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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
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Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.649
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 9  
 
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ISSN (Print) 1049-2089 - ISSN (Online) 1548-6869
Published by Project MUSE Homepage  [305 journals]
  • Developing a Research Agenda for Adults with Complex Health and Social
           Needs

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      Abstract: In the U.S. health system, 5% of the population accounts for 50% of all health spending. Almost half of the 5% are medically complex individuals with multiple chronic conditions (≥3) who are considered socially complex related to functional limitations in their self-care abilities or behavioral health issues. The average annual per-person health care expenditure for adults with complex health and social needs (ACHSN) is $21,000—three times higher than for adults with multiple chronic diseases who have no functional limitations. Adults with complex health and social needs are more likely to depend on family or caregivers, social services, and community supports to meet their health care needs.1–4 Adults with complex ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Characterizing Multisystem High Users of the Homeless Services, Jail, and
           Hospital Systems in Chicago, Illinois

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      Abstract: Access to permanent housing, financial security, and quality health care are foundational for leading a healthy and fulfilling life. For many individuals, lack of stability in such dimensions of life correspondingly promotes repeated cycles of service use between the homelessness, criminal justice, and hospital systems.Prior studies document the co-occurrence of incarceration, homelessness, and unmet health needs—in particular, mental health needs.1,2,3 High health care utilizers, defined as having at least four emergency department (ED) visits or at least three inpatient hospital stays per 12-month period were five times more likely to experience homelessness, and two times more likely to have an interaction with ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Linguistic Inequities in ADHD Diagnosis among School-age Children Screened
           for Attention Problems in Primary Care

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      Abstract: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common, morbid, and costly conditions in children.1,2 If left untreated, it can lead to significant behavioral, emotional,3 social,4 and academic problems.5,6 While effective, evidencebased treatments for ADHD exist that improve clinical outcomes,7 ADHD remains under-identified in children. This under-identification particularly affects racial and ethnic minoritized children, who suffer from an even higher ADHD prevalence and morbidity, along with higher rates of poverty, educational underachievement, and vocational failure, and yet experience disproportionate under-diagnosis and under-treatment.8–12Multiple studies have shown persistently higher ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Health Insurance and Primary Care Access for Taxi/FHV Drivers in New York
           City: Trends from 2015–2018

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      Abstract: There are between approximately 300,000 and 750,000 taxi, ride-hailing (e.g., Uber, Lyft), and chauffer drivers across the United States.1,2 In New York City, there are 187,467 licensed taxi and FHV (for-hire vehicle) drivers.3 Taxi/FHV drivers have high rates of elevated body mass index, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, and low back pain.4–8 Longtime taxi/FHV drivers are also likely to have a high-risk profile for cardiovascular disease, and experience high rates of myocardial infarction, hypertension and multi-vessel disease, likely due, in part, to unfavorable work and lifestyle factors.5,9–11 Lack of access to a primary care provider (PCP) is associated with premature mortality, poor health, and ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Equipping Small Businesses to Navigate Health Orders and Occupational
           Safety During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic presents a crisis for protecting the health and safety of customers and employees in the workplace, especially for small businesses (SBs). In San Diego, California, modifications to business operations were first implemented in mid-March 2020 and have taken many forms throughout the pandemic, including but not limited to indoor dining restrictions, reduced capacity limits, and the complete shutdown of operations. Small businesses, defined as those with fewer than 100 employees, represent up to 98% of businesses in San Diego, and account for 59% of the county's workforce.1 While the COVID-19 pandemic has affected operations of all business types, SBs are less likely to have the financial and ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • A New Syndemic: Complications of Opioid Use Disorder During a Heat Wave

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      Abstract: In recent years, two substantial threats to public health have emerged. The opioid crisis, responsible for 99,102 predicted deaths in the United States in the 12 months preceding March 2021,1 has led to a sizeable public health response including new guidelines limiting provider prescribing, mass distribution of naloxone, and enhanced treatment with buprenorphine, methadone, and naltrexone.2 Climate change also presents a public health crisis on a global scale, though the public health response has been modest, including in the United States. Health outcomes associated with climate change are vast, ranging from famine and conflict to changes in infectious disease patterns. However, mortality directly related to ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Homelessness in the United States: Implications for Critically Ill
           Children

