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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
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Race and Social Problems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.827
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1867-1756 - ISSN (Online) 1867-1748
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Correction to: Suspended Again: The Racialized Consequences of a 9th Grade
           Suspension on Future Suspension Patterns

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      Abstract: A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12552-021-09336-1
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Debt Stress, College Stress: Implications for Black and Latinx
           Students’ Mental Health

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      Abstract: Abstract Educational debt is an economic stressor that is harmful to mental health and disproportionately experienced by African American and Latinx youth. In this paper, we use a daily diary design to explore the link between mental health, context specific factors like “college stress” and time use, and educational debt stress, or stress incurred from thinking about educational debt and college affordability. This paper utilizes data from a sample of predominately African American and Latinx college students who provided over 1000 unique time observations. Results show that debt-induced stress is predictive of greater self-reported hostility, guilt, sadness, fatigue, and general negative emotion. Moreover, the relationship may be partly mediated by “college stress” reflecting course loads and post-graduation job expectations. For enrolled students then, educational debt may influence mental health directly through concerns over affordability, or indirectly by shaping facets of college life. The window that our granular data provides into college experiences suggest that the consequences of student debt are manifest and immediate. Further, the documented day-to-day mental health burden for minority students may contribute to downstream processes such as matriculation.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Suspended Again: The Racialized Consequences of a 9th Grade Suspension on
           Future Suspension Patterns

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      Abstract: Abstract Although prior research has linked school-based punishment to a series of negative consequences, little is known about how being punished in school predicts future school-based punishment. To address this, the current study examines the extent to which being suspended in 9th grade predicts subsequent suspensions within the same school. Using stereotype congruence theory as a framework, we examine differences by race (black versus white) and household income. The data are drawn from three cohorts of four-wave annual administrative data from a large urban school district in the Midwestern USA (N = 11,006). Findings indicate that being suspended in 9th grade is associated with higher odds of subsequent suspension and a greater number of subsequent suspensions, but not a greater number of days per suspension. Black students suspended in 9th grade were particularly likely to experience more subsequent suspensions. Further, these racial differences are not driven by household income measures. These findings indicate that racially disparate school punishment practices have cascading effects for black students.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Consistent Divisions or Methodological Decisions' Assessing the U.S.
           Racial Hierarchy Across Outcomes

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      Abstract: Abstract Scholars have offered a range of perspectives on the twenty-first century racial landscape with little consensus about either the current state of the U.S. racial hierarchy or its future trajectory. We offer a more comprehensive assessment, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to study racial stratification across a number of socioeconomic outcomes. We pay particular attention to the robustness of results across different categorization schemes that account for self-identification and interviewer classification, as well as racial fluidity. Although we observe that White and Asian Americans generally have the best socioeconomic outcomes, on average, while Black Americans and American Indians have the worst, we also find meaningful differences in patterns of stratification both across outcomes and depending on how race is operationalized. These differences in stratification are reflected in the estimated number of strata as well as the rank order of racial categories. Our results suggest that ongoing debates about the nature of the U.S. racial hierarchy can be partly explained by methodological decisions about which outcomes to study and how best to measure race.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Educational Attainment Past the Traditional Age of Completion for Two
           Cohorts of US Adults: Inequalities by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

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      Abstract: Abstract The vast majority of studies investigating participation in, persistence through, and consequences of postsecondary education focus on educational attainment status among the so-called traditional population of collegegoers between the ages of 18 and 24. This narrow focus leaves largely invisible the role that an expanding set of educational trajectories throughout adulthood plays in shaping social stratification. Using 35-plus and 20 years of follow-up data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)’s 1979 and 1997 cohorts, we find that a substantial share within each cohort is attaining education well into adulthood, and that these trajectories are patterned according to key social and demographic characteristics. In both cohorts, racial/ethnic differences in educational attainment grew over time and, for those attaining the same degree, members of historically disadvantaged groups did so at an older age. Cohort differences in trajectories emerged, however, when considering the intersection of race/ethnicity and socialized gender. Through careful descriptive analysis of two generational cohorts, our study makes clear the role of educational trajectories in the process of cumulative (dis)advantage across the life course, as well as across generations.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • White Americans’ Attitudes Toward Reparations for Slavery:
           Definitions and Determinants

