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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
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Science and Public Policy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.7
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 24  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0302-3427 - ISSN (Online) 1471-5430
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • Evolution of the emergency drug innovation network and policy
           implications: Evidence from COVID-19 drug patents

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      Authors: Xia Q; Liu L, Li X.
      Pages: 403 - 413
      Abstract: AbstractDeveloping emergency drugs in time is key to responding to public health emergencies such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This research constructs patent assignee citation networks based on COVID-19 drug patents and applies technology life cycle analysis and social network analysis to examine these networks. The results reveal the evolution and structure of the emergency drug innovation network and identify innovation entities with different research and development (R&D) capabilities or a foundation for cooperation. This study attempts to provide the basis for theories and policies to accelerate R&D of emergency drugs. The key results are as follows: (1) Technologies of the emergency drug innovation network show fluctuating growth aligned closely with public health emergencies. (2) The network presents a sparse structure with many active factions, whose members have the advantage of cooperating. (3) Three types of innovation entities are identified: the main technology suppliers, potential suppliers of other supporting technologies, and peripheral suppliers of other supporting technologies.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scab087
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Designing a business intelligence system to support industry analysis and
           innovation policy

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      Authors: Lee S; Lim D, Moon Y, et al.
      Pages: 414 - 426
      Abstract: AbstractThanks to advances in data analytics, the data on industry can now be processed in ways that provide valuable insights. Although there have been numerous studies on industry analysis, few have focused on identifying data sources and finding an effective way to use them for industry analysis and innovation policymaking. To fill the research gap, this study designed a business intelligence system for industry analysis, linking three data sources that include company profiles, trademarks, and value-chain information for further investigations. The first step in the system design was identifying the potential users of the proposed system and then assessing their needs to define main system functions. Next, several indices were developed to analyze industry characteristics in terms of the overall industry status and trends. The proposed system makes it possible to understand the rapidly changing business landscape and establish business strategies and industry policies.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scab088
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Determinants of innovation and interactive learning in informal
           manufacturing enterprises in India

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      Authors: Shekar K; Joseph K.
      Pages: 427 - 440
      Abstract: AbstractIn the context of globalization, the informal sector enterprises are also exposed to international competition; and therefore, they need to remain productive and competitive. In this regard, innovation is an obvious strategic choice at the firm level. Drawing from the data gathered through an extensive field survey in NCT-Delhi, India, this study observes that innovation activities in the informal enterprises take place mostly through non-research-and-development routes and rely more on interactive learning and learning by doing. The econometric analysis shows that formal interactions through subcontracting and membership in the industrial associations along with informal interactions with other firms, buyer–supplier interactions, and social capital are having positive and significant influence on product, process, and marketing innovation. However, this study reveals that formal interactions play a vital role in introducing marketing innovations. Further, the results show the essential role of in-house training, entrepreneurial expertise, and information communication technology usage at the firm level. Thus, the paper provides empirical evidence reiterating the importance of integrating informal manufacturing enterprises and their learning processes as the key components of the innovation system in India.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scab089
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • How policies emerge and interact with each other' A bibliometric
           analysis of policies in China

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      Authors: Zhang C; Guan J.
      Pages: 441 - 459
      Abstract: AbstractAnswering how and why policies emerge and interact with one another will advance our understanding of the evolution of policies. The paper investigates policy emergence as a practice defining possible policy objects in a specific domain and policy interaction as a practice enabling the defined objects. To trace the policy evolution, we define three types of citations to describe policymaking processes, establish the citation and co-citation networks of policy documents, and then conduct a natural language processing-based bibliometric analysis. We reveal the patterns of policymaking practices and identify the focal policies in a given domain. The results within the context of Chinese innovation and entrepreneurial policies suggest the information contained in focal policies drives the direction of future policy themes, as well as regular policies, tend to cite focal policies and follow the ideas of focal policies to achieve their goals. Our findings also provide some implications for Chinese future policymaking.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scab091
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • A bibliometric study on the R&D funding and academic research
           performance in Shenzhen