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      Abstract: Homelessness, and its accompanying disparities, is a growing crisis in the United States (U.S.) and is considered the most severe form of housing instability.1 In 2020, on a single night, there were approximately 580,000 individuals experiencing homelessness in the U.S., 172,000 of whom were people in families with children and 35,000 of whom were unaccompanied youth (under 25 years old).2 The homeless population disproportionately comprises African Americans (39%) and Hispanic/Latinos (23%) despite their smaller numbers in the overall U.S. population of 12% and 16% respectively.2 Point-in-time counts are inherently problematic in accurately characterizing this population, as definitions of homelessness vary, thus ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Demographic, Epidemiologic and Nutrition Transitions in Colombia:
           Implications for Oral Diseases and Dental Services

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      Abstract: Populations are dynamic groups that constantly experience structural changes in different spheres, among others, social, economic, political, and cultural, in the process of achieving development. Over time, these central changes create trends with specific characteristics, which allow us to differentiate one society from the other. In the literature, there exist some models that have been developed to explain these changing trends occurring at the population level, such as the demographic, epidemiologic, and nutrition transition models,1–3 and these can be used to describe changes observed in the Colombian population.Colombia is one of the most populated countries in Latin America; its population numbers just over ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Flattening Epidemic Curves and COVID-19: Policy Rationales, Inequality,
           and Racism

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      Abstract: This commentary on policy decisions to flatten the curve during the COVID-19 pandemic outlines issues and research needs relevant to any pandemic. The alternative to a curve flattened by implementing traditional public health measures is the spiked curve that naturally results when an unimpeded communicable disease rapidly infects the population of vulnerable hosts, thereby quickly burning itself out. As the American COVID experience wore on, increasingly loud voices began to ask whether measures to flatten the curve were taking too great an economic toll. Thus, the policy choices between flattening the curve or allowing the natural spike to occur are shadowed by a parallel perception that the stakes involve ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Assessing Black America's Experience During the COVID-19 Plague

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      Abstract: The Satcher Health Leadership Institute* at Morehouse School of Medicine and the Equity Research and Innovation Center at Yale School of Medicine recently produced a brief but useful compendium of published research on the multifarious ways in which COVID-19 has affected the Black community in the U.S.1,2 The State of Black America and COVID-19: A Two Year Assessment was commissioned by the Black Coalition Against COVID, which included the four historically Black medical schools—Howard, Meharry, the Charles R. Drew University of Medical Science, and Morehouse.In the early months of the pandemic, Blacks aged 65–74 faced a risk of dying that was five times greater than that of whites; the risk declined to four times ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Public Health and Politics

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      Abstract: Positioned at the nexus of social science and health, the Journal's work is necessarily political. One of the many concerns in the U.S. as we approach the Fall of 2022 is the U.S. Supreme Court's June decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization to overturn Roe v. Wade and with it the Constitutional guarantee of the right to abortion, abrogating women's moral autonomy over their reproductive health. In this issue, Frohwirth and colleagues consider another contested site in the reproductive health care landscape—contraception affected by abortion policy—as they assess the impact on women in Iowa of a 2017 reduction in Medicaid coverage of contraceptive care. Due to the new law, patients enrolled in the ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Collaborative Care as an Effective Intervention for Primary Care Patients
           at Risk for Suicide

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      Abstract: In the United States, suicide is the 10th leading cause of death with more than 47,000 deaths by suicide and an estimated 1.4 million attempts annually. Suicide is comparable to other leading causes of death, including diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (AFSP, 2019). Approximately 45% of people who die by suicide visit a primary care provider (PCP) 30 days before their death.Most people who die by suicide have contact with a medical professional within three months of their death date. In 2019, 12 million American adults seriously thought about suicide, 3.5 million made a plan, and 1.4 million attempted suicide.2 For individuals aged 10–34 years old, death by suicide was the 2nd leading cause of death in 2019.3 ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Racial Disparities in Nursing Home Resident and Staff COVID-19 Vaccination
           Rates

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      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacted a disproportionate toll on U.S. nursing homes—with resident deaths accounting for over 30% of deaths nationally.1 Efforts to encourage COVID-19 vaccination to mitigate transmission and improve outcomes among vulnerable nursing home residents and staff began December 2020. On August 18, 2021, President Biden announced a federal mandate requiring nursing home staff receive the vaccination as a condition of facility receipt of Medicare and Medicaid funding.2 It is well-established that racial segregation of nursing homes is related to quality provision of health care and that majority-Black resident nursing homes have higher burdens of nursing home COVID-19-related cases and deaths.3 ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Race/Ethnicity, Nativity Status, and Patient Portal Access and Use