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      Abstract: Abstract The issue of reparations to the descendants of persons enslaved in the United States is receiving increasing attention in both the public sphere (e.g., 2020 Presidential campaigns) and in academic circles. However, the term “reparations” often goes undefined in such discussions, despite the fact that different types of government action (e.g., an apology versus financial payments) are associated with varying levels of public opposition (or support). We also know little about how attitudes toward reparations explicitly targeting the consequences of slavery differ from attitudes toward more generic race-targeted policies. Drawing on data from an online survey of white Americans conducted in 2016, we examine how levels of opposition to a range of different race-targeted government actions varies by (1) the type and aims of the intervention, and (2) whites’ social locations and political orientations. Regarding policy type, whites are least opposed to selected symbolic reparations (e.g., a memorial to enslaved persons) and to policies designed to ensure “fair treatment” of black Americans in the workplace. Whites are most opposed to reparations in the form of direct financial payments to black Americans and to policies involving “preferential treatment” of blacks in the workplace. In addition, whites who are older, more conservative, and who view race relations as unimportant are most opposed to the reparations and other race-based policies we examine. We conclude with suggestions for future work on this timely topic.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Won’t You be My Neighbor' Neighborhood Characteristics Associated
           with Mass Shootings in the USA

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      Abstract: Abstract We measure the association between neighborhood characteristics and mass shootings building on existing research on neighborhoods and social and economic composition and crime. Using publicly available national data from the Gun Violence Archive (2014–2019), we geocoded and merged mass shooting incidents with US Census American Community Survey data. Our bivariate results suggest that census tracts with a mass shooting are more economically disadvantaged and have greater concentrations of black and Hispanic residents. In multivariate models, the association with concentrated disadvantage is no longer significant and the likelihood of a mass shooting increases until the proportion of black residents reaches 80%, at which point the likelihood decreases, controlling for other community characteristics. Further, as the proportion of black residents and the level of disadvantage increase together, the odds of a mass shooting incident in that tract are reduced. To address and prevent mass shootings, an expanded theory of neighborhood crime that incorporates the unique nature of mass shootings needs to consider structural racism, racial dynamics, and protective factors in relationship to economic conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • How Kids View Cops: The Nature of Juvenile Attitudes Toward the Police
           Revisited

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      Abstract: Abstract Research suggests that juveniles are generally less positive in their attitudes toward the police than are adults. The current study re-examines juvenile perceptions of and experiences with the police following one city’s attempt to improve the police-community relationship. Using data collected from 842 ninth through twelfth grade public high school students, bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to assess the attitudes of juveniles toward the police and the factors that are determinants of these attitudes. While attitudes toward police performance of specific job functions improved after the city initiative, general attitudes toward the police were worse. Race and contact with the police remained consistent determinants of less positive attitudes. Attitudes of juveniles toward the police were found to be unfavorable across a number of dimensions and have actually decreased compared to findings in the same jurisdiction 15 years earlier. This is troubling for several reasons. First, the finding supports claims of prior research on juvenile perceptions of injustice during encounters with police. Second, attitude measures associated with distributive and procedural justice were not positive suggesting that juvenile compliance and cooperation with the police may not be forthcoming. Third, attitudes of youth are likely to persist for some time because of intergenerational transmission of these perceptions.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
       