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      Authors: Zou Y.
      Pages: 460 - 473
      Abstract: AbstractThis study aims to shed light on how research and development (R&D) funding plays a role in producing academic articles in Shenzhen from 2008 to 2020. The metadata from the Web of Science database, various governmental documents, and relevant literature can help understand the structure of R&D spending, the publication of scholarly articles, the funding programs, recipient institutions, research categories, and how geographical factors play a role. The prosperous economy has enabled the increased input of municipal and national governmental funding. The majority of scholarly articles are now funded publicly rather than privately and are published by public universities and research institutes rather than private firms. Geography plays an important role in the cooperation of Shenzhen’s scientists and other domestic and worldwide scholars. To better understand the academic performance of Shenzhen, this article used a bibliometric method to compare its academic performance with that of Silicon Valley.
      PubDate: Sat, 05 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scab092
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Channels to shape procurement decision-making of public organisations for
           innovation through framework conditions

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      Authors: Liu J; Kang X, Zhang X, et al.
      Pages: 474 - 487
      Abstract: AbstractFramework conditions (FCs) are widely recognised as having a significant effect on the uptake and implementation of innovation-orientated public procurement (PPI) that is viewed as a promising innovation policy instrument. This paper presents a more systemic definition of FCs for PPI at both the core and the peripheral level, building on the existing understanding of FCs for public procurement and innovation. Against the background of this definition and in the light of public organisation theory, this paper identifies three main channels—influencing performance (Channel 1), enhancing capabilities (Channel 2), and modifying missions (Channel 3)—to shape purchase decision-making of public organisations for innovation through the FCs. By comparing the case of the UK and China, it further explores and conceptualises the three channels of the FCs. With the conceptualisation, the paper provides a framework and some implications for how to design, improve and evaluate FCs for PPI.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scac001
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • On the boundary of services and research collaborations in Japanese
           state-of-the-art academic research infrastructures

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      Authors: Onoda T; Ito Y.
      Pages: 488 - 498
      Abstract: AbstractRecently, research infrastructures (RIs) are recognized to take on a crucial role in the national innovation system in driving open innovation via shared use that include offering measurement service to external users. Generally, these services are performed by staff in line with the social division of labor as scientists and technicians in research institutes. However, services rarely lead to research collaborations because research collaborations generally do not stem from services per se and require researchers to engage more with partners in initiating collaboration. This article focuses on its boundary of services and research collaborations by conducting an ethnographic survey of four years since 2016 to analyze epistemic cultures in eight Japanese state-of-the-art RIs. It first examines what is occurring at the boundaries and offers two frameworks, i.e. the subject-driven approach and the user-driven approach, for finding potential solutions to the issues that impedes service from extending into research collaboration.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scac002
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Democratic and expert legitimacy: Science, politics and the public during
           the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Weingart P; van Schalkwyk F, Guenther L.
      Pages: 499 - 517
      Abstract: AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic has provided an extraordinary test case for an analysis of the interrelations between policymakers and scientific experts faced with grave decisions and given the respective levels of trust they enjoy. The article provides a comparative analysis between three countries—Germany, the USA and South Africa (SA)—of the interrelation between the public’s perceptions of the threat posed by the pandemic, the trust in governments and in scientific experts formally organized to advise governments, and the acceptance of governments’ decisions to mitigate the pandemic. These scientific experts enjoyed a high degree of acceptance even when admitting uncertainty and the need for further research. Support for politicians also remained high in spite of the severity of the measures implemented and their increasingly evident departure from their experts’ advice. However, trust in politicians deteriorated as the pandemic progressed, most dramatically in the USA, less so in SA and Germany, due to the politicization of the pandemic. The analysis is limited to events during 2020.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scac003
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • What counts: Making sense of metrics of research value