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      Abstract: Providing patients access to their online medical records through an interactive patient portal (hereafter referred to as patient portal for brevity) benefits not only the provider (via Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement),1 but, more importantly, patients themselves. People who use patient portals experience better patient-provider communication and quality of care, have higher patient satisfaction, and report better medication management than those who do not.2,3 Patient portals provide users with secure access to health information, test results, and email/message communication with their health care providers, which increases people's perceptions of control over their medical care, enables them to take a more ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Associations of Incomplete SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination among Patients with
           Unstable Housing in Houston

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      Abstract: Individuals with unstable housing are at an elevated risk for both SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease.1,2 However, vaccination offers an effective approach to decreasing SARS-CoV-2 incidence and severity.3,4The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted approval to the SARSCoV-2 vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech and emergency use authorization to those from Moderna and Johnson & Johnson. Data from the initial clinical studies suggest that complete vaccination with any of the three vaccines offers similar protection against SARS-CoV-2.3,4 While the vaccine from Johnson & Johnson requires just one dose, those from both Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna require two doses spaced three or four weeks apart ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Medicaid Applications Spike during Marketplace Open Enrollment: Lessons
           from Covered California

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      Abstract: The expansion of Medicaid coverage as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has insured millions of Americans and reduced costly churn in the program.1–4 The ACA also introduced health insurance exchanges, collectively known as the Marketplace, to provide an option for obtaining private insurance for individuals not eligible for public health insurance and who may not have access to employer-based coverage. Many states, including California, have multiple venues through which to submit a Medicaid application: 1) through local social service agencies, 2) to the state Medicaid agency directly, and/or 3) through its state-based or federally-facilitated health insurance exchange. Unlike Medicaid, which accepts ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Choosing the Emergency Department as an Alternative for STD Care:
           Potential Disparities in Access

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      Abstract: The most recent sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that rates of STIs are at their highest point since 2013,1 and past epidemiologic research has shown that rates of STIs have been higher in Black people than in White people.2 More broadly, disparities in overall health care access and health outcomes have been persistently problematic for the Black/African American population in the United States,3 with additional documentation of Black/African American people using emergency rooms as a routine source of care because of these disparities in health care access.4 Previous work in the treatment of STIs has indicated that differences ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Drive Times to Methadone Treatment among Medicaid Patients

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      Abstract: The opioid epidemic is one of the most pressing public health crises of the last 20 years. Despite the existence of medication for opioid use disorder, nearly half of patients with the condition do not receive treatment.1 Methadone is an effective pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder (OUD); those who receive it are five times less likely to have illicit drug use, alcohol use, and criminal involvement, compared with those who do not receive methadone.2 Though retention rates for methadone are higher than for other forms of OUD pharmacotherapy (e.g., buprenorphine),3,4 outpatient methadone treatment initiation and engagement remain undesirably low with a median retention rate of just 57% at twelve months and 38% ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Assessing Equity in Mental Health Outreach Services to People Experiencing
           Unsheltered Homelessness

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      Abstract: Health inequities are differences in health status between different population groups that arise from economic, social, or environmental conditions.1 People experiencing homelessness are vulnerable to health inequities including shorter lifespan, increased morbidity, and increased hospital utilization.2–4 They are subject to adverse life circumstances that result in higher rates of substance use and psychiatric conditions, as well as structural factors such as lack of insurance that prevent access to medical services.5,6 Intersectional identities such as age, gender, race, and ethnicity interact to create compounding disparities in health care access and outcomes. These disparities also potentiate vulnerabilities ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Characteristics of Health Care Financial Assistance Programs Serving the
           Most Populous U.S. Counties