  • Racial Discrimination, Black Identity, and Critical Consciousness in Spain

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      Abstract: Abstract This article analyzes the relationship of racial discrimination on the identity and critical consciousness of 1369 African and Afro-descendant respondents to the first nationwide survey conducted in Spain in 2020. The survey not only showed the scope of experiences of discrimination based on skin color but has also opened the way for testing whether these experiences of racial discrimination end up affecting the identity and critical consciousness of black people, Africans, or Afro-descendants, based on the questions included in the survey and the rejection–identification hypothesis. According to the statistical models obtained by discriminant analysis, racial discrimination helps to strengthen racial identity. Having been discriminated by skin color was the variable that most differentiated those who self-identified with their country of origin from those who did not and the second most predictive of self-recognition as a black or Afro-descendant person. But when the influences of racial discrimination on racial identity and critical consciousness were jointly analyzed, applying structural equation modeling, the latter outweighed the former: racial discrimination contributes to the awakening black activism. Less clear seems to be the influence of racial identity on critical consciousness.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Automatic Prejudice and Weapon Identification: A Study with Students and
           Police Officers

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to explore police officers’ beliefs, meaning whether a “crime priming” is capable of showing automatic prejudice in the identification of weapons and whether a crime reduction priming can mitigate it, seeking to understand which processes can make the expression of racism more evident. With that we conducted two experiments with police officers (N = 80) and university students (N = 77) randomly allocated to an experimental group subjected to crime priming. In the second experiment we submitted the groups to a criminal's rehabilitation priming. In Study 1, crime priming contributed to shorter response times for both guns and tools preceded by a black individual's face. Under rehabilitation priming, participants showed longer response times for both guns and tools, an effect intensified when preceded by a black individual's face. With regard to hits, more hits occurred for guns than for tools, a result unaffected by the experimental manipulation. With regard to hits, more hits occurred for gun than for tool, a result unaffected by the experimental manipulation. In the 500 ms time-limited phase (study 2), there was no effect of the priming types on response times, with only a higher hit rate for black individual's faces. With that, questions about the importance of replicating WIT results in a more mixed sample in which both the control group and the police officers group can be considered as coming from minorities (i.e. blacks and latinx).
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
       
  • Local TV News Coverage of Racial Disparities in COVID-19 During the First
           Wave of the Pandemic, March–June 2020

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      Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted health and social outcomes for people of color in the United States. This study examined how local TV news stories attributed causes and solutions for COVID-19-related racial health and social disparities, and whether coverage of such disparities changed after George Floyd’s murder, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We systematically validated keywords to extract relevant news content and conducted a content analysis of 169 discrete local TV news stories aired between March and June 2020 from 80 broadcast networks within 22 purposefully selected media markets. We found that social determinants of COVID-19 related racial disparities have been part of the discussion in local TV news, but racism as a public health crisis was rarely mentioned. Coverage of racial disparities focused far more attention on physical health outcomes than broader social impacts. Stories cited more structural factors than individual factors, as causes of these disparities. After the murder of George Floyd, stories were more likely to mention Black and Latinx people than other populations impacted by COVID-19. Only 9% of local news stories referenced racism, and stories referenced politicians more frequently than public health experts.
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
       
  • Patterns of Earnings and Employment by Worker Sex, Race, and Ethnicity
           Using State Administrative Data: Results from a Sample of Workers
           Connected to Public Assistance Programs

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      Abstract: Abstract During the strong economic conditions that predated the COVID-19 pandemic, many US workers, especially females and individuals of color, suffered from economic vulnerability. Despite growing research attention, we lack an understanding of how the prevalence and patterns of earnings and job instability vary with worker characteristics, particularly at the intersections between sex and race/ethnicity. This study uses longitudinal administrative data from a large, diverse state from 2015 through 2018 to document changes in earnings and jobs. We then examine variation in the size, frequency, and direction of these changes by worker sex and race/ethnicity among a subsample of workers who are connected to the public welfare system. Results indicate that, as expected, workers who are connected to the public welfare system experienced higher levels of economic vulnerability, but with substantial racial/ethnic and sex differences. As a consequence, a large number of workers—disproportionately those of color—were experiencing high levels of economic instability during a period of strong economic growth. Our findings have implications for policy and practice strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Native Appropriation in Sport: Cultivating Bias Toward American Indians