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      Authors: Williams K.
      Pages: 518 - 531
      Abstract: There is no singular way of measuring the value of research. There are multiple criteria of evaluation given by different fields, including academia but also others, such as policy, media, and application. One measure of value within the academy is citations, while indications of wider value are now offered by altmetrics. This study investigates research value using a novel design focusing on the World Bank, which illuminates the complex relationship between valuations given by metrics and by peer review. Three theoretical categories, representing the most extreme examples of value, were identified: ‘exceptionals’, highest in both citations and altmetrics; ‘scholars’, highest in citations and lowest in altmetrics; and ‘influencers’, highest in altmetrics and lowest in citations. Qualitative analysis of 18 interviews using abstracts from each category revealed key differences in ascribed characteristics and judgements. This article provides a novel conception of research value across fields.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scac004
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Are there political cycles hidden inside collaborative innovation
           efficiency' An empirical study based on Chinese cities

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      Authors: Fan F; Zhang X, Wang X.
      Pages: 532 - 551
      Abstract: AbstractShifting political interests of government officials stemming from the Provincial Party Congress (PPC) affects the efficiency of urban innovation. In this paper, intra-city collaborative innovation efficiency (CIE) and inter-city CIE were both analyzed. The intra-city CIE among 285 Chinese cities from 2004 to 2018 was estimated using network data envelopment analysis model, with a gravity model utilized to measure inter-city CIE. Based on a fixed-effect model, the relationship between estimated change in CIE and political cycle is revealed from the perspective of PPC. The study finds that across all cities, (1) cyclical fluctuations in CIE synchronize with the timing of PPC. The inter-city CIE is more sensitive to political cycles than that of intra-city. (2) The turnover effect of PPC cannot be equated with leadership transition alone at non-PPC years. Furthermore, heterogeneity analysis identified differential effects of features of government officials and cities on political cycles of urban CIE.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scac005
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Research funding randomly allocated' A survey of scientists’ views
           on peer review and lottery

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      Authors: Philipps A.
      Pages: 365 - 377
      Abstract: AbstractThe bold idea of random grant allocation is heatedly discussed as an alternative to peer review. The debate centers on advantages and disadvantages of the established measures to control scientific quality, compared to funding by chance. Recently, studies also investigated acceptance of lotteries in the scientific field. However, they provide only inconclusive findings due to their restricted scope. This paper examines scientists’ views on current funding conditions and the idea of random grant distribution. An online survey of PhD holders reveals that most participants are against pure randomness, although they would try random elements if such procedures were combined with peer review. Moreover, while fewer established and recognized scientists differ in their assessments of peer review and expectancies on lotteries’ impact, they hardly vary in their positions on random elements. Funding organizations therefore should be encouraged to further experiment with, and closely examine, practiced lotteries.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scab084
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Retraction in the online world—Shall we rethink the policy'

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      Authors: Rzymski P.
      Pages: 378 - 381
      Abstract: In case of scientific misconduct, the papers can be retracted at the request of the journal’s editors and/or authors. However, the retracted articles continue to be fully available through online resources, including journals websites. This paper argues that a classical retraction is insufficient to mitigate the adverse effect some retracted papers continue to have on critical issues, e.g. public health. The more strict approach, ‘Hard Retraction’, is presented for consideration. Its implementation would lead to (1) complete deletion of the full text of the retracted paper, (2) substitution of the original abstract with a detailed retraction notice, (3) removal of the paper from the citation databases, (4) deposition of the retracted paper in the dedicated repository accessible for registered members. The benefits and risks of such an approach are discussed. Nevertheless, it should only be reserved for cases of fraud or grave errors with broad impacts.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scab085
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • What is behind multiple institutional affiliations in academia'

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      Authors: Hottenrott H; Lawson C.
      Pages: 382 - 402
      Abstract: AbstractMultiple institutional affiliations (or co-affiliations) occur when an academic belongs to more than one organisation. Recent research shows an increase in academics with multiple affiliations, but evidence on how these are organised and on academics’ motivations is mainly anecdotal. In this study we develop a typology of co-affiliations, which identifies four types based on their purpose and origin. We draw on results from a unique international survey of academics in three major science nations (the UK, Germany, and Japan) to study the different factors that could explain the four types of co-affiliations. The analysis shows that academics’ motivations (networking/prestige, resources, teaching, or personal income) correlate with the observed co-affiliation type. Researcher-initiated and research-focussed co-affiliations are often motivated by networking and resource access while co-affiliations that serve other than research purposes are more often income-motivated.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scab086
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2021)
       
 
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