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      Abstract: County-based health care financial assistance programs (HFAPs) provide funding to cover medical costs for uninsured and underinsured populations, offering these groups "a level of access to care that can be broadly equivalent to basic access provided by actual insurance."1[p.4] Health care financial assistance program enrollment is associated with decreased likelihood of delayed clinic visits, improved medication adherence, and increased likelihood of having a usual source of care.2Many U.S. counties have an HFAP, but to our knowledge there is no literature that systematically describes these programs. This study reports on the benefits, eligibility, and accessibility of HFAPs serving the 10 most populous counties ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Gauging Local Interest in Telemedicine Visits: Are Online Surveys
           Enough'

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      Abstract: As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolded, health care experienced an unprecedented shift to telehealth.1–3 Case studies documented 15 to 20-fold increases in the number of telehealth visits (which also includes non-clinical services, while telemedicine refers to remote clinical services only) during just the first week following the initial national guidelines to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus on March 16, 2020.4 Recent evidence has suggested that medically-underserved areas, such as rural locations, were initially slow to begin offering telehealth options (including telemedicine visits with physicians); however, clinics in these areas became more active over time.5,6 While the future of telemedicine is unclear ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Patient Income Does Not Predict Disability or Mortality in Hospitalized
           COVID-19 Patients in a Large Health Care System in the Chicago
           Metropolitan Area

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      Abstract: Substantial evidence has emerged that COVID-19 disproportionately affects different racial/ethnic groups and exacerbates preexisting health disparities disfavoring Black communities.1–2 In Chicago, the Latinx population accounted for, on average, 47.7% of all cases in the city in the first few months of the pandemic (March 2020–mid-September 2020) and 34.2% of all cases more recently (as of the beginning of April 2021), representing the most widely affected racial/ethnic group. However, non-Latinx Blacks in Chicago accounted for 42.7% of all deaths despite accounting for 27.5% of all cases compared to the Latinx community, which had 33.2% of all deaths (based on data collected from 3/1/2020–9/18/2020).3 In summary: ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Food Insecurity and Mental Health Trajectories during the COVID-19
           Pandemic: Longitudinal Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey

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      Abstract: Food insecurity, defined as lack of access to adequate food due to financial and/or resource constraints, has become a public health crisis in the United States amidst the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.1–3 Negative health outcomes associated with food insecurity have been reported consistently prior to COVID-19 such as the onset of chronic conditions (e.g., hypertension and diabetes), obesity, and development of activities of daily living limitations.4,5 Furthermore, the prevalence of food insecurity follows a socioeconomic gradient in which individuals from low-income households, racial/ethnic minority backgrounds, households with children, and under-resourced communities, as well as those of ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Implications for Coding Race and Ethnicity for American Indian and Alaska
           Native High School Students in a National Survey

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      Abstract: In the U.S., American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people experience among the highest rates of poor health outcomes,1 with an estimated 19%–23% of AI/AN adults experiencing fair or poor health status.2 The prevalence of cigarette smoking, overweight and obesity, and inadequate physical activity is significantly higher among AI/AN high school students than among their non-Hispanic White peers.3 Further, racial discrimination and racially motivated harassment are common experiences among AI/AN adults,4 and among AI/AN youth, discrimination is associated with anger and aggression,5 suicidal behavior,6 and substance use.7Reasons for these health disparities are complex and based on both current living conditions ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Associations Between Food Insecurity and Neighborhood Safety, Social
           Cohesion, Social Control, and Crime Among Mothers of Preschool-Aged
           Children

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      Abstract: Poverty is a significant problem among children in the United States. In 2019, 15.4% of young children (< 6 years) in the U.S. were living in poverty.1 Impoverished children are susceptible to many adverse long-term health outcomes, including poor physical and mental health, socioemotional development, and educational achievement2, and are more likely to engage in risky health behaviors.3 Black, Hispanic, and Native American young children are disproportionately affected, with 28.8%, 21.8%, and 26.9% living in poverty, respectively.1 Further, Black and Hispanic children, and children living in households that are headed by single mothers or caregivers with lower educational attainment, are disproportionately ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Black Veterans' Mental Health: A
           Qualitative Investigation

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      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic led to myriad disruptions in day-to-day life, with notable effects on mental health. Shortly after the onset of the pandemic, a CBS newspoll1 indicated that 43% of Americans reported feeling stressed amid the outbreak, and 35% reported feeling nervous. Subsequent research has identified the persistence of negative mental health effects as the pandemic continues, including higher rates of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and psychological distress compared with pre-pandemic levels.2,3 One study found that symptoms of an anxiety or depressive disorder increased significantly between August 2020 and February 2021 from 36.4% to 41.5%. A quarter of those with such symptoms reported unmet mental ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Goal-Striving Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Jackson Heart
           Study

