environmental factors. SWOs’ role in building social capital in China is social construction production. SWOs should reexamine their social development roles but not to be co-opted into the authoritative control system and play a major factor in social capital establishment standing for clients’ authentic development. It is suggested that SWOs should focus more on linking social capital (both structural and cognitive social capital) between vulnerable groups and other organizations, especially government departments and policymakers, and apply social capital into social work theory development with its context in China.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00207-6
       
  • Temporal Patterns of Cigarette Smoking and Its Associated Covariates: a
           Multilevel Longitudinal Data Analysis

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      Abstract: Background Understanding differences in cigarette smoking patterns such as the frequency between-person and within-person is essential for tailored tobacco health education interventions. Previous studies, however, mostly limited analysis to computation of cigarette smoking frequency and its correlates. This article used multilevel models to examine between-person and within-person variations in cigarette smoking patterns over a 13-year period. Methods We merged the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health public-use data waves 1–4 into one longitudinal dataset for use in this study. Our analysis was based on the past-month’s average number of cigarette smoked per day. We used linear mixed model approach to fit multilevel models. Results The average number of cigarette smoked per day (CPD) among the sample at baseline/wave 1 was 6.92 (SD = 8.18). Time of observation in years (β = 0.455 (p < .001), age (β = 0.355, p < .001), past-year alcohol use frequency (β = −0.329, p < .001), and illicit drug use (β = 1.128, p < .001) were associated with average number of CPD. There were significant variations in the average number of CPD between-person (β = 29.602, p < .001) and within-person (variance = 34.393, p < .001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that rate of change in average number of CPD over years among the study sample could be different between-adolescent and within-adolescent depending on other substance use and demographic factors. Hence, tailored tobacco use educational programs or interventions and policies targeting these adolescents could be designed according to between-adolescent and within-adolescent differences in the average number of CPD trajectories.
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00220-9
       
 
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