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      Abstract: Abstract Supporters of American Indian mascots claim that these mascots honor American Indians. If this is the case, then those who have more contact with, and are more supportive of, these mascots would logically demonstrate support for American Indian Peoples in other ways. In this study, we break new ground by employing a cultivation and social learning approach to examine possible associations between greater exposure to American Indian mascots and prejudice toward American Indians, as well as support for their rights. We used an online survey of 903 White Americans to examine associations between long-term exposure to American Indian mascots, attitudes toward Native appropriation, and support for American Indian Peoples. We found that greater exposure to sport media and more contact with American Indian mascots were associated with more prejudice toward and less support for American Indian rights, via double mediators—first via less opposition to American Indian mascots, and second via less opposition to other types of Native appropriation. These findings provide further evidence that American Indian mascots are harmful to American Indians, in this case via their association with higher levels of modern prejudice, less feelings of warmth, and less support for American Indian Nation sovereignty and trust relationship with the United States government. Further, our findings suggest that this harm may be related to lessons learned from the general phenomenon of Native appropriation, which includes acceptance of objectification and dehumanization of American Indians, disregard for their feelings, and legitimation of White settler colonial power.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
       
  • Social Class also Matters: The Effects of Social Class, Ethnicity, and
           their Interaction on Prejudice and Discrimination Toward Roma

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      Abstract: Abstract One of the difficulties in social research has been to disentangle the effects of race/ethnicity from social class. In two experimental studies with samples of both students and general population (total N = 416), we analyzed the effect of social class, ethnicity and their interaction on prejudice and discrimination using experimental methods. Social class (High vs. Low) and ethnic group (Roma vs. Non-Roma) were manipulated through a cover story. Study 1 showed a main effect of social class, not of ethnicity, on prejudice and discrimination. In Study 2 the effect of social class was replicated, and the interaction effect was also significant for all dependent variables. Results show that negative effects of social class are higher among Roma than non-Roma. Pooled analyses corroborated these findings. Social class is a predictive factor, especially in interaction with ethnicity and should be considered for predicting and reducing prejudiced attitudes and intergroup behaviors fostering inequality.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • Racially Charged: The Impact of Ambivalent Sexism on Black and White Women
           Arrested for Prostitution

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      Abstract: Abstract Many scholars investigating sexism distinguish between two related, but distinct, forms of sexism aimed at women: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism (Glick & Fiske, 1996). These sexist beliefs can seem contradictory, with hostile sexism (HS) reflecting more contempt for women and benevolent sexism (BS) offering protection and care to women, but both serve to maintain the gender status hierarchy. However, these concepts may have been created based on the white feminine ideal and may not apply to women of color. For example, expectations about female sexual purity may be different across race and may lead to differential treatment of women who violate purity norms. In the current research, participants (N = 410) read a news article about a black or white woman arrested for prostitution, and answered questions about convicting, punishing, and helping the woman. Participants high in HS and high in BS were more likely to convict and punish the sex worker than those low in HS and BS, but HS and BS did not interact with race when predicting conviction and punishment. For helping those high in HS were less likely to recommend immediate interventions and those high in BS were more likely to recommend dependency-oriented interventions, but none of the two-way interactions with sexism and race was significant. It is possible that sex work is such a strong violation of the female purity norm that punishment of women who violate this norm does not vary based on the characteristics of the woman but more intersectional research on race and sexism is needed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12552-021-09341-4
       
  • Racial Invariance or Asian Advantage: Comparing the Macro-Level Predictors
           of Violence Across Asian, White, and Black Populations

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      Abstract: Abstract Research shows that structural disadvantage is a key source of violent crime rates across racial/ethnic groups, a finding that has become more commonly known as “racial invariance.” However, this literature has focused primarily on white, black and Latino comparisons, with little attention to Asian populations. This omission is problematic considering that (1) Asians are the fastest growing minority group in the U.S. and (2) the sources of Asian crime could differ from those of white and black populations. Drawing on the racial invariance hypothesis, the current study uses 2010 city-level data to compare the structural predictors of violent crime arrest rates (homicide, robbery, rape, and aggravated assault) for white, black, and Asian populations. Findings reveal that disadvantage contributes to violence for all three racial/ethnic groups, but the magnitude of these effects and effects of other structural predictors differ. Findings from the current study offer implications for the racial invariance debate.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12552-021-09344-1
       