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      Abstract: The United States (U.S.) spends over $200 billion annually on health care services and lost productivity due to deaths related to cardiovascular disease (CVD).1 Indeed, one in four deaths in the US are attributable to CVD, making CVD the leading cause of death.2,3 Although CVD death rates have decreased in recent decades, African American adults remain 1.23 to 2.45 times more likely to die from CVD than members of other racial and ethnic groups.4 African Americans are also more likely to exhibit common risk factors for CVD including hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol.4 Thus, identifying factors contributing to higher CVD risk among African Americans is a crucial first step toward eliminating ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Self-Rated Health and Mental Health Among African Americans in the Rural
           South: The Influence of Social Determinants of Health

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      Abstract: African Americans, particularly those residing in rural areas, may be vulnerable to such health disparities as higher rates of heart disease, diabetes, poor mental health, smoking prevalence, and obesity compared with other racial/ethnic groups.1 Indeed, previous research has found that residents of rural areas have a greater likelihood of reporting poor/fair self-rated health compared with individuals living in metropolitan areas.2 Social determinants of health (SDOH) may partially explain the prevalence of poor health outcomes among rural African Americans.3 Social determinants of health encompass numerous individualized, environmental, relational, economic, and cultural conditions that directly and indirectly ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Insurance Coverage and Stage
           Among Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

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      Abstract: One of the main goals of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), enacted in March 2010, was to increase insurance coverage to those who could not afford it previously and thus increase access to health care.1–3 This was accomplished by permitting states to expand Medicaid coverage to people with incomes less than 138% of the federal poverty level. Six states were early expanders, expanding coverage before 2014, and a total of 24 states and the District of Columbia expanded coverage before 2014.1,3 Another important provision was the establishment of state health insurance marketplaces where adults with incomes of 100%–400% of the federal poverty level could purchase standardized insurance plans with ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Program Outcomes and Health Care Utilization of People Experiencing
           Homelessness and Substance Use Disorder after Transitional Care Program
           Engagement

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      Abstract: People experiencing homelessness (PEH) have a high rate of premature death; a high prevalence of serious mental illness, acute and chronic diseases, and substance use disorders (SUD);1 and a standardized mortality ratio two to five times higher than that of the general population.1 Comorbid conditions are common in the population and the incidence of trimorbidity (i.e., the combination of mental illness, SUD, and chronic medical illnesses), which is associated with premature mortality, is increasing.2 These poor health outcomes are hampered by multiple barriers to accessing health care3 and are reflected in high-cost health service utilization rates.1 Compared with those who do not experience homelessness, PEH have ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Innovative Use of the Health Status Questionnaire-12 for Individual and
           Population Health

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      Abstract: Self-reported health (SRH) data, also referred to as self-rated health, have been used frequently in the past 25 years to predict morbidity and mortality of individuals and populations.1,2,3 Self-reported health is a useful indicator of perceived population health4,5 which permits comparisons across healthy populations and groups with chronic conditions.6,7 This is an important health indicator because it is a self-determined judgment or perception about an individual's health, including their perception of overall well-being and functioning.2,7,8,9,10 Individuals have critical insights and judgments about the contextual influences of the variety of social, biological, psychological, and environmental ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Exploring the Characteristics of Doctor of Physical Therapy Students
           Intending to Work in Medically Underserved Areas

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      Abstract: As movement specialists, physical therapists offer evidence-based and nonpharmacologic treatment options for acute and chronic health conditions across the lifespan, including conditions that lead to disability and chronic pain. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention specifically noted the important roles of physical therapy and exercise in reducing opioid use.1 Yet, many communities in the United States (U.S.) lack access to physical therapy services.2,3The physical therapy profession has identified social responsibility as one of its core values.4 According to the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), social responsibility is "the promotion of a mutual trust between the profession and the larger ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Predictors of Attitudes toward the Medically Underserved among
           Occupational and Physical Therapy Students

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      Abstract: Having empathy and positive attitudes toward the medically underserved is critical for health care professionals, including occupational (OT) and physical therapists (PT). Medically underserved populations, including people experiencing homelessness, low-income communities, and racial and ethnic minorities, encounter numerous barriers to accessing and receiving quality health care, and often have poorer health outcomes and higher mortality rates compared with Whites and higher-income communities.1–3 Reasons for these health disparities are complex, but research suggests that perceived discrimination and negative bias from health care providers may be a contributing factor.2,4–6Individuals who perceive negative ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Substance Use Disorders and Antisocial Personality Disorder among a Sample
           of Incarcerated Individuals with Inadequate Health Care: Implications for
           Correctional Mental-Behavioural Health and Addiction Services

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      Abstract: Substance use disorders (SUD) are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders globally, and contribute substantially to the global burden of diseases, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).1–3 As much as 16.6% of the total burden of diseases is attributed to SUD in LMICs. A significant proportion of this burden is linked to SUD in vulnerable populations, including incarcerated individuals in settings with inadequate health care.3 However, only a small fraction of people with mental disorders in LMICs receives treatment. For example, only 11.1% and 10.4% of severe cases of mental disorders in China and Nigeria respectively had received any treatment in the previous 12 months in an international ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Predictors of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Awareness among African American
           Young Adults in Louisville, Kentucky

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      Abstract: HIV among young African Americans is a public health priority. African Americans account for the widest HIV prevalence in the country (41%),1 and the HIV rate among African American adolescents and adults (39.2 per 100,000) is considerably higher than among non-Hispanic Whites (4.8 per 100,000).1 HIV among young adults in general is also a public health priority as people aged 20–29 years have the highest HIV rates out of any age group in the country. The concern of HIV and young adults is exacerbated under the spectre of race, as HIV rates for African American 20–24 year olds (98.3 per 100,000) exceed those of Whites (9.4 per 100,000), as do rates for 25–29 year olds (99.0 per 100,000 vs 13.2 per 100,000 ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • "Choose the People Who Know": How Patient-Centered Medical Homes Reduce
           Disclosure Anxiety for People Living with HIV and Experiencing
           Homelessness

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      Abstract: Stigma has detrimental effects on the ability of people living with HIV (PWH) to engage and be retained in medical care.1 Fear of disclosing one's HIV status can further prevent an individual from seeking treatment.1 Such delays in health care engagement for PWH can result in poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment and decreased viral suppression, which can promote HIV transmission and lead to increased morbidity and mortality.2 The stigma experienced by people living with HIV, substance use disorders, and (severe) mental illness is further complicated by social identity and exacerbated by social conditions, including poverty and homelessness.HIV stigma has been well documented,3–7 as has the stigma associated ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Use of Services among Female Sex Workers Receiving a Comprehensive HIV
           Enhanced Prevention Intervention in Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-sectional
           Study

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      Abstract: Globally, female sex workers (FSWs) remain at elevated risk for HIV infection with more than 14 times increased odds of HIV infection than women in the general population.1,2 The HIV prevalence among FSWs worldwide is 12%.1,2 While there are significant regional differences in HIV prevalence among FSWs, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) contributes the greatest burden with a pooled prevalence of 37%.1,3 In Uganda, an estimated 16% of new HIV infections are attributed to FSWs and their clients.4 The HIV prevalence among FSWs ranges between 33% and 37% compared with 7.6% of the Ugandan general female population.5–7 The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommend that ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Evaluation of a Program to Reduce Infant Mortality Risk Factors in Central
           Indiana

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      Abstract: The death of a baby before his or her first birthday, termed infant mortality (IM), is an important indicator of population health. The U.S. infant mortality rate (IMR) is 5.8 deaths per 1,000 live births ranking 33rd out of 36 Organization for Economic Cooperative and Development (OECD) nations.1,2 Additionally, U.S. IMR shows racial disparities with Black IMR 2.5 times worse than White IMR.3 Indiana ranks (>40th) among states in the U.S. with a rate of 7.5 deaths per 1,000 live births and 14.4 deaths per 1,000 live births for Black infants. Many of Indiana's counties have higher IMRs. Marion County (Co.) had a rate of 7.5 deaths per 1,000 live births and a striking disparity between Black and White IM, with Black ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Using the YRBSS to Assess the Health Behaviors of Bi/Multiracial
           Adolescents