  • Racial and Ethnic Residential Segregation by Family Structure and the
           Presence of Children in Metropolitan America

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      Abstract: Abstract Little research has examined the residential segregation of blacks, Hispanics, and Asians from whites disaggregated by family structure and the presence of children in metropolitan America. Using data from the 2010 Census and the 2006–2010 American Community Survey, we find that, net of controls, among blacks, single-mother families are significantly more segregated from whites than married couples, regardless of the presence of children. However, these same differences in segregation are not found among Hispanics and Asians. Among those groups, married families with children under 18 are more segregated from whites than married families without children under 18, suggesting that married Hispanics and Asians with children desire closer proximity to their co-ethnics. The results suggest that racial and ethnic segregation by family structure and the presence of children varies by the racial and ethnic group considered and is, therefore, important to understanding overall racial and ethnic segregation in metropolitan America.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12552-021-09342-3
       
  • Racial/Ethnic Residential Segregation, Poor Self-rated Health, and the
           Moderating Role of Immigration

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      Abstract: Abstract Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between black residential segregation and poor health outcomes. However, this association is less clear for the segregation of other racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States, such as Latinos and Asians. We argue that immigration may moderate this relationship, and that this could help explain these disparate results. We test this using multilevel statistical models of individual-level health data nested within Census tracts in a study of the Houston area using the 2009–2014 Kinder Houston Area Survey, the 2010 U.S. Census, and the 2006–2010 American Community Survey. We find that black and Latino residential segregation is associated with greater poor health reporting, though not for Asian segregation. Further, we find that immigration moderates this relationship for Latino segregation, such that where tract-level immigration is low, Latino segregation is positively related to poor health, but that this slope becomes flatter as immigration increases.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12552-021-09345-0
       
  • Historical Redlining and Resident Exposure to COVID-19: A Study of New
           York City

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      Abstract: Abstract The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to disproportionately impact racial/ethnic minorities in the USA, both in terms of infections and deaths. This racial disparity in the COVID-19 outcomes may result from the segregation of minorities in neighborhoods with health-compromising conditions. We, thus, anticipate that neighborhoods would be especially vulnerable to COVID-19 if they are of present-day economic and racial disadvantage and were redlined historically. To test this expectation, we examined the change of both confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths from April to July, 2020, in zip code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) in the New York City using multilevel regression analysis. The results indicate that ZCTAs with a higher proportion of black and Hispanic populations are associated with a higher percentage of COVID-19 infection. Historically low-graded neighborhoods show a higher risk for COVID-19 infection, even for ZCTAs with present-day economic and racial privilege. These associations change over time as the pandemic unfolds. Racial/ethnic minorities are bearing the brunt of the COVID-19 pandemic’s health impact. The current evidence shows that the pre-existing social structure in the form of racial residential segregation could be partially responsible for the disparities observed, highlighting an urgent need to stress historical segregation and to build a less segregated and more equal society.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12552-021-09338-z
       
  • Setting the Tone: An Investigation of Skin Color Bias in Asia

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      Abstract: Abstract Social stratification by skin color is evident across the globe. In Asia, the origins of colorism are more obscure, and contemporary patterns are less studied. This paper examines the presence and patterns of colorism in an Asian context. Using data from Project Implicit, Study 1 investigated the extent to which participants associated dark skin color with negative concepts and light skin color with positive concepts. East Asia emerged as the world region with the highest level of skin color bias. Using experiments conducted in Singapore, Studies 2–4 investigated how manipulating skin color impacted the evaluations of job applicants. Studies 2 and 4 documented a modestly sized bias against dark- and medium-skinned applicants relative to light-skinned applicants, driven primarily by female participants. Study 3, which increased the range of applicant credentials, documented an attenuation of skin color bias. Furthermore, stratified models indicated participants from lower socioeconomic status families displayed higher levels of bias.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12552-021-09329-0
       
 
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