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      Abstract: As the overall U.S. population growth ebbs,1 racial minority populations continue to grow.2 More specifically, the U.S. Census Bureau identified nine million individuals as multiracial in 2010, up from 6.8 million in 2000, indicating this population increased by a third during this time.3 Along with Hispanic people, those who identify as bi/multiracial (B/MR) are one of the fastest-growing racial group in the United States. The Pew Research Center suggests that multiracial individuals will triple in population by 2060.4 Additionally, of all youth, multiracial youth are the fastest-growing group in the United States.2 Because of this, we need to bring attention to this demographic and attempt to reduce or eliminate ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Access to Preferred Contraceptive Strategies in Iowa: A Longitudinal
           Qualitative Study of Effects of Shifts in Policy and Healthcare Contexts

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      Abstract: Accessing and using desired contraception is one important avenue for individuals to realize reproductive autonomy, or the ability to be fully empowered agents in their reproductive lives.1 Contraception has myriad other health benefits beyond pregnancy protection2 and plays a role in helping people to realize social and economic life milestones;3 it is basic preventive health care.4 In order to realize these benefits of contraception, and as endorsed by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), people need contraception to be broadly available and accessible.2,5 However, inequities in access to contraception due to geography, cost, and other factors exist,6 highlighting the important role ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Public Health Challenges and Barriers to Health Care Access for Asylum
           Seekers at the U.S.-Mexico Border in Matamoros, Mexico

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      Abstract: Since the enactment of the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act, the United States (U.S.) has granted asylum to vulnerable people fleeing persecution.1 An asylum seeker is defined by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) as a person seeking international protection on the grounds of persecution in their home country relating to their race, religion, nationality, political belief, or membership in a particular social group. This population is distinct from refugees or other migrants, as their requests for protection by the home country are not yet finalized, and asylum seekers have the right to wait within the host country until their claims are processed. Nearly all asylum seekers who ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Associations of Pediatric Symptom Checklist Scores with Sexual Activity
           and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Urban Adolescents

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      Abstract: Adolescents experience high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that young people aged 15–24 acquired half of all new STIs.1 Furthermore, rates of reported cases of chlamydia and gonorrhea have continued to increase in adolescent males and females.1,2 Sexually transmitted infections are a preventable public health problem, and it is important to screen, counsel, and inform adolescents about possible medical conditions related to infections. The medical and reproductive consequences of STIs that go undiagnosed and/or untreated include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and gynecological cancers.3 Sexually active adolescents ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Financial Instability of Federal Navigator Program Challenges
           Organizations to Help Uninsured Enroll in Health Insurance Coverage

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      Abstract: Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the Obama Administration launched a federally funded Insurance Navigator Program ("Navigator Program"). Under this program, non-profit organizations (including federally qualified health centers, social services agencies, government agencies, or university affiliates) contract with the U.S. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). These organizations are funded to provide enrollment assistance, outreach, and education to eligible consumers for health insurance coverage in states with federally facilitated Marketplaces (or Exchanges).1 Some states run their own Marketplaces and are not funded through the federal Navigator Program. Such state-based programs tend to have ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Compliance with Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation at a Tertiary
           Academic Center versus a County Hospital

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      Abstract: Social determinants of health are fundamental causes of health disparities.1 Despite health care reform in the United States, disparities in health care use and access persist, and racial/ethnic and gender minorities are more likely to receive substandard treatment.2 This trend is reported in urology as well.3–6 There is an urgent need to recognize these disparities more widely, identify underlying factors, and ultimately bring equity to the bedside.Within urology, overactive bladder (OAB), an incontinence disorder characterized by urinary urgency, has been found to be more prevalent among Black and Hispanic patients compared with White patients.3,4 In a cross-sectional population survey, Black and Hispanic groups ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Students in a
           Highly-Marginalized Locality in Yucatan, Mexico

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      Abstract: People in developing countries face serious public health problems due to nutritional deficiencies or excesses. In Mexico, the problems of malnutrition and infectious diseases in children under five years old living in poverty have decreased, while the percentages of overweight and obesity have increased in all age groups. Due to the coexistence of malnutrition, infectious diseases, overweight, and obesity, the country is in epidemiological transition.1,2 This situation is not exclusive to urban areas, but also characterizes rural regions of the country.3,4The social, economic, alimentary, and cultural changes Mexico has experienced for some decades in health conditions are partially due to public policies ... Read More
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
 
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